WorldWideScience

Sample records for advancing pet science

  1. PET/MRI and PET/CT in advanced gynaecological tumours: initial experience and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Marcelo A.; Schulthess, Gustav von; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Freiwald-Chilla, Bianka [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Hauser, Nik [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Gynaecology, Baden (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Guerbet AG, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI and PET/CT for staging and re-staging advanced gynaecological cancer patients as well as identify the potential benefits of each method in such a population. Twenty-six patients with suspicious or proven advanced gynaecological cancer (12 ovarian, seven cervical, one vulvar and four endometrial tumours, one uterine metastasis, and one primary peritoneal cancer) underwent whole-body imaging with a sequential trimodality PET/CT/MR system. Images were analysed regarding primary tumour detection and delineation, loco-regional lymph node staging, and abdominal/extra-abdominal distant metastasis detection (last only by PET/CT). Eighteen (69.2 %) patients underwent PET/MRI for primary staging and eight patients (30.8 %) for re-staging their gynaecological malignancies. For primary tumour delineation, PET/MRI accuracy was statistically superior to PET/CT (p < 0.001). Among the different types of cancer, PET/MRI presented better tumour delineation mainly for cervical (6/7) and endometrial (2/3) cancers. PET/MRI for local evaluation as well as PET/CT for extra-abdominal metastases had therapeutic consequences in three and one patients, respectively. PET/CT detected 12 extra-abdominal distant metastases in 26 patients. PET/MRI is superior to PET/CT for primary tumour delineation. No differences were found in detection of regional lymph node involvement and abdominal metastases detection. (orig.)

  2. MO-FG-207-00: Technological Advances in PET/MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee

  3. MO-FG-207-00: Technological Advances in PET/MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee.

  4. PET/MRI: Technical challenges and recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong; Im, Ki Chun

    2016-01-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can provide complementary functional and anatomical information about a specific organ or body system at the molecular level, has become a powerful imaging modality to understand the molecular biology details, disease mechanisms, and pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Although the first experiment on the PET/MRI was performed in the early 1990s, its clinical application was accomplished in recent years because there were various technical challenges in integrating PET and MRI in a single system with minimum mutual interference between PET and MRI. This paper presents the technical challenges and recent advances in combining PET and MRI along with several approaches for improving PET image quality of the PET/MRI hybrid imaging system

  5. PET/CT: underlying physics, instrumentation, and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Espallardo, I

    Since it was first introduced, the main goal of PET/CT has been to provide both PET and CT images with high clinical quality and to present them to radiologists and specialists in nuclear medicine as a fused, perfectly aligned image. The use of fused PET and CT images quickly became routine in clinical practice, showing the great potential of these hybrid scanners. Thanks to this success, manufacturers have gone beyond considering CT as a mere attenuation corrector for PET, concentrating instead on design high performance PET and CT scanners with more interesting features. Since the first commercial PET/CT scanner became available in 2001, both the PET component and the CT component have improved immensely. In the case of PET, faster scintillation crystals with high stopping power such as LYSO crystals have enabled more sensitive devices to be built, making it possible to reduce the number of undesired coincidence events and to use time of flight (TOF) techniques. All these advances have improved lesion detection, especially in situations with very noisy backgrounds. Iterative reconstruction methods, together with the corrections carried out during the reconstruction and the use of the point-spread function, have improved image quality. In parallel, CT instrumentation has also improved significantly, and 64- and 128-row detectors have been incorporated into the most modern PET/CT scanners. This makes it possible to obtain high quality diagnostic anatomic images in a few seconds that both enable the correction of PET attenuation and provide information for diagnosis. Furthermore, nowadays nearly all PET/CT scanners have a system that modulates the dose of radiation that the patient is exposed to in the CT study in function of the region scanned. This article reviews the underlying physics of PET and CT imaging separately, describes the changes in the instrumentation and standard protocols in a combined PET/CT system, and finally points out the most important

  6. Detectability of T Measurable diseases in advanced gastric cancer in FDG PET CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sun Young; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Young Chul; Jeong, Eugene; Kim, Seung Eun; Choe, Jae Gol

    2012-01-01

    Usefulness of FDG PET CT in monitoring response in locally advanced gastric cancer has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the related factors to detect measurable diseases in advanced gastric cancer on FDG PET CT. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer. We defined the measurable diseases when there was visualized tumor of which maximum standardized uptake value(SUVmax) was higher than 1.35*SUVmax of liver + 2*SD of liver SUV. We evaluated what kinds of factors from the clinicopathologic features were related to identifying measurable diseases. Of 38 patients with advanced gastric cancer, 18 (50%) had measurable tumors on FDG PET CT. Measurable tumors were significantly more frequent in well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (70.5% vs 35.3%, p<0.05), in the tumors located at antrum or angle (66.7% vs 29.4%, p<0.05) and in the elderly group (age of 55 years old or more, 72.0% vs 8.3%, p<0.001) than the others, respectively. By multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis was the only independent predictor for the measurable disease on FDG PET CT. We found that age at diagnosis, as well as histologic types and location of tumors, were the affecting factors to detect measurable disease on FDG PET CT in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Our study suggests that elderly patients of age of 55 years old or more can frequently have T measurable disease on FDG PET CT in advanced gastric cancer and FDG PET CT will be helpful to monitor measurable disease

  7. Advances in prostate-specific membrane antigen PET of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, a large number of reports have been published on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)/PET in prostate cancer (PCa). This review highlights advances in PSMA PET in PCa during the past year. PSMA PET/computed tomography (CT) is useful in detection of biochemical recurrence, especially at low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. The detection rate of PSMA PET is influenced by PSA level. For primary PCa, PSMA PET/CT shows promise for tumour localization in the prostate, especially in combination with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). For primary staging, PSMA PET/CT can be used in intermediate and high-risk PCa. Intraoperative PSMA radioligand guidance seems promising for detection of malignant lymph nodes. While the use of PSMA PET/MRI in primary localized disease is limited to high and intermediate-risk patients and localized staging, in the recurrence setting, PET/MRI can be particularly helpful when the lesions are subtle. PSMA PET/CT is superior to choline PET/CT and other conventional imaging modalities. Molecular imaging with PSMA PET continues to pave the way for personalized medicine in PCa.However, large prospective clinical studies are still needed to fully evaluate the role of PSMA PET/CT and PET/MRI in the clinical workflow of PCa.

  8. MO-FG-207-01: Technological Advances and Challenges: Experience with the First Integrated Whole-Body PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforest, R. [Washington University School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee.

  9. MO-FG-207-01: Technological Advances and Challenges: Experience with the First Integrated Whole-Body PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforest, R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee

  10. MO-FG-207-02: Technological Advances and Challenges: Experience with Time-Of-Flight PET Combined with 3-Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee

  11. MO-FG-207-02: Technological Advances and Challenges: Experience with Time-Of-Flight PET Combined with 3-Tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, F. [GE Healthcare (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee.

  12. Combined functional CT/FDG-PET: demonstrates reduced hepatic phosphorylation of glucose in advanced colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.; Griffiths, M.R.; Fuentes, M.; Bunce, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study describes a technique to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation using combined data from functional CT and FDG-PET and assesses the differences in phosphorylation between patients with either early or advanced colorectal cancer. Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Patients with PET evidence of extrahepatic tumour were considered to have advanced disease. The net influx constant (Ki) for FDG was determined from the liver SUV. CT measurements of hepatic perfusion were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). Hepatic glucose phosphorylation can be determined by combining functional CT measurements of perfusion with PET measurements of FDG and is significantly reduced in patients with more advanced malignancy. Reduced hepatic glucose phosphorylation may be an important mechanism in the development of cancer cachexia. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Combined functional CT/FDG-PET: demonstrates reduced hepatic phosphorylation of glucose in advanced colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, K A [Southernex Imaging Group, QLD (Australia); Queensland University of Technology, QLD (Australia); Keith, C J [Southernex Imaging Group, QLD (Australia); Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia); Griffiths, M R [Queensland University of Technology, QLD (Australia); Fuentes, M [Southernex Imaging Group, QLD (Australia); Bunce, I [Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Full text: This study describes a technique to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation using combined data from functional CT and FDG-PET and assesses the differences in phosphorylation between patients with either early or advanced colorectal cancer. Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Patients with PET evidence of extrahepatic tumour were considered to have advanced disease. The net influx constant (Ki) for FDG was determined from the liver SUV. CT measurements of hepatic perfusion were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). Hepatic glucose phosphorylation can be determined by combining functional CT measurements of perfusion with PET measurements of FDG and is significantly reduced in patients with more advanced malignancy. Reduced hepatic glucose phosphorylation may be an important mechanism in the development of cancer cachexia. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  14. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  15. A perspective on the future role of brain pet imaging in exercise science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Henning; Drzezga, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) bears a unique potential for examining the effects of physical exercise (acute or chronic) within the central nervous system in vivo, including cerebral metabolism, neuroreceptor occupancy, and neurotransmission. However, application of Neuro-PET in human exercise science is as yet surprisingly sparse. To date the field has been dominated by non-invasive neuroelectrical techniques (EEG, MEG) and structural/functional magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI/fMRI). Despite PET having certain inherent disadvantages, in particular radiation exposure and high costs limiting applicability at large scale, certain research questions in human exercise science can exclusively be addressed with PET: The "metabolic trapping" properties of (18)F-FDG PET as the most commonly used PET-tracer allow examining the neuronal mechanisms underlying various forms of acute exercise in a rather unconstrained manner, i.e. under realistic training scenarios outside the scanner environment. Beyond acute effects, (18)F-FDG PET measurements under resting conditions have a strong prospective for unraveling the influence of regular physical activity on neuronal integrity and potentially neuroprotective mechanisms in vivo, which is of special interest for aging and dementia research. Quantification of cerebral glucose metabolism may allow determining the metabolic effects of exercise interventions in the entire human brain and relating the regional cerebral rate of glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) with behavioral, neuropsychological, and physiological measures. Apart from FDG-PET, particularly interesting applications comprise PET ligand studies that focus on dopaminergic and opioidergic neurotransmission, both key transmitter systems for exercise-related psychophysiological effects, including mood changes, reward processing, antinociception, and in its most extreme form 'exercise dependence'. PET ligand displacement approaches even allow quantifying specific endogenous

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of advanced colorectal adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollub, M.J.; Grewal, R.K.; Panu, N.; Thipphavong, S.; Sohn, M.; Zheng, J.; Moskowitz, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the accuracy of 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) in the detection of advanced colorectal adenomas. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, patient consent was waived by the institutional review board. Combined FDG whole-body PET and computed tomography (CT) images (2000–2009) were re-read and compared with reports of complete colonoscopy performed up to 1 year after the PET examination. One or more areas of focal colonic uptake greater than the background indicated a positive PET result, irrespective of standardized uptake value (SUV). Lesion and patient-level measures of PET accuracy with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: One hundred and eighty patients undergoing colonoscopy with or without biopsy underwent PET within 1 year prior to colonoscopy. There were 92 women and 88 men (mean age 63.3 years). Indications for PET were extent of disease and treatment response in all cases. Patients had non-colorectal cancer (n = 160) or colon cancer (n = 20). One hundred and fourteen FDG-avid lesions were present. In 33, there was no colonoscopic correlate. Two hundred and fifty-eight biopsies revealed tubular adenomas (n = 91, one with intra-mucosal cancer), tubulovillous adenomas (n = 28), adenocarcinoma (n = 37), inflammation (n = 22), hyperplastic polyps (n = 54), serrated adenoma (n = 5), metastatic disease (n = 5), normal/benign mucosa or submucosal benign tumors (n = 13) or miscellaneous (n = 3). Per-lesion performance of PET showed a sensitivity of 38% (95% CI: 31–46; 64/167) for all adenomas and carcinomas and 58% (95% CI: 49–67; 57/98) for lesions ≥10 mm. At the patient level, for all adenomas and carcinomas the sensitivity was 54% (95% CI: 44–63; 61/113), specificity 100% (pre-defined), positive predictive value (PPV) 100% (pre-defined), and negative predictive value (NPV) 56% (95% CI: 47–65; 67/119). For patients with advanced

  17. FDG PET and CT in locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the distal oesophagus. Clinical relevance of a discordant PET finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, A.; Wieder, H.; Schwaiger, M.; Weber, W.A.; Stollfuss, J.; Ott, K.; Fink, U.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: the incidence of adenocarcinomas of the distal oesophagus (ADE) has dramatically increased in Western countries. The clinical importance of a FDG PET finding discordant with CT was determined in patients with locally advanced ADE. In addition, tumour standardized uptake values (SUV) were correlated with patient survival. Patients, methods: 40 consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent an attenuation corrected FDG PET scan (neck, chest, abdomen) and contrast enhanced helical CT of the chest and abdomen. PET and CT scans were reviewed independently and concomitantly with respect to metastases in predefined lymph node sites and organs. Any discordance between PET and CT was assessed for clinical relevance. Clinical relevance was defined as a change in the overall therapeutic concept (curative vs. palliative). Follow-up imaging and histological evaluation served as the gold standard. Mean tumour SUVs were determined by 1.5 cm regions of interest placed over the tumour's maximum. Results: when read independently from the CT scan FDG PET indicated a clinically relevant change in tumour stage in 9/40 patients (23%) and a non-relevant change in 11/40 patients (28%). PET was correct in 5/9 patients (56%) with clinically relevant discordances. In 4/9 patients PET was incorrect (3 false positive due to suspicion of MI-lymph nodes or lung metastases, 1 false negative in disseminated liver metastases). With concomitant reading, PET indicated a clinically relevant change in tumour stage in 6/40 patients (15%) and a non-relevant change in 5/40 patients (13%). PET was correct in 5/6 patients (83%) with clinically relevant discordances. The patient with disseminated liver disease remained the single false negative. Overall, the benefit from PET was based on its higher diagnostic accuracy at organ sites. Tumour SUV did not correlate with patient survival. Conclusion: about half of discordances between FDG PET and CT are clinically relevant

  18. 124I-PET dosimetry in advanced differentiated thyroid cancer: therapeutic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Jentzen, W.; Goerges, R.; Knust, J.; Bockisch, A.; Marlowe, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of 124 I-positron emission tomography (PET) dosimetry on post-primary surgery therapy in radioiodine-naive patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Patients, material, methods: In each of 28 thyroidectomized patients with high-risk DTC (one or more of pT4, pN1 or pM1), we gave 23-50 MBq of 124 I as an oral capsule and performed PET dosimetry to calculate the individualized therapeutic 131 I activity that would, insofar as possible, achieve a radioiodine dose ≥ 100 Gy to all metastases without exceeding 2 Gy to the blood (a surrogate for bone marrow toxicity). We thus determined the absorbed lesion dose per GBq of administered 131 I activity (LDpA) based on serial PET (4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after oral 124 I intake) and PET/computed tomography (25 h after 124 I intake) and the critical blood activity (CBA) based on blood and whole-body radiation counting (2, 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 h after 124 I intake). We compared the dosimetry-based interventions with our standard empirical protocol. Results: 25 patients had a total of 126 iodine-positive metastases. 18 (72%) of the 25 had solely iodine-avid metastases, while seven (28%) had both iodine-avid and -non-avid metastases. In two patients (8%), none of the iodine-avid metastases could have been practically treated with a sufficient radiation dose. Relative to the empirical protocol, 124 I-PET dosimetry findings changed management in 7 (25%) patients, e. g. allowing application of activities >11 GBq 131 I. Further changes included implementation of hematological back-up in a patient found to be at risk of life-threatening marrow toxicity, and early multimodal therapy in 9 (32%) patients. Conclusion: 124 I-PET dosimetry is a useful routine procedure in advanced DTC and may allow safer or more effective radioiodine activities and earlier multimodal interventions than do standard empirical protocols. (orig.)

  19. FDG PET in monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlangieri, S. U.; Lee, S. T.; Chan, A. M.; Mitchell, P. L.; Knight, S. R.; Feigen, M. M.; Scott, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Aim: The aim of our study was to correlate 18F-FDG PET response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with histopathology in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma. Methods: All patients with stage III NSCLC planned for surgery following induction chemotherpay and/or radiotherapy who underwent pre- and post-treatment FDG-PET between 2004 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The PET scans were performed according to standard protocol. The clinical FDG-PET TNM stage was correlated with the histopathology of the surgical specimens. Results: There were 9 patients (6 M :3 F ), median age 59.7 years (range 49 to 73 years). Post-treatment FDG-PET correctly predicted mediastinal pathological N stage in 8/9 patients, with one patient having microsopic disease in two nodes. The post-treatment FDG-PET correctly predicted pathological T stage in 7/9 patients, with 2 patients having small volume T4 disease not detected by PET. Post-treatment FDG-PET correctly downstaged 4 patients. Of the 5 patients, incorrectly staged on the post-treatment FDG-PET, one patient had microscopic pN 2 disease, 2 had pN 1 disease, and 2 had pT 4 disease. Conclusion: Post-treatment FDG-PET is predictive of pathological nodal stage within the mediastinum in patients with locally advanced NSCLC treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. FDG-PET does not detect microscopic or small volume disease, nor is it able to define the boundaries of mediastinal tissue invasion.

  20. A Pilot Study for the Feasibility of F-18 FLT-PET in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Comparison with F-18 FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Kim, Euy Nyong; Hong, Il Ki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of 3'-[F-18]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine positron emission tomography(FLT-PET) for the detection of locally advanced breast cancer and to compare the degree of FLT and 2'-deoxy-2'-[F-18]fluoro-d-glucose(FDG) uptake in primary tumor, lymph nodes and other normal organs. The study subjects consisted of 22 female patients (mean age; 42±6 years) with biopsy-confirmed infiltrating ductal carcinoma between Aug 2005 and Nov 2006. We performed conventional imaging workup, FDG-PET and FLT PET/CT. Average tumor size measured by MRI was 7.2±3.4 cm. With visual analysis, Tumor and Lymph node uptakes of FLT and FDG were determined by calculation of standardized uptake value (SUV) and tumor to background (TB) ratio. We compared FLT tumor uptake with FDG tumor uptake. We also investigated the correlation between FLT tumor uptake and FDG tumor uptake and the concordant rate with lymph node uptakes of FLT and FDG. FLT and FDG uptakes of bone marrow and liver were measured to compare the biodistribution of each other. All tumor lesions were visually detected in both FLT-PET and FDG-PET. There was no significant correlation between maximal tumor size by MRI and SUVmax of FLT-PET or FDG-PET (p>0.05). SUVmax and SUV75 (average SUV within volume of interest using 75% isocontour) of FLT-PET were significantly lower than those of FDG-PET in primary tumor (SUVmax; 6.3±5.2 vs 8.3±4.9, p=0.02 / SUV75; 5.3±4.3 vs 6.9 4.2, p=0.02). There is significant moderate correlation between uptake of FLT and FDG in primary tumor (SUVmax; rho=0.450, p=0.04 / SUV75; rho=0.472, p=0.03). But, TB ratio of FLT-PET was higher than that of FDG-PET(11.7±7.7 vs 6.3±3.8, p=0.001). The concordant rate between FLT and FDG uptake of lymph node was reasonably good (33/34). The FLT SUVs of liver and bone marrow were 4.2±1.2 and 8.3±4.9. The FDG SUVs of liver and bone marrow were 1.8±0.4 and 1.6±0.4. The uptakes of FLT were lower than those of FDG, but all

  1. {sup 124}I-PET dosimetry in advanced differentiated thyroid cancer: therapeutic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Jentzen, W.; Goerges, R.; Knust, J.; Bockisch, A. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Petrich, T. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Marlowe, R.J.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of {sup 124}I-positron emission tomography (PET) dosimetry on post-primary surgery therapy in radioiodine-naive patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Patients, material, methods: In each of 28 thyroidectomized patients with high-risk DTC (one or more of pT4, pN1 or pM1), we gave 23-50 MBq of {sup 124}I as an oral capsule and performed PET dosimetry to calculate the individualized therapeutic {sup 131}I activity that would, insofar as possible, achieve a radioiodine dose {>=} 100 Gy to all metastases without exceeding 2 Gy to the blood (a surrogate for bone marrow toxicity). We thus determined the absorbed lesion dose per GBq of administered {sup 131}I activity (LDpA) based on serial PET (4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after oral {sup 124}I intake) and PET/computed tomography (25 h after {sup 124}I intake) and the critical blood activity (CBA) based on blood and whole-body radiation counting (2, 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 h after {sup 124}I intake). We compared the dosimetry-based interventions with our standard empirical protocol. Results: 25 patients had a total of 126 iodine-positive metastases. 18 (72%) of the 25 had solely iodine-avid metastases, while seven (28%) had both iodine-avid and -non-avid metastases. In two patients (8%), none of the iodine-avid metastases could have been practically treated with a sufficient radiation dose. Relative to the empirical protocol, {sup 124}I-PET dosimetry findings changed management in 7 (25%) patients, e. g. allowing application of activities >11 GBq {sup 131}I. Further changes included implementation of hematological back-up in a patient found to be at risk of life-threatening marrow toxicity, and early multimodal therapy in 9 (32%) patients. Conclusion: {sup 124}I-PET dosimetry is a useful routine procedure in advanced DTC and may allow safer or more effective radioiodine activities and earlier multimodal interventions than do standard empirical protocols. (orig.)

  2. Clinical impact of FDG PET-CT on the management of patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, S.; Cooper, R.A.; Swift, S.E.; Thygesen, H.H.; Chowdhury, F.U.; Scarsbrook, A.F.; Patel, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the impact of staging FDG PET-CT on the initial management of patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (LACC) and any prognostic variables predicting survival. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing FDG PET-CT for staging of LACC in a single tertiary referral centre, between April 2008 and August 2011. Comparison was made between MRI and PET-CT findings and any subsequent impact on treatment intent or radiotherapy planning was evaluated. Results: Sixty-three patients underwent FDG PET-CT for initial staging of LACC. Major impact on management was found in 20 patients (32%), a minor impact in five (8%), and no impact in 38 (60%). In those patients where PET-CT had a major impact, 12 had more extensive local nodal involvement, five had occult metastatic disease, two had synchronous tumours, and one patient had equivocal lymph nodes on MRI characterized as negative. PET-positive nodal status at diagnosis was found to be a statistically significant predictor of relapse-free survival (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Staging FDG PET-CT has a major impact on the initial management of approximately one-third of patients with LACC by altering treatment intent and/or radiotherapy planning. PET-defined nodal status is a poor prognostic indicator. - Highlights: • Cervical carcinoma is one of the commonest cancers in women worldwide. • Locally advanced cervical carcinoma is usually treated with chemo-radiotherapy. • FDG PET-CT can have a major impact on management in up to one-third of patients. • It may alter treatment intent or radiotherapy-planning by detecting occult disease. • PET nodal status at diagnosis is an important predictor of relapse-free survival

  3. A meta-analysis of 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT for the evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yun; Zhang Min; Guo Rui; Zhang Miao; Hu Jiajia; Li Biao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy and predictive value of 18 F-FDG PET or PET/CT in the assessment of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer by meta-analysis. Methods: Relevant studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and Wanfang, in English or Chinese. To ensure the homogeneity of all included studies, selection criteria were established and all the studies were scored according to a quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) table. The combined Se, Sp, LR, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and AUC of PET and other conventional imaging techniques were compared. The assessment standard of neoadjuvant chemotherapy by conventional imaging techniques is tumor size change. Funnel plot and analysis with meta-regression were performed to explore the source of heterogeneity. Results: Sixteen eligible studies were included with a total of 662 subjects. The combined results were: (1) PET: Se PET 86.1% (247/287), Sp PET 69.6% (261/375), LR + PET 3.18, LR - PET 0.23, DOR PET 17.26; (2) Other imaging techniques: Se d 57.2% (91/159), Sp d 48.5% (50/103), LR + d 1.07, LR - d 0.87, DOR d 1.30. ROC analysis showed that Q * values of PET (Q PET * ) and other imaging techniques (Q d * ) were 0.8058 and 0.5328, respectively. Funnel plot showed that publication bias was not the main source of heterogeneity. Meta-regression results suggested that the year of publication might be one of the sources of heterogeneity (P=0.05). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that, in the assessment of treatment response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, FDG PET or PET/CT in monitoring the changes in glucose metabolism is more accurate than conventional imaging techniques in monitoring tumor size. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of PET and laparoscopy in STagIng advanced gastric cancer: a multicenter prospective study (PLASTIC-study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, H J F; Gertsen, E C; Vegt, E; van Hillegersberg, R; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; Gisbertz, S S; Luyer, M D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, G A P; van Lanschot, J J B; Lagarde, S M; de Steur, W O; Hartgrink, H H; Stoot, J H M B; Hulsewe, K W E; Spillenaar Bilgen, E J; van Det, M J; Kouwenhoven, E A; van der Peet, D L; Daams, F; van Sandick, J W; van Grieken, N C T; Heisterkamp, J; van Etten, B; Haveman, J W; Pierie, J P; Jonker, F; Thijssen, A Y; Belt, E J T; van Duijvendijk, P; Wassenaar, E; van Laarhoven, H W M; Wessels, F J; Haj Mohammad, N; van Stel, H F; Frederix, G W J; Siersema, P D; Ruurda, J P

    2018-04-20

    Initial staging of gastric cancer consists of computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy. In locally advanced (cT3-4) gastric cancer, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (FDG-PET/CT or PET) and staging laparoscopy (SL) may have a role in staging, but evidence is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of PET and SL in addition to initial staging in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. This prospective observational cohort study will include all patients with a surgically resectable, advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (cT3-4b, N0-3, M0), that are scheduled for treatment with curative intent after initial staging with gastroscopy and CT. The modalities to be investigated in this study is the addition of PET and SL. The primary outcome of this study is the proportion of patients in whom the PET or SL lead to a change in treatment strategy. Secondary outcome parameters are: diagnostic performance, morbidity and mortality, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness of these additional diagnostic modalities. The study recently started in August 2017 with a duration of 36 months. At least 239 patients need to be included in this study to demonstrate that the diagnostic modalities are break-even. Based on the annual number of gastrectomies in the participating centers, it is estimated that approximately 543 patients are included in this study. In this study, it is hypothesized that performing PET and SL for locally advanced gastric adenocarcinomas results in a change of treatment strategy in 27% of patients and an annual cost-reduction in the Netherlands of €916.438 in this patient group by reducing futile treatment. The results of this study may be applicable to all countries with comparable treatment algorithms and health care systems. NCT03208621 . This trial was registered prospectively on June 30, 2017.

  5. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of PET and laparoscopy in STagIng advanced gastric cancer: A multicenter prospective study (PLASTIC-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.F. Brenkman (Hylke J.F.); Gertsen, E.C. (E. C.); E. Vegt (Erik); R. van Hillegersberg (Richard); M.I. van Berge Henegouwen; S.S. Gisbertz (Suzanne S.); M. Luyer (Misha); G.A.P. Nieuwenhuijzen (Gerard); J.J.B. van Lanschot (Jan); S.M. Lagarde (Sjoerd); W.O. de Steur (Wobbe O.); H.H. Hartgrink (H.); J.H.M.B. Stoot (Jan); K.W.E. Hulsewé (Karel W.E.); E.J. Spillenaar Bilgen (Ernst Jan); M.J. van Det (Marc J.); E.A. Kouwenhoven (Ewout); D.L. van der Peet (Donald); F. Daams (Freek); J.W. van Sandick (J.); N.C.T. Grieken (Nicole); J. Heisterkamp (Joos); B. van Etten (Boudewijn); J.W. Haveman; J.-P.E.N. Pierie (Jean-Pierre); Jonker, F. (F.); Thijssen, A.Y. (A. Y.); E.J.T. Belt (Eric); P. van Duijvendijk (Peter); Wassenaar, E. (E.); H.W.M. van Laarhoven (Hanneke); Wessels, F.J. (F. J.); N. Haj Mohammad; H.F. van Stel (Henk); G.W.J. Frederix (Geert); P.D. Siersema (Peter); J.P. Ruurda (Jelle)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Initial staging of gastric cancer consists of computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy. In locally advanced (cT3-4) gastric cancer, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (FDG-PET/CT or PET) and staging laparoscopy (SL) may have a role in staging, but

  7. Advances in PET-MRI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Multimodality imaging is the general trend of clinical imaging. PET-CT is one of the most classic and mature multimodality imaging methods and is widely used today. MRI is another kind of conventional imaging method, in contrast to CT, MRI can not only yield images with higher soft-tissue contrast and better spatial resolution resolution but also provide some functional information by special imaging techniques such as MRS. The combination of PET and MRI for simultaneous data acquisition should have far-reaching consequences for clinical and scientific study. This review describes the progress to date and talks about the problems met in the development of PET-MRI and look forward to its potential application. (authors)

  8. Clinical applications of PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc Ha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the evolution of PET, PET/CT focusing on the technical aspects, PET radiopharmaceutical developments and current clinical applications as well. The newest technologic advances have been reviewed, including improved crystal design, acquisition modes, reconstruction algorithms, etc. These advancements will continue to improve contrast, decrease noise, and increase resolution. Combined PET/CT system provides faster attenuation correction and useful anatomic correlation to PET functional information. A number of new radiopharmaceuticals used for PET imaging have been developed, however, FDG have been considered as the principal PET radiotracer. The current clinical applications of PET and PET/CT are widespread and include oncology, cardiology and neurology. (author)

  9. Interim PET Response-adapted Strategy in Untreated Advanced Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of GOELAMS LH 2007 Phase 2 Multicentric Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carras, Sylvain; Dubois, Benjamin; Senecal, Delphine; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Peoc'h, Michel; Quittet, Philippe; Foussard, Charles; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Gastinne, Thomas; Jourdan, Eric; Sanhes, Laurence; Ertault, Marjan; Lamy, Thierry; Molina, Lysiane

    2018-03-01

    Patients with advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma still present unsatisfactory outcomes. The Groupe d'étude des Leucémies Aigues et des Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS) group conducted a prospective multicentric trial (NCT00920153) for advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma to evaluate a positron emission tomography (PET)-adapted strategy. Patients received an intensive regimen (VABEM [vindesine, doxorubicin, carmustine, etoposide, and methylprednisolone]) in front-line and interim 18F FDG-PET evaluation after 2 courses (PET-2). Patients with negative PET-2 findings received 1 additional course. Patients with positive PET-2 findings underwent early salvage therapy followed by high-dose therapy/autologous stem cell transplantation. Fifty-one patients were included. The final complete remission rate was 88%. With a median follow up of 5.3 years, 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 75.3% and 85.3%, respectively, for the whole cohort. Patients who were PET-2-negative had 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates of, respectively, 77.8% and 88.2% versus 85.1% and 91.7% for patients who were PET-2-positive. A PET-guided strategy with early salvage therapy and high-dose therapy/autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with interim PET-2-positive findings is safe and feasible and provide similar outcome as patients with a negative PET-2. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. F-18-FDG-PET Confined Radiotherapy of Locally Advanced NSCLC With Concomitant Chemotherapy: Results of the PET-PLAN Pilot Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Hellwig, Dirk [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Kremp, Stephanie [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Grgic, Aleksandar [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Groeschel, Andreas [Department of Internal Medicine V, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Kirsch, Carl-Martin [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Nestle, Ursula [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Clinic for Radiotherapy, University Hospital, Freiburg (Germany); Ruebe, Christian, E-mail: christian.ruebe@uks.eu [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The integration of fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the process of radiotherapy (RT) planning of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may improve diagnostic accuracy and minimize interobserver variability compared with target volume definition solely based on computed tomography. Furthermore, irradiating only FDG-PET-positive findings and omitting elective nodal regions may allow dose escalation by treating smaller volumes. The aim of this prospective pilot trial was to evaluate the therapeutic safety of FDG-PET-based RT treatment planning with an autocontour-derived delineation of the primary tumor. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stages II-III inoperable NSCLC, and simultaneous, platinum-based radiochemotherapy was indicated. FDG-PET and computed tomography acquisitions in RT treatment planning position were coregistered. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the FDG-PET-defined primary tumor, which was autodelineated with a source-to-background algorithm, plus FDG-PET-positive lymph node stations. Limited by dose restrictions for normal tissues, prescribed total doses were in the range of 66.6 to 73.8 Gy. The primary endpoint was the rate of out-of-field isolated nodal recurrences (INR). Results: As per intent to treat, 32 patients received radiochemotherapy. In 15 of these patients, dose escalation above 66.6 Gy was achieved. No Grade 4 toxicities occurred. After a median follow-up time of 27.2 months, the estimated median survival time was 19.3 months. During the observation period, one INR was observed in 23 evaluable patients. Conclusions: FDG-PET-confined target volume definition in radiochemotherapy of NSCLC, based on a contrast-oriented source-to-background algorithm, was associated with a low risk of INR. It might provide improved tumor control because of dose escalation.

  11. The history of cerebral PET scanning: from physiology to cutting-edge technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnow, Leah H; Vaillancourt, David E; Okun, Michael S

    2013-03-05

    To review the discoveries underpinning the introduction of cerebral PET scanning and highlight its modern applications. Important discoveries in neurophysiology, brain metabolism, and radiotracer development in the post-World War II period provided the necessary infrastructure for the first cerebral PET scan. A complete review of the literature was undertaken to search for primary and secondary sources on the history of PET imaging. Searches were performed in PubMed, Google Scholar, and select individual journal Web sites. Written autobiographies were obtained through the Society for Neuroscience Web site at www.sfn.org. A reference book on the history of radiology, Naked to the Bone, was reviewed to corroborate facts and to locate references. The references listed in all the articles and books obtained were reviewed. The neurophysiologic sciences required to build cerebral PET imaging date back to 1878. The last 60 years have produced an evolution of technological advancements in brain metabolism and radiotracer development. These advancements facilitated the development of modern cerebral PET imaging. Several key scientists were involved in critical discoveries and among them were Angelo Mosso, Charles Roy, Charles Sherrington, John Fulton, Seymour Kety, Louis Sokoloff, David E. Kuhl, Gordon L. Brownell, Michael Ter-Pogossian, Michael Phelps, and Edward Hoffman. Neurophysiology, metabolism, and radiotracer development in the postwar era synergized the development of the technology necessary for cerebral PET scanning. Continued use of PET in clinical trials and current developments in PET-CT/MRI hybrids has led to advancement in diagnosis, management, and treatment of neurologic disorders.

  12. Recent advances in the development of PET/SPECT probes for atherosclerosis imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoich; Kuge, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    The rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and subsequent thrombus formation are the major causes of myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, the detection of vulnerable plaques is important for risk stratification and to provide appropriate treatment. Inflammation imaging using 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) has been most extensively studied for detecting vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. It is of great importance to develop PET/SPECT probes capable of specifically visualizing the biological molecules involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and/or progression. In this article, we review recent advances in the development of PET/SPECT probes for visualizing atherosclerotic plaques and their application to therapy monitoring, mainly focusing on experimental studies.

  13. [18F]-fluoro-l-thymidine PET and advanced MRI for preoperative grading of gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Collet

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Whereas advanced MRI parameters give indications for the grading of gliomas, the addition of [18F]-FLT-PET could be of interest for the accurate preoperative classification of diffuse gliomas, particularly for identification of doubtful grade III and IV gliomas.

  14. Utility of FMISO PET in advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation incorporating a hypoxia-targeting chemotherapy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, St Vincent' s Medical School, Melbourne (Australia); Rischin, Danny [University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, St Vincent' s Medical School, Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Melbourne (Australia); Fisher, Richard [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne (Australia); Binns, David [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Scott, Andrew M. [Austin Hospital, Centre for PET, and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Melbourne (Australia); Peters, Lester J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology, Melbourne (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate [{sup 18}F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET in advanced head and neck cancer during hypoxia-targeting therapy. Fifteen of 16 patients in a phase I trial of chemoradiation plus tirapazamine (specific cytotoxin for hypoxic cells) in advanced (T3/4 and/or N2/3) head and neck cancer underwent serial [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and FMISO PET. We have previously reported excellent early clinical outcome of these patients and now review FMISO PET results in the context of longer follow-up of this patient cohort. Based on blinded qualitative scoring by two readers, FMISO PET was positive in 13/15 patients at baseline: 12/15 of primary sites and 8/13 neck nodes were scored as positive. All sites of corresponding FDG and FMISO abnormality at baseline showed marked qualitative reduction of uptake within 4 weeks of commencing therapy, consistent with effective hypoxia-targeted therapy. With a median follow-up of 6.9 years, there have been only four locoregional failures, while three other patients have died of metachronous lung cancer. The 5-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 27-73%), the 5-year failure-free survival was 44% (95% CI 22-68%) and the 5-year freedom from locoregional failure was 68% (95% CI 38-88%). The high prevalence of hypoxia demonstrated on FMISO PET imaging is consistent with the advanced disease stage of these patients and would be expected to predict an adverse prognosis. Evidence of the early resolution of FMISO abnormality during treatment, associated with excellent locoregional control in this patient cohort, supports further investigation of hypoxia-targeting agents in advanced head and neck cancer. (orig.)

  15. Utility of FMISO PET in advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation incorporating a hypoxia-targeting chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Rodney J.; Rischin, Danny; Fisher, Richard; Binns, David; Scott, Andrew M.; Peters, Lester J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate [ 18 F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET in advanced head and neck cancer during hypoxia-targeting therapy. Fifteen of 16 patients in a phase I trial of chemoradiation plus tirapazamine (specific cytotoxin for hypoxic cells) in advanced (T3/4 and/or N2/3) head and neck cancer underwent serial [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and FMISO PET. We have previously reported excellent early clinical outcome of these patients and now review FMISO PET results in the context of longer follow-up of this patient cohort. Based on blinded qualitative scoring by two readers, FMISO PET was positive in 13/15 patients at baseline: 12/15 of primary sites and 8/13 neck nodes were scored as positive. All sites of corresponding FDG and FMISO abnormality at baseline showed marked qualitative reduction of uptake within 4 weeks of commencing therapy, consistent with effective hypoxia-targeted therapy. With a median follow-up of 6.9 years, there have been only four locoregional failures, while three other patients have died of metachronous lung cancer. The 5-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 27-73%), the 5-year failure-free survival was 44% (95% CI 22-68%) and the 5-year freedom from locoregional failure was 68% (95% CI 38-88%). The high prevalence of hypoxia demonstrated on FMISO PET imaging is consistent with the advanced disease stage of these patients and would be expected to predict an adverse prognosis. Evidence of the early resolution of FMISO abnormality during treatment, associated with excellent locoregional control in this patient cohort, supports further investigation of hypoxia-targeting agents in advanced head and neck cancer. (orig.)

  16. Roles of posttherapy 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Yuan; Su, Tzu-Pei; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chang, Yu-Chen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2018-07-01

    To assess the clinical roles of [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed 2-3 months after completion of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), along with pretherapy characteristics, in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Posttherapy PET/CT in patients with advanced FIGO stage or positive pelvic or para-aortic lymph node (PALN) defined on pretherapy PET/CT was classified as positive, equivocal, or negative. Overall survival (OS) rates between patients with different PET/CT results are compared. Pretherapy characteristics are examined for association with posttherapy PET/CT results and for prognostic significance in patients with equivocal or negative PET/CT. PET/CT scans (n = 55) were positive, equivocal and negative in 9, 13 and 33 patients, respectively. All patients with positive scans were confirmed to have residual or metastatic disease and died despite salvage therapies. There is a significant OS difference between patients with positive and equivocal scans (P PET/CT (P = .033) and predicts a poorer survival in patients with equivocal or negative posttherapy PET/CT (P PET/CT 2-3 months posttherapy implies treatment failure and novel therapy is necessary to improve outcomes for such patients. A more intense posttherapy surveillance may be warranted in patients with positive pretherapy PALN.

  17. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin; PET y PET/CT en tumor de origen indeterminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J R [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  18. Impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT on staging and irradiation of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskeviciute, Brigita; Boelling, Tobias; Brinkmann, Markus; Rudykina, Ganna; Ernst, Iris; Willich, Normann; Koenemann, Stefan; Stegger, Lars; Schober, Otmar; Weckesser, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) on planning of neoadjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, a total of 36 patients with LARC underwent a retroprospective PET/CT study for radiotherapy-planning purposes. Gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) were defined in a retrospective analysis by a blinded reader. The hypothetical boost volume was defined primarily on CT alone, and afterwards on the fused PET/CT dataset. The CT- and PET/CT-based GTVs were quantitatively compared and percentage of overlap (OV%) was calculated and analyzed. The impact of PET/CT on radiation treatment planning and overall patient management was evaluated. PET/CT-GTVs were smaller than CT-GTVs (p < 0.05). PET/CT imaging resulted in a change of overall management for three patients (8 %). In 16 of 35 patients (46 %), PET/CT resulted in a need for modification of the usual target volumes (CT-PTV) because of detection of a geographic miss. FDG-PET/CT had significant impact on radiotherapy planning and overall treatment of patients with LARC. (orig.)

  19. Towards enhanced PET quantification in clinical oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidi, Habib; Karakatsanis, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    is still a matter of debate. Quantitative PET has advanced elegantly during the last two decades and is now reaching the maturity required for clinical exploitation, particularly in oncology where it has the capability to open many avenues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment...... and therapy planning. Therefore, the preservation and further enhancement of the quantitative features of PET imaging is crucial to ensure that the full clinical value of PET imaging modality is utilized in clinical oncology. Recent advancements in PET technology and methodology have paved the way for faster...... PET acquisitions of enhanced sensitivity to support the clinical translation of highly quantitative 4D parametric imaging methods in clinical oncology. In this report, we provide an overview of recent advances and future trends in quantitative PET imaging in the context of clinical oncology. The pros...

  20. Cyclotron/PET project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Positron Computed Tomography (PET) is a tri dimensional image technique which shows biochemical information. PET is used in neurology and cardiology diseases. The National Center Cyclotron PET has been found to research, development and health science applications.

  1. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (5), ''Development of imaging technology in life sciences'' III. Development of small animal PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the requisites for small animal PET scanners, present state of their market and of their development in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Relative to the apparatus clinically used, the requisites involve the high spatial resolution of 0.8-1.5 mm and high sensitivity of the equipment itself due to low dose of the tracer to be given to animals. At present, more than 20 institutions like universities, research facilities and companies are developing the PET equipment for small animals and about 10 machines are in the market. However, their resolution and sensitivity are not fully satisfactory and for their improvement, investigators are paying attention to the gamma ray measurement by depth-of-interaction (DOI) method. NIRS has been also developing the machine jPET-D4 and has proposed to manufacture jPET-RD having 4-layer DOI detectors with the absolute central sensitivity as high as 14.7%. jPET-RD is to have the spatial resolution as high as <1mm (central view) and -1.4 mm (periphery). (T.I.)

  2. Clinical PET/CT imaging. Promises and misconceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernin, J.; Auerbach, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    PET/CT is now established as the most important imaging tool in oncology. PET/CT stages and restages cancer with a higher accuracy than PET or CT alone. The sometimes irrational approach to combine state of the art PET with the highest end CT devices should give way to a more reasonable equipment design tailored towards the specific clinical indications in well-defined patient populations. The continuing success of molecular PET/CT now depends more upon advances in molecular imaging with the introduction of targeted imaging probes for individualized therapy approaches in cancer patients and less upon technological advances of imaging equipment. (orig.)

  3. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H 2 O 2 under UV irradiation (H 2 O 2 /UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H 2 O 2 /Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H 2 O 2 /UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H 2 O 2 /Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  4. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H2O2 under UV irradiation (H2O2/UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H2O2/Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H2O2/UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H2O2/Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  5. Imaging of hypoxia with 18F-FAZA PET in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinkaus, Mateya E.; Rischin, Danny; Blum, Rob

    2013-01-01

    For many cancers, tumour hypoxia is an adverse prognostic factor, and increases chemoradiation resistance; its importance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unproven. This study evaluated tumoural hypoxia using fluoroazomycin arabinoside ( 18 F-FAZA) positron emission tomography (PET) scans among patients with locoregionally advanced NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation. Patients with stage IIIA-IIIB NSCLC underwent 18 F-FAZA PET scans and 18 F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans within 4 weeks of commencing and 8 weeks following conventionally-fractionated concurrent platinum-based chemoradiation (60Gy). Intra-lesional hypoxic volumes of the primary and nodal masses were compared with FDG-PET metabolic volumes. Baseline tumoural hypoxia was correlated with disease free survival (DFS). Seventeen patients underwent pre-treatment 18 F-FAZA PET and FDG-PET scans. Intra-lesional hypoxia was identified on 11 scans (65%). Baseline lesional hypoxic volumes were consistently smaller than FDG-PET volumes (P=0.012). There was no statistical difference between the mean FDG-PET volumes in patients with or without baseline hypoxia (P=0.38). Eight patients with baseline hypoxia had post treatment 18 F-FAZA scans and 6 of these (75%) had resolution of imageable hypoxia following chemoradiation. The DFS was not significantly different between the hypoxic or non-hypoxic groups (median 0.8 years and 1.3 years respectively, P=0.42). Intra-lesional hypoxia, as detected by 18 F-FAZA PET, was present in 65% of patients with locally-advanced NSCLC and resolved in the majority of patients following chemoradiation. Larger studies are required to evaluate the prognostic significance of the presence and resolution of hypoxia assessed by PET in NSCLC.

  6. Impact of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT on surgical management in patients with advanced melanoma: an outcome based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forschner, Andrea; Keim, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Garbe, Claus [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Dermatology, Tuebingen (Germany); Olthof, Susann-Cathrin; Gueckel, Brigitte; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Pfannenberg, Christina [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Martus, Peter [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Tuebingen (Germany); Vach, Werner [University Freiburg, Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, Freiburg (Germany); Fougere, Christian la [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the influence of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT on clinical decision making and outcome in advanced melanoma patients planned for radical metastasectomy. A cohort of 333 patients with mainly stage III/IV melanoma having a PET/CT for clinical reasons was prospectively enrolled in our oncologic PET/CT registry between 2013 and 2015. Referring physicians completed questionnaires regarding their intended management for each patient before and after PET/CT. Management changes after PET/CT were classified as major and minor changes. A subgroup of 107 patients (stage I, N = 5; stage II, N = 3; stage III, N = 42; stage IV, N = 57) was planned for complete metastasectomy initially, based on conventional imaging. Management changes and outcome were evaluated by linkage with the information obtained from patients' medical records. In 28 of 107 patients (26%), the surgical treatment plan remained unchanged after PET/CT. In 24 patients (22%), minor changes were performed, such as enlargement or reduction of the surgical field. In 55 patients (51%, 95% CI 42%-61%) major changes of the intended treatment plan occurred; of those, 20 patients (19%) were classified to be tumor-free with PET/CT, 32 patients (30%) were found to have multiple previously unrecognized metastases and had to be treated by systemic therapy, three patients (3%) had to be changed to palliative radiotherapy or isolated extremity perfusion. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) in patients with complete metastasectomy (N = 52) was 90% and 79%, respectively. Systemically treated patients (N = 32) resulted in 1-year OS of 72% and 2-year OS of 61%. Eleven of 32 patients (34%) with systemic therapy experienced a complete response. Until December 2016, all 20 patients classified as tumor-free by PET/CT were alive. The study confirms the high impact of PET/CT on clinical management in patients with advanced melanoma planned for radical metastasectomy. PET/CT resulted in frequent management changes

  7. Impact of "1"8F-FDG-PET/CT on surgical management in patients with advanced melanoma: an outcome based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forschner, Andrea; Keim, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Garbe, Claus; Olthof, Susann-Cathrin; Gueckel, Brigitte; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Pfannenberg, Christina; Martus, Peter; Vach, Werner; Fougere, Christian la

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of "1"8F-FDG-PET/CT on clinical decision making and outcome in advanced melanoma patients planned for radical metastasectomy. A cohort of 333 patients with mainly stage III/IV melanoma having a PET/CT for clinical reasons was prospectively enrolled in our oncologic PET/CT registry between 2013 and 2015. Referring physicians completed questionnaires regarding their intended management for each patient before and after PET/CT. Management changes after PET/CT were classified as major and minor changes. A subgroup of 107 patients (stage I, N = 5; stage II, N = 3; stage III, N = 42; stage IV, N = 57) was planned for complete metastasectomy initially, based on conventional imaging. Management changes and outcome were evaluated by linkage with the information obtained from patients' medical records. In 28 of 107 patients (26%), the surgical treatment plan remained unchanged after PET/CT. In 24 patients (22%), minor changes were performed, such as enlargement or reduction of the surgical field. In 55 patients (51%, 95% CI 42%-61%) major changes of the intended treatment plan occurred; of those, 20 patients (19%) were classified to be tumor-free with PET/CT, 32 patients (30%) were found to have multiple previously unrecognized metastases and had to be treated by systemic therapy, three patients (3%) had to be changed to palliative radiotherapy or isolated extremity perfusion. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) in patients with complete metastasectomy (N = 52) was 90% and 79%, respectively. Systemically treated patients (N = 32) resulted in 1-year OS of 72% and 2-year OS of 61%. Eleven of 32 patients (34%) with systemic therapy experienced a complete response. Until December 2016, all 20 patients classified as tumor-free by PET/CT were alive. The study confirms the high impact of PET/CT on clinical management in patients with advanced melanoma planned for radical metastasectomy. PET/CT resulted in frequent management changes, preventing

  8. Trends in PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, William W.

    2000-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT)

  9. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia O, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  10. Radionuclide production for PET with a linear electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, R.E.; Hughey, B.J.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of linear electrostatic accelerator for the production of short-lived radionuclides for PET has been developed at Science Research Laboratory. The tandem cascade accelerator (TCA) is a low energy (3.7 MeV) proton and deuteron accelerator which can generate the four short-lived PET radionuclides in the quantities required for clinical use. The compact size, low weight, low power consumption and reduced radiation shielding requirements of the TCA result in a significant reduction in capital and operating costs when compared with higher energy cyclotron-based systems. Radioisotope target for the production of O-15, F-18, N-13 and C-11 have been designed specifically for use with the low energy TCA beam. A simple to use PC-based computer control system allows fully automated system operation and advanced scheduling of isotope production. Operating experience with the TCA and its PET radionuclide targets is described

  11. 18F-FDG versus 11C-choline PET/CT for the imaging of advanced head and neck cancer after combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy: the time period during which PET/CT can reliably detect non-recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kimiteru; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Jyunkichi; Kubota, Kazuo; Morooka, Miyako; Shiibashi, Michio

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the usefulness of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 11 C-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for detecting recurrences of advanced head and neck cancer after combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Additionally, we surveyed the time period during which an effective negative predictive value could be maintained after the first follow-up PET/CT examination and estimated the optimal timing of a second PET/CT examination for detecting late recurrences. Fifty-three subjects (36 men and 17 women; mean age: 59.4±11.5 years) with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were recruited. Post-treatment 18 F-FDG PET/CT and 11 C-choline examinations were performed in all patients between 8 and 12 weeks after combined intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The PET/CT images were evaluated using a patient-based analysis and a lesion-based analysis. All of the patients were prospectively followed for at least 9 months after the post-treatment PET/CT examination, with surveillance using conventional images (including CT and/or MRI) and a physical examination performed every 3 months. Recurrences, as determined using the patient-based analysis, were eventually confirmed in 18, 6 and 5 patients at 3, 4-6 and 7-9 months after the post-treatment PET/CT examination, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the 18F-FDG PET/CT and the 11C-choline PET/CT examinations to predict recurrence within 3 months were higher (FDG: 89 and 91%; choline: 83 and 80%, respectively) than for recurrence detection 6 months (FDG: 67 and 90%; choline: 62 and 76%, respectively) and 9 months later (FDG: 59 and 92%; choline: 55 and 75%, respectively). The lesion-based analysis showed that the maximum standardized uptake value of 18 F-FDG and 11 C-choline in the recurrent lesions were correlated with each other, compared with their relation in scar tissues (R 2 = 0.492 and 0

  12. Flipped Classrooms for Advanced Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomory, Annette; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2015-12-01

    This article explains how issues regarding dual credit and Advanced Placement high school science courses could be mitigated via a flipped classroom instructional model. The need for advanced high school courses will be examined initially, followed by an analysis of advanced science courses and the reform they are experiencing. Finally, it will conclude with an explanation of flipped classes as well as how they may be a solution to the reform challenges teachers are experiencing as they seek to incorporate more inquiry-based activities.

  13. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibrahimov Str., 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpaev Str., 5, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan); Güven, Olgun [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Zdorovets, Maxim V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibrahimov Str., 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpaev Str., 5, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan); Taltenov, Abzal A. [The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpaev Str., 5, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2015-12-15

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under UV irradiation (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  14. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Yoshio; Kamimura, Tsutomu

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 2 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into four parts encompassing 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of categorical frameworks that are widely used to represent data types in computer science. This text then provides an algorithm for generating vertices of a smoothed polygonal line from the vertices of a digital curve or polygonal curve whose position contains a certain amount of error. O

  15. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Advances in Computer Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012)

    2012-01-01

    This book includes the proceedings of the second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012), which was held during January 13-14, 2012 in Sanya, China. The papers in these proceedings of CES 2012 focus on the researchers’ advanced works in their fields of Computer Science and Engineering mainly organized in four topics, (1) Software Engineering, (2) Intelligent Computing, (3) Computer Networks, and (4) Artificial Intelligence Software.

  17. Advancing PET science for new measures of brain function. Progress report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1994-10-01

    This project has continued the development of new chemistry and imaging physics applicable to PET studies of the human brain. In basic radiochemistry research, the authors have developed a modified approach to solid-phase supported [ 11 C]methylation system, in part dependent on the design, fabrication and validation of new small, sensitive and accurate positron detectors useful in tracking the flow of radioactivity through the synthesis apparatus. Radiopharmaceutical efforts have resulted in synthesis of new tracers of mitochondrial enzymes. For evaluation of new PET radiotracers, the authors have applied new models of unilateral brain lesions using quinolinic acid and MPP+, as models of neurodegenerative diseases. In the physics and data analysis research area the authors have developed faster and more accurate means of performing image reconstruction for use with both emission and transmission data. The authors are optimizing acquisition and kinetic modeling strategies for new radiotracers. The authors also have implemented and proven the utility of performing task switching during PET CBF activation studies for the purpose of enhancing signal-to-noise and greater detectability of areas of activation. The authors also working on routines for standardization of analysis strategies for group vs. group and individual vs. group comparisons

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of PET-CT-guided management for locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A F; Hall, P S; Hulme, C T; Dunn, J A; McConkey, C C; Rahman, J K; McCabe, C; Mehanna, H

    2017-11-01

    A recent large United Kingdom (UK) clinical trial demonstrated that positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)-guided administration of neck dissection (ND) in patients with advanced head and neck cancer after primary chemo-radiotherapy treatment produces similar survival outcomes to planned ND (standard care) and is cost-effective over a short-term horizon. Further assessment of long-term outcomes is required to inform a robust adoption decision. Here we present results of a lifetime cost-effectiveness analysis of PET-CT-guided management from a UK secondary care perspective. Initial 6-month cost and health outcomes were derived from trial data; subsequent incidence of recurrence and mortality was simulated using a de novo Markov model. Health benefit was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs reported in 2015 British pounds. Model parameters were derived from trial data and published literature. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the impact of uncertainty and broader National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services (PSS) costs on the results. PET-CT management produced an average per-person lifetime cost saving of £1485 and an additional 0.13 QALYs. At a £20,000 willingness-to-pay per additional QALY threshold, there was a 75% probability that PET-CT was cost-effective, and the results remained cost-effective over the majority of sensitivity analyses. When adopting a broader NHS and PSS perspective, PET-CT management produced an average saving of £700 and had an 81% probability of being cost-effective. This analysis indicates that PET-CT-guided management is cost-effective in the long-term and supports the case for wide-scale adoption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assess PET/MR in diagnosis of disease in comparison with PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jianhua; Lim, Jason Chu-Chern; Loi, Hoi Yin; Totoman, John; Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Quek, Swee Titan; Townsend, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the performance of 18F-FDG whole body PET/MRI in comparison with PET/CT based on SUV. Anatomical location of lesion with Dixon MRI and additional value of advanced MRI technology such as diffusion weighted MR imaging in diagnosis of malignant disease will also be investigated.

  20. Advances in welding science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Babu, S.S.; Vitek, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based design of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes. In the last several decades, welding has evolved as an interdisciplinary activity requiring synthesis of knowledge from various disciplines and incorporating the most advanced tools of various basic applied sciences. A series of international conferences and other publications have covered the issues, current trends and directions in welding science and technology. In the last few decades, major progress has been made in (i) understanding physical processes in welding, (ii) characterization of microstructure and properties, and (iii) intelligent control and automation of welding. This paper describes some of these developments

  1. Textural features and SUV-based variables assessed by dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vicente, Ana María; Molina, David; Pérez-Beteta, Julián; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martínez-González, Alicia; Bueno, Gloria; Tello-Galán, María Jesús; Soriano-Castrejón, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    To study the influence of dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in textural features and SUV-based variables and their relation among them. Fifty-six patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were prospectively included. All of them underwent a standard 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-1) and a delayed acquisition (PET-2). After segmentation, SUV variables (SUVmax, SUVmean, and SUVpeak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) textural measures were computed including: run-length matrices (RLM) features, co-occurrence matrices (CM) features, and energies. Differences between all PET-derived variables obtained in PET-1 and PET-2 were studied. Significant differences were found between the SUV-based parameters and MTV obtained in the dual time point PET/CT, with higher values of SUV-based variables and lower MTV in the PET-2 with respect to the PET-1. In relation with the textural parameters obtained in dual time point acquisition, significant differences were found for the short run emphasis, low gray-level run emphasis, short run high gray-level emphasis, run percentage, long run emphasis, gray-level non-uniformity, homogeneity, and dissimilarity. Textural variables showed relations with MTV and TLG. Significant differences of textural features were found in dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT. Thus, a dynamic behavior of metabolic characteristics should be expected, with higher heterogeneity in delayed PET acquisition compared with the standard PET. A greater heterogeneity was found in bigger tumors.

  2. {sup 18}F-alfatide PET/CT may predict short-term outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Xiaohui [Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jinan, Shandong (China); University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan (China); Huang, Yong; Sun, Xiaorong; Ma, Li; Teng, Xuepeng; Lu, Hong [Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Jinan, Shandong (China); Gao, Song [Jining Infectious Diseases Hospital, Department of Oncology, Jining, Shandong (China); Wang, Suzhen; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu [Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2016-12-15

    The study aims to investigate the role of {sup 18}F-alfatide positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in predicting the short-term outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eighteen patients with advanced NSCLC had undergone {sup 18}F-alfatide PET/CT scans before CCRT and PET/CT parameters including maximum and mean standard uptake values (SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub mean}), peak standard uptake values (SUV{sub peak}) and tumor volume (TV{sub PET} and TV{sub CT}) were obtained. The SUV{sub max} of tumor and normal tissues (lung, blood pool and muscle) were measured, and their ratios were denoted as T/NT (T/NT{sub lung}, T/NT{sub blood} and T/NT{sub muscle}). Statistical methods included the Two-example t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and logistic regression analyses. We found that SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, T/NT{sub lung}, T/NT{sub blood} and T/NT{sub muscle} were higher in non-responders than in responders (P = 0.0024, P = 0.016, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.004). According to ROC curve analysis, the thresholds of SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, T/NT{sub lung}, T/NT{sub blood} and T/NT{sub muscle} were 5.65, 4.46, 7.11, 5.41, and 11.75, respectively. The five parameters had high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in distinguishing non-responders and responders. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that T/NT{sub lung} was an independent predictor of the short-term outcome of CCRT in patients with advanced NSCLC (P = 0.032). {sup 18}F-alfatide PET/CT may be useful in predicting the short-term outcome of CCRT in patients with advanced NSCLC. (orig.)

  3. Innovation in Citizen Science – Perspectives on Science-Policy Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hecker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is growing as a field of research with contributions from diverse disciplines, promoting innovation in science, society, and policy. Inter- and transdisciplinary discussions and critical analyses are needed to use the current momentum to evaluate, demonstrate, and build on the advances that have been made in the past few years. This paper synthesizes results of discussions at the first international citizen science conference of the European Citizen Science Association (ECSA in 2016 in Berlin, Germany, and distills major points of the discourse into key recommendations. To enhance innovation in science, citizen science needs to clearly demonstrate its scientific benefit, branch out across disciplines, and foster active networking and new formats of collaboration, including true co-design with participants. For fostering policy advances, it is important to embrace opportunities for policy-relevant monitoring and policy development and to work with science funders to find adequate avenues and evaluation tools to support citizen science. From a society angle it is crucial to engage with societal actors in various formats that suit participants and to evaluate two-way learning outcomes as well as to develop the transformative role of science communication. We hope that these key perspectives will promote citizen science progress at the science-society-policy interface.

  4. TH-A-17A-01: Innovation in PET Instrumentation and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, M [Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States); Miyaoka, R [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Shao, Y [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Innovation in PET instrumentation has led to the new millennium revolutionary imaging applications for diagnosis, therapeutic guidance, and development of new molecular imaging probes, etc. However, after several decades innovations, will the advances of PET technology and applications continue with the same trend and pace? What will be the next big thing beyond the PET/CT, PET/MRI, and Time-of-flight PET? How will the PET instrumentation and imaging performance be further improved by novel detector research and advanced imaging system development? Or will the development of new algorithms and methodologies extend the limit of current instrumentation and leapfrog the imaging quality and quantification for practical applications? The objective of this session is to present an overview of current status and advances in the PET instrumentation and applications with speakers from leading academic institutes and a major medical imaging company. Presenting with both academic research projects and commercial technology developments, this session will provide a glimpse of some latest advances and challenges in the field, such as using semiconductor photon-sensor based PET detectors to improve performance and enable new applications, as well as the technology trend that may lead to the next breakthrough in PET imaging for clinical and preclinical applications. Both imaging and image-guided therapy subjects will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Describe the latest innovations in PET instrumentation and applications Understand the driven force behind the PET instrumentation innovation and development Learn the trend of PET technology development for applications.

  5. TH-A-17A-01: Innovation in PET Instrumentation and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, M; Miyaoka, R; Shao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Innovation in PET instrumentation has led to the new millennium revolutionary imaging applications for diagnosis, therapeutic guidance, and development of new molecular imaging probes, etc. However, after several decades innovations, will the advances of PET technology and applications continue with the same trend and pace? What will be the next big thing beyond the PET/CT, PET/MRI, and Time-of-flight PET? How will the PET instrumentation and imaging performance be further improved by novel detector research and advanced imaging system development? Or will the development of new algorithms and methodologies extend the limit of current instrumentation and leapfrog the imaging quality and quantification for practical applications? The objective of this session is to present an overview of current status and advances in the PET instrumentation and applications with speakers from leading academic institutes and a major medical imaging company. Presenting with both academic research projects and commercial technology developments, this session will provide a glimpse of some latest advances and challenges in the field, such as using semiconductor photon-sensor based PET detectors to improve performance and enable new applications, as well as the technology trend that may lead to the next breakthrough in PET imaging for clinical and preclinical applications. Both imaging and image-guided therapy subjects will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Describe the latest innovations in PET instrumentation and applications Understand the driven force behind the PET instrumentation innovation and development Learn the trend of PET technology development for applications

  6. Advancing Water Science through Improved Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B. J.; Miles, B.; Rai, A.; Ahalt, S.; Band, L. E.; Minsker, B.; Palmer, M.; Williams, M. R.; Idaszak, R.; Whitton, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Major scientific advances are needed to help address impacts of climate change and increasing human-mediated environmental modification on the water cycle at global and local scales. However, such advances within the water sciences are limited in part by inadequate information infrastructures. For example, cyberinfrastructure (CI) includes the integrated computer hardware, software, networks, sensors, data, and human capital that enable scientific workflows to be carried out within and among individual research efforts and across varied disciplines. A coordinated transformation of existing CI and development of new CI could accelerate the productivity of water science by enabling greater discovery, access, and interoperability of data and models, and by freeing scientists to do science rather than create and manage technological tools. To elucidate specific ways in which improved CI could advance water science, three challenges confronting the water science community were evaluated: 1) How does ecohydrologic patch structure affect nitrogen transport and fate in watersheds?, 2) How can human-modified environments emulate natural water and nutrient cycling to enhance both human and ecosystem well-being?, 3) How do changes in climate affect water availability to support biodiversity and human needs? We assessed the approaches used by researchers to address components of these challenges, identified barriers imposed by limitations of current CI, and interviewed leaders in various water science subdisciplines to determine the most recent CI tools employed. Our preliminary findings revealed four areas where CI improvements are likely to stimulate scientific advances: 1) sensor networks, 2) data quality assurance/quality control, 3) data and modeling standards, 4) high performance computing. In addition, the full potential of a re-envisioned water science CI cannot be realized without a substantial training component. In light of these findings, we suggest that CI

  7. Impact of advanced MRI techniques for the diagnosis of dementia: comparison with PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Elena; Prakash, Vineet; Vestergård, Karsten

    Introduction: The use of high magnetic fields in combination with fast algorithms for computer-based postprocessing has moved advanced MRI techniques into clinical practice. MRI provides in analogy with PET physiological information in addition to more traditional morphological images. Evaluation...... with suspected Alzheimer's disease (AD); 4 with suspected frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and 2 were found normal. Mean FA and ADC values in cingulum and in CC for the patient group compared with controls are presented in Table 1. ADC values in CC were higher comparing with controls and higher for patients...... with suspected FTD than for patients with suspected AD. Conclusion: CBF measurements and characteristics obtained by advanced MRI techniques have a potential to facilitate early diagnosis and understanding of dementia....

  8. Advances in the Development of PET Ligands Targeting Histone Deacetylases for the Assessment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tago

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic alterations of gene expression have emerged as a key factor in several neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, inhibitors targeting histone deacetylases (HDACs, which are enzymes responsible for deacetylation of histones and other proteins, show therapeutic effects in animal neurodegenerative disease models. However, the details of the interaction between changes in HDAC levels in the brain and disease progression remain unknown. In this review, we focus on recent advances in development of radioligands for HDAC imaging in the brain with positron emission tomography (PET. We summarize the results of radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of the HDAC ligands to identify their successful results and challenges. Since 2006, several small molecules that are radiolabeled with a radioisotope such as carbon-11 or fluorine-18 have been developed and evaluated using various assays including in vitro HDAC binding assays and PET imaging in rodents and non-human primates. Although most compounds do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, adamantane-conjugated radioligands tend to show good brain uptake. Until now, only one HDAC radioligand has been tested clinically in a brain PET study. Further PET imaging studies to clarify age-related and disease-related changes in HDACs in disease models and humans will increase our understanding of the roles of HDACs in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Early restaging whole-body 18F-FDG PET during induction chemotherapy predicts clinical outcome in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi; Ting, Lai-Lei; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Pan, Mei-Hsiu; Hong, Ruey-Long

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of whole-body 18 F-FDG PET in monitoring therapeutic effect during induction chemotherapy (IC) and in predicting prognosis in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty patients who had histologically proven, locoregionally advanced NPC without distant metastasis and had received IC were recruited in this study. The study cohort consisted of 19 females and 31 males (age 17-72 years, mean 45.9±11.9). Whole-body 18 F-FDG PET was performed in each patient after completion of one (33 patients) or two (17 patients) courses of IC. Each patient was restaged on the basis of the 18 F-FDG PET results. Patients who were downstaged to stage I or II were classified as major responders; the rest were classified as non-major responders. Only 1 of the 23 major responders subsequently developed local recurrence. At the time of data analysis, all major responders were alive; by contrast, of the 27 non-major responders, 15 had locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis and nine had died (seven of NPC and two of treatment-related complications). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly longer recurrence-free survival and overall survival in major responders (56.4±9.2 and 58.1±2.2 months) as compared with non-major responders (33.7±23.2 and 44.7±20.0 months), with p 18 F-FDG PET scan after the first or second course of IC is useful for predicting therapeutic response and outcome in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC. (orig.)

  10. PET/CT Staging Followed by Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) Improves Treatment Outcome of Locally Advanced Pharyngeal Carcinoma: a matched-pair comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, Sacha; Studer, Gabriela; Seifert, Burkhardt; Huguenin, Pia; Glanzmann, Christoph; Davis, J Bernard; Lütolf, Urs M; Hany, Thomas F; Ciernik, I Frank

    2007-01-01

    Impact of non-pharmacological innovations on cancer cure rates is difficult to assess. It remains unclear, whether outcome improves with 2- [18-F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and integrated computer tomography (PET/CT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for curative treatment of advanced pharyngeal carcinoma. Forty five patients with stage IVA oro- or hypopharyngeal carcinoma were staged with an integrated PET/CT and treated with definitive chemoradiation with IMRT from 2002 until 2005. To estimate the impact of PET/CT with IMRT on outcome, a case-control analysis on all patients with PET/CT and IMRT was done after matching with eighty six patients treated between 1991 and 2001 without PET/CT and 3D-conformal radiotherapy with respect to gender, age, stage, grade, and tumor location with a ratio of 1:2. Median follow-up was eighteen months (range, 6–49 months) for the PET/CT-IMRT group and twenty eight months (range, 1–168 months) for the controls. PET/CT and treatment with IMRT improved cure rates compared to patients without PET/CT and IMRT. Overall survival of patients with PET/CT and IMRT was 97% and 91% at 1 and 2 years respectively, compared to 74% and 54% for patients without PET/CT or IMRT (p = 0.002). The event-free survival rate of PET/CT-IMRT group was 90% and 80% at 1 and 2 years respectively, compared to 72% and 56% in the control group (p = 0.005). PET/CT in combination with IMRT and chemotherapy for pharyngeal carcinoma improve oncological therapy of pharyngeal carcinomas. Long-term follow-up is needed to confirm these findings

  11. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D L; Pichler, B J; Gückel, B

    2018-01-01

    The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants c...... of response to pharmacological interventions and therapies. As such, PET/MRI is a key to advancing medicine and patient care.......The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants...... critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how...

  12. Advanced Science for Kids: Multicultural Assessment and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettac, Teresa; Huckabee, Colleen; Musser, Louise; Patton, Paulette; Yates, Joyce

    1997-01-01

    Describes Advanced Science for Kids (ASK), a multicultural approach to assessment and programming for a middle school advanced science program. ASK is designed to provide alternative approaches to identification and assessment, facilitate authentic instruction and assessment, and provide minority students with academic and social support as they…

  13. Advancing the science of Forest Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs; Carl C. Trettin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, agricultural and biological engineers have provided major advances in science, engineering, and technology to increase food and fiber production to meet the demands of a rapidly growing global population. The land base for these technological advances has...

  14. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hikita, Teruo; Kakuda, Hiroyasu

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the historical survey of programming languages for vector/parallel computers in Japan and describes compiling methods for supercomputers in Japan. This text then explains the model of a Japanese software factory, which is presented by the logical configuration that has been satisfied by

  15. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kakuda, Hiroyasu; Ohno, Yoshio

    1992-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 3 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into two parts encompassing 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the development of a system of writing tools called SUIKOU that analyzes a machine-readable Japanese document textually. This text then presents the conditioned attribute grammars (CAGs) and a system for evaluating them that can be applied to natural-language processing. Other chapters c

  16. Advancing Research on Undergraduate Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Susan Rundell

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" reflects conclusions and recommendations in the "Discipline-Based Education Research" (DBER) report and makes a substantial contribution to advancing the field. Research on undergraduate science learning is currently a loose affiliation of related fields. The…

  17. The heritage of radiotracers for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The history of PET research clearly demonstrates that it is advances in chemistry coupled with a detailed examination of the biochemistry of new radiotracers which has allowed the PET method to be applied to new areas of biology and medicine. Radiotracers whose regional distribution reflects glucose metabolism, neutrotransmitter activity and enzyme activity have all required the development of rapid synthetic methods for the radiotracers themselves and the characterization of their biochemical behavior. This article traces some of the advances in the production of labeled precursors and in radiotracer synthesis and evaluation which have shaped the rapidly expanding application of PET to problems in the neurosciences, in cardiology and in oncology. 54 refs

  18. Advanced Methodologies for NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, N. E.; Feigelson, E.; Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Most of NASA's commitment to computational space science involves the organization and processing of Big Data from space-based satellites, and the calculations of advanced physical models based on these datasets. But considerable thought is also needed on what computations are needed. The science questions addressed by space data are so diverse and complex that traditional analysis procedures are often inadequate. The knowledge and skills of the statistician, applied mathematician, and algorithmic computer scientist must be incorporated into programs that currently emphasize engineering and physical science. NASA's culture and administrative mechanisms take full cognizance that major advances in space science are driven by improvements in instrumentation. But it is less well recognized that new instruments and science questions give rise to new challenges in the treatment of satellite data after it is telemetered to the ground. These issues might be divided into two stages: data reduction through software pipelines developed within NASA mission centers; and science analysis that is performed by hundreds of space scientists dispersed through NASA, U.S. universities, and abroad. Both stages benefit from the latest statistical and computational methods; in some cases, the science result is completely inaccessible using traditional procedures. This paper will review the current state of NASA and present example applications using modern methodologies.

  19. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a ) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b ) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c ) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d ) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  20. MO-FG-207-03: Maximizing the Utility of Integrated PET/MRI in Clinical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, S. [University of California (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee.

  1. MO-FG-207-03: Maximizing the Utility of Integrated PET/MRI in Clinical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee

  2. 'Serial review on clinical PET tracers'. Application of health insurance of [15O]oxygen PET and [18F]FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Kanji

    2009-01-01

    As regards the application required for health insurance of PET, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare indicates the following procedures: first, request a permission to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for the clinical use of the automatic synthetic instrument for PET drug, approved according to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. Second, put into practice the use of PET test, under the highly advanced medicine premises. Then, in case of gathered positive results, the health insurance is approved for this PET test. Thus, following the above mentioned procedures, first, the use of [ 15 O] oxygen PET was approved in April 1996. Second, the use of [ 18 F]FDG-PET was approved in 12 different diseases: epilepsy, ischemic heart disease and 10 different types of cancer, in April 2002. Third, in April 2006, a additional 3 types of cancer were approved. Now, we are in the process to get the health insurance of all kinds of malignant tumors (cancer and sarcoma) except for the early gastric cancer. (author)

  3. Advanced statistical methods in data science

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiahua; Lu, Xuewen; Yi, Grace; Yu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This book gathers invited presentations from the 2nd Symposium of the ICSA- CANADA Chapter held at the University of Calgary from August 4-6, 2015. The aim of this Symposium was to promote advanced statistical methods in big-data sciences and to allow researchers to exchange ideas on statistics and data science and to embraces the challenges and opportunities of statistics and data science in the modern world. It addresses diverse themes in advanced statistical analysis in big-data sciences, including methods for administrative data analysis, survival data analysis, missing data analysis, high-dimensional and genetic data analysis, longitudinal and functional data analysis, the design and analysis of studies with response-dependent and multi-phase designs, time series and robust statistics, statistical inference based on likelihood, empirical likelihood and estimating functions. The editorial group selected 14 high-quality presentations from this successful symposium and invited the presenters to prepare a fu...

  4. TU-C-12A-09: Modeling Pathologic Response of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer to Chemo-Radiotherapy Using Quantitative PET/CT Features, Clinical Parameters and Demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H; Chen, W; Kligerman, S; D’Souza, W; Suntharalingam, M; Lu, W; Tan, S; Kim, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop predictive models using quantitative PET/CT features for the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: This study included 20 patients who underwent tri-modality therapy (CRT + surgery) and had 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans before initiation of CRT and 4-6 weeks after completion of CRT but prior to surgery. Four groups of tumor features were examined: (1) conventional PET/CT response measures (SUVmax, tumor diameter, etc.); (2) clinical parameters (TNM stage, histology, etc.) and demographics; (3) spatial-temporal PET features, which characterize tumor SUV intensity distribution, spatial patterns, geometry, and associated changes resulting from CRT; and (4) all features combined. An optimal feature set was identified with recursive feature selection and cross-validations. Support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) models were constructed for prediction of pathologic tumor response to CRT, using cross-validations to avoid model over-fitting. Prediction accuracy was assessed via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and precision was evaluated via confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC. Results: When applied to the 4 groups of tumor features, the LR model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.57 (0.10), 0.73 (0.07), 0.90 (0.06), and 0.90 (0.06). The SVM model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.56 (0.07), 0.60 (0.06), 0.94 (0.02), and 1.00 (no misclassifications). Using spatial-temporal PET features combined with conventional PET/CT measures and clinical parameters, the SVM model achieved very high accuracy (AUC 1.00) and precision (no misclassifications), significantly better than using conventional PET/CT measures or clinical parameters and demographics alone. For groups with a large number of tumor features (groups 3 and 4), the SVM model achieved significantly higher accuracy than the LR model. Conclusion: The SVM model using all features including

  5. Progress on dedicated animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography, as the leading technology providing molecular imaging of biological processes, is widely used on living laboratory animals. High-resolution dedicated animal PET scanners have been developed. Although the dedicated animal PET faces obstacles and challenges, this advanced technology would play an important role in molecular biomedicine researches, such as diseases study, medicine development, and gene therapy

  6. Advances in welding science - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Babu, S.S.; DebRoy, T.

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate goal of welding technology is to improve the joint integrity and increase productivity. Over the years, welding has been more of an art than a science, but in the last few decades major advances have taken place in welding science and technology. With the development of new methodologies at the crossroads of basic and applied sciences, enormous opportunities and potential exist to develop a science-based tailoring of composition, structure, and properties of welds with intelligent control and automation of the welding processes

  7. PET and PET-CT. State of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanti, Stefano; Franchi, Roberto; Battista, Giuseppe; Monetti, Nino; Canini, Romeo

    2005-01-01

    Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) enables the in vivo study of tissue metabolism, and thus is able to identify malignant tumours as hypermetabolic lesions by an increase in tracer uptake. Many papers have demonstrated both the relevant impact of FDG PET on staging of many cancers and the superior accuracy of the technique compared with conventional diagnostic methods for pre-treatment evaluation, therapy response evaluation and relapse identification. In particular PET was found useful in identifying lymph nodal and metastatic spread. thus altering patient management in more than 30% of cases. PET images, however, provide limited anatomical data, which in regions such as the head and neck, mediastinum and pelvic cavity is a significant drawback. The exact localization of lesions may also be difficult in some cases, on the basis of PET images alone. The introduction of combined PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanners enables the almost simultaneous acquisition of transmission and emission images, thus obtaining optimal fusion images in a very short time. PET-CT fusion images enable lesions to be located, reducing false positive studies and increasing accuracy; the overall duration of examination may also be reduced. On the basis of both literature data and our experience we established the clinical indications when PET-CT may be particularly useful, in comparison with PET alone. It should also be underlined that the use of PET-CT is almost mandatory for new traces such as C-choline and C-methionine; these new tracers may be applied for studying tumours not assessable with FDG, such as prostate cancer. In conclusion PET-CT is at present the most advanced method for metabolic imaging, and is capable of precisely localizing and assessing tumours; fusion images reduce false positive and inconclusive studies, thus increasing diagnostic accuracy [it

  8. PET/MRI for Neurological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Drzezga, Alexander; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Rosen, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    PET and MRI provide complementary information in the study of the human brain. Simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition allows the spatial and temporal correlation of the measured signals, opening up opportunities impossible to realize using stand-alone instruments. This paper reviews the methodological improvements and potential neurological and psychiatric applications of this novel technology. We first present methods for improving the performance and information content of each modality by using the information provided by the other technique. On the PET side, we discuss methods that use the simultaneously acquired MR data to improve the PET data quantification. On the MR side, we present how improved PET quantification could be used to validate a number of MR techniques. Finally, we describe promising research, translational and clinical applications that could benefit from these advanced tools. PMID:23143086

  9. PET/MRI for neurologic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Drzezga, Alexander; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Rosen, Bruce R

    2012-12-01

    PET and MRI provide complementary information in the study of the human brain. Simultaneous PET/MRI data acquisition allows the spatial and temporal correlation of the measured signals, creating opportunities impossible to realize using stand-alone instruments. This paper reviews the methodologic improvements and potential neurologic and psychiatric applications of this novel technology. We first present methods for improving the performance and information content of each modality by using the information provided by the other technique. On the PET side, we discuss methods that use the simultaneously acquired MRI data to improve the PET data quantification. On the MRI side, we present how improved PET quantification can be used to validate several MRI techniques. Finally, we describe promising research, translational, and clinical applications that can benefit from these advanced tools.

  10. Advances in the material science of concrete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ideker, Jason H; Radlinska, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    ... Committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The session focused on material science aspects of concrete with an emphasis placed on advances in understanding the fundamental scientific topics of cement-based materials, as well as the crucial...

  11. Advanced in Computer Science and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Neil; Park, James; CSA 2013

    2014-01-01

    The theme of CSA is focused on the various aspects of computer science and its applications for advances in computer science and its applications and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of computer science and its applications. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in computer science and its applications.

  12. Multi-technique hybrid imaging in PET/CT and PET/MR: what does the future hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiza Barbosa, F. de; Delso, G.; Voert, E.E.G.W. ter; Huellner, M.W.; Herrmann, K.; Veit-Haibach, P.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) is one of the most important imaging techniques to have emerged in oncological practice in the last decade. Hybrid imaging, in general, remains a rapidly growing field, not only in developing countries, but also in western industrialised healthcare systems. A great deal of technological development and research is focused on improving hybrid imaging technology further and introducing new techniques, e.g., integrated PET and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Additionally, there are several new PET tracers on the horizon, which have the potential to broaden clinical applications in hybrid imaging for diagnosis as well as therapy. This article aims to highlight some of the major technical and clinical advances that are currently taking place in PET/CT and PET/MRI that will potentially maintain the position of hybrid techniques at the forefront of medical imaging technologies.

  13. The combination of 13N-ammonia and 18F-FDG whole-body PET/CT on the same day for diagnosis of advanced prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chang; Yu, Donglan; Shi, Xinchong; Luo, Ganhua; He, Qiao; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of 13N-ammonia and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET performed on the same day in the detection of advanced prostate cancer (PC) and its metastases. Patients and methods Twenty-six patients with high-risk PC [Gleason score 8–10 or prostate-specific antigen (PSA)>20 ng/ml or clinical tumor extension≥T2c] were recruited into the study. 13N-Ammonia and 18F-FDG PET/CT were performed on the same day (18F-FDG followed ammonia, with an interval of a minimum of 2 h). Lesions were interpreted as positive, negative, or equivocal. Patient-based and field-based performance characteristics for both imaging techniques were reported. Results There was significant correlation between 13N-ammonia and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of primary PC (κ=0.425, P=0.001) and no significant difference in sensitivity (60.2 vs. 54.5%) and specificity (100 vs. 83.3%). The maximum standard uptake values and corresponding target-to-background ratio values of the concordantly positive lesions in prostate glands in the two studies did not differ significantly (P=0.124 and 0.075, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of PET imaging using 13N-ammonia for lymph node metastases were 77.5 and 96.3%, respectively, whereas the values were 75 and 44.4% using 18F-FDG. The two modalities were highly correlated with respect to the detection of lymph nodes and bone metastases. Conclusion The concordance between the two imaging modalities suggests a clinical impact of 13N-ammonia PET/CT in advanced PC patients as well as of 18F-FDG. 13N-Ammonia is a useful PET tracer and a complement to 18F-FDG for detecting primary focus and distant metastases in PC. The combination of these two tracers on the same day can accurately detect advanced PC. PMID:26588068

  14. Pretreatment 18F-FDG PET Textural Features in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Secondary Analysis of ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Nitin; Duan, Fenghai; Snyder, Bradley S; Wei, Bo; Machtay, Mitchell; Alavi, Abass; Siegel, Barry A; Johnson, Douglas W; Bradley, Jeffrey D; DeNittis, Albert; Werner-Wasik, Maria; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-06-01

    In a secondary analysis of American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/RTOG 0235, high pretreatment metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on (18)F-FDG PET was found to be a poor prognostic factor for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we utilize the same dataset to explore whether heterogeneity metrics based on PET textural features can provide additional prognostic information. Patients with locally advanced NSCLC underwent (18)F-FDG PET prior to treatment. A gradient-based segmentation tool was used to contour each patient's primary tumor. MTV, maximum SUV, and 43 textural features were extracted for each tumor. To address overfitting and high collinearity among PET features, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method was applied to identify features that were independent predictors of overall survival (OS) after adjusting for MTV. Recursive binary partitioning in a conditional inference framework was utilized to identify optimal thresholds. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank testing were used to compare outcomes among patient groups. Two hundred one patients met inclusion criteria. The LASSO procedure identified 1 textural feature (SumMean) as an independent predictor of OS. The optimal cutpoint for MTV was 93.3 cm(3), and the optimal SumMean cutpoint for tumors above 93.3 cm(3) was 0.018. This grouped patients into three categories: low tumor MTV (n = 155; median OS, 22.6 mo), high tumor MTV and high SumMean (n = 23; median OS, 20.0 mo), and high tumor MTV and low SumMean (n = 23; median OS, 6.2 mo; log-rank P textural PET features in the context of established prognostic factors. We have also identified a promising feature that may have prognostic value in locally advanced NSCLC patients with large tumors who are treated with chemoradiotherapy. Validation studies are warranted. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  15. Pretreatment 18F-FDG PET Textural Features in Locally Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: Secondary Analysis of ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Nitin; Duan, Fenghai; Snyder, Bradley S.; Wei, Bo; Machtay, Mitchell; Alavi, Abass; Siegel, Barry A.; Johnson, Douglas W.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; DeNittis, Albert; Werner-Wasik, Maria; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-01-01

    In a secondary analysis of American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/RTOG 0235, high pretreatment metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on 18F-FDG PET was found to be a poor prognostic factor for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we utilize the same dataset to explore whether heterogeneity metrics based on PET textural features can provide additional prognostic information. Methods Patients with locally advanced NSCLC underwent 18F-FDG PET prior to treatment. A gradient-based segmentation tool was used to contour each patient’s primary tumor. MTV, maximum SUV, and 43 textural features were extracted for each tumor. To address over-fitting and high collinearity among PET features, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method was applied to identify features that were independent predictors of overall survival (OS) after adjusting for MTV. Recursive binary partitioning in a conditional inference framework was utilized to identify optimal thresholds. Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank testing were used to compare outcomes among patient groups. Results Two hundred one patients met inclusion criteria. The LASSO procedure identified 1 textural feature (SumMean) as an independent predictor of OS. The optimal cutpoint for MTV was 93.3 cm3, and the optimal Sum-Mean cutpoint for tumors above 93.3 cm3 was 0.018. This grouped patients into three categories: low tumor MTV (n = 155; median OS, 22.6 mo), high tumor MTV and high SumMean (n = 23; median OS, 20.0 mo), and high tumor MTV and low SumMean (n = 23; median OS, 6.2 mo; log-rank P textural PET features in the context of established prognostic factors. We have also identified a promising feature that may have prognostic value in locally advanced NSCLC patients with large tumors who are treated with chemoradiotherapy. Validation studies are warranted. PMID:26912429

  16. PET/CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of FDG-avid metastatic bone lesions in patients with advanced lung cancer: a safe and effective technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei; Hao, Bing; Chen, Hao-jun; Zhao, Long; Luo, Zuo-ming; Wu, Hua; Sun, Long [The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Minnan PET Center, Xiamen Cancer Hospital, Xiamen (China)

    2017-01-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT should be performed before a diagnostic biopsy site is chosen in patients with a high clinical suspicion of aggressive, advanced tumour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in guiding biopsy of bone metastases in patients with advanced lung cancer. PET/CT-guided percutaneous core biopsies were performed in 51 consecutive patients with suspected lung cancer and {sup 18}F-FDG-avid bone lesions after whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans. Generally, one tissue sample was obtained from each patient. The final diagnoses were established on the basis of the histology results. The histopathological and molecular testing results were systematically evaluated. A total of 53 samples were obtained for histological examination or molecular testing as a second biopsy was required in two patients in whom the pathological diagnosis was unclear following the first biopsy. The pathological diagnosis and lung cancer classification were confirmed in 48 patients. The epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status was determined in 23 biopsies, and the mutation rate was 30.4 % (7/23). The anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutation status was determined in 19 biopsies, and the mutation rate was 31.6 % (6/19). Two of the 51 biopsies were positive for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one was positive for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The first-time diagnostic success rate of biopsy was 96.1 % (49/51) and the overall diagnostic success rate and sensitivity were 100 %. All 51 patients were eventually confirmed as having stage IV disease. No serious complications were encountered and the average biopsy time was 30 min. PET/CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of {sup 18}F-FDG-avid bone metastases is an effective and safe method that yields a high diagnostic success rate in the evaluation of hypermetabolic bone lesions in patients with suspected advanced lung cancer. (orig.)

  17. Progress of PET imaging in Schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Li; Gao Shuo

    2011-01-01

    PET is an important functional neuroimaging technique that can be used to assessment of cerebral metabolic activity and blood flow and identifies the distribution of important neurotransmitters in the human brain. Compared with other conventional imaging techniques, PET enables regional cerebral glucose metabolism, blood flow, dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor function to be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In recent years, PET increasingly being used greatly to advance our understanding of the neurobiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This review focuses on the use of PET tracers in identifying regional brain abnormalities and regions associated with cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. (authors)

  18. FDG PET/CT radiomics for predicting the outcome of locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovinfosse, Pierre; Hustinx, Roland; Polus, Marc; Daele, Daniel van; Martinive, Philippe; Daenen, Frederic; Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris; Koopmansch, Benjamin; Lambert, Frederic; Coimbra, Carla; Seidel, Laurence; Albert, Adelin; Delvenne, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of baseline 18 F-FDG PET/CT textural analysis in locally-advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Eighty-six patients with LARC underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT before treatment. Maximum and mean standard uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean), metabolic tumoral volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), histogram-intensity features, as well as 11 local and regional textural features, were evaluated. The relationships of clinical, pathological and PET-derived metabolic parameters with disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Cox regression analysis. Logistic regression was used to predict the pathological response by the Dworak tumor regression grade (TRG) in the 66 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). The median follow-up of patients was 41 months. Seventeen patients (19.7%) had recurrent disease and 18 (20.9 %) died, either due to cancer progression (n = 10) or from another cause while in complete remission (n = 8). DSS was 95% at 1 year, 93% at 2 years and 87% at 4 years. Weight loss, surgery and the texture parameter coarseness were significantly associated with DSS in multivariate analyses. DFS was 94 % at 1 year, 86 % at 2 years and 79 % at 4 years. From a multivariate standpoint, tumoral differentiation and the texture parameters homogeneity and coarseness were significantly associated with DFS. OS was 93% at 1 year, 87% at 2 years and 79% after 4 years. cT, surgery, SUVmean, dissimilarity and contrast from the neighborhood intensity-difference matrix (contrast NGTDM ) were significantly and independently associated with OS. Finally, RAS-mutational status (KRAS and NRAS mutations) and TLG were significant predictors of pathological response to nCRT (TRG 3-4). Textural analysis of baseline 18 F-FDG PET/CT provides strong independent predictors of survival in patients with LARC, with better predictive power than intensity- and volume

  19. Repository National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the facilities of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). It was established as an auxiliary organ of the Science and Technology Agency in 1957. In April 2016, it became a comprehensive radiology research and development department of the Quantum Science and Technology Research Organization, and has been performing 'research for medical use of radiation' and 'research for radiation safety and emergency radiation medical care' as the two pillars of research. The laboratory hospital is a sole monotechnic radiation hospital in Japan specializing in radiotherapy. Heavy particle accelerator for medical use has been constructed, and advancement of heavy particle therapy using rotating gantry is expected. At the clinical nuclear medicine department, research facilities involved in molecular imaging are cyclotron building, positron building, imaging diagnostic building, and exploratory research building, and they are equipped with are three large and small cyclotrons, clinical PET device, animal-specialized PET device, 7-tesla MRI. The nuclear medicine laboratory is equipped with four PET/CT devices, one PET device, and one gamma camera, and performing tumor examination and clinical research on psychiatric and neurological diseases. (A.O.)

  20. FDG PET/CT in oncology: 'raising the bar'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, C.N. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goldstone, A.R.; Chowdhury, F.U. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarsbrook, A.F., E-mail: andrew.scarsbrook@leedsth.nhs.u [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Integrated positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has revolutionized oncological imaging in recent years and now has a firmly established role in a variety of tumour types. There have been simultaneous step-wise advances in scanner technology, which are yet to be exploited to their full potential in clinical practice. This article will review these technological developments and explore how refinements in imaging protocols can further improve the accuracy and efficacy of PET/CT in oncology. The promises, and limitations, of emerging oncological applications of FDG PET/CT in radiotherapy planning and therapy response assessment will be explored. Potential future developments, including the use of FDG PET probes in oncological surgery, advanced data analysis techniques, and the prospect of integrated PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) will be highlighted.

  1. PET motion correction in context of integrated PET/MR: Current techniques, limitations, and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Ashley; Smith, Jye; Thomas, Paul; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    Patient motion is an important consideration in modern PET image reconstruction. Advances in PET technology mean motion has an increasingly important influence on resulting image quality. Motion-induced artifacts can have adverse effects on clinical outcomes, including missed diagnoses and oversized radiotherapy treatment volumes. This review aims to summarize the wide variety of motion correction techniques available in PET and combined PET/CT and PET/MR, with a focus on the latter. A general framework for the motion correction of PET images is presented, consisting of acquisition, modeling, and correction stages. Methods for measuring, modeling, and correcting motion and associated artifacts, both in literature and commercially available, are presented, and their relative merits are contrasted. Identified limitations of current methods include modeling of aperiodic and/or unpredictable motion, attaining adequate temporal resolution for motion correction in dynamic kinetic modeling acquisitions, and maintaining availability of the MR in PET/MR scans for diagnostic acquisitions. Finally, avenues for future investigation are discussed, with a focus on improvements that could improve PET image quality, and that are practical in the clinical environment. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greebler, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of advanced reactor concepts. This book discusses the advances in various areas of general applicability, including modern perturbation theory, optimal control theory, and industrial application of ionizing radiations.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the technology of sodium-cooled fast breeder power reactors and gas-cooled power reactors. This text then examines the key role of reactor safety in the development of fast breeder reactors. Other chapt

  3. MO-AB-206-01: PET Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkington, T. [Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    This education session will cover the physics and operation principles of gamma cameras and PET scanners. The first talk will focus on PET imaging. An overview of the principles of PET imaging will be provided, including positron decay physics, and the transition from 2D to 3D imaging. More recent advances in hardware and software will be discussed, such as time-of-flight imaging, and improvements in reconstruction algorithms that provide for options such as depth-of-interaction corrections. Quantitative applications of PET will be discussed, as well as the requirements for doing accurate quantitation. Relevant performance tests will also be described. Learning Objectives: Be able to describe basic physics principles of PET and operation of PET scanners. Learn about recent advances in PET scanner hardware technology. Be able to describe advances in reconstruction techniques and improvements Be able to list relevant performance tests. The second talk will focus on gamma cameras. The Nuclear Medicine subcommittee has charged a task group (TG177) to develop a report on the current state of physics testing of gamma cameras, SPECT, and SPECT/CT systems. The report makes recommendations for performance tests to be done for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests, and identifies those needed satisfy the ACR accreditation program and The Joint Commission imaging standards. The report is also intended to be used as a manual with detailed instructions on how to perform tests under widely varying conditions. Learning Objectives: At the end of the presentation members of the audience will: Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of gamma cameras for planar imaging. Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of SPECT systems. Be familiar with the tests of a SPECT/CT system that include the CT images

  4. MO-AB-206-01: PET Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkington, T.

    2016-01-01

    This education session will cover the physics and operation principles of gamma cameras and PET scanners. The first talk will focus on PET imaging. An overview of the principles of PET imaging will be provided, including positron decay physics, and the transition from 2D to 3D imaging. More recent advances in hardware and software will be discussed, such as time-of-flight imaging, and improvements in reconstruction algorithms that provide for options such as depth-of-interaction corrections. Quantitative applications of PET will be discussed, as well as the requirements for doing accurate quantitation. Relevant performance tests will also be described. Learning Objectives: Be able to describe basic physics principles of PET and operation of PET scanners. Learn about recent advances in PET scanner hardware technology. Be able to describe advances in reconstruction techniques and improvements Be able to list relevant performance tests. The second talk will focus on gamma cameras. The Nuclear Medicine subcommittee has charged a task group (TG177) to develop a report on the current state of physics testing of gamma cameras, SPECT, and SPECT/CT systems. The report makes recommendations for performance tests to be done for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests, and identifies those needed satisfy the ACR accreditation program and The Joint Commission imaging standards. The report is also intended to be used as a manual with detailed instructions on how to perform tests under widely varying conditions. Learning Objectives: At the end of the presentation members of the audience will: Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of gamma cameras for planar imaging. Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of SPECT systems. Be familiar with the tests of a SPECT/CT system that include the CT images

  5. TH-E-202-00: PET for Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  6. TH-E-202-00: PET for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  7. Qualification test of a MPPC-based PET module for future MRI-PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurei, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kato, T.; Fujita, T.; Funamoto, H.; Tsujikawa, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a high-resolution, compact Positron Emission Tomography (PET) module for future use in MRI-PET scanners. The module consists of large-area, 4×4 ch MPPC arrays (Hamamatsu S11827-3344MG) optically coupled with Ce:LYSO scintillators fabricated into 12×12 matrices of 1×1 mm2 pixels. At this stage, a pair of module and coincidence circuits was assembled into an experimental prototype gantry arranged in a ring of 90 mm in diameter to form the MPPC-based PET system. The PET detector ring was then positioned around the RF coil of the 4.7 T MRI system. We took an image of a point 22Na source under fast spin echo (FSE) and gradient echo (GE), in order to measure interference between the MPPC-based PET and the MRI. We only found a slight degradation in the spatial resolution of the PET image from 1.63 to 1.70 mm (FWHM; x-direction), or 1.48-1.55 mm (FWHM; y-direction) when operating with the MRI, while the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MRI image was only degraded by 5%. These results encouraged us to develop a more advanced version of the MRI-PET gantry with eight MPPC-based PET modules, whose detailed design and first qualification test are also presented in this paper.

  8. Non-proliferation and advances in nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    So far, the non-proliferation treaty (NPT) has concentrated on safeguard regimes based on technologies relating to the production of uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors, and on their potential diversion for use in nuclear weapons. As nuclear science advances, however, nuclear technology both peaceful and for weapons will change, and for the NPT to remain relevant, it must reflect these changes. At this juncture, when the NPT is coming up for review in a year's time, it is important for physicists to take a fresh look at recent advances in nuclear science, and inform the policy-makers and the public at large about their potential for impacting nuclear technology in the future. In this article a few such advances are highlighted and their implications for the NPT are considered. (author). 4 refs

  9. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  10. Pet Care Teaching Unit: 1st-3rd Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this unit are designed to familiarize primary grade students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons involving social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities adaptable for readers and non-readers focus on pet overpopulation, care of pets when…

  11. Emerging areas of science: Recommendations for Nursing Science Education from the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science Idea Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Redeker, Nancy S; Titler, Marita G; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Stone, Patricia W; Moore, Shirley M; Alt-White, Anna C; Conley, Yvette P; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science aims to "facilitate and recognize life-long nursing science career development" as an important part of its mission. In light of fast-paced advances in science and technology that are inspiring new questions and methods of investigation in the health sciences, the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science convened the Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education and appointed the Idea Festival Advisory Committee (IFAC) to stimulate dialogue about linking PhD education with a renewed vision for preparation of the next generation of nursing scientists. Building on the 2005 National Research Council report Advancing The Nation's Health Needs and the 2010 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement on the Research-Focused Doctorate Pathways to Excellence, the IFAC specifically addressed the capacity of PhD programs to prepare nursing scientists to conduct cutting-edge research in the following key emerging and priority areas of health sciences research: omics and the microbiome; health behavior, behavior change, and biobehavioral science; patient-reported outcomes; big data, e-science, and informatics; quantitative sciences; translation science; and health economics. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe IFAC activities, (b) summarize 2014 discussions hosted as part of the Idea Festival, and (c) present IFAC recommendations for incorporating these emerging areas of science and technology into research-focused doctoral programs committed to preparing graduates for lifelong, competitive careers in nursing science. The recommendations address clearer articulation of program focus areas; inclusion of foundational knowledge in emerging areas of science in core courses on nursing science and research methods; faculty composition; prerequisite student knowledge and skills; and in-depth, interdisciplinary training in supporting area of science content and methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  12. Correlation of pre-and post-induction chemotherapy 18-FDG PET findings with histopathology in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Andrea M.; Berlangieri, Sam; Ngai, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To correlate 18F-FDG PET metabolic response to therapy with histopathology and survival, in patients with locally advanced (stage IIl) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) receiving induction chemotherapy. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients with stage III NSCLC planned for induction chemotherapy and surgical resection, in whom pre- and post-chemotherapy FDG-PET at Austin Health between 2004 and 2007 was performed. The staging and positive nodal stations as determined by PET was compared to histopathological findings after resection. The tumour response on serial FDG PET was also compared to overall outcome. Results: 9 patients were included. There was a 100 % correlation between pre- or post- chemotherapy nodal staging and final histopathological nodal stage. Ninety percent of all positive nodal stations (9/10) seen on histopathology were correctly localised by pre- or post-chemotherapy FDG PET. Only one patient with a metastatic lymph node at nodal station 9 R could not be localised by prior PET studies. Of the patients in whom a down-staging in tumour status was observed on the postchemotherapy FDG-PET, 83% (5/6) of patients were still alive (follow-up range of 8 to 40 months) as compared with 33% (1/3 ) (follow-up range of 9-13 months) for non-responders. Conclusion: There is good correlation between pre- and/or post- chemotherapy FDG PET and final histopathology for the nodal staging of stage III NSCLC. There is an overall trend for those patients in whom PET resulted in a down-staging of tumour to have a longer survival.

  13. Clinical evaluation of PET image quality as a function of acquisition time in a new TOF-PET/MR compared to TOF-PET/CT - initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos; Huellner, Martin; De Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Delso, Gaspar; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The recently available integrated PET/MR imaging can offer significant additional advances in clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the PET performance between a PET/CT scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MR scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of SUV as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). Five brain and five whole body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MR acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed good correlation between PET/CT and PET/MR brain SUVs. Liver correlation was lower, with uptake underestimation in PET/MR, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MR offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artefacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole body scans, while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The PET-component of the TOF-PET/MR showed higher image quality compared to PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, these results account mainly for body imaging, while no significant difference were found in brain imaging. This overall higher image quality suggests that the acquisition time or injected activity can be reduced by at least 37% on the PET/MR scanner.

  14. Clinical evaluation of PET image quality as a function of acquisition time in a new TOF-PET/MR compared to TOF-PET/CT - initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos; Huellner, Martin; De Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Delso, Gaspar; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-18

    The recently available integrated PET/MR imaging can offer significant additional advances in clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the PET performance between a PET/CT scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MR scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of SUV as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). Five brain and five whole body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MR acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed good correlation between PET/CT and PET/MR brain SUVs. Liver correlation was lower, with uptake underestimation in PET/MR, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MR offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artefacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole body scans, while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The PET-component of the TOF-PET/MR showed higher image quality compared to PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, these results account mainly for body imaging, while no significant difference were found in brain imaging. This overall higher image quality suggests that the acquisition time or injected activity can be reduced by at least 37% on the PET/MR scanner.

  15. Assessing mathematics within advanced school science qualifications

    OpenAIRE

    McAlinden, Mary; Noyes, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Following sustained discussion regarding the relationship between advanced mathematics and science learning in England, the government has pursued a reform agenda in which mathematics is embedded in national, high stakes A-level science qualifications and their assessments for 18-year-olds. For example, A-level Chemistry must incorporate the assessment of relevant mathematics for at least 20% of the qualification. Other sciences have different mandated percentages. This embedding policy is ru...

  16. The pivotal role of FDG-PET/CT in modern medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Zhu, Hongyun June

    2014-01-01

    to the emergence of hybrid scanners combining PET with computed tomography (PET/CT). Molecular imaging has enormous potential for advancing biological research and patient care, and FDG-PET/CT is currently the most widely used technology in this domain. In this review, we discuss contemporary applications of FDG...

  17. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...

  18. FDG PET/CT radiomics for predicting the outcome of locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovinfosse, Pierre; Hustinx, Roland [University of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics CHU, Liege (Belgium); Polus, Marc; Daele, Daniel van [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Department of Gastro-enterology, Liege (Belgium); Martinive, Philippe [CHU and University of Liege, Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Daenen, Frederic [Centre Hospitalier Regional de la Citadelle, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Liege (Belgium); Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris [LaTIM, INSERM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Koopmansch, Benjamin; Lambert, Frederic [UniLab Liege, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Center for Human Genetic, Molecular Haemato-Oncology Unit, Liege (Belgium); Coimbra, Carla [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Department of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, Liege (Belgium); Seidel, Laurence; Albert, Adelin [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Department of Biostatistics and Medico-economic Information, Liege (Belgium); Delvenne, Philippe [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Department of Pathology, Liege (Belgium)

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT textural analysis in locally-advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Eighty-six patients with LARC underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT before treatment. Maximum and mean standard uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean), metabolic tumoral volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), histogram-intensity features, as well as 11 local and regional textural features, were evaluated. The relationships of clinical, pathological and PET-derived metabolic parameters with disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Cox regression analysis. Logistic regression was used to predict the pathological response by the Dworak tumor regression grade (TRG) in the 66 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). The median follow-up of patients was 41 months. Seventeen patients (19.7%) had recurrent disease and 18 (20.9 %) died, either due to cancer progression (n = 10) or from another cause while in complete remission (n = 8). DSS was 95% at 1 year, 93% at 2 years and 87% at 4 years. Weight loss, surgery and the texture parameter coarseness were significantly associated with DSS in multivariate analyses. DFS was 94 % at 1 year, 86 % at 2 years and 79 % at 4 years. From a multivariate standpoint, tumoral differentiation and the texture parameters homogeneity and coarseness were significantly associated with DFS. OS was 93% at 1 year, 87% at 2 years and 79% after 4 years. cT, surgery, SUVmean, dissimilarity and contrast from the neighborhood intensity-difference matrix (contrast{sub NGTDM}) were significantly and independently associated with OS. Finally, RAS-mutational status (KRAS and NRAS mutations) and TLG were significant predictors of pathological response to nCRT (TRG 3-4). Textural analysis of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT provides strong independent predictors of survival in patients with LARC, with better predictive power than

  19. Rise of the machines : cyclotrons and radiopharmaceuticals in the PET-CT-MR golden age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Full text: One particularly inspiring narrative in the evolution of medical imaging over 35 years begins with the introduction of quassi-routine production of 18F, enabled by advances in reliability of (medical) cyclotrons; invention of the 'molecule of the century' [18F]FOG and its robust synthesis; comprehending betrayal of major tumour-cell types by their glucose avidity; astounding advances in PET scanners (recently, time-of-flight); and marriage of anatomic with functional 3-D imaging as PET/CT or (recently) PET/MR. Though the explosion in PET is identified historically with diagnostic oncology plus quantitation of nuclear medicine, plus the collateral leverage of advances in CT and MR, other potentially transformative opportunities (pre-diagnosis or quantifying treatment response) are emerging in dementia and diabetes-as exemplars of PET-addressable mass afflictions-driven by advances in specificity/sensitivity of targeting molecules. PET delivers femto-M functional sensitivity (e.g.; receptor-targeting)-several magnitude-orders of narrow-context superiority over MR or CT-exemplified by the rapid rise of solid-targetry metallo-PET (64Cu, 89Zr), and concomitantly, preclinical radioimmuno micro-PET/CT/SPECT imaging. Though [11 C ] PET has elucidated brain, prostate and other cell +/- tumour mechanisms, realistic clinical rollout demands longer halflife [18F]-labelling. [18F] innovations beyond [18F]FDG elucidate numerous metabolisms, including choline, hypoxia, apoptosis and amino-acid, and notably will soon provide a routine-clinical [18F]-alternative to [11 C] based beta-amyloid dementia diagnosis. Frontier PET is constrained by cost/dose, shackled to 'twentieth century' technologies-cyclotron, hotcell and synthesis unit. Example is [18F] bone scintigraphy; acknowledged as clinically superior to [99mTc]MOP, its widespread implementation awaits cheaper isotope, accessible PET/CT scanners, and maybe 'true' shortage of [99mTc]. Generator-sourced 68 Ga-PET is

  20. Advancing palliative and end-of-life science in cardiorespiratory populations: The contributions of nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Patricia A

    Nursing science has a critical role to inform practice, promote health, and improve the lives of individuals across the lifespan who face the challenges of advanced cardiorespiratory disease. Since 1997, the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) has focused attention on the importance of palliative and end-of-life care for advanced heart failure and advanced pulmonary disease through the publication of multiple funding opportunity announcements and by supporting a cadre of nurse scientists that will continue to address new priorities and future directions for advancing palliative and end-of-life science in cardiorespiratory populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Early interim 18F-FDG PET in Hodgkin's lymphoma: evaluation on 304 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Stefoni, Vittorio; Broccoli, Alessandro; Argnani, Lisa; Baccarani, Michele; Rigacci, Luigi; Puccini, Benedetta; Castagnoli, Antonio; Vaggelli, Luca; Zanoni, Lucia; Fanti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The use of early (interim) PET restaging during first-line therapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in clinical practice has considerably increased because of its ability to provide early recognition of treatment failure allowing patients to be transferred to more intensive treatment regimens. Between June 1997 and June 2009, 304 patients with newly diagnosed HL (147 early stage and 157 advanced stage) were treated with the ABVD regimen at two Italian institutions. Patients underwent PET staging and restaging at baseline, after two cycles of therapy and at the end of the treatment. Of the 304 patients, 53 showed a positive interim PET scan and of these only 13 (24.5%) achieved continuous complete remission (CCR), whereas 251 patients showed a negative PET scan and of these 231 (92%) achieved CCR. Comparison between interim PET-positive and interim PET-negative patients indicated a significant association between PET findings and 9-year progression-free survival and 9-year overall survival, with a median follow-up of 31 months. Among the early-stage patients, 19 had a positive interim PET scan and only 4 (21%) achieved CCR; among the 128 patients with a negative interim PET scan, 122 (97.6%) achieved CCR. Among the advanced-stage patients, 34 showed a persistently positive PET scan with only 9 (26.4%) achieving CCR, whereas 123 showed a negative interim PET scan with 109 (88.6%) achieving CCR. Our results demonstrate the role of an early PET scan as a significant step forward in the management of patients with early-stage or advanced-stage HL. (orig.)

  2. PeneloPET, a Monte Carlo PET simulation tool based on PENELOPE: features and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, S; Herraiz, J L; Vicente, E; Udias, J M [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J J; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jose@nuc2.fis.ucm.es

    2009-03-21

    Monte Carlo simulations play an important role in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, as an essential tool for the research and development of new scanners and for advanced image reconstruction. PeneloPET, a PET-dedicated Monte Carlo tool, is presented and validated in this work. PeneloPET is based on PENELOPE, a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of the transport in matter of electrons, positrons and photons, with energies from a few hundred eV to 1 GeV. PENELOPE is robust, fast and very accurate, but it may be unfriendly to people not acquainted with the FORTRAN programming language. PeneloPET is an easy-to-use application which allows comprehensive simulations of PET systems within PENELOPE. Complex and realistic simulations can be set by modifying a few simple input text files. Different levels of output data are available for analysis, from sinogram and lines-of-response (LORs) histogramming to fully detailed list mode. These data can be further exploited with the preferred programming language, including ROOT. PeneloPET simulates PET systems based on crystal array blocks coupled to photodetectors and allows the user to define radioactive sources, detectors, shielding and other parts of the scanner. The acquisition chain is simulated in high level detail; for instance, the electronic processing can include pile-up rejection mechanisms and time stamping of events, if desired. This paper describes PeneloPET and shows the results of extensive validations and comparisons of simulations against real measurements from commercial acquisition systems. PeneloPET is being extensively employed to improve the image quality of commercial PET systems and for the development of new ones.

  3. PeneloPET, a Monte Carlo PET simulation tool based on PENELOPE: features and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espana, S; Herraiz, J L; Vicente, E; Udias, J M; Vaquero, J J; Desco, M

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations play an important role in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, as an essential tool for the research and development of new scanners and for advanced image reconstruction. PeneloPET, a PET-dedicated Monte Carlo tool, is presented and validated in this work. PeneloPET is based on PENELOPE, a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of the transport in matter of electrons, positrons and photons, with energies from a few hundred eV to 1 GeV. PENELOPE is robust, fast and very accurate, but it may be unfriendly to people not acquainted with the FORTRAN programming language. PeneloPET is an easy-to-use application which allows comprehensive simulations of PET systems within PENELOPE. Complex and realistic simulations can be set by modifying a few simple input text files. Different levels of output data are available for analysis, from sinogram and lines-of-response (LORs) histogramming to fully detailed list mode. These data can be further exploited with the preferred programming language, including ROOT. PeneloPET simulates PET systems based on crystal array blocks coupled to photodetectors and allows the user to define radioactive sources, detectors, shielding and other parts of the scanner. The acquisition chain is simulated in high level detail; for instance, the electronic processing can include pile-up rejection mechanisms and time stamping of events, if desired. This paper describes PeneloPET and shows the results of extensive validations and comparisons of simulations against real measurements from commercial acquisition systems. PeneloPET is being extensively employed to improve the image quality of commercial PET systems and for the development of new ones.

  4. TH-E-202-03: PET for Tumor Response Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.

    2016-01-01

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  5. TH-E-202-03: PET for Tumor Response Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W. [University of Maryland School of Medicine (United States)

    2016-06-15

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  6. Influence of PET/CT-introduction on PET scanning frequency and indications. Results of a multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stergar, H.; Bockisch, A.; Eschmann, S.M.; Krause, B.J.; Roedel, R.; Tiling, R.; Weckesser, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: to evaluate the influence of the introduction of combined PET/CT scanners into clinical routine. This investigation addresses the quantitative changes between PET/CT and stand alone PET. Methods: the study included all examinations performed on stand alone PET- or PET/CT-scanners within 12 month prior to and after implementation of PET/CT. The final data analysis included five university hospitals and a total number of 15 497 exams. We distinguished exams on stand alone tomographs prior to and after installation of the combined device as well as PET/CT scans particularly with regard to disease entities. Various further parameters were investigated. Results: the overall number of PET scans (PET and PET/CT) rose by 146% while the number of scans performed on stand alone scanners declined by 22%. Only one site registered an increase in stand alone PET. The number of exams for staging in oncology increased by 196% while that of cardiac scans decreased by 35% and the number of scans in neurology rose by 47%. The use of scans for radiotherapy planning increased to 7% of all PET/CT studies. The increase of procedures for so-called classic PET oncology indications was moderate compared to the more common tumors. An even greater increase was observed in some rare entities. Conclusions: the introduction of PET/CT led to more than a doubling of overall PET procedures with a main focus on oncology. Some of the observed changes in scanning frequency may be caused by a rising availability of new radiotracers and advancements of competing imaging methods. Nevertheless the evident increase in the use of PET/CT for the most common tumour types demonstrates its expanding role in cancer staging. The combination of molecular and morphologic imaging has not only found its place but is still gaining greater importance with new developments in technology and radiochemistry. (orig.)

  7. Reproducibility of Quantitative Brain Imaging Using a PET-Only and a Combined PET/MR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L. Lassen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of migrating a quantitative brain imaging protocol from a positron emission tomography (PET-only system to an integrated PET/MR system. Potential differences in both absolute radiotracer concentration as well as in the derived kinetic parameters as a function of PET system choice have been investigated. Five healthy volunteers underwent dynamic (R-[11C]verapamil imaging on the same day using a GE-Advance (PET-only and a Siemens Biograph mMR system (PET/MR. PET-emission data were reconstructed using a transmission-based attenuation correction (AC map (PET-only, whereas a standard MR-DIXON as well as a low-dose CT AC map was applied to PET/MR emission data. Kinetic modeling based on arterial blood sampling was performed using a 1-tissue-2-rate constant compartment model, yielding kinetic parameters (K1 and k2 and distribution volume (VT. Differences for parametric values obtained in the PET-only and the PET/MR systems were analyzed using a 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Comparison of DIXON-based AC (PET/MR with emission data derived from the PET-only system revealed average inter-system differences of −33 ± 14% (p < 0.05 for the K1 parameter and −19 ± 9% (p < 0.05 for k2. Using a CT-based AC for PET/MR resulted in slightly lower systematic differences of −16 ± 18% for K1 and −9 ± 10% for k2. The average differences in VT were −18 ± 10% (p < 0.05 for DIXON- and −8 ± 13% for CT-based AC. Significant systematic differences were observed for kinetic parameters derived from emission data obtained from PET/MR and PET-only imaging due to different standard AC methods employed. Therefore, a transfer of imaging protocols from PET-only to PET/MR systems is not straightforward without application of proper correction methods.Clinical Trial Registration:www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, identifier 2013-001724-19

  8. Advances in the understanding of early Huntington's disease using the functional imaging techniques of PET and SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, T.C.; Brooks, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The functional imaging techniques of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPET) have been used to study regional brain function in Huntington's disease (HD) in vivo. Reduced striatal glucose metabolism and dopamine receptor binding are evident in all symptomatic HD patients and in ∼50% of asymptomatic adult mutation carriers. These characteristics correlate with clinical measures of disease severity. Reduced cortical glucose metabolism and dopamine receptor binding, together with reduced striatal and cortical opioid receptor binding, have also been demonstrated in symptomatic patients with HD. Repeat PET measures of striatal function have been used to monitor the progression of this disease objectively. In the future, functional imaging will provide a valuable way of assessing the efficacy of both fetal striatal cell implants and putative neuroprotective agents, such as nerve growth factors. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Guide to clinical PET in oncology: Improving clinical management of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has an approximately 50 year-history. It was developed as a tool of medical science to quantitatively measure metabolic rates of bio-substances in vivo and in particular the number of receptors in neuroscience. Until the late 1990s PET was, in most cases, research oriented activity. In 2001, positron emission tomography/X ray computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid imaging system became commercially available. An era of clinical PET then emerged, in which PET images were utilized for clinical practice in the treatment and diagnosis of cancer patients. PET imaging could recognize areas of abnormal metabolic behaviour of cancers in vivo, and the addition of CT imaging underlines the site of malignancy. More accurate and precise interpretation of cancer lesions can therefore be performed by PET/CT imaging than PET or CT imaging alone. Clinical PET, in particular with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG), has already proven itself to have considerable value in oncology. The indications include malignant lymphoma and melanoma, head and neck cancers, oesophageal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer, and it is still being expanded. The roles of clinical PET could be for 1) preoperative staging of cancers, 2) differentiation between residual tumour and scarring, 3) demonstration of suspected recurrences, 4) monitoring response to therapy, 5) prognosis and 6) radiotherapy treatment planning. Clinical PET can be used to illustrate exactly which treatment should be applied for a cancer patient as well as where surgeons should operate and where radiation oncologists should target radiation therapy. An almost exponential rise in the introduction of clinical PET, as well as the installation of PET/CT has been seen throughout the world. Clinical PET is currently viewed as the most powerful diagnostic tool in its field. This IAEA-TECDOC presents an overview of clinical PET for cancer patients and a relevant source of

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of second-generation open-type PET ''single-ring OpenPET'' implemented with DOI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouch, Shoko; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Eiichi

    2013-01-01

    At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, we are developing OpenPET, an open-type positron emission tomography (PET) geometry with a physically open space, which allows easy access to the patient during PET studies. Our first-generation OpenPET system, dual-ring OpenPET, which consisted of two detector rings, could provide an extended axial field of view (FOV) including the open space. However, for applications such as in-beam PET to monitor the dose distribution in situ during particle therapy, higher sensitivity concentrated on the irradiation field is required rather than a wide FOV. In this report, we propose a second-generation OpenPET geometry, single-ring OpenPET, which can efficiently improve sensitivity while providing the required open space. When the proposed geometry was realized with block detectors, position-dependent degradation of the spatial resolution was expected because it was necessary to arrange the detector blocks in ellipsoidal rings stacked and shifted relative to one another. However, we found by Monte Carlo simulation that the use of depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors made it feasible to achieve uniform spatial resolution in the FOV. (author)

  11. Opportunities for chemists in PET research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in chemistry have played a key role in the evolution of positron emission tomography (PET) as a scientific and clinical research tool. For example, development in hot atom chemistry and in rapid synthetic organic chemistry over the past three decades has laid the foundation for the incorporation the short lived cyclotron-produced positron emitters such as flourine-18 (t 1/2 :110 minutes), carbon-11 (t 1/2 :20.4 minutes) and nitrogen-13 (t 1/2 :10 minutes) into several hundred different organic molecules. A number of these have proven to be exquisitely sensitive as probes for various metabolic processes and drug binding sites in normal and disease states. As a consequence, PET has recently been introduced into clinical medicine and the number of cyclotron-PET centers has grown from 4 in 1976 to several dozen worldwide in 1990. This rapid growth has created a demand for the synthetic chemists with advanced training in radiochemistry

  12. PET and MRI: The Odd Couple or a Match Made in Heaven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Rosen, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are imaging modalities routinely used for clinical and research applications. Integrated scanners capable of acquiring PET and MRI data in the same imaging session, sequentially or simultaneously, have recently become available for human use. In this manuscript, we describe some of the technical advances that allowed the development of human PET/MR scanners, briefly discuss methodological challenges and opportunities provided by this novel technology and present potential oncologic, cardiac, and neuro-psychiatric applications. These examples range from studies that might immediately benefit from PET/MR to more advanced applications where future development might have an even broader impact. PMID:23492887

  13. Use of PET and PET/CT for Radiation Therapy Planning: IAEA expert report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacManus, Michael; Nestle, Ursula; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Carrio, Ignasi; Messa, Cristina; Belohlavek, Otakar; Danna, Massimo; Inoue, Tomio; Deniaud-Alexandre, Elizabeth; Schipani, Stefano; Watanabe, Naoyuki; Dondi, Maurizio; Jeremic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a significant advance in cancer imaging with great potential for optimizing radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning and thereby improving outcomes for patients. The use of PET and PET/CT in RT planning was reviewed by an international panel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized two synchronized and overlapping consultants' meetings with experts from different regions of the world in Vienna in July 2006. Nine experts and three IAEA staff evaluated the available data on the use of PET in RT planning, and considered practical methods for integrating it into routine practice. For RT planning, 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was the most valuable pharmaceutical. Numerous studies supported the routine use of FDG-PET for RT target volume determination in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There was also evidence for utility of PET in head and neck cancers, lymphoma and in esophageal cancers, with promising preliminary data in many other cancers. The best available approach employs integrated PET/CT images, acquired on a dual scanner in the radiotherapy treatment position after administration of tracer according to a standardized protocol, with careful optimization of images within the RT planning system and carefully considered rules for contouring tumor volumes. PET scans that are not recent or were acquired without proper patient positioning should be repeated for RT planning. PET will play an increasing valuable role in RT planning for a wide range of cancers. When requesting PET scans, physicians should be aware of their potential role in RT planning.

  14. PET: the importance of physicists for the clinical arena

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    David Townsend giving a seminar at CERN on 9 February. The past few years have seen significant advances in the development of instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The recent appearance of combined PET and Computed Tomography (CT) scanners that can simultaneously image both anatomy and function is of particular importance. This was the main subject of "Advances in PET imaging: from physics to physician", a seminar presented at CERN by David Townsend on Wednesday 9 February  and organized by the TT and PH groups. David Townsend, who started his career at CERN in the 1970s, is now Professor at the Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Medical Center (Knoxville, TN). Recipient of the 2004 Clinical Scientist of the Year Award, he is an internationally renowned researcher and PET physicist, with over 25 years of experience in the field. His 1999 image of the year, an award from the Society of Nuclear Medicine in the US, was produced using a combined state-of-the art PET and a true d...

  15. PET and MR imaging: the odd couple or a match made in heaven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Rosen, Bruce R

    2013-05-01

    PET and MR imaging are modalities routinely used for clinical and research applications. Integrated scanners capable of acquiring PET and MR imaging data in the same session, sequentially or simultaneously, have recently become available for human use. In this article, we describe some of the technical advances that allowed the development of human PET/MR scanners; briefly discuss methodologic challenges and opportunities provided by this novel technology; and present potential oncologic, cardiac, and neuropsychiatric applications. These examples range from studies that might immediately benefit from PET/MR to more advanced applications on which future development might have an even broader impact.

  16. An update on technical and methodological aspects for cardiac PET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRESOTTO, Luca; BUSNARDO, Elena; GIANOLLI, Luigi; BETTINARDI, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is indicated for a large number of cardiac diseases: perfusion and viability studies are commonly used to evaluate coronary artery disease; PET can also be used to assess sarcoidosis and endocarditis, as well as to investigate amyloidosis. Furthermore, a hot topic for research is plaque characterization. Most of these studies are technically very challenging. High count rates and short acquisition times characterize perfusion scans while very small targets have to be imaged in inflammation/infection and plaques examinations. Furthermore, cardiac PET suffers from respiratory and cardiac motion blur. Each type of studies has specific requirements from the technical and methodological point of view, thus PET systems with overall high performances are required. Furthermore, in the era of hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT) and PET/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems, the combination of complementary functional and anatomical information can be used to improve diagnosis and prognosis. Moreover, PET images can be qualitatively and quantitatively improved exploiting information from the other modality, using advanced algorithms. In this review we will report the latest technological and methodological innovations for PET cardiac applications, with particular reference to the state of the art of the hybrid PET/CT and PET/MRI. We will also report the most recent advancements in software, from reconstruction algorithms to image processing and analysis programs.

  17. The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities.Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to

  18. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  19. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based ( CB ) PET. CB PET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CB PET in operation than cPET in the USA. CB PET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  20. The role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluation of early response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amandeep; Seenu, Vathalaru; Mehta, Sada Nand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Surgical disciplines, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh; Chawla, Madhavi; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Sidharatha Datta [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology, New Delhi (India)

    2009-06-15

    We evaluated the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the assessment of response after two cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer. Twenty-three women with locally advanced breast cancer were included in this study. Early response to NACT was evaluated after two cycles using clinical examination, CT, and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Final histopathology following surgery after six cycles of NACT served as reference. Baseline PET/CT demonstrated a total of 26 lesions in 23 patients. The size of the primary tumor ranged from 1.90 cm to 11.60 cm, and the maximum value of the standardized uptake value of FDG (SUVmax) ranged from 3.6 to 38.6 (mean, 11.7). Post-chemotherapy PET/CT examinations were done after two cycles of NACT. The size of the primary tumor on follow-up PET/CT examinations ranged from 0.0 cm to 7.6 cm, and SUVmax ranged from 0.0 to 12.0 (mean, 3.96). On clinical, CT, and PET/CT examinations, 50% reduction in the parameters was taken as the cutoff value to differentiate between responders and non-responders. Post-NACT PET/CT demonstrated that 16 patients were responders and 7 non-responders. Among 16 responders on PET/CT scan, 14 were true positive and 2 were false positive when compared with histopathology. Among seven non-responder patients, six were true negative, and one was false negative. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET/CT in detecting responders were 93%, 75%, and 87%, respectively. In conclusion, 18F-FDG PET/CT can differentiate responders from non-responders with high accuracy after two cycles of NACT in patients with LABC. (orig.)

  1. The biological application of small animal PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    The short history of small animal PET is reviewed in the context of its application in the laboratory. Early work has demonstrated a role for the technique in both drug development and in the in vivo monitoring of neuroreceptor function with time. As spatial resolution approaches 1 mm, challenges in quantification remain. However, the ability to carry out animal PET studies that are analogous to human PET will form an important bridge between laboratory and clinical sciences

  2. PET imaging for brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Described are the principle of PET and its characteristics, imaging of human brain function, mapping of detailed human cerebral functions and PET imaging of nerve transmission. Following compounds labeled by positron emitters are used for PET imaging of brain functions: for blood flow and oxygen metabolism, 15 O-O 2 gas, water and carbon dioxide; for energy metabolism, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose; and for nerve transmission functions in receptor binding, transporter, transmitter synthesis and enzyme, 11 C- or 18 F-dopamine, serotonin and their analogues, and acetylcholine analogues. For brain mapping, examples of cognition tasks, results and their statistics are presented with images for blood flow. Nerve transmissions in schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease are imaged with labeled analogues of dopamine and acetylcholine, respectively. PET is becoming more and more important in the field of psychiatric science particularly in the coming society of increasing aged people. (N.I.)

  3. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 7 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book discusses the safe and beneficial development of land-based nuclear power plants.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of irradiation-induced void swelling in austenitic stainless steels. This text then examines the importance of various transport processes for fission product redistribution, which depends on the diffusion data, the vaporization properties, and the solubility in the fuel matrix. Other chapters co

  4. TU-D-207B-03: Early Assessment of Response to Chemoradiotherapy Based On Textural Analysis of Pre and Mid-Treatment FDG-PET Image in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Y; Pollom, E; Loo, B; Le, Q; Hara, W; Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether tumor textural features extracted from both pre- and mid-treatment FDG-PET images predict early response to chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer, and investigate whether they provide complementary value to conventional volume-based measurements. Methods: Ninety-four patients with locally advanced head and neck cancers were retrospectively studied. All patients received definitive chemoradiotherapy and underwent FDG-PET planning scans both before and during treatment. Within the primary tumor we extracted 6 textural features based on gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM): entropy, dissimilarity, contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity. These image features were evaluated for their predictive power of treatment response to chemoradiotherapy in terms of local recurrence free survival (LRFS) and progression free survival (PFS). Logrank test were used to assess the statistical significance of the stratification between low- and high-risk groups. P-values were adjusted for multiple comparisons by the false discovery rate (FDR) method. Results: All six textural features extracted from pre-treatment PET images significantly differentiated low- and high-risk patient groups for LRFS (P=0.011–0.038) and PFS (P=0.029–0.034). On the other hand, none of the textural features on mid-treatment PET images was statistically significant in stratifying LRFS (P=0.212–0.445) or PFS (P=0.168–0.299). An imaging signature that combines textural feature (GLCM homogeneity) and metabolic tumor volume showed an improved performance for predicting LRFS (hazard ratio: 22.8, P<0.0001) and PFS (hazard ratio: 13.9, P=0.0005) in leave-one-out cross validation. Intra-tumor heterogeneity measured by textural features was significantly lower in mid-treatment PET images than in pre-treatment PET images (T-test: P<1.4e-6). Conclusion: Tumor textural features on pretreatment FDG-PET images are predictive for response to chemoradiotherapy

  5. PET-CT and PET-MR in urological cancers other than prostate cancer: An update on state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razik, Abdul; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Sharma, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) have enabled the combination of morphologic and functional imaging with the promise of providing better information in guiding therapy. Further advance has been made in the past decade with the development of newer radiotracers and optimization of the technical aspects. We performed a search in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed literature concerning the advances and newer developments in the imaging of nonprostate urologic cancers between 2005 and 2017. This review aims at summarizing the current evidence on PET imaging in nonprostate urologic cancers and their impact on the diagnosis, staging, prognostication, response assessment, and restaging of these malignancies. However, much of the evidence is still in infancy and has not been incorporated into routine management or the practice guidelines of National Comprehensive Cancer Network or European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO).

  6. Development of scintillation materials for PET scanners

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhik, Mikhail; Annenkov, Alexander N; Borissevitch, Andrei; Dossovitski, Alexei; Missevitch, Oleg; Lecoq, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The growing demand on PET methodology for a variety of applications ranging from clinical use to fundamental studies triggers research and development of PET scanners providing better spatial resolution and sensitivity. These efforts are primarily focused on the development of advanced PET detector solutions and on the developments of new scintillation materials as well. However Lu containing scintillation materials introduced in the last century such as LSO, LYSO, LuAP, LuYAP crystals still remain the best PET species in spite of the recent developments of bright, fast but relatively low density lanthanum bromide scintillators. At the same time Lu based materials have several drawbacks which are high temperature of crystallization and relatively high cost compared to alkali-halide scintillation materials. Here we describe recent results in the development of new scintillation materials for PET application.

  7. Early FDG PET response assessment of preoperative radiochemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: correlation with long-term outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avallone, Antonio; Casaretti, Rossana; Montano, Massimo; Silvestro, Lucrezia; Aloj, Luigi; Caraco, Corradina; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Lastoria, Secondo; Delrio, Paolo; Pecori, Biagio; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Scott, Nigel; Budillon, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to prospectively evaluate the prognostic value of previously defined [ 18 F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) criteria of early metabolic response in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) after long-term follow-up. Forty-two patients with poor prognosis LARC underwent three biweekly courses of chemotherapy with oxaliplatin, raltitrexed and 5-fluorouracil modulated by levofolinic acid during pelvic radiotherapy. FDG PET studies were performed before and 12 days after the beginning of the chemoradiotherapy (CRT) treatment. Total mesorectal excision (TME) was carried out 8 weeks after completion of CRT. A previously identified cutoff value of ≥52 % reduction of the baseline mean FDG standardized uptake value (SUV mean ) was applied to differentiate metabolic responders from non-responders and correlated to tumour regression grade (TRG) and survival. Twenty-two metabolic responders showed complete (TRG1) or subtotal tumour regression (TRG2) and demonstrated a statistically significantly higher 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) compared with the 20 non-responders (86 vs 55 %, p =.014) who showed TRG3 and TRG4 pathologic responses. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that early ∇SUV mean was the only pre-surgical parameter correlated to the likelihood of recurrence (p =.05). This study is the first prospective long-term evaluation demonstrating that FDG PET is not only an early predictor of pathologic response but is also a valuable prognostic tool. Our results indicate the potential of FDG PET for optimizing multidisciplinary management of patients with LARC. (orig.)

  8. Early and delayed prediction of axillary lymph node neoadjuvant response by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Vicente, Ana Maria; Soriano Castrejon, Angel; Jimenez Londono, German Andres [University General Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Ciudad Real (Spain); Leon Martin, Alberto [University General Hospital, Investigation Unit, Ciudad Real (Spain); Relea Calatayud, Fernanda [University General Hospital, Pathology Department, Ciudad Real (Spain); Munoz Sanchez, Maria del Mar [Virgen de la Luz Hospital, Oncology Department, Cuenca (Spain); Cruz Mora, Miguel Angel [Virgen de la Salud Hospital, Oncology Department, Toledo (Spain); Espinosa Aunion, Ruth [La Mancha Centro Hospital, Oncology Department, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    To determine the utility of {sup 18}F-FDG (FDG) PET/CT performed in an early and delayed phase during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the prediction of lymph node histopathological response in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. FDG PET/CT studies performed in 76 patients (mean age 53 years) at baseline (PET-1), after the second course of chemotherapy (PET-2) and after the last course of chemotherapy (PET-3) were prospectively analysed. Inclusion criteria were lymph node involvement detected by PET/CT and non-sentinel node biopsy before or after the baseline PET/CT scan. Following the recommendations of the 12th International Breast Conference (St. Gallen), the patients were divided into five subgroups in relation to biological prognostic factors by immunohistochemistry. For diagnosis visual and semiquantitative analyses was performed. Absence of detectable lymph node uptake on the PET-2 or PET-3 scan with respect to the PET-1 scan was considered metabolic complete response (mCR). Lymph nodes were histopathologically classified according the lymph node regression grade and in response groups as pathological complete response (pCR) or not pCR (type A/D or B/C of the Smith grading system, respectively). ROC analysis was performed to determine a cut-off value of Δ% SUV1-2 and SUV1-3 for prediction of nodal status after chemotherapy. An association between mCR and pCR was found (Cohen's kappa analysis), and associations between phenotypes and metabolic behaviour and the final histopathological status were also found. Lymph node pCR was seen in 34 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of PET-2 and PET-3 in establishing the final status of the axilla after chemotherapy were 52 %, 45 %, 50 % and 47 %, and 33 %, 84 %, 67 % and 56 %, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between mCR on PET-2 and PET-3 and pCR (p = 0.31 and 0.99, respectively). Lymph node metabolism on PET-1 was not able to predict

  9. Para-aortic lymphadenectomy in advanced stage cervical cancer, a protocol for comparing safety, feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of surgical staging versus PET-CT; PALDISC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, Casper; Abbink, Karin; Rovers, Maroeska M; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Zusterzeel, Petra L M

    2018-01-01

    Currently, a PET-CT is used to assess the need for extended field radiotherapy of para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) in International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB2, IIA2-IVA (locally advanced stage) cervical cancer. A small study established a sensitivity and specificity estimate for PALN metastases of 50% (95% CI; 7-93%) and 83% (95% CI; 52-98%), respectively. Surgical staging of PALN may lead to a higher diagnostic accuracy. However, surgical staging of para-aortic lymph nodes in locally advanced stage cervical cancer is not common practice. Therefore, a phase 2 randomised controlled trial is needed to assess its safety and feasibility. In addition to standard imaging (MRI or CT scan) with PET-CT, 30 adult women with FIGO stage IB2, IIA2-IVA cervical cancer will be randomised to receive either surgical staging or usual PET-CT staging. Administering extended field radiotherapy will be based on lymphadenectomy results for the intervention group and on the PET-CT results for the control group. Follow-up visits at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months will assess health-related quality of life and progression-free survival.Primary safety and feasibility outcomes of surgical staging will be assessed by calculating means with 95% confidence intervals for duration of surgery, number of complications, blood loss, nodal yield after para-aortic lymphadenectomy and treatment delay due to surgical staging. Secondary patient-centred outcomes on quality of life and first year survival will be documented and compared between the two groups. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity and negative and positive predictive values of MRI, PET-CT and surgical staging will be presented with 95% CI.. All analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. This study will assess safety and feasibility, expressed as the number and severity of complications, effect on quality of life and the treatment delay due to surgically staging para-aortic lymph nodes in

  10. Proceedings of the 1st symposium on advanced science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The 1st symposium on advanced science research was held in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, on 23-24 March, 1995, under the auspices of JAERI. Two hundred and sixty scientists attended the symposium; over 40% of the attendants were from universities and laboratories outside JAERI. This proceedings consists of 6 oral presentations of the research activities in the Advanced Science Research Center, 70 poster presentations on the field of basic science from both the inside and outside of JAERI and 2 panel discussions on the actinide physics and biocrystallography. (author)

  11. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1970-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 5 presents the underlying principles and theory, as well as the practical applications of the advances in the nuclear field. This book reviews the specialized applications to such fields as space propulsion.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the design and objective of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide fast flux irradiation testing facilities. This text then examines the problem in the design of nuclear reactors, which is the analysis of the spatial and temporal behavior of the neutron and temperature dist

  12. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greebler, Paul

    1966-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 3 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book presents the advances in the atomic energy field.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the use of pulsed neutron sources for the determination of the thermalization and diffusion properties of moderating as well as multiplying media. This text then examines the effect of nuclear radiation on electronic circuitry and its components. Other chapters consider radiation effects in various inorganic solids, with empha

  13. The usefulness of the combined PET-CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kyosan

    2003-01-01

    Recently, combined PET-CT scanners that simultaneously reveal both anatomical and metabolic images within the body have been developed. The Siemens Biograph was the first PET-CT used in Japan and was installed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) at the end of March 2002. The Biograph system integrates Siemens PET (HR+) and spiral CT (SOMATOM Emotion Duo) technologies with a multimodality computer platform. The CT data obtained with PET-CT is also used for attenuation corrections of the PET images. The advantages of PET-CT for clinical use are much shorter study time for each patient, easy and precise alignment of the patient's lesion within the PET field of view, an increase in PET image quality due to the CT attenuation correction system which gives a higher spatial resolution and produces much less noise in the attenuation correction data, and an improvement in diagnostic accuracy provided by both functional and anatomic imaging. The Japanese government has not yet approved the marketing of PET-CT. We are continuing to investigate its usefulness. We expect that PET-CT will be a major diagnostic tool for oncology imaging in the near future. (authors)

  14. Referesher Course on Recent Advances in Chemical Science and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Referesher Course on Recent Advances in Chemical Science and Its Technological Applications. Information and Announcements Volume 15 Issue 9 September 2010 pp 860-861 ...

  15. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 9 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book discusses the safe and beneficial development of land-based nuclear power plants.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the possible consequences of a large-scale release of radioactivity from a nuclear reactor in the event of a serious accident. This text then discusses the extension of conventional perturbation techniques to multidimensional systems and to high-order approximations of the Boltzmann equation.

  16. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1972-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 6 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear steam generator, oscillations, fast reactor fuel, gas centrifuge, thermal transport system, and fuel cycle.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the high standards of technical safety for Europe's first nuclear-propelled merchant ship. This text then examines the state of knowledge concerning qualitative results on the behavior of the solutions of the nonlinear poin

  17. PET/MRI in Oncological Imaging: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Usman; Mallia, Andrew; Stirling, James; Joemon, John; MacKewn, Jane; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Goh, Vicky; Cook, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a hybrid technology which has recently gained interest as a potential cancer imaging tool. Compared with CT, MRI is advantageous due to its lack of ionizing radiation, superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, and wider range of acquisition sequences. Several studies have shown PET/MRI to be equivalent to PET/CT in most oncological applications, possibly superior in certain body parts, e.g., head and neck, pelvis, and in certain situations, e.g., cancer recurrence. This review will update the readers on recent advances in PET/MRI technology and review key literature, while highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of PET/MRI in cancer imaging. PMID:26854157

  18. PET/MRI in Oncological Imaging: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a hybrid technology which has recently gained interest as a potential cancer imaging tool. Compared with CT, MRI is advantageous due to its lack of ionizing radiation, superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, and wider range of acquisition sequences. Several studies have shown PET/MRI to be equivalent to PET/CT in most oncological applications, possibly superior in certain body parts, e.g., head and neck, pelvis, and in certain situations, e.g., cancer recurrence. This review will update the readers on recent advances in PET/MRI technology and review key literature, while highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of PET/MRI in cancer imaging.

  19. MicroPET imaging and transgenic models: a blueprint for Alzheimer's disease clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Eduardo R; Parent, Maxime J; Cuello, A Claudio; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decades, developments in neuroimaging have significantly contributed to the understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology. Specifically, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents targeting amyloid deposition have provided unprecedented opportunities for refining in vivo diagnosis, monitoring disease propagation, and advancing AD clinical trials. Furthermore, the use of a miniaturized version of PET (microPET) in transgenic (Tg) animals has been a successful strategy for accelerating the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals. However, advanced applications of microPET focusing on the longitudinal propagation of AD pathophysiology or therapeutic strategies remain in their infancy. This review highlights what we have learned from microPET imaging in Tg models displaying amyloid and tau pathology, and anticipates cutting-edge applications with high translational value to clinical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CYBPET: a cylindrical PET system for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian, A. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine (NRCAM-AEOI), P.O. BOX. (31485-498), Karaj, Iran, Islamic Republic of and Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University of Rome, La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: akarimian@nrcam.org; Thompson, C.J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC (Canada); Sarkar, S. [Medical physics Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and (RCSTIM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G. [Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine (NRCAM-AEOI), P.O. BOX. (31485-498), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pani, R. [Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Davilu, H. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sardari, D. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-06-11

    We propose a Cylindrical Breast PET (CYBPET) system for breast imaging with patients in the prone position. An individual pendulous breast is covered by thin plastic to provide reduced pressure fixation and surrounded by the crystals inside the CYBPET ring. Each breast is imaged separately. The rest of the body is shielded properly to minimize the contribution of scattered photons from the other breast and the rest of the body. To compare the CYBPET with whole-body PET (WB-PET) the simulations of CYBPET and a WB-PET (GE-Advance) for a 10 mm tumor inside the breast with a lesion to background (breast) activity concentration of 6 to 1 were made. The noise effective count rate (NECR) of CYBPET is about twice that of WB-PET at activity concentrations less than 3.1 {mu}Ci/cc. The spatial resolution of CYBPET is better by 25% than the WB-PET.

  1. CYBPET: a cylindrical PET system for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, A.; Thompson, C.J.; Sarkar, S.; Raisali, G.; Pani, R.; Davilu, H.; Sardari, D.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a Cylindrical Breast PET (CYBPET) system for breast imaging with patients in the prone position. An individual pendulous breast is covered by thin plastic to provide reduced pressure fixation and surrounded by the crystals inside the CYBPET ring. Each breast is imaged separately. The rest of the body is shielded properly to minimize the contribution of scattered photons from the other breast and the rest of the body. To compare the CYBPET with whole-body PET (WB-PET) the simulations of CYBPET and a WB-PET (GE-Advance) for a 10 mm tumor inside the breast with a lesion to background (breast) activity concentration of 6 to 1 were made. The noise effective count rate (NECR) of CYBPET is about twice that of WB-PET at activity concentrations less than 3.1 μCi/cc. The spatial resolution of CYBPET is better by 25% than the WB-PET

  2. Post-treatment PET/CT and p16 status for predicting treatment outcomes in locally advanced head and neck cancer after definitive radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awan, Musaddiq J.; Machtay, Mitchell; Yao, Min [Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lavertu, Pierre; Zender, Chad; Rezaee, Rod; Fowler, Nicole [University Hospitals, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States); Karapetyan, Lilit; Gibson, Michael [University Hospitals, Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wasman, Jay [University Hospitals, Department of Pathology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Faulhaber, Peter [University Hospitals, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To retrospectively review post-treatment (post-tx) FDG-PET/CT scans in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and known p16 status, treated with definitive (chemo)radiation (RT). A total of 108 eligible patients had N2A or greater HNSCC treated with chemoRT from August 1, 2008, to February 28, 2015, with post-tx PET/CT within 6 months after RT. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank statistics, and Cox proportional hazards regression were used for statistical analysis. Median follow-up was 2.38 years. Sixty-eight (63.0%) patients had p16+ and 40 (37.0%) had p16- status. Two-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival were 93.4% and 77.8%, respectively. The negative predictive value (NPV) of PET/CT for local recurrence (LR) was 100%. The NPV for regional recurrence (RR) was 96.5% for all patients, 100% for p16+ patients, and 88.5% for p16- patients. The positive predictive value (PPV) of PET/CT for recurrence was 77.3% for all patients, 50.0% for p16+, and 78.6% for p16-. The PPV for LR was 72.7% for all patients, 50.0% for p16+ patients, and 72.7% for p16- patients. The PPV for RR was 50.0% for all patients, 33% for p16+, and 66.6% for p16-. Post-tx PET/CT and p16 status were independent predictors of recurrence-free survival (p < 0.01). Post-tx PET/CT predicts treatment outcomes in both p16 + and p16- patients, and does so independently of p16 status. P16- patients with negative PET have a 10% risk of nodal recurrence, and closer follow-up in these patients is warranted. (orig.)

  3. The early predictive value of a decrease of metabolic tumor volume in repeated 18F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with concurrent radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Bo; Fan, Min; Zhou, Tao; Fu, Zheng; Zhang, Zicheng; Li, Hongsheng; Li, Baosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The patients underwent the second FDG PET during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). •To our knowledge, this could be the first study showing that the repeated FDG PET during the early stage of CCRT has added value by being a prognostic factor for recurrence of the locally advanced NSCLC patients. •This is a result of continuous research. •The decrease of MTV was the only significant risk factor for recurrence. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the value of [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F FDG PET/CT) to predict recurrence of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods: A total of 53 stage III NSCLC patients without diabetics or undergoing surgery were enrolled in the prospective study. Those patients were evaluated by FDG PET before and following 40 Gy radiotherapy (RT) with a concurrent cisplatin-based heterogeneous chemotherapy regimen. Semiquantitative assessment was used to determine maximum and mean SUVs (SUVmax/SUVmean) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of the primary tumor. The prognostic significance of PET/CT parameters and other clinical variables was assessed using Cox regression analyses. The cutoffs of PET/CT parameters which have been determined by the previous study were used to separate the groups with Kaplan–Meier curves. Results: Recurrence rates at 1- and 2-years were 18.9% (10/53) and 50.9% (27/53) for all patients, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that the only prognostic factor for recurrence was a decrease of MTV. Using the cutoff of 29.7%, a decrease of MTV can separate the patients into 2 groups with Kaplan–Meier curve successfully. Conclusion: The prospective study has reinforced the early predictive value of MTV in repeated 18 F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence in a subgroup of locally advanced NSCLC who underwent CCRT. A

  4. Application of PET-CT for radiotherapy of the patient with carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia; Luo Quanyong; Yuan Zhibin

    2006-01-01

    PET-CT is an advanced imaging instrument combing anatomical and metabolic information into one. Combined with the radiation planning system, PET-CT is playing an increasingly important tool in the diagnosis and staging of malignant disease image-guided therapy planning, and treatment monitoring. Especially, PET-CT has a significant role in the delineation of tumor target volume, optimization of radiation planning. (authors)

  5. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated

  6. How does PET/CT help in selecting therapy for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2012-01-01

    investigating the use of PET/CT for early response-adapted therapy, with therapeutic stratification based on interim PET/CT results. Posttreatment PET/CT is a cornerstone of the revised response criteria and enables the selection of advanced-stage patients without the need for consolidation radiotherapy. Once...

  7. Advancing Water Science through Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As water scientists, we are increasingly handling larger and larger datasets with many variables, making it easy to lose ourselves in the details. Advanced data visualization will play an increasingly significant role in propelling the development of water science in research, economy, policy and education. It can enable analysis within research and further data scientists' understanding of behavior and processes and can potentially affect how the public, whom we often want to inform, understands our work. Unfortunately for water scientists, data visualization is approached in an ad hoc manner when a more formal methodology or understanding could potentially significantly improve both research within the academy and outreach to the public. Firstly to broaden and deepen scientific understanding, data visualization can allow for more analyzed targets to be processed simultaneously and can represent the variables effectively, finding patterns, trends and relationships; thus it can even explores the new research direction or branch of water science. Depending on visualization, we can detect and separate the pivotal and trivial influential factors more clearly to assume and abstract the original complex target system. Providing direct visual perception of the differences between observation data and prediction results of models, data visualization allows researchers to quickly examine the quality of models in water science. Secondly data visualization can also improve public awareness and perhaps influence behavior. Offering decision makers clearer perspectives of potential profits of water, data visualization can amplify the economic value of water science and also increase relevant employment rates. Providing policymakers compelling visuals of the role of water for social and natural systems, data visualization can advance the water management and legislation of water conservation. By building the publics' own data visualization through apps and games about water

  8. Effect of MR contrast agents on quantitative accuracy of PET in combined whole-body PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois, Cristina [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Particle Physics, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Imaging Science Institute, Tuebingen (Germany); Bezrukov, Ilja [Eberhard Karls University, Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Max Plank Institute for Intelligent Systems, Department of Empirical Inference, Tuebingen (Germany); Schmidt, Holger [Eberhard Karls University, Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina; Werner, Matthias K. [Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Kupferschlaeger, Juergen [Eberhard Karls University, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Beyer, Thomas [Imaging Science Institute, Tuebingen (Germany); cmi-experts GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    of the PET emission signals. MR-based attenuation maps may be biased by oral iron oxide-based MRCA unless advanced AC algorithms are used. (orig.)

  9. Prognostic significance of mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PET/CT in advanced ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bats, Anne-Sophie; Lecuru, Fabrice [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Chirurgie Gynecologique et Cancerologique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR-S 747, Paris (France); Hugonnet, Florent; Faraggi, Marc [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France); Huchon, Cyrille [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Chirurgie Gynecologique et Cancerologique, Paris (France); Bensaid, Cherazade [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Chirurgie Gynecologique et Cancerologique, Paris (France); Pierquet-Ghazzar, Nadia [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PET/CT for the staging of advanced ovarian cancer. We retrospectively evaluated patients managed for FIGO stage III/IV ovarian cancer between 1 January 2006 and 1 June 2009. Patients were included if they had undergone {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and surgery for initial staging. Exclusion criteria were age younger than 18 years, inability to undergo general anaesthesia, recurrent ovarian cancer, and borderline or nonepithelial malignancy. Whole-body PET/CT was performed after intravenous {sup 18}F-FDG injection. The location of abnormal hot spots and {sup 18}F-FDG maximal standard uptake values (SUV{sub max}) were recorded. We compared the complete cytoreduction and survival rates in groups defined based on mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake and SUV{sub max} values. Kaplan-Meier curves of overall survival and disease-free survival were compared using the log-rank test. Hazard ratios with their 95% confidence intervals were computed. Adjusted hazard ratios were obtained using a multivariate Cox model. We included 53 patients, of whom 17 (32%) had increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Complete cytoreduction was achieved in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 patients managed with primary surgery and in 21 (75%) of the 28 patients managed with interval surgery. Complete cytoreduction was achieved significantly more often among patients without increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (80.6% vs. 35.3%; p = 0.001). Disease-free survival was comparable between the two groups. By univariate analysis, overall mortality was significantly higher among patients with increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (hazard ratio 5.70, 95% confidence interval 1.74-18.6). The only factor significantly associated with overall survival by multivariate analysis was complete cytoreduction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.89). Increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was common in patients

  10. Neuroradiological advances detect abnormal neuroanatomy underlying neuropsychological impairments: the power of PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayempour, Benjamin Jacob; Alavi, Abass

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging has made a major contribution to cerebral dysfunction due to inherited diseases, as well as injuries sustained with modern living, such as car accidents, falling down, and work-related injuries. These injuries, up until the introduction of sensitive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), were overlooked because of heavy reliance on structural imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. These techniques are extremely insensitive for dysfunction caused by such underlying disorders. We believe that the use of these highly powerful functional neuroimaging technologies, such as PET, has substantially improved our ability to assess these patients properly in the clinical setting, to determine their natural course, and to assess the efficacy of various interventional detections. As such the contribution from the evolution of PET technology has substantially improved our knowledge and ability over the past 3 decades to help patients who are the victims of serious deficiencies due to these injuries. In particular, in recent years the use of PET/CT and soon PET/MRI will provide the best option for a structure-function relationship in these patients. We are of the belief that the clinical effectiveness of PET in managing these patients can be translated to the use of this important approach in bringing justice to the victims of many patients who are otherwise uncompensated for disorders that they have suffered without any justification. Therefore, legally opposing views about the relevance of PET in the court system by some research groups may not be justifiable. This has proven to be the case in many court cases, where such imaging techniques have been employed either for criminal or financial compensation purposes in the past 2 decades. (orig.)

  11. Neuroradiological advances detect abnormal neuroanatomy underlying neuropsychological impairments: the power of PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayempour, Benjamin Jacob; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Medical imaging has made a major contribution to cerebral dysfunction due to inherited diseases, as well as injuries sustained with modern living, such as car accidents, falling down, and work-related injuries. These injuries, up until the introduction of sensitive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), were overlooked because of heavy reliance on structural imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. These techniques are extremely insensitive for dysfunction caused by such underlying disorders. We believe that the use of these highly powerful functional neuroimaging technologies, such as PET, has substantially improved our ability to assess these patients properly in the clinical setting, to determine their natural course, and to assess the efficacy of various interventional detections. As such the contribution from the evolution of PET technology has substantially improved our knowledge and ability over the past 3 decades to help patients who are the victims of serious deficiencies due to these injuries. In particular, in recent years the use of PET/CT and soon PET/MRI will provide the best option for a structure-function relationship in these patients. We are of the belief that the clinical effectiveness of PET in managing these patients can be translated to the use of this important approach in bringing justice to the victims of many patients who are otherwise uncompensated for disorders that they have suffered without any justification. Therefore, legally opposing views about the relevance of PET in the court system by some research groups may not be justifiable. This has proven to be the case in many court cases, where such imaging techniques have been employed either for criminal or financial compensation purposes in the past 2 decades. (orig.)

  12. Long-term follow-up and role of FDG PET in advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine patients treated with {sup 177}Lu-D OTATATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansovini, Maddalena; Severi, Stefano; Ianniello, Annarita; Nicolini, Silvia; Fantini, Lorenzo; Paganelli, Giovanni [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Meldola (Italy); Mezzenga, Emilio [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Medical Physics Unit, Meldola (Italy); Ferroni, Fabio [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Radiology Unit, Meldola (Italy); Scarpi, Emanuela; Monti, Manuela [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Meldola (Italy); Bongiovanni, Alberto [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Osteoncology and Rare Tumors Center, Meldola (Italy); Cingarlini, Sara [University of Verona, Department of Oncology, Verona Comprehensive Cancer Network, G.B. Rossi Hospital, Verona (Italy); Grana, Chiara Maria; Bodei, Lisa [European Institute of Oncology Milan (IEO), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Lu-DOTATATE (Lu-PRRT) is a valid therapeutic option in differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NETs). FDG PET seems to be an important prognostic factor in P-NETs. We evaluated the efficacy of Lu-PRRT and the role of FDG PET in 60 patients with advanced P-NETs. From March 2008 to June 2011, 60 consecutive patients with P-NETs were enrolled in the study. Follow-up lasted until March 2016. Eligible patients were treated with two different total cumulative activities (18.5 or 27.8 GBq in 5 cycles every 6-8 weeks), according to kidney and bone marrow parameters. Twenty-eight patients received a mean full activity (FA) of 25.9 GBq and 32 a mean reduced activity (RA) of 18.5 GBq. The disease control rate (DCR), defined as the sum of CR+PR+SD was 85.7 % in the FA group and 78.1 % in the RA group. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 53.4 months in the FA group and 21.7 months in the RA group (P = 0.353). Median overall survival (mOS) was not reached (nr) in FA patients and was 63.8 months in the RA group (P = 0.007). Fifty-five patients underwent an FDG PET scan before Lu-PRRT, 32 (58 %) showing an increased FDG uptake in tumor sites. mPFS was 21.1 months in FDG PET-positive patients and 68.7 months in the FDG PET-negative group (P < 0.0002), regardless of the total activity administered. Both FA and RA are active in patients undergoing Lu-PRRT. However, an FA of 27.8 GBq of Lu-PRRT prolongs PFS and OS compared to an RA of 18.5 GBq. Our results indicate that FDG PET is an independent prognostic factor in this patient setting. (orig.)

  13. FDG whole-body PET/MRI in oncology: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Becker, Ann-Katharina [Rheinisch Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Goo, Jin Mo; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University, College of Medicine,Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The recent advance in hybrid imaging techniques enables offering simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in various clinical fields. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET has been widely used for diagnosis and evaluation of oncologic patients. The growing evidence from research and clinical experiences demonstrated that PET/MRI with FDG can provide comparable or superior diagnostic performance more than conventional radiological imaging such as computed tomography (CT), MRI or PET/CT in various cancers. Combined analysis using structural information and functional/molecular information of tumors can draw additional diagnostic information based on PET/MRI. Further studies including determination of the diagnostic efficacy, optimizing the examination protocol, and analysis of the hybrid imaging results is necessary for extending the FDG PET/MRI application in clinical oncology.

  14. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L., E-mail: joaquin@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cal-Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  15. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S.; Cal-Gonzalez, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  16. Advances in Cross-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Esmond [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Evans, Katherine J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Caldwell, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Charles [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Kerstin, Van Dam [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martin, Daniel F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ostrouchov, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tuminaro, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Paul [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Wild, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report presents results from the DOE-sponsored workshop titled, ``Advancing X-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science Workshop,'' known as AXICCS, held on September 12--13, 2016 in Rockville, MD. The workshop brought together experts in climate science, computational climate science, computer science, and mathematics to discuss interesting but unsolved science questions regarding climate modeling and simulation, promoted collaboration among the diverse scientists in attendance, and brainstormed about possible tools and capabilities that could be developed to help address them. Emerged from discussions at the workshop were several research opportunities that the group felt could advance climate science significantly. These include (1) process-resolving models to provide insight into important processes and features of interest and inform the development of advanced physical parameterizations, (2) a community effort to develop and provide integrated model credibility, (3) including, organizing, and managing increasingly connected model components that increase model fidelity yet complexity, and (4) treating Earth system models as one interconnected organism without numerical or data based boundaries that limit interactions. The group also identified several cross-cutting advances in mathematics, computer science, and computational science that would be needed to enable one or more of these big ideas. It is critical to address the need for organized, verified, and optimized software, which enables the models to grow and continue to provide solutions in which the community can have confidence. Effectively utilizing the newest computer hardware enables simulation efficiency and the ability to handle output from increasingly complex and detailed models. This will be accomplished through hierarchical multiscale algorithms in tandem with new strategies for data handling, analysis, and storage. These big ideas and cross-cutting technologies for

  17. Advances in Cross-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, E.; Evans, K.; Caldwell, P.; Hoffman, F.; Jackson, C.; Van Dam, K.; Leung, R.; Martin, D.; Ostrouchov, G.; Tuminaro, R.; Ullrich, P.; Wild, S.; Williams, S.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents results from the DOE-sponsored workshop titled, Advancing X-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science Workshop,'' known as AXICCS, held on September 12--13, 2016 in Rockville, MD. The workshop brought together experts in climate science, computational climate science, computer science, and mathematics to discuss interesting but unsolved science questions regarding climate modeling and simulation, promoted collaboration among the diverse scientists in attendance, and brainstormed about possible tools and capabilities that could be developed to help address them. Emerged from discussions at the workshop were several research opportunities that the group felt could advance climate science significantly. These include (1) process-resolving models to provide insight into important processes and features of interest and inform the development of advanced physical parameterizations, (2) a community effort to develop and provide integrated model credibility, (3) including, organizing, and managing increasingly connected model components that increase model fidelity yet complexity, and (4) treating Earth system models as one interconnected organism without numerical or data based boundaries that limit interactions. The group also identified several cross-cutting advances in mathematics, computer science, and computational science that would be needed to enable one or more of these big ideas. It is critical to address the need for organized, verified, and optimized software, which enables the models to grow and continue to provide solutions in which the community can have confidence. Effectively utilizing the newest computer hardware enables simulation efficiency and the ability to handle output from increasingly complex and detailed models. This will be accomplished through hierarchical multiscale algorithms in tandem with new strategies for data handling, analysis, and storage. These big ideas and cross-cutting technologies for enabling

  18. Efficacy of qualitative response assessment interpretation criteria at 18F-FDG PET-CT for predicting outcome in locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, Andrew; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Chowdhury, Fahmid; Patel, Chirag; Swift, Sarah; Cooper, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of a standardized qualitative scoring system for treatment response assessment at 18F-FDG PET-CT in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma and correlate this with subsequent patient outcome. Ninety-six consecutive patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with radical chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in a single centre between 2011 and 2014 underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT approximately 3 months post-treatment. Tumour metabolic response was assessed qualitatively using a 5-point scale ranging from background level activity only through to progressive metabolic disease. Clinical and radiological (MRI pelvis) follow-up was performed in all patients. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method (Mantel-Cox log-rank) and correlated with qualitative score using Chi-squared test. Forty patients (41.7 %) demonstrated complete metabolic response (CMR) on post-treatment PET-CT (Score 1/2) with 38 patients (95.0 %) remaining disease free after a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. Twenty-four patients (25.0 %) had indeterminate residual uptake (ID, Score 3) at primary or nodal sites after treatment, of these eight patients (33.3 %) relapsed on follow-up, including all patients with residual nodal uptake (n = 4). 11 of 17 patients (64.7 %) with significant residual uptake (partial metabolic response, PMR, Score 4) subsequently relapsed. In 15 patients (15.6 %) PET-CT demonstrated progressive disease (PD, Score 5) following treatment. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference in PFS and OS between patients with CMR, indeterminate uptake, PMR and PD (Log-rank, P < 0.0001). Chi-squared test demonstrated a highly statistically significant association between increasing qualitative score and risk of recurrence or death (P < 0.001). Use of a 5-point qualitative scoring system to assess metabolic response to CRT in locally advanced

  19. Efficacy of qualitative response assessment interpretation criteria at 18F-FDG PET-CT for predicting outcome in locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarsbrook, Andrew [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Level 1, Bexley Wing, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); University of Leeds, Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Chowdhury, Fahmid; Patel, Chirag [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Level 1, Bexley Wing, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Swift, Sarah [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Cooper, Rachel [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Clinical Oncology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the utility of a standardized qualitative scoring system for treatment response assessment at 18F-FDG PET-CT in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma and correlate this with subsequent patient outcome. Ninety-six consecutive patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with radical chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in a single centre between 2011 and 2014 underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT approximately 3 months post-treatment. Tumour metabolic response was assessed qualitatively using a 5-point scale ranging from background level activity only through to progressive metabolic disease. Clinical and radiological (MRI pelvis) follow-up was performed in all patients. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method (Mantel-Cox log-rank) and correlated with qualitative score using Chi-squared test. Forty patients (41.7 %) demonstrated complete metabolic response (CMR) on post-treatment PET-CT (Score 1/2) with 38 patients (95.0 %) remaining disease free after a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. Twenty-four patients (25.0 %) had indeterminate residual uptake (ID, Score 3) at primary or nodal sites after treatment, of these eight patients (33.3 %) relapsed on follow-up, including all patients with residual nodal uptake (n = 4). 11 of 17 patients (64.7 %) with significant residual uptake (partial metabolic response, PMR, Score 4) subsequently relapsed. In 15 patients (15.6 %) PET-CT demonstrated progressive disease (PD, Score 5) following treatment. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference in PFS and OS between patients with CMR, indeterminate uptake, PMR and PD (Log-rank, P < 0.0001). Chi-squared test demonstrated a highly statistically significant association between increasing qualitative score and risk of recurrence or death (P < 0.001). Use of a 5-point qualitative scoring system to assess metabolic response to CRT in locally advanced

  20. Accuracy of a clinical PET/CT vs. a preclinical μPET system for monitoring treatment effects in tumour xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmowski, Karin [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Winz, Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Rix, Anne; Bzyl, Jessica [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Behrendt, Florian F.; Verburg, Frederic A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Palmowski, Moritz, E-mail: mpalmowski@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Academic Radiology Baden Baden, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Small animal imaging is of growing importance for preclinical research and drug development. Tumour xenografts implanted in mice can be visualized with a clinical PET/CT (cPET); however, it is unclear whether early treatment effects can be monitored. Thus, we investigated the accuracy of a cPET versus a preclinical μPET using {sup 18}F-FDG for assessing early treatment effects. Materials and methods: The spatial resolution and the quantitative accuracy of a clinical and preclinical PET were evaluated in phantom experiments. To investigate the sensitivity for assessing treatment response, A431 tumour xenografts were implanted in nude mice. Glucose metabolism was measured in untreated controls and in two therapy groups (either one or four days of antiangiogenic treatment). Data was validated by γ-counting of explanted tissues. Results: In phantom experiments, cPET enabled reliable separation of boreholes ≥ 5 mm whereas μPET visualized boreholes ≥ 2 mm. In animal studies, μPET provided significantly higher tumour-to-muscle ratios for untreated control tumours than cPET (3.41 ± 0.87 vs. 1.60 ± .0.28, respectively; p < 0.01). During treatment, cPET detected significant therapy effects at day 4 (p < 0.05) whereas μPET revealed highly significant therapy effects even at day one (p < 0.01). Correspondingly, γ-counting of explanted tumours indicated significant therapy effects at day one and highly significant treatment response at day 4. Correlation with γ-counting was good for cPET (r = 0.74; p < 0.01) and excellent for μPET (r = 0.85; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Clinical PET is suited to investigate tumour xenografts ≥ 5 mm at an advanced time-point of treatment. For imaging smaller tumours or for the sensitive assessment of very early therapy effects, μPET should be preferred.

  1. Aims of advanced photon science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Research Center (APRC) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is pursing the research and development of advanced photon sources such as a compact, ultra-short, high intensity laser, x-ray laser, and a superconducting linac-based free electron laser (FEL) and their applications. These compact and high-intensity lasers have various capabilities of producing radiations with distinguishing characteristics of ultra-short pulse, high coherence, etc. Hence, they can provide novel means of research in the field of nuclear energy applications and industrial and medical technologies. It is important for us to promote these researches on these high-intensity laser applications comprehensively and effectively under the collaborations with nationwide universities and industry. From this point of view it is expected that the APRC plays a role as a COE for these researches. Through these research activities for development of high-intensity lasers and their applications, we will develop ''photon science and technology'' as a leading key technology in the 21st century and contribute the development of science and technology including nuclear energy technology and production of new industries. (author)

  2. Advancing prion science: guidance for the National Prion Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erdtmann, Rick; Sivitz, Laura

    2004-01-01

    In Advancing Prion Science , the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Assessment of Relevant Science recommends priorities for research and investment to the Department of Defenseâ...

  3. International validation study for interim PET in ABVD-treated, advanced-stage hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggi, Alberto; Gallamini, Andrea; Chauvie, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    At present, there are no standard criteria that have been validated for interim PET reporting in lymphoma. In 2009, an international workshop attended by hematologists and nuclear medicine experts in Deauville, France, proposed to develop simple and reproducible rules for interim PET reporting...... in lymphoma. Accordingly, an international validation study was undertaken with the primary aim of validating the prognostic role of interim PET using the Deauville 5-point score to evaluate images and with the secondary aim of measuring concordance rates among reviewers using the same 5-point score...

  4. Policies on pets for healthy cities: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J; Adams, Cindy L; Degeling, Chris; Massolo, Alessandro; McCormack, Gavin R

    2015-12-01

    Drawing on the One Health concept, and integrating a dual focus on public policy and practices of caring from the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, we outline a conceptual framework to help guide the development and assessment of local governments' policies on pets. This framework emphasizes well-being in human populations, while recognizing that these outcomes relate to the well-being of non-human animals. Five intersecting spheres of activity, each associated with local governments' jurisdiction over pets, are presented: (i) preventing threats and nuisances from pets, (ii) meeting pets' emotional and physical needs, (iii) procuring pets ethically, (iv) providing pets with veterinary services and (v) licensing and identifying pets. This conceptual framework acknowledges the tenets of previous health promotion frameworks, including overlapping and intersecting influences. At the same time, this framework proposes to advance our understanding of health promotion and, more broadly, population health by underscoring interdependence between people and pets as well as the dynamism of urbanized ecologies. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Role of PET in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the well-established use of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical oncology, novel roles for PET are rapidly emerging in the field of gene therapy. Methods for controlled gene delivery to living bodies, made available through advances in molecular biology, are currently being employed in animals for reasearch purposes and in humans to treat diseases such as cancer. Although gene therapy is still in its early developmental stage, it is perceived that many serious illnesses could be treated successfully by the use of therapeutic gene delivery. A major challenge for the widespread use of human gene therapy is to achieve a controlled and effective delivery of foreign genes to target cells and subsequently, adequate levels of expression. As such, the availability of noninvasive imaging methods to accurately assess the location, duration, and level of transgene expression is critical for optimizing gene therapy strategies. Current endeavors to achieve this goal include methods that utilize magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and nuclear imaging techniques. As for PET, reporter systems that utilize gene encoding enzymes that accumulate postion labeled substrates and those transcribing surface receptors that bind specific positron labeled ligands have been successfully developed. More recent advances in this area include improved reporter gene constructs and radiotracers, introduction of potential strategies to monitor endogenous gene expression, and human pilot studies evaluating the distribution and safety of reporter PET tracers. The remarkably rapid progress occuring in gene imaging technology indicates its importance and wide range of application. As such, gene imaging is likely to become a major and exciting new area for future application of PET technology

  6. Role of PET in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Han [School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    In addition to the well-established use of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical oncology, novel roles for PET are rapidly emerging in the field of gene therapy. Methods for controlled gene delivery to living bodies, made available through advances in molecular biology, are currently being employed in animals for reasearch purposes and in humans to treat diseases such as cancer. Although gene therapy is still in its early developmental stage, it is perceived that many serious illnesses could be treated successfully by the use of therapeutic gene delivery. A major challenge for the widespread use of human gene therapy is to achieve a controlled and effective delivery of foreign genes to target cells and subsequently, adequate levels of expression. As such, the availability of noninvasive imaging methods to accurately assess the location, duration, and level of transgene expression is critical for optimizing gene therapy strategies. Current endeavors to achieve this goal include methods that utilize magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and nuclear imaging techniques. As for PET, reporter systems that utilize gene encoding enzymes that accumulate postion labeled substrates and those transcribing surface receptors that bind specific positron labeled ligands have been successfully developed. More recent advances in this area include improved reporter gene constructs and radiotracers, introduction of potential strategies to monitor endogenous gene expression, and human pilot studies evaluating the distribution and safety of reporter PET tracers. The remarkably rapid progress occuring in gene imaging technology indicates its importance and wide range of application. As such, gene imaging is likely to become a major and exciting new area for future application of PET technology.

  7. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Bengel, Frank M.

    2007-01-01

    Balance of the autonomic nervous system is essential for adequate cardiac performance, and alterations seem to play a key role in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases. PET imaging of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has advanced extensively in recent years, and multiple pre- and postsynaptic tracers have been introduced. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PET enables noninvasive quantification of neurophysiologic processes at the tissue level. Ligands for catecholamine receptors, along with radiolabeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs, have been applied to determine involvement of sympathetic dysinnervation at different stages of heart diseases such as ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. This review summarizes the recent findings in neurocardiological PET imaging. Experimental studies with several radioligands and clinical findings in cardiac dysautonomias are discussed. (orig.)

  8. PET in patients with advanced hypopharynx carcinoma and undergoing systemic chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberkorn, U.A.; Strauss, L.G.; Dimitrakopoulou, A.; Knopp, M.V.; Schadel, A.; Helus, F.; Doll, J.K.; van Kaick, G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how they have preformed 10 double examinations with positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 deoxyglucose (FDG) before and after one chemotherapeutic cycle with cisplatin and fluorouracil (5-FU). Sixty minutes after intravenous injection of 12 mCi of FDG, three PET images of the tumor region were acquired. The volume of the tumor and/or involved lymph nodes was calculated from CT cross sections. The standardized FDG uptake was increased in all tumors prior to chemotherapeutic treatment (range, 1.28-2.97 DAR). After chemotherapy, the authors notes a decrease in tumor metabolism and tumor volume in eight patients (range, 1.4-2.32 DAR), while in two patients the FDG uptake was unchanged. A correlation coefficient of r =.78 was found for the change in FDG uptake and tumor growth rate. As results demonstrated, PET offers the possibility to study changes of tumor metabolism during chemotherapy and therefore may be used to optimize therapy regimens

  9. FINANCING OF SCIENCE ADVANCEMENT IN UKRAINE: EXISTENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR SOLUTIONFINANCING OF SCIENCE ADVANCEMENT IN UKRAINE: EXISTENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bogolib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Science plays an important role of development of national economies of developed countries. Postindustrial society, society of knowledge is a society where scientific discoveries, scientific research results ensure economic growth, economic stability, economic exuberance. In such a society not goods, not movable and real property and not natural resources, including power, put together the main society wealth, but scientific discoveries, new knowledge. Countries, which gain primary income from scientific discoveries and high technologies, are prosperous in the modern world. The purpose of study. A solution of science problems in the modern world should become an important direction of a state’s attention to providing national security. Weakening of academic and technological as well as technological potential of the country, research reduction, mass closure of research institutes and centres, several-ford reduction in the volume of funding of science, outflow of specialists and intellectual property abroad for the last three years menace Ukraine with a loss of advanced positions in the world, degradation of knowledge-intensive industries, strengthening of external technological dependence and undermining of its defensive capacity. Such a situation predetermined the topic of our research, its main purpose – identification of problems of science financing and determination of ways to solve them. Research methods. When writing the article, a set of methods and approaches was used that allowed realizing a conceptual unity of the research. Dialectical, system, structural methods are used for the analysis of financing of the science advancement in Ukraine, existent problems of the science financing are generalized with the help of comparative and factorial methods; ways for improving financing of the science advancement are determined by using methods of scientific abstraction, synthesis, functional analysis. The results of the study. In Ukraine

  10. Cats, Dogs, and Classroom Pets: Science in Art, Song, and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansant, Rhonda; Dondiego, Barbara L.

    Studying pets fosters children's natural curiosity about the world around them and encourages them to use their five senses. This cross-curricular guide provides opportunities for children to build concepts by introducing them to a variety of household pets beginning with cats and dogs, and including mice, gerbils, hamsters, rabbits, guinea pigs,…

  11. The Maillard reaction and pet food processing: effects on nutritive value and pet health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Maillard reaction, which can occur during heat processing of pet foods or ingredients, is known to reduce the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine due to the formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP) that are unavailable for utilisation by the body.

  12. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  13. PET in diagnosing exocrine pancreatic cancer; PET bei Tumoren des exokrinen Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bares, R.; Besenfelder, H.; Dohmen, B.M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Radiologische Klinik des Universitaetsklinikums Tuebingen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Despite dramatic improvements in diagnostic imaging (ultrasonography, in particular endoscopic ultrasound, CT, MRI) treatment results of pancreatic cancer are still poor. Due to the lack of early symptoms, most tumors are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease which excludes curative surgical treatment. FDG-PET has been shown to be effective in detecting pancreatic cancer as well as differentiating benign from malignant pancreatic tumors. Results might be further improved by applying quantitative analyses, in particular kinetic modelling of FDG metabolism. Nevertheless false negative as well as false positive findings may occur. Small lesions (lymphnode or liver metastases < 1 cm) might be missed, furthermore hyperglycemia often present in patients with pancreatic disease might reduce tumor uptake and subsequently tumor detectability by PET. False positive findings were reported in active pancreatitis and some benign tumors. Although PET proved to be superior to CT or ERCP in detecting cancer, clinical relevance of PET is limited due to the absence of therapeutic consequences to be derived from PET. As a consequence PET should only be used in patients with equivocal findings of morphological imaging (CT, ERCP) who are potential candidates for surgical treatment. (orig.) [German] Trotz verbesserter diagnostischer Moeglichkeiten (endoskopischer Ultraschall, Spiral-CT, MRT) sind die Behandlungsergebnisse bei Tumoren des exokrinen Pankreas nach wie vor unbefriedigend. Aufgrund der spaet einsetzenden klinischen Symptomatik wird die Diagnose meist erst bei lokaler Inoperabilitaet gestellt. Die FDG-PET has sich sowohl im Nachweis von Pankreaskarzinomen als auch bei der Differenzialdiagnose pankreatischer Raumforderungen bewaehrt und den etablierten bildgebenden Verfahren (Ultraschall, CT) als ueberlegen erwiesen. Weitere Verbesserungen erscheinen durch absolute Quantifizierung der FDG-Kinetik moeglich. Dennoch koennen falsch negative wie auch falsch positive Ergebnisse

  14. TH-E-202-02: The Use of Hypoxia PET Imaging for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.

    2016-01-01

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  15. TH-E-202-02: The Use of Hypoxia PET Imaging for Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humm, J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  16. Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923

  17. Feasibility of breathing-adapted PET/CT imaging for radiation therapy of Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M C; Andersen, Flemming; Berthelsen, A K

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Respiration can induce artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images leading to uncertainties in tumour volume, location and uptake quantification. Respiratory gating for PET images is now established but is not directly translatable to a radiotherapy setup....... in PET/CT images. These results suggest that advanced therapies (such as SUV-based dose painting) will likely require breathing-adapted PET images and that the relevant SUV thresholds are yet to be investigated....

  18. Using a Popular Pet Fish Species to Study Territorial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abante, Maria E.

    2005-01-01

    The colourful, vigorous territorial display behaviour of the Siamese fighting fish, "Betta splendens", has great appeal for both pet enthusiasts and animal behaviourists. Their beauty, longevity, easy maintenance and rearing make them a popular pet and an ideal science laboratory specimen. This investigation utilises "B. splendens" to test for the…

  19. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP3-01: Simultaneous PET Restoration and PET/CT Co-Segmentation Using a Variational Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L; Tan, S; Lu, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: PET images are usually blurred due to the finite spatial resolution, while CT images suffer from low contrast. Segment a tumor from either a single PET or CT image is thus challenging. To make full use of the complementary information between PET and CT, we propose a novel variational method for simultaneous PET image restoration and PET/CT images co-segmentation. Methods: The proposed model was constructed based on the Γ-convergence approximation of Mumford-Shah (MS) segmentation model for PET/CT co-segmentation. Moreover, a PET de-blur process was integrated into the MS model to improve the segmentation accuracy. An interaction edge constraint term over the two modalities were specially designed to share the complementary information. The energy functional was iteratively optimized using an alternate minimization (AM) algorithm. The performance of the proposed method was validated on ten lung cancer cases and five esophageal cancer cases. The ground truth were manually delineated by an experienced radiation oncologist using the complementary visual features of PET and CT. The segmentation accuracy was evaluated by Dice similarity index (DSI) and volume error (VE). Results: The proposed method achieved an expected restoration result for PET image and satisfactory segmentation results for both PET and CT images. For lung cancer dataset, the average DSI (0.72) increased by 0.17 and 0.40 than single PET and CT segmentation. For esophageal cancer dataset, the average DSI (0.85) increased by 0.07 and 0.43 than single PET and CT segmentation. Conclusion: The proposed method took full advantage of the complementary information from PET and CT images. This work was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute Grants R01CA172638. Shan Tan and Laquan Li were supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, under Grant Nos. 60971112 and 61375018.

  20. Imaging and PET - PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Schulthess, G.K.; Hany, Th.F.

    2008-01-01

    PET/CT has grown because the lack of anatomic landmarks in PET makes 'hardware-fusion' to anatomic cross-sectional data extremely useful. Addition of CT to PET improves specificity, but also sensitivity, and adding PET to CT adds sensitivity and specificity in tumor imaging. The synergistic advantage of adding CT is that the attenuation correction needed for PET data can also be derived from the CT data. This makes PET-CT 25-30% faster than PET alone, leading to higher patient throughput and a more comfortable examination for patients typically lasting 20 minutes or less. FDG-PET-CT appears to provide relevant information in the staging and therapy monitoring of many tumors, such as lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, gynaecological cancers, melanoma and many others, with the notable exception of prostatic cancer. for this cancer, choline derivatives may possibly become useful radiopharmaceuticals. The published literature on the applications of FDG-PET-CT in oncology is still limited but several designed studies have demonstrated the benefits of PET-CT. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mustafa; Toklu, Türkay; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Çetin, Hüseyin; Sezgin, H Sezer; Yeyin, Nami; Sönmezoğlu, Kerim

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) component of PET/computed tomography (CT) with new emerging PET/magnetic resonance (MR) of the same vendor. According to National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-07, five separate experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of PET scanner of General Electric GE company; SIGNATM model PET/MR and GE Discovery 710 model PET/CT. The main investigated aspects were spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rate performance, image quality, count loss and random events correction accuracy. The findings of this study demonstrated superior sensitivity (~ 4 folds) of PET scanner in PET/MR compared to PET/CT system. Image quality test exhibited higher contrast in PET/MR (~ 9%) compared with PET/CT. The scatter fraction of PET/MR was 43.4% at noise equivalent count rate (NECR) peak of 218 kcps and the corresponding activity concentration was 17.7 kBq/cc. Whereas the scatter fraction of PET/CT was found as 39.2% at NECR peak of 72 kcps and activity concentration of 24.3 kBq/cc. The percentage error of the random event correction accuracy was 3.4% and 3.1% in PET/MR and PET/CT, respectively. It was concluded that PET/MR system is about 4 times more sensitive than PET/CT, and the contrast of hot lesions in PET/MR was ~ 9% higher than PET/CT. These outcomes also emphasize the possibility to achieve excellent clinical PET images with low administered dose and/or a short acquisition time in PET/MR.

  2. Evaluation of advanced automatic PET segmentation methods using nonspherical thin-wall inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, B.; Marshall, C.; Evans, M.; Spezi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The use of positron emission tomography (PET) within radiotherapy treatment planning requires the availability of reliable and accurate segmentation tools. PET automatic segmentation (PET-AS) methods have been recommended for the delineation of tumors, but there is still a lack of thorough validation and cross-comparison of such methods using clinically relevant data. In particular, studies validating PET segmentation tools mainly use phantoms with thick plastic walls inserts of simple spherical geometry and have not specifically investigated the effect of the target object geometry on the delineation accuracy. Our work therefore aimed at generating clinically realistic data using nonspherical thin-wall plastic inserts, for the evaluation and comparison of a set of eight promising PET-AS approaches. Methods: Sixteen nonspherical inserts were manufactured with a plastic wall of 0.18 mm and scanned within a custom plastic phantom. These included ellipsoids and toroids derived with different volumes, as well as tubes, pear- and drop-shaped inserts with different aspect ratios. A set of six spheres of volumes ranging from 0.5 to 102 ml was used for a baseline study. A selection of eight PET-AS methods, written in house, was applied to the images obtained. The methods represented promising segmentation approaches such as adaptive iterative thresholding, region-growing, clustering and gradient-based schemes. The delineation accuracy was measured in terms of overlap with the computed tomography reference contour, using the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and error in dimensions. Results: The delineation accuracy was lower for nonspherical inserts than for spheres of the same volume in 88% cases. Slice-by-slice gradient-based methods, showed particularly lower DSC for tori (DSC 0.76 except for tori) but showed the largest errors in the recovery of pears and drops dimensions (higher than 10% and 30% of the true length, respectively). Large errors were visible

  3. Modular strategies for PET imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

  4. New developments in molecular imaging: positron emission tomography time-of-flight (TOF-PET); Nuevos desarrollos en imagen molecular: Tomografia por Emision de Positrones con Teimpo de Vuelo (TOF-PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, P.; Couce, B.; Iglesias, A.; Lois, C.

    2011-07-01

    Positron Emission tomography (PET) in increasingly being used in oncology for the diagnosis and staging of disease, as well as in monitoring response to therapy. One of the last advances in PET is the incorporation of Time-of-Flight (TOF) information, which improves the tomographic reconstruction process and subsequently the quality of the final image. In this work, we explain the principles of PET and the fundamentals of TOF-PET. Clinical images are shown in order to illustrate how TOF-PET improves the detectability of small lesions, particularly in patients with high body mass index. (Author) 20 refs.

  5. Advanced Information Technology Investments at the NASA Earth Science Technology Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Seablom, M. S.; Moe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) regularly makes investments for nurturing advanced concepts in information technology to enable rapid, low-cost acquisition, processing and visualization of Earth science data in support of future NASA missions and climate change research. In 2012, the National Research Council published a mid-term assessment of the 2007 decadal survey for future spacemissions supporting Earth science and applications [1]. The report stated, "Earth sciences have advanced significantly because of existing observational capabilities and the fruit of past investments, along with advances in data and information systems, computer science, and enabling technologies." The report found that NASA had responded favorably and aggressively to the decadal survey and noted the role of the recent ESTO solicitation for information systems technologies that partnered with the NASA Applied Sciences Program to support the transition into operations. NASA's future missions are key stakeholders for the ESTO technology investments. Also driving these investments is the need for the Agency to properly address questions regarding the prediction, adaptation, and eventual mitigation of climate change. The Earth Science Division has championed interdisciplinary research, recognizing that the Earth must be studied as a complete system in order toaddress key science questions [2]. Information technology investments in the low-mid technology readiness level (TRL) range play a key role in meeting these challenges. ESTO's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program invests in higher risk / higher reward technologies that solve the most challenging problems of the information processing chain. This includes the space segment, where the information pipeline begins, to the end user, where knowledge is ultimatelyadvanced. The objectives of the program are to reduce the risk, cost, size, and development time of Earth Science space-based and ground

  6. Clinical PET activities in European and Asia-Oceanian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Manabu; Ito, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kubota, Kazuo; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Hidetada; Moser, E.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET) requires high costs. Therefore, sociomedical evaluation is very important for spread of clinical PET. In this report, sociomedical situation in European and Asia-Oceanian countries, especially concerning transportation of 18 F-FDG and reimbursement of medical costs for clinical PET indications, is reported. It seems that UK, Germany and Belgium are the most advanced in clinical PET in Europe. In these countries, many PET investigations are reimbursed though systems are different among the countries. In UK, both public and private insurance gives authorization for clinical PET to some extent. In Germany, private health insurance companies give authorization but public insurance has not. In Belgium, private health insurance does not exist and public insurance gives authorization for clinical PET. Other European countries seem to be in transitional stages. Transportation of 18 F-FDG has been already started in almost every country in Europe and Asia-Oceania. In Japan, neither transportation of FDG nor full reimbursement of clinical PET has not started yet and this situation seems to be exceptional. To promote clinical PET in Japan, there is the need of at least establishing a list of clinical indications for PET investigations and establishing commercial-based 18 F-FDG supplying system. They could be regarded as a kind of infrastructure for spread of clinical PET. (author)

  7. Detector technology challenges for nuclear medicine and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    The challenges facing the development of new detector technology for single photon imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) are considered. There is currently great interest in functional imaging with radionuclides, particularly PET, triggered by new clinical applications and developments in molecular and cell biology. Multi-modality systems that combine radionuclide imaging with CT present new challenges, as do very high resolution systems for imaging small animals. Whilst for PET there are some fairly well defined routes to improving performance, the basic design of single photon systems has remained unchanged for many years. This review outlines the challenges that must be addressed by detector physicists in order to obtain significant advances in performance, and indicates some of the approaches currently being adopted. Emphasis is given to PET which is where the greatest opportunities appear to lie

  8. Feasibility of breathing-adapted PET/CT imaging for radiation therapy of Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M C; Andersen, Flemming; Berthelsen, A K

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Respiration can induce artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images leading to uncertainties in tumour volume, location and uptake quantification. Respiratory gating for PET images is now established but is not directly translatable to a radiotherapy setup....... uptake in PET/CT images. These results suggest that advanced therapies (such as SUV-based dose painting) will likely require breathing-adapted PET images and that the relevant SUV thresholds are yet to be investigated....

  9. 18F-FDG-PET/CT in Endometrial Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Tae Joo

    2008-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and which is predominant in postmenopausal women. Clinically many patients are hospitalized in early stage due to clinical sign and symptom such as vaginal bleeding and in this case, patient's prognosis is known to be good. However, considerable number of patients with advanced and relapsed disease reveal poor prognosis. Therefore, exact staging work up is essential for proper treatment as is primary lesion detection. 18 F-FDG-PET has been widely used for the evaluation of gynecologic malignancies such as cervical carcinoma and ovarian cancer. In contrast, FDG PET application to endometrial carcinoma is limited until now and there is no sufficient data to validate the usefulness of FDG PET for this disease yet. However, several studies showed promising results that FDG PET is sensitive and specific in detection of recurrent or metastatic lesions. Therefore further active investigation in this field can facilitate the use of FDG PET for endometrial carcinoma

  10. NT10: recent advances in carbon nanotube science and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2010-08-24

    A review of recent advances in carbon nanotube science and applications is presented in terms of what was learned at the NT10 11th International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes held in Montreal, Canada, June 29-July 2, 2010.

  11. Textural features of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT images: prognostic significance in patients with advanced T-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nai-Ming; Fang, Yu-Hua Dean; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Huang, Chung-Guei; Tsan, Din-Li; Ng, Shu-Hang; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Chien-Yu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that total lesion glycolysis (TLG) may serve as a prognostic indicator in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We sought to investigate whether the textural features of pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT images can provide any additional prognostic information over TLG and clinical staging in patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC. We retrospectively analyzed the pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT images of 70 patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC who had completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy, bioradiotherapy, or radiotherapy with curative intent. All of the patients had data on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and were followed up for at least 24 mo or until death. A standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5 was taken as a cutoff for tumor boundary. The textural features of pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT images were extracted from histogram analysis (SUV variance and SUV entropy), normalized gray-level cooccurrence matrix (uniformity, entropy, dissimilarity, contrast, homogeneity, inverse different moment, and correlation), and neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix (coarseness, contrast, busyness, complexity, and strength). Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were used to identify the optimal cutoff values for the textural features and TLG. Thirteen patients were HPV-positive. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age, tumor TLG, and uniformity were independently associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). TLG, uniformity, and HPV positivity were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). A prognostic scoring system based on TLG and uniformity was derived. Patients who presented with TLG > 121.9 g and uniformity ≤ 0.138 experienced significantly worse PFS, DSS, and OS rates than those without (P 121.9 g or uniformity ≤ 0.138 were further divided according to age, and different PFS and DSS were observed. Uniformity extracted from the normalized gray

  12. Development of PET in Latin America. Experience of the first PET-Cyclotron Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutor, C.A.; Frias, L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Describe the experience of the first PET-Cyclotron Center in Latin America. Demonstrate the viability of running a PET Center in Argentina despite the economic crisis. Materials and Methods: For this study, we used a UGM/GE Quest 250 PET scan, a RDS 112 cyclotron and a Radiosynthesis Laboratory installed at the (FUESMEN) Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, located in Mendoza City, in the middle-west of Argentina. From January 1999 to March 2002, 741 studies were obtained, 731 were 18 FluorDeoxyGlucose-PET studies and 10 phantoms for calibration purposes. We used acquisition and imaging processing standard protocols, as well as research protocols designed according to the pathology under investigation. To better correlate anatomical and functional images, we used fusion techniques with (CT) Computed Tomography in some (WB) whole-body PET scans. Results: A total of 731 patients were retrospectively analyzed and classified according to statistics variables such as: 1-sex: 317 women and 414 men, 2-type of scan: 439 WB cases, 267 brain studies and 25 cardiac. From this data we divided them as PET indications and resulted in 17 cases as healthy volunteers, 422 oncological cases, 267 neurological studies and 25 cardiac for myocardial viability. According to the origin they were classified as patients coming from Mendoza 544, Buenos Aires 112, other argentine provinces 60 and foreign (Chile, Brazil and Uruguay) 15 cases. In terms of billing, 181 studies were done free of charge, 95 under research protocols were also done free of charge and 451 were charged. Conclusion: Not only the economical and political factors play an important role limiting the advances of PET Imaging in Latin America, but also the lack of a neighboring cyclotron that circumscribe many hospitals to have access to the radiopharmaceutical agent. FUESMEN was established in 1991 by three governmental entities: the (CONEA) National Commission of Atomic Energy, the (UNC) National University of Cuyo and

  13. Advances in Meteoroid and Meteor Science

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M; Llorca, J; Janches, D

    2008-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of articles that summarize the most recent results in meteor, meteoroid and related fields presented at the Meteoroids 2007 conference held at the impressive CosmoCaixa Science Museum in Barcelona, Spain. The conference took place between the 11th and the 15th of June and was organized by the Institute of Space Sciences (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) and the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC). Researchers in meteor science and supporting fields representing more than 20 countries participated at this international conference. The papers contained in this volume underwent the rigorous refereeing process, and they are good examples of the continuous progress being made in this research field. Technological advances in meteor and metoroid detection, the ever-increasing sophistication of computer modeling, and the proliferation of autonomous monitoring stations continue to create new niches for exciting research on meteoroids and their parent bo...

  14. The Role of Science and Technology in the Advancement of Women Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, I.; Farhar, B.

    2000-10-12

    Participants at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, created a Platform for Action focusing on 12 critical areas of concern (poverty, education and training, health, violence, armed conflict, economy, decision-making, institutional mechanisms, human rights, the media, environment, and the girl child) and the serious barriers to women's health and well-being in each area. Subsequently, the Department of Energy funded a study, described here, that shows, in a literature review and in interviews with 15 women experts, how science and technology can be integral to women's advancement in each of the 12 critical areas. Among the study's conclusions are that differing perspectives exist (pro-science, relativist, and skeptical) on the role of science and technology in women's lives and that these differing perspectives may explain why communication is difficult among policy makers and with scientists about the role science and technology may play in the advancem ent of women worldwide. Recommendations call for women's involvement in the ethics of science; removal of institutional barriers to advancing women; greater accountability in use of resources; changes in science education; and increased dialogue among those with differing perspectives on the role of science and technology in the advancement of women.

  15. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  16. Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing in Plasma Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William

    2005-03-01

    Advanced computing is generally recognized to be an increasingly vital tool for accelerating progress in scientific research during the 21st Century. For example, the Department of Energy's ``Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing'' (SciDAC) Program was motivated in large measure by the fact that formidable scientific challenges in its research portfolio could best be addressed by utilizing the combination of the rapid advances in super-computing technology together with the emergence of effective new algorithms and computational methodologies. The imperative is to translate such progress into corresponding increases in the performance of the scientific codes used to model complex physical systems such as those encountered in high temperature plasma research. If properly validated against experimental measurements and analytic benchmarks, these codes can provide reliable predictive capability for the behavior of a broad range of complex natural and engineered systems. This talk reviews recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations with some illustrative examples taken from the plasma science applications area. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by the combination of access to powerful new computational resources together with innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning a huge range in time and space scales. In particular, the plasma science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations

  17. New developments in molecular imaging: positron emission tomography time-of-flight (TOF-PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, P.; Couce, B.; Iglesias, A.; Lois, C.

    2011-01-01

    Positron Emission tomography (PET) in increasingly being used in oncology for the diagnosis and staging of disease, as well as in monitoring response to therapy. One of the last advances in PET is the incorporation of Time-of-Flight (TOF) information, which improves the tomographic reconstruction process and subsequently the quality of the final image. In this work, we explain the principles of PET and the fundamentals of TOF-PET. Clinical images are shown in order to illustrate how TOF-PET improves the detectability of small lesions, particularly in patients with high body mass index. (Author) 20 refs

  18. Combined PET/MRI: Global Warming-Summary Report of the 6th International Workshop on PET/MRI, March 27-29, 2017, Tübingen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D L; Pichler, B J; Gückel, B; Antoch, G; Barthel, H; Bhujwalla, Z M; Biskup, S; Biswal, S; Bitzer, M; Boellaard, R; Braren, R F; Brendle, C; Brindle, K; Chiti, A; la Fougère, C; Gillies, R; Goh, V; Goyen, M; Hacker, M; Heukamp, L; Knudsen, G M; Krackhardt, A M; Law, I; Morris, J C; Nikolaou, K; Nuyts, J; Ordonez, A A; Pantel, K; Quick, H H; Riklund, K; Sabri, O; Sattler, B; Troost, E G C; Zaiss, M; Zender, L; Beyer, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how best to characterise the tumour microenvironment, optimise the complementary information available from PET and MRI, and how advanced data mining and bioinformatics, as well as information from liquid biomarkers (circulating tumour cells and nucleic acids) and pathology, can be integrated to give a more complete characterisation of disease phenotype. Some issues that have dominated previous meetings, such as the accuracy of MR-based attenuation correction (AC) of the PET scan, were finally put to rest as having been adequately addressed for the majority of clinical situations. Likewise, the ability to standardise PET systems for use in multicentre trials was confirmed, thus removing a perceived barrier to larger clinical imaging trials. The meeting openly questioned whether PET/MRI should, in all cases, be used as a whole-body imaging modality or whether in many circumstances it would best be employed to give an in-depth study of previously identified disease in a single organ or region. The meeting concluded that there is still much work to be done in the integration of data from different fields and in developing a common language for all stakeholders involved. In addition, the participants advocated joint training and education for individuals who engage in routine PET/MRI. It was agreed that PET/MRI can enhance our understanding of normal and disrupted biology, and we

  19. Advanced Placement Environmental Science and the Curriculum and Community Enterprise for Restoration Science (CCERS) Project in the New York City High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birney, Lauren; McNamara, Denise

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of social justice through the lens of equitable access to Advanced Placement courses in the City of New York High Schools, with focus on Advanced Placement Environmental Science. A critical component of the Advanced Placement Environmental Science course is the incorporation of environmental fieldwork. The National…

  20. FDG-PET study of the bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation effects on the regional cerebral metabolism in advanced Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Shen, J.; Zan, S.; Sun, B.; Zuo, C.; Guan, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGIu) induced by bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET data obtained before and one month after stimulation were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). As a result of clinically effective bilateral STN stimulation, rCMRGIu increased in lateral globus pallidus (GP), upper brain stem, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal-occipital cortex, and decreased in the orbital frontal cortex and parahippocampus gyrus (p <0.001). We conclude that the alleviation of clinical symptoms in advanced PD by bilateral STN stimulation may be the result of activation of both ascending and descending pathways from STN and of restoration of the impaired higher-order cortex functions. (author)

  1. Initial clinical test of a breast-PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Koren, Courtney; Schreiman, Judith S.; Majewski, Stan; Marano, Gary D.; Abraham, Jame; Kurian, Sobha; Hazard, Hannah; Filburn, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this initial clinical study was to test a new positron emission/tomography imager and biopsy system (PEM/PET) in a small group of selected subjects to assess its clinical imaging capabilities. Specifically, the main task of this study is to determine whether the new system can successfully be used to produce images of known breast cancer and compare them to those acquired by standard techniques. The PEM/PET system consists of two pairs of rotating radiation detectors located beneath a patient table. The scanner has a spatial resolution of ∼2 mm in all three dimensions. The subjects consisted of five patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer ranging in age from 40 to 55 years old scheduled for pre-treatment, conventional whole body PET imaging with F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The primary lesions were at least 2 cm in diameter. The images from the PEM/PET system demonstrated that this system is capable of identifying some lesions not visible in standard mammograms. Furthermore, while the relatively large lesions imaged in this study where all visualised by a standard whole body PET/CT scanner, some of the morphology of the tumours (ductal infiltration, for example) was better defined with the PEM/PET system. Significantly, these images were obtained immediately following a standard whole body PET scan. The initial testing of the new PEM/PET system demonstrated that the new system is capable of producing good quality breast-PET images compared standard methods.

  2. Dynamic-compliance and viscosity of PET and PEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weick, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    Complex dynamic-compliance and in-phase dynamic-viscosity data are presented and analyzed for PET and PEN advanced polyester substrates used for magnetic tapes. Frequency-temperature superposition is used to predict long-term behavior. Temperature and frequency ranges for the primary glass transition and secondary transitions are discussed and compared for PET and PEN. Shift factors from frequency-temperature superposition are used to determine activation energies for the transitions, and WLF parameters are determined for the polyester substrates.

  3. Dynamic-compliance and viscosity of PET and PEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weick, Brian L. [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California, 95211 (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Complex dynamic-compliance and in-phase dynamic-viscosity data are presented and analyzed for PET and PEN advanced polyester substrates used for magnetic tapes. Frequency-temperature superposition is used to predict long-term behavior. Temperature and frequency ranges for the primary glass transition and secondary transitions are discussed and compared for PET and PEN. Shift factors from frequency-temperature superposition are used to determine activation energies for the transitions, and WLF parameters are determined for the polyester substrates.

  4. Dynamic-compliance and viscosity of PET and PEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Brian L.

    2016-05-01

    Complex dynamic-compliance and in-phase dynamic-viscosity data are presented and analyzed for PET and PEN advanced polyester substrates used for magnetic tapes. Frequency-temperature superposition is used to predict long-term behavior. Temperature and frequency ranges for the primary glass transition and secondary transitions are discussed and compared for PET and PEN. Shift factors from frequency-temperature superposition are used to determine activation energies for the transitions, and WLF parameters are determined for the polyester substrates.

  5. Comparison of PET/CT with Sequential PET/MRI Using an MR-Compatible Mobile PET System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Nakamoto, Yuji; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Kido, Aki; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-05-01

    The current study tested a newly developed flexible PET (fxPET) scanner prototype. This fxPET system involves dual arc-shaped detectors based on silicon photomultipliers that are designed to fit existing MRI devices, allowing us to obtain fused PET and MR images by sequential PET and MR scanning. This prospective study sought to evaluate the image quality, lesion detection rate, and quantitative values of fxPET in comparison with conventional whole-body (WB) PET and to assess the accuracy of registration. Methods: Seventeen patients with suspected or known malignant tumors were analyzed. Approximately 1 h after intravenous injection of 18 F-FDG, WB PET/CT was performed, followed by fxPET and MRI. For reconstruction of fxPET images, MRI-based attenuation correction was applied. The quality of fxPET images was visually assessed, and the number of detected lesions was compared between the 2 imaging methods. SUV max and maximum average SUV within a 1 cm 3 spheric volume (SUV peak ) of lesions were also compared. In addition, the magnitude of misregistration between fxPET and MR images was evaluated. Results: The image quality of fxPET was acceptable for diagnosis of malignant tumors. There was no significant difference in detectability of malignant lesions between fxPET and WB PET ( P > 0.05). However, the fxPET system did not exhibit superior performance to the WB PET system. There were strong positive correlations between the 2 imaging modalities in SUV max (ρ = 0.88) and SUV peak (ρ = 0.81). SUV max and SUV peak measured with fxPET were approximately 1.1-fold greater than measured with WB PET. The average misregistration between fxPET and MR images was 5.5 ± 3.4 mm. Conclusion: Our preliminary data indicate that running an fxPET scanner near an existing MRI system provides visually and quantitatively acceptable fused PET/MR images for diagnosis of malignant lesions. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG-PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2003-01-01

    Finding epileptogenic zone is the most important step for the successful epilepsy surgery. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used in the localization of epileptogenic foci. In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT is excellent. However, detection of hippocampal sclerosis by MRI is so certain that use of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT in medial temporal lobe epilepsy is limited for some occasions. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG-PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, FDG-PET and ictal SPECT can have a crucial role in the localization of epileptogenic foci for non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. Interpretation of FDG-PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods can aid the objective diagnosis of epileptogenic foci. lctal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, ictal EEG findings during injection of tracer, and repeated ictal SPECT were important technical issues of ictal SPECT. SPECT can also be used in the evaluation of validity of Wada test

  7. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG-PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    Finding epileptogenic zone is the most important step for the successful epilepsy surgery. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used in the localization of epileptogenic foci. In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT is excellent. However, detection of hippocampal sclerosis by MRI is so certain that use of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT in medial temporal lobe epilepsy is limited for some occasions. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG-PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, FDG-PET and ictal SPECT can have a crucial role in the localization of epileptogenic foci for non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. Interpretation of FDG-PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods can aid the objective diagnosis of epileptogenic foci. lctal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, ictal EEG findings during injection of tracer, and repeated ictal SPECT were important technical issues of ictal SPECT. SPECT can also be used in the evaluation of validity of Wada test.

  8. Monte Carlo modeling of a clinical PET scanner by using the GATE dedicated computer code; Modelagem Monte Carlo de um PET Scanner clinico utilizando o codigo dedicado GATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Igor Fagner; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Vieira, Jose Wilson [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper demonstrates more possible detailed the GATE simulated architecture involved in the 4D modeling of a General Electric PET scanner, the Advance. So, it were used data present in the literature on the configuration of GE modelled PET. The obtained results which were the 3D components of PET creation, and the simulation of 4D phenomena as the source decay and the gantry whirl, exhibit the potential of tool in emission tomograph modelling

  9. Comparison between PET/MR and PET/CT in evaluation of oncological patients%PET/MR与PET/CT的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐白萱; 富丽萍; 关志伟; 尹大一; 刘家金; 杨晖; 张锦明; 陈英茂; 安宁豫

    2014-01-01

    Objective To verify the feasibility of the integrated PET/MR for oncological applications by comparing PET/MR with PET/CT in terms of lesion detection and quantitative measurement.Methods A total of 277 patients (165 males,112 females,average age (52.9± 12.6) years) voluntarily participated in this same-day PET/CT and PET/MR comparative study.The time interval between the two studies was 15-35 min.PET/CT images were acquired and reconstructed following standard protocols.PET/MR covered the body trunk with a sequence combination of transverse T1 weighted imaging (WI) 3D-volumetric interpolated breath-hold,T2WI turbo spin echo with fat saturation,diffusion-weighted imaging,and simultaneous PET acquisition.PET images were reconstructed by vender-provided attenuation correction methods.The results of PET/CT and PET/MR were regarded as positive if any modality (CT,PET or MRI) was positive.SUVmax was obtained by the manually drawn ROI.Detection rates were compared with x2 test and SUVmax from the two modalities was analyzed with Spearman correlation analysis.Results A total of 353 lesions were detected in 220 patients.Compared to PET/CT,PET/MR revealed 30 additional true-positive lesions,while missed 6.The detection rates between PET/CT and PET/MR were significantly different (P<0.05).The lesion-based and patient-based consistency was 89.8% (317/353) and 85.9% (189/220),respectively.There were significant correlations of SUVmax between PET/MR and PET/CT for lesions(rs =0.91,P<0.01) and for normal tissues(rs =0.62-0.76,all P<0.01).Conclusions With reference to PET/CT,integrated PET/MR may provide comparable semi-quantitative measurements of pathological lesions as well as normal tissues.Integrated PET/MR may be more effective to detect lesions in abdomen and pelvis.%目的 通过与PET/CT在病灶检测及定量分析方面的比较,论证PET/MR一体机应用于临床的可行性.方法 2012年5月至2013年2月共300例患者同天间隔15 ~ 35 min行PET/CT和PET

  10. IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Nuno; Monteiro, Mário

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences entitled "Asteroseismology and Exoplanets: Listening to the Stars and Searching for New Worlds". The school addressed the topics at the forefront of scientific research being conducted in the fields of asteroseismology and exoplanetary science, two fields of modern astrophysics that share many synergies and resources. These proceedings comprise the contributions from 18 invited lecturers, including both monographic presentations and a number of hands-on tutorials.

  11. High FDG uptake areas on pre-radiotherapy PET/CT identify preferential sites of local relapse after chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calais, Jeremie; Lemarignier, Charles; Vera, Pierre [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Dubray, Bernard [University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Nkhali, Lamyaa; Thureau, Sebastien; Modzelewski, Romain; Gardin, Isabelle [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Di Fiore, Frederic [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, IRON, Rouen (France); Michel, Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France)

    2015-05-01

    The high failure rates in the radiotherapy (RT) target volume suggest that patients with locally advanced oesophageal cancer (LAOC) would benefit from increased total RT doses. High 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake (hotspot) on pre-RT FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has been reported to identify intra-tumour sites at increased risk of relapse after RT in non-small cell lung cancer and in rectal cancer. Our aim was to confirm these observations in patients with LAOC and to determine the optimal maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) threshold to delineate smaller RT target volumes that would facilitate RT dose escalation without impaired tolerance. The study included 98 consecutive patients with LAOC treated by chemoradiotherapy (CRT). All patients underwent FDG PET/CT at initial staging and during systematic follow-up in a single institution. FDG PET/CT acquisitions were coregistered on the initial CT scan. Various subvolumes within the initial tumour (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) and in the subsequent local recurrence (LR, 40 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) were pasted on the initial CT scan and compared[Dice, Jaccard, overlap fraction (OF), common volume/baseline volume, common volume/recurrent volume]. Thirty-five patients had LR. The initial metabolic tumour volume was significantly higher in LR tumours than in the locally controlled tumours (mean 25.4 vs 14.2 cc; p = 0.002). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good agreement with the recurrent volume at 40 % SUV{sub max} (OF = 0.60-0.80). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good to excellent agreement with the core volume (90 % SUV{sub max}) of the relapse (common volume/recurrent volume and OF indices 0.61-0.89). High FDG uptake on pretreatment PET/CT identifies tumour subvolumes that are at greater risk of recurrence after CRT in

  12. PET AND SPECT STUDIES IN CHILDREN WITH HEMISPHERIC LOW-GRADE GLIOMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Csaba; Bosnyák, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in the pre-treatment evaluation of low-grade gliomas. While glucose positron emission tomography (PET) can be helpful to differentiate low-grade from high-grade tumors, PET imaging with amino acid radiotracers has several advantages, such as better differentiation between tumors and non-tumorous lesions, optimized biopsy targeting and improved detection of tumor recurrence. This review provides a brief overview of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies followed by a more detailed review of clinical applications of glucose and amino acid PET imaging in low-grade hemispheric gliomas. We discuss key differences in the performance of the most commonly utilized PET radiotracers and highlight the advantage of PET/MRI fusion to obtain optimal information about tumor extent, heterogeneity and metabolism. Recent data also suggest that simultaneous acquisition of PET/MR images and the combination of advanced MRI techniques with quantitative PET can further improve the pre- and post-treatment evaluation of pediatric brain tumors. PMID:27659825

  13. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  14. TH-E-202-01: Pitfalls and Remedies in PET/CT Imaging for RT Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, T.

    2016-01-01

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  15. TH-E-202-01: Pitfalls and Remedies in PET/CT Imaging for RT Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, T. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  16. Early prediction of response to cetuximab and radiotherapy by FDG-PET/CT for the treatment of a locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Grybauskas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cetuximab (CTX is used for the concurrent treatment with radiotherapy (RT in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (HNSCC. There are no reliable clinical predictive markers of effectiveness of CTX at yet. We describe the clinical case of patient who received a CTX/RT to cure locoregionally advanced hypopharyngeal SCC. 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18FDG-PET/CT was performed before the treatment and repeated 10 days after CTX induction dose. A repeated 18FDG-PET/CT scan showed dramatic decrease of metabolic parameters. Patient had a complete response after treatment and is still alive and cured after 5 years.

  17. Routes for the production of isotopes for PET with high intensity deuteron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Saavedra, F.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in accelerator science are opening new possibilities in different fields of physics. In particular, the development of compact linear accelerators that can provide charged particles of low-medium energy (few MeV) with high current (above mA) allows for the study of new possibilities in neutron production and for new routes for the production of radioisotopes. Keeping in mind how radioisotopes are actually produced in dedicated facilities, we have performed a study of alternative reactions to produce PET isotopes induced by low-energy deuterons. We have fitted the EXFOR cross sections data, used the fitted values of the stopping power by Andersen and Ziegler and calculated by numerical integration the production rate of isotopes for charged particles up to 20 MeV. The results for deuterons up to 3 MeV are compared with the ones from cyclotrons, which are able to provide higher energies to the charged projectiles but with lower intensities. Our results indicate that using linear accelerators may be a good alternative for producing PET isotopes, reducing the problem of neutron activation.

  18. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  19. Exploring a Century of Advancements in the Science of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P. Karen; Knight, Stephanie L.

    2016-01-01

    The past century has yielded a plethora of advancements in the science of learning, from expansions in the theoretical frames that undergird education research to cultural and contextual considerations in educational practice. The overarching purpose of this chapter is to explore and document the growth and development of the science of learning…

  20. Using positron emission tomography (PET) response criteria in solid tumours (PERCIST) 1.0 for evaluation of 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose-PET/CT scans to predict survival early during treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledelius, Joan; Khalil, Azza Ahmed; Hjorthaug, Karin; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    The demand for early-response evaluation with 2'-deoxy-2'-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (F-18-FDG) positron emission tomography combined with whole body CT (PET/CT) is rapidly growing. This study was initiated to evaluate the applicability of the PET response criteria in solid tumours (PERCIST 1.0) for response evaluation. We performed a retrospective study of 21 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had undergone both a baseline and a follow-up F-18-FDG-PET/CT scan during their treatments. The scans were performed at our institution in the period September 2009 and March 2011 and were analysed visually and according to PERCIST 1.0 by one board-certified nuclear medicine physician. The response was compared with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The variation in key parameters affecting the F-18-FDG uptake was assessed. A kappa of 0.94 corresponding to an almost perfect agreement was found for the comparison of the visual evaluation with PERCIST. Patients with partial metabolic response and stable metabolic disease (as evaluated by PERCIST 1.0) had statistically significant longer median time to progression: 8.4 months (confidence interval (CI) 5.1-11.8 months) as compared with 2.7 months (CI 0-5.6 months) in patients classified with progression. The variation in uptake time between baseline and follow-up scans was more than the recommended 15 min in 48% of patients. PERCIST 1.0 is readily implementable and highly comparable with visual evaluation of response using early F-18-FDG-PET/CT scanning for locally advanced NSCLC patients. In spite of variations in parameters affecting F-18-FDG uptake, evaluation of F-18-FDG-PET/CT during treatment with PERCIST 1.0 is shown to separate non-responders from responders, each with statistically significant differences in both OS and PFS. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  1. Comparison among conventional and advanced MRI, 18F-FDG PET/CT, phenotype and genotype in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Mellai, Marta; Annovazzi, Laura; Melcarne, Antonio; Denysenko, Tetyana; Cassoni, Paola; Casalone, Cristina; Maurella, Cristiana; Grifoni, Silvia; Fania, Piercarlo; Cistaro, Angelina; Schiffer, Davide

    2017-10-31

    Glioblastoma (GB) is a highly heterogeneous tumor. In order to identify in vivo the most malignant tumor areas, the extent of tumor infiltration and the sites giving origin to GB stem cells (GSCs), we combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics. Prior to dura opening and tumor resection, forty-eight biopsy specimens [23 of contrast-enhancing (CE) and 25 of non-contrast enhancing (NE) regions] from 12 GB patients were obtained by a frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy technique. The highest values of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose maximum standardized uptake value ( 18 F-FDG SUV max ), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), Choline/Creatine (Cho/Cr), Choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) and Lipids/Lactate (LL) ratio have been observed in the CE region. They corresponded to the most malignant tumor phenotype, to the greatest molecular spectrum and stem cell potential. On the contrary, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the CE region were very variable. 18 F-FDG SUV max , Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratio resulted the most suitable parameters to detect tumor infiltration. In edematous areas, reactive astrocytes and microglia/macrophages were influencing variables. Combined MRI and 18 F-FDG PET/CT allowed to recognize the specific biological significance of the different identified areas of GB.

  2. PET/CT和CT在局部晚期肺癌新辅助化疗后淋巴结再分期中的比较研究%Evaluation of PET/CT versus CT in the mediastinal lymph node restaging of locally advanced lung cancer after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武雅琴; 冯冬杰; 许林; 蒋峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价PET/CT和CT在局部晚期(N2)非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)新辅助化疗后淋巴结再分期中的敏感性、特异性和准确性.方法 将2005年11月至2010年5月118例经细胞学或病理学确诊的N2期NSCLC患者随机分为PET/CT组和CT组,每组59例,在新辅助化疗后分别行PET/CT和CT检查,对评价为缓解或稳定的病例根据显像结果评判纵隔淋巴结的转移情况,并与术后病理诊断相比较,从而对患者进行再分期.结果 CT组45例患者和PET/CT组51例患者评价为缓解或稳定.PET/CT组对N2期NSCLC新辅助化疗后淋巴结再分期的敏感性和特异性分别为87.5%、88.2%,明显高于CT组的56.0%和68.9%;PET/CT和CT的诊断准确性分别为85.0%和69.5%.CT组纵隔淋巴结分期的诊断相符率为66.7%,低于PET/CT组的85.7%.结论 PET/CT对于N2期NSCLC新辅助化疗后淋巴结的准确再分期有重要价值,其敏感性、特异性、准确性及纵隔淋巴结分期的诊断相符率均高于CT.%Objective To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/CT versus CT in the restating of locally advanced (N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods One hundred and eighteen patients with cytology or pathology confirmed N2 stage NSCLC enrolled in this study were randomly divided into 2 groups (PET/CT and CT group) with 59 cases in each group. After the completion of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, we used the PET/CT or CT to restage the mediastinal nodal lesions by comparing the corresponding pathologic staging for those whom confirmed with response or stable disease. Results Forty-five cases in CT group and fifty-one in PET/CT group achieved response or stable disease. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of mediastinal lymph node staging by PET/CT were 87. 5% , 88. 2% and 85. 0% , higher than 56.0% , 68.9% and 69. 5% in CT group. The diagnostic coincidence of mediastinal lymph node staging in PET/CT group was 85

  3. High-resolution PET [Positron Emission Tomography] for Medical Science Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, T. F.; Derenzo, S. E.; Huesman, R. H.; Jagust, W. J.; Valk, P. E.

    1989-09-01

    One of the unexpected fruits of basic physics research and the computer revolution is the noninvasive imaging power available to today's physician. Technologies that were strictly the province of research scientists only a decade or two ago now serve as the foundations for such standard diagnostic tools as x-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), ultrasound, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Furthermore, prompted by the needs of both the practicing physician and the clinical researcher, efforts to improve these technologies continue. This booklet endeavors to describe the advantages of achieving high resolution in PET imaging.

  4. A score combining baseline neutrophilia and primary tumor SUV{sub peak} measured from FDG PET is associated with outcome in locally advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schernberg, Antoine; Sun, Roger; Chargari, Cyrus [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Reuze, Sylvain [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Gustave Roussy, Universite Paris-Saclay, Department of Medical Physics, Villejuif (France); Orlhac, Fanny [INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA-SHFJ, IMIV, CEA, Inserm, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Buvat, Irene [Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA-SHFJ, IMIV, CEA, Inserm, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Dercle, Laurent [Gustave Roussy, Universite Paris-Saclay, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1015, Villejuif (France); Limkin, Elaine [INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Escande, Alexandre; Haie-Meder, Christine [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); Deutsch, Eric [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Robert, Charlotte [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Gustave Roussy, Universite Paris-Saclay, Department of Medical Physics, Villejuif (France)

    2018-02-15

    We investigated whether a score combining baseline neutrophilia and a PET biomarker could predict outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Patients homogeneously treated with definitive chemoradiation plus image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) between 2006 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. We divided patients into two groups depending on the PET device used: a training set (TS) and a validation set (VS). Primary tumors were semi-automatically delineated on PET images, and 11 radiomics features were calculated (LIFEx software). A PET radiomic index was selected using the time-dependent area under the curve (td-AUC) for 3-year local control (LC). We defined the neutrophil SUV grade (NSG = 0, 1 or 2) score as the number of risk factors among (i) neutrophilia (neutrophil count >7 G/L) and (ii) high risk defined from the PET radiomic index. The NSG prognostic value was evaluated for LC and overall survival (OS). Data from 108 patients were analyzed. Estimated 3-year LC was 72% in the TS (n = 69) and 65% in the VS (n = 39). In the TS, SUV{sub peak} was selected as the most LC-predictive biomarker (td-AUC = 0.75), and was independent from neutrophilia (p = 0.119). Neutrophilia (HR = 2.6), high-risk SUV{sub peak} (SUV{sub peak} > 10, HR = 4.4) and NSG = 2 (HR = 9.2) were associated with low probability of LC in TS. In multivariate analysis, NSG = 2 was independently associated with low probability of LC (HR = 7.5, p < 0.001) and OS (HR = 5.8, p = 0.001) in the TS. Results obtained in the VS (HR = 5.2 for OS and 3.5 for LC, p < 0.02) were promising. This innovative scoring approach combining baseline neutrophilia and a PET biomarker provides an independent prognostic factor to consider for further clinical investigations. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of early response to concomitant chemoradiotherapy by interim {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with locally advanced oesophageal carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, Xavier; Hennequin, Christophe; Rivera, Sofia; Baruch-Hennequin, Valerie [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Radiation Oncology, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Nuclear Medicine Department, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Leveque Hospital, CHU Bordeaux (France); Vercellino, Laetitia [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Nuclear Medicine Department, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); Gornet, Jean-Marc [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Gastroenterology Department, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); Cattan, Pierre; Chirica, Mircea [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Surgery Department, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France); Quero, Laurent [Saint Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Department of Radiation Oncology, Paris (France); Denis Diderot University (Paris 7), Paris (France)

    2013-04-15

    The best way to assess the response to chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced oesophageal carcinomas is not known. We used {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT to evaluate the metabolic response during chemoradiotherapy and tried to correlate this response to survival. Patients with biopsy-proven oesophageal carcinoma underwent FDG PET/CT with evaluation of the standardized uptake value (SUV) before any treatment (SUV1) and during chemoradiotherapy after two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (FU)/cisplatin and 20 Gy (SUV2). Metabolic response was defined as 1-(SUV2/SUV1). Surgery was discussed after 40 Gy and three cycles of chemotherapy. Results of interim PET were not considered for the therapeutic decision. Among 72 patients who underwent a first FDG PET/CT before any treatment, 59 (82 %) could receive the second FDG PET/CT examination. Median survival was 22.2 months with 1-year and 2-year survivals of 70 and 46 %, respectively. Nineteen patients (32 %) underwent surgery. Mean SUV1 and SUV2 were 12.3 {+-} 6.2 and 6 {+-} 4.1, respectively (p < 0.001). Using a cut-off for metabolic response of 50 %, sensitivity and specificity for survival were 0.7 and 0.58. The 2-year overall survival of good responders was 62 % as compared to 27 % for poor metabolic responders. A multivariate analysis was performed, including T and N stages, surgery, histology and metabolic response: only metabolic response was significantly (p = 0.009) associated with 2-year survival. Early evaluation of metabolic response had a great prognostic value and could help identify good responders to chemoradiotherapy. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Demir; Türkay Toklu; Mohammad Abuqbeitah; Hüseyin Çetin; H. Sezer Sezgin; Nami Yeyin; Kerim Sönmezoğlu

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) component of PET/computed tomography (CT) with new emerging PET/magnetic resonance (MR) of the same vendor. Methods: According to National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-07, five separate experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of PET scanner of General Electric GE company; SIGNATM model PET/MR and GE Discovery 710 model PET/CT. The main investigated...

  7. Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Mustafa; Toklu, Türkay; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Çetin, Hüseyin; Sezgin, H. Sezer; Yeyin, Nami; Sönmezoğlu, Kerim

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) component of PET/computed tomography (CT) with new emerging PET/magnetic resonance (MR) of the same vendor. Methods: According to National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-07, five separate experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of PET scanner of General Electric GE company; SIGNATM model PET/MR and GE Discovery 710 model PET/CT. The main investigated asp...

  8. Progress in the application of a combination microdialysis and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Jinping; Zhou Xue; Zhu Lin

    2010-01-01

    PET is an advanced imaging technology to obtain biological, physiological or pharmacological function. The PET signal comprises the sum of a radio-probe and its radioactive metabolites from intracellular, extracellular and intravascular compartments of a given tissue, it cannot provide the chemical composition of the radioactivity or compartments of radio-labeled substances present. On the other hand, in vivo microdialysis is a powerful sampling technique wherein regional chemical information is obtained by implanting a probe into the extracellular fluid of interest tissue. Combined PET and microdialysis may potentially play an important role inn pathophysiology, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism. (authors)

  9. The need for clinical quantification of combined PET/MRI data in pediatric epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzik, Otto; Pai, Darshan; Juhasz, Csaba; Hua, Jing

    2013-01-01

    In the past, multimodality integrative analysis of image data has been used to obtain a better understanding of underlying mechanisms of seizure generation and propagation in children with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. However, despite important advances in the combined analysis of PET, MRI, DTI and EEG data, successful surgical outcome is only achieved in about 2/3 of patients undergoing resective surgery. The advent of simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition promises an important advance in neuroimaging through clinical quantification, which will finally translate the strength of PET (which is the ability to absolutely quantify physiological parameters such as metabolic rates and receptor densities) into clinical work. Taking advantage of recently developed integrated PET/MR devices, absolute physiological values will be available in clinical routine, replacing currently used visual assessment of relative tissue tracer uptake. This will allow assessment of global increases/decreases of brain function during critical phases of development and is likely to have a significant impact on patient management in pediatric epilepsy

  10. The need for clinical quantification of combined PET/MRI data in pediatric epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzik, Otto, E-mail: otto@pet.wayne.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Pai, Darshan [Department of Computer Science, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Juhasz, Csaba [Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Hua, Jing [Department of Computer Science, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-02-21

    In the past, multimodality integrative analysis of image data has been used to obtain a better understanding of underlying mechanisms of seizure generation and propagation in children with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. However, despite important advances in the combined analysis of PET, MRI, DTI and EEG data, successful surgical outcome is only achieved in about 2/3 of patients undergoing resective surgery. The advent of simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition promises an important advance in neuroimaging through clinical quantification, which will finally translate the strength of PET (which is the ability to absolutely quantify physiological parameters such as metabolic rates and receptor densities) into clinical work. Taking advantage of recently developed integrated PET/MR devices, absolute physiological values will be available in clinical routine, replacing currently used visual assessment of relative tissue tracer uptake. This will allow assessment of global increases/decreases of brain function during critical phases of development and is likely to have a significant impact on patient management in pediatric epilepsy.

  11. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  12. Therapy assessment in prostate cancer using choline and PSMA PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); University of California Los Angeles, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hadaschik, Boris [University Hospital Essen, Department of Urology, Essen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    While PET with non-FDG tracers (mainly choline and Ga-PSMA) has commonly been used for restaging in men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer, as well as for primary staging, it is only recently that a few preliminary studies have addressed the possible use of PET for monitoring the response to systemic therapy of metastatic disease, especially innovative treatments such as abiraterone and enzalutamide. This article aims to evaluate the role of PET imaging with different non-FDG radiotracers for assessment of therapy in advanced prostate cancer patients. (orig.)

  13. Monte Carlo simulation and scatter correction of the GE Advance PET scanner with SimSET and Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barret, Olivier; Carpenter, T Adrian; Clark, John C; Ansorge, Richard E; Fryer, Tim D

    2005-01-01

    For Monte Carlo simulations to be used as an alternative solution to perform scatter correction, accurate modelling of the scanner as well as speed is paramount. General-purpose Monte Carlo packages (Geant4, EGS, MCNP) allow a detailed description of the scanner but are not efficient at simulating voxel-based geometries (patient images). On the other hand, dedicated codes (SimSET, PETSIM) will perform well for voxel-based objects but will be poor in their capacity of simulating complex geometries such as a PET scanner. The approach adopted in this work was to couple a dedicated code (SimSET) with a general-purpose package (Geant4) to have the efficiency of the former and the capabilities of the latter. The combined SimSET+Geant4 code (SimG4) was assessed on the GE Advance PET scanner and compared to the use of SimSET only. A better description of the resolution and sensitivity of the scanner and of the scatter fraction was obtained with SimG4. The accuracy of scatter correction performed with SimG4 and SimSET was also assessed from data acquired with the 20 cm NEMA phantom. SimG4 was found to outperform SimSET and to give slightly better results than the GE scatter correction methods installed on the Advance scanner (curve fitting and scatter modelling for the 300-650 keV and 375-650 keV energy windows, respectively). In the presence of a hot source close to the edge of the field of view (as found in oxygen scans), the GE curve-fitting method was found to fail whereas SimG4 maintained its performance

  14. Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sobh, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering includes the proceedings of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2011). The contents of this book are a set of rigorously reviewed, world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of  Industrial Electronics, Technology and Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.

  15. Effect of household pet ownership on infant immune response and subsequent sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Simpson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Angela SimpsonManchester Academic Health Science Centre, NIHR Translational Research Facility in Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UKAbstract: Sensitization to pets is a major risk factor for asthma. There are many reports on the relationship between household pets, sensitization to the pet, and sensitization to other allergens, often with conflicting results. Pet ownership is not random, and household pets are associated with exposures other than pet allergens. We will review some of the evidence regarding the effects of household pets on infant immune responses, focusing on data from birth cohort studies. It remains unclear precisely why some children develop specific sensitizations to pets whilst others do not in the face of equivalent exposures, but it is likely to be due to gene-environment interactions. Further long-term follow-up of children in whom neonatal and infant immune responses have been measured is necessary to understand how these events occur and how they relate to subsequent disease.Keywords: pets, sensitization, immune response

  16. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, D. W.; Jung, J. G.; Lee, M. C [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, S. M [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advance of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not so much satisfactory as human image. As cats have relatively large sized brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mice or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCl. A burr hole was made at 1cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 ul was injected using 30G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. F-18 FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville. TN) scans were performed 1. 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition. 18F-FDG PET scans were performed using Gemini PET scanner (Philips medical systems. CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infraction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the Gemini PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using F-18 FDG microPET scanner.

  17. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, D. W.; Jung, J. G.; Lee, M. C; Lim, S. M

    2004-01-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advance of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not so much satisfactory as human image. As cats have relatively large sized brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mice or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCl. A burr hole was made at 1cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 ul was injected using 30G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. F-18 FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville. TN) scans were performed 1. 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition. 18F-FDG PET scans were performed using Gemini PET scanner (Philips medical systems. CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infraction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the Gemini PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using F-18 FDG microPET scanner

  18. Quantitative assessment of Zirconium-89 labeled cetuximab using PET/CT imaging in patients with advanced head and neck cancer: a theragnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Aniek J G; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; van Elmpt, Wouter; Winnepenninckx, Véronique J L; Heukelom, Jolien; Tesselaar, Margot E T; Vogel, Wouter V; Hoeben, Ann; Zegers, Catharina M L; Vugts, Daniëlle J; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Bartelink, Harry; Mottaghy, Felix M; Hoebers, Frank; Lambin, Philippe

    2017-01-17

    Biomarkers predicting treatment response to the monoclonal antibody cetuximab in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (LAHNSCC) are lacking. We hypothesize that tumor accessibility is an important factor in treatment success of the EGFR targeting drug. We quantified uptake of cetuximab labeled with Zirconium-89 (89Zr) using PET/CT imaging.Seventeen patients with stage III-IV LAHNSCC received a loading dose unlabeled cetuximab, followed by 10 mg 54.5±9.6 MBq 89Zr-cetuximab. PET/CT images were acquired either 3 and 6 or 4 and 7 days post-injection. 89Zr-cetuximab uptake was quantified using standardized uptake value (SUV) and tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), and correlated to EGFR immunohistochemistry. TBR was compared between scan days to determine optimal timing.Uptake of 89Zr-cetuximab varied between patients (day 6-7: SUVpeak range 2.5-6.2). TBR increased significantly (49±28%, p < 0.01) between first (1.1±0.3) and second scan (1.7±0.6). Between groups with a low and high EGFR expression a significant difference in SUVmean (2.1 versus 3.0) and SUVpeak (3.2 versus 4.7) was found, however, not in TBR. Data is available at www.cancerdata.org (DOI: 10.17195/candat.2016.11.1).In conclusion, 89Zr-cetuximab PET imaging shows large inter-patient variety in LAHNSCC and provides additional information over FDG-PET and EGFR expression. Validation of the predictive value is recommended with scans acquired 6-7 days post-injection.

  19. FDG-PET in monitoring therapy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H J; Bender, H; Palmedo, H [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been used successfully for the staging and re-staging of breast cancer. Another significant indication is the evaluation of therapy response. Only limited data are available on the use of FDG-PET in breast cancer after radiation therapy. The same holds true for chemotherapy. Only the therapy response in locally advanced breast cancer after chemotherapy has been investigated thoroughly. Histopathological response could be predicted with an accuracy of 88-91% after the first and second courses of therapy. A quantitative evaluation is, of course, a prerequisite when FDG-PET is used for therapy monitoring. Only a small number of studies have focussed on hormone therapy. In this context, a flare phenomenon with increasing standardised uptake values after initiation of tamoxifen therapy has been observed. More prospective multicentre trials will be needed to make FDG-PET a powerful tool in monitoring chemotherapy in breast cancer. (orig.)

  20. FDG-PET in monitoring therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Bender, H.; Palmedo, H.

    2004-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been used successfully for the staging and re-staging of breast cancer. Another significant indication is the evaluation of therapy response. Only limited data are available on the use of FDG-PET in breast cancer after radiation therapy. The same holds true for chemotherapy. Only the therapy response in locally advanced breast cancer after chemotherapy has been investigated thoroughly. Histopathological response could be predicted with an accuracy of 88-91% after the first and second courses of therapy. A quantitative evaluation is, of course, a prerequisite when FDG-PET is used for therapy monitoring. Only a small number of studies have focussed on hormone therapy. In this context, a flare phenomenon with increasing standardised uptake values after initiation of tamoxifen therapy has been observed. More prospective multicentre trials will be needed to make FDG-PET a powerful tool in monitoring chemotherapy in breast cancer. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of response by FDG PET early during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Zi; Oh, So Won; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yu Kyeong [SMG-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the predictive value of the early response of 18F-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). FDG PET was performed before and during CCRT for 13 NSCLC patients. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured and the changes were calculated. These early metabolic changes were compared with the standard tumor response by computed tomograms (CT) one month after CCRT.One month after the completion of CCRT, 9 patients had partial response (PR) of tumor and 4 patients had stable disease. The percent changes of SUVmax (%DeltaSUVmax) were larger in responder group than in non-responder group (55.7% +/- 15.6% vs. 23.1% +/- 19.0%, p = 0.01). The percent changes of SUVmean (%DeltaSUVmean) were also larger in responder group than in non-responder group (54.4% +/- 15.9% vs. 22.3% +/- 23.0%, p = 0.01). The percent changes of MTV (%DeltaMTV) or TLG (%DeltaTLG) had no correlation with the tumor response after treatment. All the 7 patients (100%) with %DeltaSUVmax > or = 50% had PR, but only 2 out of 6 patients (33%) with %DeltaSUVmax < 50% had PR after CCRT (p = 0.009). Likewise, all the 6 patients (100%) with %DeltaSUVmean > or = 50% had PR, but only 3 out of 7 patients (43%) with %DeltaSUVmean < 50% had PR after CCRT (p = 0.026). The degree of metabolic changes measured by PET-CT during CCRT was predictive for NSCLC tumor response after CCRT.

  2. The use of PET in assessing tumor response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Daisy; Joon, Daryl Lim; Chao, Michael; Wada, Morikatsu; Joon, Michael Lim; See, Andrew; Feigen, Malcolm; Jenkins, Patricia; Mercuri, Angelina; McNamara, Joanne; Poon, Aurora; Khoo, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the correlation of 18F-FDG-PET (PET) response to pathological response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and materials: Twenty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were identified between 2001 and 2005. The median age was 57 years (range 37-72) with 14 males and 6 females. All patients were staged with endorectal ultrasound and/or MRI, CT, and PET. The clinical staging was T3N0M0 (16), T3N1M0 (2), and T3N0M1 (2). Restaging PET was performed after CRT, and prior to definitive surgery. The response on PET and pathology was assessed and correlated. Patient outcome according to PET response was also assessed. Results: Following CRT, a complete PET response occurred in 7 patients, incomplete response in 10, and no response in 3 patients. At surgery, complete pathological response was recorded in 7 patients, incomplete response in 10 and no response in 3. There was a good correlation of PET and pathological responses in complete responders (5/7 cases) and non-responders (3/3 cases). After a median follow-up of 62 months (range 7-73), twelve patients were alive with no evidence of disease. All patients achieving complete metabolic response were alive with no evidence of disease, while as those who had no metabolic response, all died as a result of metastatic disease. Conclusions: PET is a promising complementary assessment tool for assessing tumor response after CRT if there is a complete or no response. PET response may also predict for outcome.

  3. Improvement of PET surface hydrophilicity and roughness through blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahchi, Ahmad Rezaei; Ajji, Abdellah; Carreau, Pierre J. [CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal, 2500 chemin de Polytechnique, Quebec, Montreal (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    Controlling the adhesion of the polymer surface is a key issue in surface science, since polymers have been a commonly used material for many years. The surface modification in this study includes two different aspects. One is to enhance the hydrophilicity and the other is to create the roughness on the PET film surface. In this study we developed a novel and simple approach to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface through polymer blending in twin-screw extruder. One example described in the study uses polyethylene glycol (PEG) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host to modify a PET film surface. Low content of polystyrene (PS) as a third component was used in the system to increase the rate of migration of PEG to the surface of the film. Surface enrichment of PEG was observed at the polymer/air interface of the polymer film containing PET-PEG-PS whereas for the PET-PEG binary blend more PEG was distributed within the bulk of the sample. Furthermore, a novel method to create roughness at the PET film surface was proposed. In order to roughen the surface of PET film, a small amount of PKHH phenoxy resin to change PS/PET interfacial tension was used. The compatibility effect of PKHH causes the formation of smaller PS droplets, which were able to migrate more easily through PET matrix. Consequently, resulting in a locally elevated concentration of PS near the surface of the film. The local concentration of PS eventually reached a level where a co-continuous morphology occurred, resulting in theinstabilities on the surface of the film.

  4. Performance of FDG PET/CT in the clinical management of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groheux, David; Espié, Marc; Giacchetti, Sylvie; Hindié, Elif

    2013-02-01

    In this analysis, the role of metabolic imaging with fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in breast cancer is reviewed. The analysis was limited to recent works by using state-of-the-art positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) technology. The strengths and limitations of FDG PET/CT are examined in various clinical settings, and the following questions are answered: Is FDG PET/CT useful to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions? Can FDG PET/CT replace sentinel node biopsy for axillary staging? What is the role of FDG PET/CT in initial staging of inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer? What is the role of FDG PET/CT in initial staging of clinical stage IIA and IIB and primary operable stage IIIA breast cancer? How does FDG PET/CT compare with conventional techniques in the restaging of cancer in patients who are suspected of having disease recurrence? What is the role of FDG PET/CT in the assessment of early response to neoadjuvant therapy and of response to therapy for metastatic disease? Some recommendations for clinical practice are given.

  5. 1. international spring school and symposium on advances in materials science; contributed papers. Proceedings. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The first International Conference on Advances in Materials Science was held on 15-20 March, 1994 in Cairo. The specialists discussed advances in materials science formation, development and observation. The applications of materials science technique in the field of construction material, Moessbauer measurements, physico science, corrosion and mechanical alloying were discussed at the meeting. more than 700 papers were presented in the meeting

  6. 1. international spring school and symposium on advances in materials science; contributed papers. Proceedings. V.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The first International Conference on Advances in Materials Science was held on 15-20 March, 1994 in Cairo. The specialists discussed advances in materials science formation, development and observation. The applications of materials science technique in the field of construction material, Moessbauer measurements, physico science, corrosion and mechanical alloying were discussed at the meeting. more than 700 papers were presented in the meeting.

  7. NATO Advanced Research Institute on the Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cherniavsky, E; Laughton, M; Ruff, L

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) on "The Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science in collaboration with the National Center for Analysis of Energy Sys­ tems, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. Advanced Research Institutes are sponsored by the NATO Science Committee for the purposes of bringing together senior scientists to seek consensus on an assessment of the present state of knowl­ edge on a specific topic and to make recommendations for future research directions. Meetings are structured to encourage inten­ sive group discussion. Invitees are carefully selected so that the group as a whole will contain the experience and expertise neces­ sary to make the conclusions valid and significant. A final report is published presenting the various viewpoints and conclusions....

  8. Unusual contiguous soft tissue spread of advanced malignant mesothelioma detected by FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu Yang; Edwards, Jamie; Williams, Hadyn; Hao, Zhong Lin; Khleif, Samir; Pucar, Darko [Medical College of Georgia at Augusta UniversityAugusta (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumor of mesodermal origin that arises from the serosa of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium or tunica vaginalis. MPM is well known to have a poor prognosis with a median survival time of 12 months. Accurate diagnosis, staging and restaging of MPM are crucial with [18F] flurodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET/CT) playing an increasingly important role. Here we report a case of MPM with unusual contiguous soft tissue spread of the tumor along the dermal and fascial planes characterized by PET/CT. Given that the loco-regional tumor in the thorax was under control on PET/CT, the death of the patient was most likely associated with physiologic or metabolic causes associated with an extra-thoracic tumor.

  9. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 1 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear power stations, graft polymerization, diffusion in uranium alloys, and conventional power plants.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the three stages of the operation of a power plant, either nuclear or conventionally fueled. This text then examines the major problems that face the successful development of commercial nuclear power plants. Other chapters consider

  10. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  11. Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nico, Peter; A; Anastasio, Cort; Dodge, Cleveland; Fendorf, Scott; Francis, A.J.; Hubbard, Susan; Shuh, David; Tomutsa, Liviu; Tufano, Kate; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Werner, Michelle; Williams, Ken

    2006-04-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) has a variety of capabilities that are applicable to very different types of environmental systems. Shown are the basic descriptions of four of the approximately 35 beam lines at the ALS. The complimentary capabilities of these four beam lines allow for investigations that range from a spatial scale of a few nanometers to several millimeters. The Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source seeks to promote and assist environmental research, particularly on the four beam lines described in this report. Several short examples of the types of research conducted on these beam lines are also described.

  12. Comparison of lesion detection and quantitation of tracer uptake between PET from a simultaneously acquiring whole-body PET/MR hybrid scanner and PET from PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmueller, Marco; Schmidt, Daniela; Beck, Michael; Kuwert, Torsten; Gall, Carl C. von; Quick, Harald H.; Navalpakkam, Bharath; Lell, Michael M.; Uder, Michael; Ritt, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    PET/MR hybrid scanners have recently been introduced, but not yet validated. The aim of this study was to compare the PET components of a PET/CT hybrid system and of a simultaneous whole-body PET/MR hybrid system with regard to reproducibility of lesion detection and quantitation of tracer uptake. A total of 46 patients underwent a whole-body PET/CT scan 1 h after injection and an average of 88 min later a second scan using a hybrid PET/MR system. The radioactive tracers used were 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG), 18 F-ethylcholine (FEC) and 68 Ga-DOTATATE (Ga-DOTATATE). The PET images from PET/CT (PET CT ) and from PET/MR (PET MR ) were analysed for tracer-positive lesions. Regional tracer uptake in these foci was quantified using volumes of interest, and maximal and average standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV avg , respectively) were calculated. Of the 46 patients, 43 were eligible for comparison and statistical analysis. All lesions except one identified by PET CT were identified by PET MR (99.2 %). In 38 patients (88.4 %), the same number of foci were identified by PET CT and by PET MR . In four patients, more lesions were identified by PET MR than by PET CT , in one patient PET CT revealed an additional focus compared to PET MR . The mean SUV max and SUV avg of all lesions determined by PET MR were by 21 % and 11 % lower, respectively, than the values determined by PET CT (p CT and PET MR were minor, but statistically significant. Nevertheless, a more detailed study of the quantitative accuracy of PET MR and the factors governing it is needed to ultimately assess its accuracy in measuring tissue tracer concentrations. (orig.)

  13. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) capabilities for serving science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of research on potential science applications of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. Discussed here are: (1) general research on communications related issues; (2) a survey of science-related activities and programs in the local area; (3) interviews of selected scientists and associated telecommunications support personnel whose projects have communications requirements; (4) analysis of linkages between ACTS functionality and science user communications activities and modes of operation; and (5) an analysis of survey results and the projection of conclusions to a national scale.

  14. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [{sup 3}H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with {sup 11}C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [{sup 11}C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high

  15. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [ 3 H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with 11 C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [ 11 C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [ 11 C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [ 11 C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation was observed

  16. Translational science matters: forging partnerships between biomedical and behavioral science to advance the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, George A; Czajkowski, Susan M

    2018-03-29

    The prevention and effective treatment of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are dependent on behaviors such as not smoking, adopting a physically-active lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, and adhering to prescribed medical and behavioral regimens. Yet adoption and maintenance of these behaviors pose major challenges for individuals, their families and communities, as well as clinicians and health care systems. These challenges can best be met through the integration of the biomedical and behavioral sciences that is achieved by the formation of strategic partnerships between researchers and practitioners in these disciplines to address pressing clinical and public health problems. The National Institutes of Health has supported a number of clinical trials and research initiatives that demonstrate the value of biomedical and behavioral science partnerships in translating fundamental discoveries into significant improvements in health outcomes. We review several such examples of collaborations between biomedical and behavioral researchers, describe key initiatives focused on advancing a transdisciplinary translational perspective, and outline areas which require insights, tools and findings from both the biomedical and behavioral sciences to advance the public's health.

  17. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Radiolabeled Kinase Inhibitors for PET Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Bernard-Gauthier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, intensive investigation and multiple clinical successes targeting protein kinases, mostly for cancer treatment, have identified small molecule kinase inhibitors as a prominent therapeutic class. In the course of those investigations, radiolabeled kinase inhibitors for positron emission tomography (PET imaging have been synthesized and evaluated as diagnostic imaging probes for cancer characterization. Given that inhibitor coverage of the kinome is continuously expanding, in vivo PET imaging will likely find increasing applications for therapy monitoring and receptor density studies both in- and outside of oncological conditions. Early investigated radiolabeled inhibitors, which are mostly based on clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI isotopologues, have now entered clinical trials. Novel radioligands for cancer and PET neuroimaging originating from novel but relevant target kinases are currently being explored in preclinical studies. This article reviews the literature involving radiotracer design, radiochemistry approaches, biological tracer evaluation and nuclear imaging results of radiolabeled kinase inhibitors for PET reported between 2010 and mid-2015. Aspects regarding the usefulness of pursuing selective vs. promiscuous inhibitor scaffolds and the inherent challenges associated with intracellular enzyme imaging will be discussed.

  18. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.

    2004-01-01

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area

  19. PET-CT–Guided Surveillance of Head and Neck Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who underwent PET-CT–guided surveillance had fewer operations but similar overall survival rates to those of patients who underwent planned neck dissection.

  20. PET imaging in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.M.; Krasin, M.J.; Kaste, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Advances in diagnostic imaging technology, especially functional imaging modalities like positron emission tomography (PET), have significantly influenced the staging and treatment approaches used for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. Today, the majority of children and adolescents diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma will be cured following treatment with noncross-resistant combination chemotherapy alone or in combination with low-dose, involved-field radiation. This success produced a greater appreciation of long-term complications related to radiation, chemotherapy, and surgical staging that prompted significant changes in staging and treatment protocols for children and adolescents with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Contemporary treatment for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma uses a risk-adapted approach that reduces the number of combination chemotherapy cycles and radiation treatment fields and doses for patients with localized favorable disease presentation. Advances in diagnostic imaging technology have played a critical role in the development of these risk-adapted treatment regimens. The introduction of computed tomography (CT) provided an accurate and non-invasive modality to define nodal involvement below the diaphragm that motivated the change from surgical to clinical staging. The introduction of functional imaging modalities, like positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, provided the means to correlate tumor activity with anatomic features generated by CT and modify treatment based on tumor response. For centers with access to this modality, PET imaging plays an important role in staging, evaluating tumor response, planning radiation treatment fields, and monitoring after completion of therapy for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  1. Dual modality CT/PET imaging in lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic capability of PET-HCT image fusion and helical computed tomography (HCT) for nodal and distant metastases detection in patients with lung cancer. Material and methods: Between February, 2003 and March, 2004 sixty-six consecutive lung cancer patients (45 men and 21 women, mean ages: 63 years old, range: 38 to 96 years old) who underwent HCT and PET-HCT fusion imaging were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had histological confirmation of lung cancer and a definitive diagnosis established on the basis of pathology results and/or clinical follow-up. Results: For global nodal staging (hilar and mediastinal) HCT showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 72%, 47%, 62% and 58% respectively, versus 94%, 77%, 83% and 92% corresponding to PET-HCT examination. For assessment of advanced nodal stage (N3) PET-HCT showed values of 92%, 100%, 100% and 98% respectively. For detection of distant metastasis, HCT alone had values of 67%, 93%, 84% and 83% respectively versus 100%, 98%, 96% and 100% for the PET-HCT fusion imaging. In 20 (30%) patients under-staged or over-staged on the basis of HCT results, PET-HCT allowed accurate staging. Conclusions: PET-HCT fusion imaging was more effective than HCT alone for nodal and distant metastasis detection and oncology staging. (author)

  2. Development of baby cyclotron for PET in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, J.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Hu, J.Y.; Shin, Y.C.; Yoon, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Development of a 13 MeV cyclotron for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been in progress since April 1999 at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital (KCCH). The study has been carried out in a joint collaboration between KCCH and the Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH). Increasing desire for an uninterrupted, reliable and timely supply of the isotopes to customers has prompted obtaining a dedicated 5-13 MeV cyclotron for PET applications and pursuing the purchase of another 30MeV medical cyclotron in the very near future. A decision has been made to design the PET cyclotron in Korea. This will not only ease the problems associated with maintenance during operation but also keep the door open for continuous upgrading of the machine in the future

  3. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1975-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 8 discusses the development of nuclear power in several countries throughout the world. This book discusses the world's largest program of land-based electricity production in the United States.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the phenomenon of quasi-exponential behavior by examining two mathematical models of the neutron field. This text then discusses the finite element method, which is a method for obtaining approximate solutions to integral or differential equations. Other chapters consider the status of

  4. Patterns of failure after use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in integration of extended-field chemo-IMRT and 3D-brachytherapy plannings for advanced cervical cancers with extensive lymph node metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yih-Lin; Horng, Cheng-Fang; Lee, Pei-Ing; Chen, Fong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The study is to evaluate the patterns of failure, toxicities and long-term outcomes of aggressive treatment using 18 F-FDG PET/CT-guided chemoradiation plannings for advanced cervical cancer with extensive nodal extent that has been regarded as a systemic disease. We retrospectively reviewed 72 consecutive patients with 18 F-FDG PET/CT-detected widespread pelvic, para-aortic and/or supraclavicular lymph nodes treated with curative-intent PET-guided cisplatin-based extended-field dose-escalating intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and adaptive high-dose-rate intracavitary 3D-brachytherapy between 2002 and 2010. The failure sites were specifically localized by comparing recurrences on fusion of post-therapy recurrent 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans to the initial PET-guided radiation plannings for IMRT and brachytherapy. The median follow-up time for the 72 patients was 66 months (range, 3–142 months). The 5-year disease-free survival rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method for the patients with extensive N1 disease with the uppermost PET-positive pelvic-only nodes (26 patients), and the patients with M1 disease with the uppermost PET-positive para-aortic (31 patients) or supraclavicular (15 patients) nodes was 78.5 %, and 41.8–50 %, respectively (N1 vs. M1, p = 0.0465). Eight (11.1 %), 18 (25.0 %), and 3 (4.2 %) of the patients developed in-field recurrence, out-of-field and/or distant metastasis, and combined failure, respectively. The 6 (8.3 %) local failures around the uterine cervix were all at the junction between IMRT and brachytherapy in the parametrium. The rate of late grade 3/4 bladder and bowel toxicities was 4.2 and 9.7 %, respectively. When compared to conventional pelvic chemoradiation/2D-brachytherapy during 1990–2001, the adoption of 18 F-FDG PET-guided extended-field dose-escalating chemoradiation plannings in IMRT and 3D-brachytherapy after 2002 appeared to provide higher disease-free and overall survival rates with acceptable toxicities in

  5. Advanced information science and object-oriented technology for information management applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, J.R.; Swietlik, C.E.

    1996-10-01

    The role of the military has been undergoing rapid change since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The kinds of missions the US military has been asked to participate in have often fallen into the category of {open_quotes}Military Operations Other Than War{close_quotes} and those involving military responses have been more of a surgical nature directed against different kinds of threats, like rogue states or in response to terrorist actions. As a result, the requirements on the military planner and analyst have also had to change dramatically. For example, preparing response options now requires rapid turnaround and a highly flexible simulation capability. This in turn requires that the planner or analyst have access to sophisticated information science and simulation technologies. In this paper, we shall discuss how advanced information science and object-oriented technologies can be used in advanced information management applications. We shall also discuss how these technologies and tools can be applied to DoD applications by presenting examples with a system developed at Argonne, the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS). DIAS has been developed to exploit advanced information science and simulation technologies to provide tools for future planners and analysts.

  6. Detection of Cancer with PET and PET/CT in Asymptomatic Volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Ji In; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae; Choi, Yoon Ho; Cho, Han Byoul; Shim, Jae Yong

    2009-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the diagnostic performance of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT for cancer detection in asymptomatic health-check examinees. This study consisted of 5091 PET or PET/CT conducted as part of annual health examination at one hospital from March 1998 to February 2008. To find the incidence of cancers, medical records of the subjects were thoroughly reviewed for a follow-up period of one year. The patterns of formal readings of PET and PET/CT were analyzed to assess the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection. The histopathology and stage of the cancers were evaluated in relation to the results of PET. Eighty-six cancers (1.7%) were diagnosed within one year after PET or PET/CT. When PET and PET/CT results were combined, the sensitivity was 48.8% and specificity was 81.1% for cancer detection. PET only had a sensitivity of 46.2% and a specificity of 81.4%, and PET/CT only had a sensitivity of 75.0% and a specificity of 78.5% respectively. There were no significant differences in cancer site, stage and histopathology between PET positive and PET negative cancers. In 19.3% of formal readings of PET and PET/CT, further evaluation to exclude malignancy or significant disease was recommended. Head and neck area and upper gastrointestinal tract were commonly recommended sites for further evaluation. PET and PET/CT showed moderate performance for detecting cancers in asymptomatic adults in this study. More experience and further investigation are needed to overcome limitations of PET and PET/CT for cancer screening

  7. Next generation PET data acquisition architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. F.; Reed, J. H.; Everman, J. L.; Young, J. W.; Seese, R. D.

    1997-06-01

    New architectures for higher performance data acquisition in PET are proposed. Improvements are demanded primarily by three areas of advancing PET state of the art. First, larger detector arrays such as the Hammersmith ECAT/sup (R/) EXACT HR/sup ++/ exceed the addressing capacity of 32 bit coincidence event words. Second, better scintillators (LSO) make depth-of interaction (DOI) and time-of-flight (TOF) operation more practical. Third, fully optimized single photon attenuation correction requires higher rates of data collection. New technologies which enable the proposed third generation Real Time Sorter (RTS III) include: (1) 80 Mbyte/sec Fibre Channel RAID disk systems, (2) PowerPC on both VMEbus and PCI Local bus, and (3) quadruple interleaved DRAM controller designs. Data acquisition flexibility is enhanced through a wider 64 bit coincidence event word. PET methodology support includes DOI (6 bits), TOF (6 bits), multiple energy windows (6 bits), 512/spl times/512 sinogram indexes (18 bits), and 256 crystal rings (16 bits). Throughput of 10 M events/sec is expected for list-mode data collection as well as both on-line and replay histogramming. Fully efficient list-mode storage for each PET application is provided by real-time bit packing of only the active event word bits. Real-time circuits provide DOI rebinning.

  8. Next generation PET data acquisition architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.F.; Reed, J.H.; Everman, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    New architectures for higher performance data acquisition in PET are proposed. Improvements are demanded primarily by three areas of advancing PET state of the art. First, larger detector arrays such as the Hammersmith ECAT reg-sign EXACT HR ++ exceed the addressing capacity of 32 bit coincidence event words. Second, better scintillators (LSO) make depth-of-interaction (DOI) and time-of-flight (TOF) operation more practical. Third, fully optimized single photon attenuation correction requires higher rates of data collection. New technologies which enable the proposed third generation Real Time Sorter (RTS III) include: (1) 80 M byte/sec Fibre Channel RAID disk systems, (2) PowerPC on both VMEbus and PCI Local bus, and (3) quadruple interleaved DRAM controller designs. Data acquisition flexibility is enhanced through a wider 64 bit coincidence event word. PET methodology support includes DOI (6 bits), TOF (6 bits), multiple energy windows (6 bits), 512 x 512 sinogram indexes (18 bits), and 256 crystal rings (16 bits). Throughput of 10 M events/sec is expected for list-mode data collection as well as both on-line and replay histogramming. Fully efficient list-mode storage for each PET application is provided by real-time bit packing of only the active event word bits. Real-time circuits provide DOI rebinning

  9. Clinical Application of 18F-FDG PET in Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Jin; Kim, Tae Sung; Hwang, Hee Sung

    2008-01-01

    PET or PET/CT detects only less than 50% of early gastric cancer and 62-98% of advanced gastric cancer. Therefore, mass screening programs are recommended for all adults over the age of 40 for early detection and early treatment of gastric cancer through endoscopy or various radiological tests. The most important step after diagnosis of gastric cancer is accurate staging, which mainly evaluates tumor resectability to avoid unnecessary surgery. Important factors that affect tumor resectability are whether the tumor can be separated from adjacent organs or important blood vessels, the extent of lymph node metastasis, presence of peritoneal metastasis, or distant organ metastasis. To evaluate the extent of local tumor invasion, anatomical imaging that has superior spatial resolution is essential. There are a few studies on prognostic significance of FDG uptake with inconsistent results between them. In spite of lower sensitivity for lymph node staging, the specificity of CT and PET are very high, and the specificity for PET tends to be higher than that for CT. Limited data published so far show that PET seems less useful in the detection of lung and bone metastasis. In the evaluation of pleural or peritoneal metastasis, PET seems very specific but insensitive as well. When FDG uptake of primary tumor is low, distant metastasis also tends to show low FDG uptake reducing its detection on PET. There are only a few data available in the evaluation of recurrence detection and treatment response using FDG PET or PET/CT

  10. Images to visualize the brain. PET: Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Diagnosis instrument and research tool, Positron Emission Tomography permits advanced technological developments on positron camera, on molecule labelling and principally on very complex 3D image processing. Cyceron Centre in Caen-France works on brain diseases and try to understand the mechanism of observed troubles and to assess the treatment efficiency with PET. Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot of CEA-France establishes a mapping of cognitive functions in PET as vision areas, anxiety regions, brain organization of language, different attention forms, voluntary actions and motor functions

  11. Assessment report on research and development activities. Activity: 'Advanced science research' (Interim report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Advanced Science Research' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for interim assessment of 'Advanced Science Research,' in accordance with 'General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research programs and activities of the Advanced Science Research Center (hereinafter referred to as 'ASRC') for the period of two years from April 2010. The Committee evaluated the management and the research programs of the ASRC based on the explanatory documents prepared by the ASRC and the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director and the research group leaders. This report summarizes the result of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached from page 7. (author)

  12. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: advanced science research' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consults an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Advanced Science Research' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for interim assessment of 'Advanced Science Research,' in accordance with General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program of the Advanced Science Research Center (hereinafter referred to as 'ASRC') during the period of two years from October 2005 to September 2007. The Committee evaluated the management and research activities of the ASRC based on the explanatory documents prepared by the ASRC, the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director and the research group leaders, and interviews from group members through on-site visits by the Committee members. One CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  13. PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, Rasmus Mølgaard; Schmidt, Regin; Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    PET handler om den hemmelige tjenestes arbejde under den kolde krig 1945-1989. Her fortæller Regin Schmidt, Rasmus Mariager og Morten Heiberg om de mest dramatiske og interessante sager fra PET's arkiv. PET er på flere måder en udemokratisk institution, der er sat til at vogte over demokratiet....... Dens virksomhed er skjult for offentligheden, den overvåger borgernes aktiviteter, og den registrerer følsomme personoplysninger. Historien om PET rejser spørgsmålet om, hvad man skal gøre, når befolkningen i et demokrati er kritisk indstillet over for overvågningen af lovlige politiske aktiviteter......, mens myndighederne mener, at det er nødvendigt for at beskytte demokratiet. PET er på en gang en fortælling om konkrete aktioner og begivenheder i PET's arbejde og et stykke Danmarkshistorie. Det handler om overvågning, spioner, politisk ekstremisme og international terrorisme.  ...

  14. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  15. Interim FDG-PET Scan in Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Hopes and Caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. André

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available FDG-PET has recently emerged as an important tool for the management of Hodgkins lymphoma. Although its use for initial staging and response evaluation at the end of treatment is well established, the place of interim PET for response assessment and subsequent treatment tailoring is still quite controversial. The use of interim PET after a few cycles of chemotherapy may allow treatment reduction for good responders, leading to lesser treatment toxicities as well as early treatment adaptation for bad responders with a potential higher chance for cure. Interpretation of interim PET is a rapidly moving field. Actually, visual interpretation is preferred over quantitative interpretation in this situation. The notion of minimal residual uptake emerged for faint persisting FDG uptake, but has evolved during the recent years. Guidelines using mediastinum and liver as references have been proposed at the expert meeting in Deauville 2009. Actually, several trials are ongoing both for localised and advanced disease to evaluate the FDG-PET potential for early treatment monitoring and tailoring. Until the results of these prospective randomized trials become available, treatment changes according to the interim PET results should remain inappropriate and limited to well-conducted clinical trials.

  16. Solitary pulmonary nodules: cost-savings indicated by Australian experience with FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, C.J.; Miles, K.A.; Pitman, A.G.; Hicks, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To date, decision tree analyses demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of PET in Australia have been constrained by the need to use overseas values for diagnostic performance and disease prevalence. This study uses Australian PET experience to estimate the cost-savings produced by incorporation of FDG-PET into diagnostic algorithms for characterisation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Values for disease prevalence and diagnostic accuracy of PET from a combined series of 89 SPNs from the Wesley Hospital and Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute were applied to two previously published decision tree models. Procedure costs were derived from the Medicare Benefits Schedule and DRG Cost Weights for Australian public hospitals. A cost of $1200 was assigned to PET. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of disease prevalence and PET cost on the cost savings produced by each strategy. The values for disease prevalence (0.54), PET sensitivity (92%) and specificity (95%) from the combined series indicated cost savings per patient of $774 and $554 for the two decision trees. PET would remain cost-saving for values of prevalence up to 0.90 and 0.76, and PET costs of $1974 and $1967, for each model respectively. FDG-PET evaluation of SPNs would produce cost-savings within Australia even with substantial variations in disease prevalence and PET costs. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Clinical usefulness of PET in the management of oral cancer. Comparison between FDG-PET and MET-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saitoh, Masaaki; Nakamura, Mikiko

    2007-01-01

    Inductive chemoradiotherapy has played an important role in preserving organs and functions in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To determine whether a reduced form of surgery should be performed after chemoradiotherapy, accurate evaluation of residual tumor cells is essential. We investigated the clinical value of positron emission tomography with 18 F labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in the management of oral SCCs. Forty-five patients underwent two FDG-PET studies, one prior to and one at 6 weeks after the chemoradiotherapy. Pretreatment FDG-PET was useful in predicting the response to treatment. Posttreatment FDG-PET could evaluate residual viable cells and prognosis. Organ preservation may be feasible based on PET evaluation. Hence FDG-PET is a valuable tool in the treatment of oral cancer. 11 C-Methionine (MET) is another promising tracer for PET that can be used to assess metabolic demand for amino acids in cancer cells. A MET-PET and FDG-PET study was performed during the same period to investigate diagnostic accuracy in 40 oral malignancies. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of MET-PET were 95% and 100%, respectively, and were comparable with those of FDG-PET. Further study is required to determine the diagnostic significance of MET-PET in evaluating response to chemoradiotherapy. (author)

  18. FDG-PET identification of intraperitoneal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamez, C.; Jimenez-Hoyuelam, J.M.; Rebollo, A.C.; Gonzalez, P.; Rico, J.M.; Alba, E.; Sacchetti, A.; Lopez-Rueda, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Peritoneal metastases (PM) are usually from intra-abdominal primary neoplasms, such as carcinoma of the stomach, colon, ovary, and pancreas, or from intra-abdominal lymphoma. Metastases disseminate throughout the peritoneum in four ways: 1) direct spread along peritoneal ligaments, mesenteries and omenta; 2) via the flow of ascitis fluid. 3) lymphatic extension, and 4) embolic hematogenous spread. Although CT is quite specific in identifying PM it is not very sensitive, and peritoneal lavage or biopsy can be very useful but have sampling errors. This study assessed the clinical value of FDG-PET for the detection of PM of malignant diseases. Materials and Methods: 15 FDG-PET scans of patients referred for recurrence (mean age = 54 y/o, sex = 6M, 9F), with metabolic abnormalities suspicious findings of PM from carcinoma of the colon (7), ovary (3), lymphoma (2), pancreas (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1) and melanoma (1) were reviewed. The whole-body studies were performed 50 min following the intravenous administration of 370 MBq of 18F-FDG, in a high resolution dedicated PET scanner (Advance, GEMS), with images reconstructed using a iterative algorithm with segmented attenuation correction. Visual interpretation and SUV values were correlated with CT/MRI findings and biopsy/follow-up. Results: Of the 15 patients, 7 showed <3 sites of focal uptake and 8 presented multiple foci or a diffuse hypermetabolism in the abdomen (SUVmax3.04-18.83 g/ml). 6 patients had biopsy confirmation by PET-directed surgery (6 proven PM, 0 negative biopsies). 11 FDG-PET scans had correspondence with the CT/MRI findings and 4 showed discrepancies (PET positive-CT/MRI negative in patients with isolated raising tumor markers levels or unsuspected PM). FDG-PET influenced the therapeutic management in 2 patients as presented multiple metastases leading them from surgery to chemotherapy. Conclusion: When used as a complementary imaging tool to the conventional work up, FDG-PET is

  19. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  20. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com; Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-709 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  1. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltman, L.R.; Van, Raan A.F.J.; Smart, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach

  2. Evaluation of attenuation correction in cardiac PET using PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jeffrey M C; Laforest, R; Sotoudeh, H; Nie, X; Sharma, S; McConathy, J; Novak, E; Priatna, A; Gropler, R J; Woodard, P K

    2017-06-01

    Simultaneous acquisition Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is a new technology that has potential as a tool both in research and clinical diagnosis. However, cardiac PET acquisition has not yet been validated using MR imaging for attenuation correction (AC). The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of PET imaging using a standard 2-point Dixon volume interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) MR sequence for AC. Evaluation was performed in both phantom and patient data. A chest phantom containing heart, lungs, and a lesion insert was scanned by both PET/MR and PET/CT. In addition, 30 patients underwent whole-body 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT followed by simultaneous cardiac PET/MR. Phantom study showed 3% reduction of activity values in the myocardium due to the non-inclusion of the phased array coil in the AC. In patient scans, average standardized uptake values (SUVs) obtained by PET/CT and PET/MR showed no significant difference (n = 30, 4.6 ± 3.5 vs 4.7 ± 2.8, P = 0.47). There was excellent per patient correlation between the values acquired by PET/CT and PET/MR (R 2  = 0.97). Myocardial SUVs PET imaging using MR for AC shows excellent correlation with myocardial SUVs obtained by standard PET/CT imaging. The 2-point Dixon VIBE MR technique can be used for AC in simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition.

  3. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  4. Women's Advancement in Political Science. A Report on the APSA Workshop on the Advancement of Women in Academic Political Science in the United States (Washington, DC, March 4-5, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Political Science Association (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    In March 2004, the National Science Foundation funded a two-day workshop by the American Political Science Association (APSA) on the advancement of women in academic political science in the United States. The workshop was prompted by an alarming stall in the number of women entering the discipline and persisting through early years of faculty…

  5. The ADVANCE Program: Targeting the Increase in the Participation and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperanca, S.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of NSF's ADVANCE Program is to help increase the participation of women in the scientific and engineering workforce through the increased representation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers. The Program tries to address this under representation by focusing on support for men and women with three approaches: institutional (Institutional Transformation), grass-root (Leadership), and individual (Fellows) support. The ADVANCE Program alternates with a round of Institutional and Leadership awards in one year and a Fellows competition the next. Since its inception in 2001, NSF has had two competitive rounds for each of the three award types and will have spent approximately 75 M\\ by the end of the next fiscal year (2004). The first and second ADVANCE Institutional Transformation competitions (FY 2001 and 2003) received over 70 proposals each. These awards are for multi-year support in the amount of 3-4M\\ each. Details and access to the websites for the ADVANCE programs of each institution can be found in NSF's ADVANCE webpage at http://nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/advance/itwebsites.htm. The number of proposals submitted for the Leadership awards competition dropped from 35 in 2001 to 26 in 2003, despite an increase in the allowed award size for the second round. In terms of projected goals, this part of ADVANCE is perhaps the most eclectic. Some Leadership awards were made to professional societies to work specifically with their respective scientific communities in identifying needs that might be peculiar to a field of science. In the first round of the Leadership awards, PI Mary-Anne Holmes of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and collaborators received a grant to work with the Association of Women Geoscientists to determine the current status of women geoscientists in the US. These grantees hope to disseminate the information gathered under this award broadly in order to educate women students and faculty on strategies to

  6. 1. international spring school and symposium on advances in materials science; invited lectures. Proceedings. V.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The 1 st international conference on advances in materials science was held on 15-20 March, 1994 in cairo. The specialist discussed material science formation, development and observation. The application of advances in material science technique in the field of atomic energy, structure design, microelectronic structure were discussed at the meeting. more than 400 papers were presented in the meeting.

  7. 1. international spring school and symposium on advances in materials science; invited lectures. Proceedings. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The 1 st international conference on advances in materials science was held on 15-20 March, 1994 in cairo. The specialist discussed material science formation, development and observation. The application of advances in material science technique in the field of atomic energy, structure design, microelectronic structure were discussed at the meeting. more than 400 papers were presented in the meeting

  8. Reaching the Next Stephen Hawking: Five Ways to Help Students with Disabilities in Advanced Placement Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lori A.; Potts, Elizabeth A.; Linz, Ed

    2013-01-01

    As the federal government encourages all students to attempt advanced math and science courses, more students with disabilities are enrolling in Advanced Placement (AP) science classes. AP science teachers can better serve these students by understanding the various types of disabilities (whether physical, learning, emotional, or behavioral),…

  9. 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in Burkitt's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanis, Dimitrios; Durski, Jolanta M.; Lowe, Val J.; Nathan, Mark A.; Mullan, Brian P.; Georgiou, Evangelos; Johnston, Patrick B.; Wiseman, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of 18 F fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods: All Burkitt's lymphoma patients referred for FDG PET or FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) exams at our institution from June 2003 to June 2006 were included. Selected patients were followed and clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. Results from FDG PET-PET/CT, as blindly reviewed by a consensus of two experienced readers, were compared with the status of the disease as determined by other laboratory, clinical and imaging exams and clinical follow-up. FDG PET-PET/CT results were classified as true positive or negative and false positive or negative. The degree of FDG uptake in the positive lesions was semiquantified as maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax). Results: Fifty-seven FDG PET-PET/CT exams were done in 15 patients. Seven exams were done for initial staging, 8 during and 14 after the completion of therapy, and 28 for disease surveillance. For nodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 8, true negative in 47 and false positive in 2 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%). For extranodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 6, true negative in 48 and false positive in 3 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%). The mean SUVmax for the positive nodal lesions was 15.7 (range 6.9-21.7, median 18.5) and for extranodal lesions was 14.2 (range 6.2-24.3, median 12.4). Conclusions: FDG PET-PET/CT is sensitive for the detection of viable disease in Burkitt's lymphoma. Affected areas demonstrated high degree of uptake that was reversible upon successful implementation of treatment.

  10. PET or PET-CT with cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taisong; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    At present, cancer screening remains a lot of debate in contemporary medical practice. Many constitutes have done a lot of experiments in cancer screening. The same version is that recommendations and decisions regarding cancer screening should be based on reliable data, not self- approbation. Now, some institutes advocate 18 F-FDG PET or 18 F-FDG PET-CT for cancer screening, here, discussed status quo, potential financial, radiation safety and statistical data in 18 F-FDG PET or 18 F-FDG PET- CT cancer screening. (authors)

  11. PET / MRI vs. PET / CT. Indications Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva González, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid techniques in Nuclear Medicine is currently a field in full development for diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. With the recent advent of PET / MRI much it speculated about whether or not it is superior to PET / CT especially in oncology. The Conference seeks to clarify this situation by dealing issues such as: State of the art technology PET / MRI; Indications Oncology; Some clinical cases. It concludes by explaining the oncological indications of both the real and current situation of the PET / MRI. (author)

  12. Dual PET and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Probes as Tools for Imaging in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fei-Fei; Chan, Mark; Kommidi, Harikrishna; Ting, Richard

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to summarize advances in PET fluorescence resolution, agent design, and preclinical imaging that make a growing case for clinical PET fluorescence imaging. CONCLUSION Existing SPECT, PET, fluorescence, and MRI contrast imaging techniques are already deeply integrated into the management of cancer, from initial diagnosis to the observation and management of metastases. Combined positron-emitting fluorescent contrast agents can convey new or substantial benefits that improve on these proven clinical contrast agents. PMID:27223168

  13. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    biologically distinct neurochemical systems that interact to produce a variety of behaviors and disorders. Neurotransmitters are neither static nor isolated in their distribution. In fact, it is through interactions with other neurochemically distinct systems that the central nervous system (CNS) performs its vital role in sustaining life. Exclusive quantitative capabilities intrinsic to PET make this technology a suitable experimental tool to measure not only the regional distribution of specific receptors and their subtypes, but also the dynamic properties of neuroreceptors and their inherent influence on related neurotransmitter pathways. The ability to investigate dynamic properties in a non-invasive and reproducible manner provides a powerful tool that can extend our current knowledge of these interactions. Coupled with innovative paradigms including pharmacologic manipulations, physiologic models and reconstruction theories, knowledge derived from PET studies can greatly advance our understanding of normal and abnormal brain function

  14. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    biologically distinct neurochemical systems that interact to produce a variety of behaviors and disorders. Neurotransmitters are neither static nor isolated in their distribution. In fact, it is through interactions with other neurochemically distinct systems that the central nervous system (CNS) performs its vital role in sustaining life. Exclusive quantitative capabilities intrinsic to PET make this technology a suitable experimental tool to measure not only the regional distribution of specific receptors and their subtypes, but also the dynamic properties of neuroreceptors and their inherent influence on related neurotransmitter pathways. The ability to investigate dynamic properties in a non-invasive and reproducible manner provides a powerful tool that can extend our current knowledge of these interactions. Coupled with innovative paradigms including pharmacologic manipulations, physiologic models and reconstruction theories, knowledge derived from PET studies can greatly advance our understanding of normal and abnormal brain function.

  15. Application of PET and PET/CT imaging for cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yenkung; Hu Fenglan; Shen Yehyou; Liao, A.C.; Hung, T.Z.; Su, Chentau; Chen Liangkuang

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and PET/CT for cancer screening in asymptomatic individuals. Methods: The subjects consisted of 3631 physical check up examinees (1947 men, 1684 women; mean age ±SD, 52.1±8.2 y) with non-specific medical histories. Whole-body FDG PET (or PET/CT), ultrasound and tumor markers were performed on all patients. Focal hypermetabolic areas with intensities equal to or exceeding the level of FDG uptake in the brain and bladder were considered abnormal and interpreted as neoplasia. Follow-up periods were longer than one year. Results: Among the 3631 FDG PET (including 1687 PET/CT), ultrasound and tumor markers examinations, malignant tumors were discovered in 47 examinees (1.29%). PET findings were true-positive in 38 of the 47 cancers (80.9%). In addition, 32 of the 47 cancers were performed with the PET-CT scan. PET detected cancer lesions in 28 of the 32 examinees. However, the CT detected cancer lesions in only 15 of 32 examinees. Conclusion: The sensitivity of FDG PET in the detection of a wide variety of cancers is high. Most cancer can be detected with FDG PET in a resectable stage. CT of the PET/CT for localization and characteristics of the lesion shows an increased specificity of the PET scan. Using ultrasound and tumor markers may complement the PET scan in cancer screening for hepatic and urologic neoplasms. (authors)

  16. PET diagnosis. The decisive factor for early detection of the cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Inoue, Kentaro; Tanaka, Koichi; Murayama, Hideo; Amano, Masaharu; Oikawa, Koichi; Yamashita, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    The feature contains 8 articles concerned with the subject matter in the title. The first is a document of the interview with Dr. Yoshiharu Yonekura, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) President, by the editor in chief of the journal, entitled ''Twenty to Thirty years are Necessary for Development of Basic Technology''- discussed are progress of molecular imaging, present and future of positron emission tomography (PET) diagnosis. Lasting are the articles of: ''Recommendation for PET diagnosis'' by K. Kusakabe, Tokyo Women's Medical Univ.- the role of PET diagnosis in a mass examination; ''The present state and future development of PET diagnosis of cancer'' by H. Fukuda and K. Inoue, Tohoku Univ. Hospital- labeled compounds and others; ''Promotion of popularization of the diagnosis as a part of CSR (corporate social responsibility) in the local medicare- A participation of the Hospital of Chugoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. in the project'' by K. Tanaka; ''Trend of development of next generation PET equipment'' by H. Murayama, NIRS- equipments like PET/CT or PET/MRI, and with high system sensitivity (detector- and photo-elements, DOI detection, high performance circuit, etc.); ''Achievement and developing trend of the equipments in the manufacturer- Shimadzu Corp.'' by M. Amano- PET/CT; ''(the same title)- Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd.'' by K. Oikawa- cyclotron and therapeutic heavy ion beam generator; and ''Research and development in Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.'' by T. Yamashita- high throughput PET and animal PET. (R.T.)

  17. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Kang, Hakmook; Linden, Hannah M.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors’ primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV peak and SUV max , respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, Bland–Altman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.4–30.9 min), which was significantly—but not completely—reduced by the linear correction method. SUV peak and SUV max from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV peak and SUV max were significantly lower than supine in both

  18. PET/CT in lymphoma patients; PET-CT bei Lymphompatienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinert, H.C. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin (Switzerland)

    2004-11-01

    First results of PET/CT in Hodgkin's disease (HD) and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are reported. From March 2001 to August 2004 822 PET/CT were performed at our clinic in lymphoma patients for primary staging, restaging after therapy, and diagnosis of recurrence. For coregistration non contrast-enhanced low-dose CT were used. Due to the exact anatomic localization of {sup 18}F-FDG accumulating lesions equivocal or false positive PET findings are avoided. In comparison to contrast enhanced CT, PET/CT has a higher sensitivity and specificity in patients with HD and aggressive NHL. Integration of PET/CT in treatment planning of radiation therapy optimizes the field volume. Even in the initial phase of clinical evaluation, PET/CT has proven useful in staging and restaging of lymphoma. The exact anatomic localization of the PET findings is essential for a precise report, for treatment planning of radiation therapy, and for planning surgical biopsy. (orig.) [German] Erste Ergebnisse der PET-CT bei Morbus Hodgkin (HD) und den aggressiven Non-Hodgkin-Lymphomen (NHL) werden beschrieben. Von Maerz 2001 bis August 2004 wurden 822 PET-CT bei Lymphompatienten zum primaeren Staging, zum Restaging nach Therapie und zur Rezidivdiagnostik an unserer Klinik durchgefuehrt. Fuer die Koregistration wurde ein Low-dose-CT ohne i.v.-Kontrastmittel verwendet. Durch die exakte anatomische Zuordnung der {sup 18}F-FDG aufnehmenden Laesionen wurden unklare oder falsch-positive PET-Befunde vermieden. Die PET-CT erzielte im Vergleich zur KM-verstaerkten CT eine hoehere Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet bei Patienten mit HD und aggressiven NHL. Die Integration der PET-CT in die Planung der Strahlentherapie fuehrte zu einer Optimierung der Feldgrenzen. Die PET-CT hat sich bereits in der Phase der initialen klinischen Evaluation als wertvoll beim Staging und Restaging von Lymphomen erwiesen. Die exakte anatomische Zuordnung der PET-Informationen ist fuer eine sichere Befundung

  19. Do carotid MR surface coils affect PET quantification in PET/MR imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemink, Martin J; Eldib, Mootaz; Leiner, Tim; Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface coils for carotid MR imaging on PET quantification in a clinical simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanner. A cylindrical phantom was filled with a homogeneous 2L water-FDG mixture at a starting dose of 301.2MBq. Clinical PET/MR and PET/CT systems were used to acquire PET-data without a coil (reference standard) and with two carotid MRI coils (Siemens Special Purpose 8-Channel and Machnet 4-Channel Phased Array). PET-signal attenuation was evaluated with Osirix using 51 (PET/MR) and 37 (PET/CT) circular ROIs. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were quantified for each ROI. Furthermore, SUVs of PET/MR and PET/CT were compared. For validation, a patient was scanned with an injected dose of 407.7MBq on both a PET/CT and a PET/MR system without a coil and with both coils. PET/MR underestimations were -2.2% (Siemens) and -7.8% (Machnet) for SUVmean, and -1.2% (Siemens) and -3.3% (Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively. For PET/CT, underestimations were -1.3% (Siemens) and -1.4% (Machnet) for SUVmean and -0.5% (both Siemens and Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively using no coil data as reference. Except for PET/CT SUVmax values all differences were significant. SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT with SUVmean values of 0.51-0.55 for PET/MR and 0.68-0.69 for PET/CT, respectively. The patient examination showed that median SUVmean values measured in the carotid arteries decreased from 0.97 without a coil to 0.96 (Siemens) and 0.88 (Machnet). Carotid surface coils do affect attenuation correction in both PET/MR and PET/CT imaging. Furthermore, SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT.

  20. PET/CT in kidney and bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochev, P.; Klisarova, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: FDG PET/CT has traditionally been considered a method of limited use in tumors of the kidneys and excretory system. Major shortcoming of the method in kidney cancer is considered variable fixation and a more general lack of significant therapeutic alternatives that require early diagnosis of recurrence after nephrectomy. In the context of the modern methods of systemic anticancer therapy in kidney cancer, marking a significant success in terms of time to progression, the need of more detailed selection of the patients and the search methods for the early diagnosis and assessment of therapeutic response arises. While CT remains the primary method for the diagnosis of parenchymal metastases (lung, liver), the use of FDG PET/CT has a significant advantage in detecting of nodal metastasis, locoregional recurrence and bone metastasis. Interesting direction in the use of PET/CT remains the monitoring of therapeutic response to systemic therapy of metastatic kidney cancer. Unlike kidney cancer in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCC), the application of FDG PET/CT is non- systematic and based on the specific clinical indications. As the main indicator can be observed the distant staging in locally advanced tumors and recurrences in restading after cystectomy. Besides the general advantages of PET/CT in terms of nodal and peritoneal involvement it should be noted that the role of the PET/CT in TCC is discussible. Application of FDG PET / CT in kidney cancer and TCC at this stage can not be considered as established, but while in TCCs, the method has sporadically application, mostly for specific clinical questions, the application in kidney cancer is significantly more systemic and in the context of systemic anti-tumor therapy allows early diagnosis and therapeutic approach modulation

  1. Evaluation of the PET component of simultaneous [18F]choline PET/MRI in prostate cancer: comparison with [18F]choline PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, Axel; Lipponer, Christine; Nensa, Felix; Altenbernd, Jens-Christian; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas; Heusch, Philipp; Ruebben, Herbert; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten; Nagarajah, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positron emission tomography (PET) component of [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI and compare it with the PET component of [ 18 F]choline PET/CT in patients with histologically proven prostate cancer and suspected recurrent prostate cancer. Thirty-six patients were examined with simultaneous [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI following combined [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Fifty-eight PET-positive lesions in PET/CT and PET/MRI were evaluated by measuring the maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) using volume of interest (VOI) analysis. A scoring system was applied to determine the quality of the PET images of both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI regarding SUV max and SUV mean was tested using Pearson's product-moment correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. All PET-positive lesions that were visible on PET/CT were also detectable on PET/MRI. The quality of the PET images was comparable in both groups. Median SUV max and SUV mean of all lesions were significantly lower in PET/MRI than in PET/CT (5.2 vs 6.1, p max of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.86, p mean of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.81, p max of PET/CT vs PET/MRI and -1.12 to +2.23 between SUV mean of PET/CT vs PET/MRI. PET image quality of PET/MRI was comparable to that of PET/CT. A highly significant correlation between SUV max and SUV mean was found. Both SUV max and SUV mean were significantly lower in [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI than in [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Differences of SUV max and SUV mean might be caused by different techniques of attenuation correction. Furthermore, differences in biodistribution and biokinetics of [ 18 F]choline between the subsequent examinations and in the respective organ systems have to be taken into account. (orig.)

  2. Advanced Technologies and Data Management Practices in Environmental Science: Lessons from Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Mayernik, Matthew S.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Allen, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental scientists are increasing their capitalization on advancements in technology, computation, and data management. However, the extent of that capitalization is unknown. We analyzed the survey responses of 434 graduate students to evaluate the understanding and use of such advances in the environmental sciences. Two-thirds of the…

  3. Prognostic value of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT and human papillomavirus type 16 testing in locally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Nai-Ming; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Tsan, Din-Li; Lin, Chien-Yu; Huang, Chung-Guei; Ng, Shu-Hang; Wang, Hung-Ming; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liao, Chun-Ta

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) positivity is associated with favourable survival in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We report here a study of the prognostic significance of 18 F-FDG PET/CT functional parameters and HPV-16 infection in OPSCC patients. We retrospectively analysed 60 patients with stage III or IV OPSCC who had had a pretherapy 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan and had completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 58) or curative radiotherapy (n = 2). All patients were followed up for ≥24 months or until death. We determined total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and the maximal standardized uptake values (SUV max ) of the primary tumour and neck lymph nodes from the pretherapy 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan. Optimal cut-offs of the 18 F-FDG PET/CT parameters were obtained by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Pretherapy tumour biopsies were studied by polymerase chain reaction to determine HPV infection status. The pretherapy tumour biopsies were positive for HPV-16 in 12 patients (20.0 %). Cox regression analyses revealed HPV-16 positivity and tumour TLG >135.3 g to be independently associated with overall survival (p = 0.027 and 0.011, respectively). However, only tumour TLG >135.3 g was independently associated with progression-free survival, disease-free survival and locoregional control (p = 0.011, 0.001 and 0.034, respectively). A scoring system was formulated to define distinct overall survival groups using tumour TLG and HPV-16 status. Patients positive for HPV-16 and with tumour TLG ≤135.3 g experienced better survival than those with tumour TLG >135.3 g and no HPV infection (p = 0.001). Tumour TLG was an independent predictor of survival in patients with locally advanced OPSCC. A scoring system was developed and may serve as a risk stratification strategy for guiding therapy. (orig.)

  4. Prediction of neoadjuvant radiation chemotherapy response and survival using pretreatment [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ji-In; Ha, Seunggyun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Bum; Oh, Heung-Kwon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun-Wook [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye-Seung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Sung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Young [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic and textural parameters from pretreatment [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans for the prediction of neoadjuvant radiation chemotherapy response and 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). We performed a retrospective review of 74 patients diagnosed with LARC who were initially examined with [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT, and who underwent neoadjuvant radiation chemotherapy followed by complete resection. The standardized uptake value (mean, peak, and maximum), metabolic volume (MV), and total lesion glycolysis of rectal cancer lesions were calculated using the isocontour method with various thresholds. Using three-dimensional textural analysis, about 50 textural features were calculated for PET images. Response to neoadjuvant radiation chemotherapy, as assessed by histological tumour regression grading (TRG) after surgery and 3-year DFS, was evaluated using univariate/multivariate binary logistic regression and univariate/multivariate Cox regression analyses. MVs calculated using the thresholds mean standardized uptake value of the liver + two standard deviations (SDs), and mean standard uptake of the liver + three SDs were significantly associated with TRG. Textural parameters from histogram-based and co-occurrence analysis were significantly associated with TRG. However, multivariate analysis revealed that none of these parameters had any significance. On the other hand, MV calculated using various thresholds was significantly associated with 3-year DFS, and MV calculated using a higher threshold tended to be more strongly associated with 3-year DFS. In addition, textural parameters including kurtosis of the absolute gradient (GrKurtosis) were significantly associated with 3-year DFS. Multivariate analysis revealed that GrKurtosis could be a prognostic factor for 3-year DFS. Metabolic and textural parameters from initial [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT scans could be indexes to assess

  5. Monte Carlo modeling of a clinical PET scanner by using the GATE dedicated computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Igor Fagner; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates more possible detailed the GATE simulated architecture involved in the 4D modeling of a General Electric PET scanner, the Advance. So, it were used data present in the literature on the configuration of GE modelled PET. The obtained results which were the 3D components of PET creation, and the simulation of 4D phenomena as the source decay and the gantry whirl, exhibit the potential of tool in emission tomograph modelling

  6. [Principles of PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2018-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.

  7. Evaluation of Dixon Sequence on Hybrid PET/MR Compared with Contrast-Enhanced PET/CT for PET-Positive Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ju Hye; Cho, Ihn Ho; Kong, Eun Jung; Chun, Kyung Ah

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging performs a two-point Dixon MR sequence for attenuation correction. However, MR data in hybrid PET/MR should provide anatomic and morphologic information as well as an attenuation map. We evaluated the Dixon sequence of hybrid PET/MR for anatomic correlation of PET-positive lesions compared with contrast-enhanced PET/computed tomography (CT) in patients with oncologic diseases. Twelve patients underwent a single injection, dual imaging protocol. PET/CT was performed with an intravenous contrast agent (85±13 min after 18 F-FDG injection of 403± 45 MBq) and then (125±19 min after injection) PET/MR was performed. Attenuation correction and anatomic allocation of PET were performed using contrast-enhanced CT for PET/CT and Dixon MR sequence for hybrid PET/MR. The Dixon MR sequence and contrast-enhanced CT were compared for anatomic correlation of PET-positive lesions (scoring scale ranging from 0 to 3 for visual ratings). Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUVs) for the detected lesions were assessed for quantitative comparison. Both hybrid PET/MR and contrast-enhanced PET/CT identified 55 lesions with increased FDG uptake in ten patients. In total, 28 lymph nodes, 11 bone lesions, 3 dermal nodules, 3 pleural thickening lesions, 2 thyroid nodules, 1 pancreas, 1 liver, 1 ovary, 1 uterus, 1 breast, 1 soft tissue and 2 lung lesions were present. The best performance was observed for anatomic correlation of PET findings by the contrast-enhanced CT scans (contrast-enhanced CT, 2.64± 0.70; in-phase, 1.29±1.01; opposed-phase, 1.29±1.15; water-weighted, 1.71±1.07; fat weighted, 0.56±1.03). A significant difference was observed between the scores obtained from the contrast-enhanced CT and all four coregistered Dixon MR images. Quantitative evaluation revealed a high correlation between the SUVs measured with hybrid PET/MR (SUVmean, 2.63±1.62; SUVmax, 4.30±2.88) and contrast-enhanced PET

  8. Evaluation of Dixon Sequence on Hybrid PET/MR Compared with Contrast-Enhanced PET/CT for PET-Positive Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ju Hye; Cho, Ihn Ho; Kong, Eun Jung; Chun, Kyung Ah [Yeungnam Univ. Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Hybrid positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging performs a two-point Dixon MR sequence for attenuation correction. However, MR data in hybrid PET/MR should provide anatomic and morphologic information as well as an attenuation map. We evaluated the Dixon sequence of hybrid PET/MR for anatomic correlation of PET-positive lesions compared with contrast-enhanced PET/computed tomography (CT) in patients with oncologic diseases. Twelve patients underwent a single injection, dual imaging protocol. PET/CT was performed with an intravenous contrast agent (85±13 min after {sup 18}F-FDG injection of 403± 45 MBq) and then (125±19 min after injection) PET/MR was performed. Attenuation correction and anatomic allocation of PET were performed using contrast-enhanced CT for PET/CT and Dixon MR sequence for hybrid PET/MR. The Dixon MR sequence and contrast-enhanced CT were compared for anatomic correlation of PET-positive lesions (scoring scale ranging from 0 to 3 for visual ratings). Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUVs) for the detected lesions were assessed for quantitative comparison. Both hybrid PET/MR and contrast-enhanced PET/CT identified 55 lesions with increased FDG uptake in ten patients. In total, 28 lymph nodes, 11 bone lesions, 3 dermal nodules, 3 pleural thickening lesions, 2 thyroid nodules, 1 pancreas, 1 liver, 1 ovary, 1 uterus, 1 breast, 1 soft tissue and 2 lung lesions were present. The best performance was observed for anatomic correlation of PET findings by the contrast-enhanced CT scans (contrast-enhanced CT, 2.64± 0.70; in-phase, 1.29±1.01; opposed-phase, 1.29±1.15; water-weighted, 1.71±1.07; fat weighted, 0.56±1.03). A significant difference was observed between the scores obtained from the contrast-enhanced CT and all four coregistered Dixon MR images. Quantitative evaluation revealed a high correlation between the SUVs measured with hybrid PET/MR (SUVmean, 2.63±1.62; SUVmax, 4.30±2.88) and contrast

  9. Assessment report on research and development activities. Activity: 'Advanced science research' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as “JAEA”) consulted an assessment committee, “Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Advanced Science Research” (hereinafter referred to as “Committee”) for interim assessment of “Advanced Science Research,” in accordance with “General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities” by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, “Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology” and “Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities” by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research programs and activities of the Advanced Science Research Center (hereinafter referred to as “ASRC”) for the period of two years from April 2010. The Committee evaluated the management and the research programs of the ASRC based on the explanatory documents prepared by the ASRC and the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director and the research group leaders. This report summarizes the result of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached from page 7. (author)

  10. Iodine-124 PET dosimetry in differentiated thyroid cancer: recovery coefficient in 2D and 3D modes for PET(/CT) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentzen, Walter; Freudenberg, Lutz; Brandau, Wolfgang; Bockisch, Andreas [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Weise, Reiner; Burchert, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Molekulare Bildgebung, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Kupferschlaeger, Juergen; Bares, Ronald [Universitaet Tuebingen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated the absolute quantification of iodine-124 ({sup 124}I) activity concentration with respect to the use of this isotope for dosimetry before therapies with {sup 131}I or {sup 131}I-labeled radiotherapeuticals. The recovery coefficients of positron emission tomography(/computed tomography) PET(/CT) systems using {sup 124}I were determined using phantoms and then validated under typical conditions observed in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. Transversal spatial resolution and recovery measurements with {sup 124}I and with fluorine-18 ({sup 18}F) as the reference were performed using isotope-containing line sources embedded in water and six isotope-containing spheres 9.7 to 37.0 mm in diameter placed in water-containing body and cylinder phantoms. The cylinder phantom spheres were filled with {sup 18}F only. Measurements in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) modes were performed using both stand-alone PET (EXACT HR{sup +}) and combined PET/CT (BIOGRAPH EMOTION DUO) systems. Recovery comparison measurements were additionally performed on a GE ADVANCE PET system using the cylinder phantom. The recovery coefficients were directly determined using the activity concentration of circular regions of interest divided by the prepared activity concentration determined by the dose calibrator. The recovery correction method was validated using three consecutive scans of the body phantom under our {sup 124}I PET(/CT) protocol for DTC patients. Compared with that of {sup 18}F, transversal spatial resolution of {sup 124}I was slightly, but statistically significantly degraded (7.4 mm vs. 8.3 mm, P<0.002). Using the body phantom, recovery was lower for {sup 124}I than for {sup 18}F in both 2D and 3D modes. The {sup 124}I recovery coefficient of the largest sphere was significantly higher in 2D than in 3D mode (81% vs. 75%, P=0.03). Remarkably, the {sup 18}F recovery coefficient for the largest sphere significantly deviated from unity

  11. Advances in hybrid MR–PET at 3 T and 9.4 T in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Shah, N., E-mail: n.j.shah@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, JARA, RWTH Aachen University Aachen (Germany); Mauler, Jörg [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Neuner, Irene [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Romanzetti, Sandro; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Felder, Jörg; Celik, Avdo [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Iida, Hidehiro [Department of Investigative Radiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1, Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka, 565-8565 (Japan); Langen, Karl-Josef; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    Hybrid MR–PET data acquisition in simultaneous mode confers a number of advantages at 3 T and 9.4 T. From an MR perspective, the potential for ultra-high resolution structural imaging is discussed and example images of the cerebellum with an isotropic resolution of 320 μm are presented. Further, metabolic imaging is discussed and high-resolution images of the sodium distribution are demonstrated. Examples of tumour imaging on a 3 T MR–PET system are included and discussed.

  12. Advances in hybrid MR–PET at 3 T and 9.4 T in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Shah, N.; Mauler, Jörg; Neuner, Irene; Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Romanzetti, Sandro; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Felder, Jörg; Celik, Avdo; Iida, Hidehiro; Langen, Karl-Josef; Herzog, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid MR–PET data acquisition in simultaneous mode confers a number of advantages at 3 T and 9.4 T. From an MR perspective, the potential for ultra-high resolution structural imaging is discussed and example images of the cerebellum with an isotropic resolution of 320 μm are presented. Further, metabolic imaging is discussed and high-resolution images of the sodium distribution are demonstrated. Examples of tumour imaging on a 3 T MR–PET system are included and discussed

  13. Heterogeneity of (18)F-FDG PET combined with expression of EGFR may improve the prognostic stratification of advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hung-Ming; Cheng, Nai-Ming; Lee, Li-Yu; Fang, Yu-Hua Dean; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Tsan, Din-Li; Ng, Shu-Hang; Liao, Chun-Ta; Yang, Lan-Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-02-01

    The Ang's risk profile (based on p16, smoking and cancer stage) is a well-known prognostic factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Whether heterogeneity in (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomographic (PET) images and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression could provide additional information on clinical outcomes in advanced-stage OPSCC was investigated. Patients with stage III-IV OPSCC who completed primary therapy were eligible. Zone-size nonuniformity (ZSNU) extracted from pretreatment FDG PET scans was used as an index of image heterogeneity. EGFR and p16 expression were examined by immunohistochemistry. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) served as outcome measures. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for survival analysis. A bootstrap resampling technique was applied to investigate the stability of outcomes. Finally, a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA)-based model was constructed. A total of 113 patients were included, of which 28 were p16-positive. Multivariate analysis identified the Ang's profile, EGFR and ZSNU as independent predictors of both DSS and OS. Using RPA, the three risk factors were used to devise a prognostic scoring system that successfully predicted DSS in both p16-positive and -negative cases. The c-statistic of the prognostic index for DSS was 0.81, a value which was significantly superior to both AJCC stage (0.60) and the Ang's risk profile (0.68). In patients showing an Ang's high-risk profile (N = 77), the use of our scoring system clearly identified three distinct prognostic subgroups. It was concluded that a novel index may improve the prognostic stratification of patients with advanced-stage OPSCC. © 2015 UICC.

  14. NIRS report of investigations for the development of the next generation PET apparatus. FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This is a summary of study reports from representative technology fields for the development of the next generation PET apparatus directing to 3-D images, and is hoped to be useful for future smooth cooperation between the fields. The investigation started from April 2000 in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) with cooperation of other facilities, universities and companies. The report involves chapters of: Detector volume and geometrical efficiency- Design criterion for the next generation PET; Scintillator for PET; An investigation of detector and front-end electronics for the next generation PET; A measurement system of depth of interaction; Detector simulator; Development of an evaluation system for PET detector; On the signal processing system for the next generation PET; List-mode data acquisition method for the next generation PET; List-mode data acquisition simulator; Image reconstruction; A Monte Carlo simulator for the next generation PET scanners; Out-of-field of view (FOV) radioactivity; and Published papers and presentations. (N.I.)

  15. Development of a SiPM-based PET imaging system for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yanye; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Kedi; Zhang, Qiushi; Pang, Bo; Ren, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Advances in small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging have been accelerated by many new technologies such as the successful incorporation of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). In this paper, we have developed a compact, lightweight PET imaging system that is based on SiPM detectors for small animals imaging, which could be integrated into a multi-modality imaging system. This PET imaging system consists of a stationary detector gantry, a motor-controlled animal bed module, electronics modules, and power supply modules. The PET detector, which was designed as a multi-slice circular ring geometry of 27 discrete block detectors, is composed of a cerium doped lutetium–yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillation crystal and SiPM arrays. The system has a 60 mm transaxial field of view (FOV) and a 26 mm axial FOV. Performance tests (e.g. spatial resolution, energy resolution, and sensitivity) and phantom and animal imaging studies were performed to evaluate the imaging performance of the PET imaging system. The performance tests and animal imaging results demonstrate the feasibility of an animal PET system based on SiPM detectors and indicate that SiPM detectors can be promising photodetectors in animal PET instrumentation development

  16. Development of a SiPM-based PET imaging system for small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanye [Department of Biomedicine and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, Kun, E-mail: yangkun9999@hotmail.com [Department of Control Technology and Instrumentation, College of Quality and Technical Supervision, Hebei University, Baoding, 071000 (China); Zhou, Kedi; Zhang, Qiushi; Pang, Bo [Department of Biomedicine and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren, Qiushi, E-mail: renqsh@coe.pku.edu.cn [Department of Biomedicine and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-04-11

    Advances in small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging have been accelerated by many new technologies such as the successful incorporation of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). In this paper, we have developed a compact, lightweight PET imaging system that is based on SiPM detectors for small animals imaging, which could be integrated into a multi-modality imaging system. This PET imaging system consists of a stationary detector gantry, a motor-controlled animal bed module, electronics modules, and power supply modules. The PET detector, which was designed as a multi-slice circular ring geometry of 27 discrete block detectors, is composed of a cerium doped lutetium–yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillation crystal and SiPM arrays. The system has a 60 mm transaxial field of view (FOV) and a 26 mm axial FOV. Performance tests (e.g. spatial resolution, energy resolution, and sensitivity) and phantom and animal imaging studies were performed to evaluate the imaging performance of the PET imaging system. The performance tests and animal imaging results demonstrate the feasibility of an animal PET system based on SiPM detectors and indicate that SiPM detectors can be promising photodetectors in animal PET instrumentation development.

  17. 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer: Evidence-based recommendations in initial staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caresia Aroztegui, Ana Paula; García Vicente, Ana María; Alvarez Ruiz, Soledad; Delgado Bolton, Roberto Carlos; Orcajo Rincon, Javier; Garcia Garzon, Jose Ramon; de Arcocha Torres, Maria; Garcia-Velloso, Maria Jose

    2017-10-01

    Current guidelines do not systematically recommend 18F-FDG PET/CT for breast cancer staging; and the recommendations and level of evidence supporting its use in different groups of patients vary among guidelines. This review summarizes the evidence about the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer staging and the therapeutic and prognostic impact accumulated in the last decade. Other related aspects, such as the association of metabolic information with biology and prognosis are considered and evidence-based recommendations for the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer staging are offered. We systematically searched MEDLINE for articles reporting studies with at least 30 patients related to clinical questions following the Problem/Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome framework. We critically reviewed the selected articles and elaborated evidence tables structuring the summarized information into methodology, results, and limitations. The level of evidence and the grades of recommendation for the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in different contexts are summarized. Level III evidence supports the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer; the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of the 18F-FDG PET/CT findings is sufficient for a weak recommendation in this population. In patients with locally advanced breast cancer, level II evidence supports the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging; the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of the 18F-FDG PET/CT findings is sufficient for a strong recommendation in this population. In patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer, the metabolic information from baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT is associated with tumor biology and has prognostic implications, supported by level II evidence. In conclusion, 18F-FDG PET/CT is not recommended for staging all patients with early breast cancer, although evidence of improved regional and systemic staging supports its use in locally advanced

  18. Advanced PET and MR imaging in re-irradiation of high grade glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Primary brain cancer is rare but devastating disease. The cancer infiltrates healthy brain tissue and causes neurological symptoms, seizures and cognitive dysfunction. The treatment is aggressive and may have late adverse effects that mimic the symptoms of the disease. Recurrence is almost...... inevitable and the goal of all treatment is to prolong life while maintaining quality of life. Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of treatment. In many hospitals repeated irradiation is attempted at recurrence but neither side-effects nor efficacy have been systematically evaluated using modern technology....... The patients in the re-irradiation study underwent cognitive testing as a means of assessing side effects. The studies showed that the side effects of re-irradiation were acceptable but not negligible. Tumor size evaluated by PET was prognostic for survival following radiotherapy and it PET likely contributed...

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  20. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  1. Engaging High School Students in Advanced Math and Science Courses for Success in College: Is Advanced Placement the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley-Kemple, Thomas; Proger, Amy; Roderick, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The current study provides an in-depth look at Advanced Placement (AP) math and science course-taking in one school district, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Using quasi-experimental methods, this study examines the college outcomes of students who take AP math and science courses. Specifically, this study asks whether students who take AP math…

  2. Uniformity studies inter cut with continuous movement PET stretcher; Homogeneidad intercorte de estudios PET con movimiento continuo de camila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cons Perez, N.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Hernandez Rodriguez, J.; Montes Fuentes, C.; Garcia Ledesma, J.; Diez Gallego, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    One of the latest advances in PET scanners is the introduction of acquisitions with continuous movement of stretcher (CBM) Among the benefits that this technology brings they are: lower axial variation of noise, greater flexibility in planning studies with different levels of statistics for different anatomical and greater patient comfort regions. Behavior unexpected because the concentration obtained in all CBMs studies with PET-CT scanner Biograph mCTFlow (Slemens Medica Solutions) we propose a quantitative analysis with a series of parameters chosen to assess the inhomogeneity between cuts in the concentration obtained by homogeneous mannequins. A comparison with studies of static bed (S and S) indicates a problem only mode dynamic bed. (Author)

  3. Concepts and strategies to establish a cyclotron/PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernan Vera Ruiz; D, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliably radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001 (1) , the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing nations was put into evidence This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues up to the present time, and all indications are that it will continue in the next future. The reasons for this growth are several, amongst them it can be mentioned the fact that the technology involved has became more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several of clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries starting with F-18FDG in 1998, and above all, the clear, irrefutable and demonstrable Conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology and to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognized that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET camera can nevertheless be an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planed for installation in a developing country which frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortages of qualify human resources for advance planning and later, to run efficiently the facility. Several are the steps that needs consideration when planning a cyclotron facility, the most critical ones are a careful definition of the mission and scope of the facility including the utilization programme of the facility as a whole, followed by a

  4. Simultaneous PET/MRI with 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (hyperPET): phantom-based evaluation of PET quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Henriksen, Sarah T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Integrated PET/MRI with hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (13C-MRSI) offers simultaneous, dual-modality metabolic imaging. A prerequisite for the use of simultaneous imaging is the absence of interference between the two modalities. This has been documented...... for a clinical whole-body system using simultaneous 1 H-MRI and PET but never for 13C-MRSI and PET. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous PET and 13C-MRSI as well as hyperpolarized 13C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is evaluated using phantom experiments. Methods: Combined PET and 13C......-MRSI phantoms including a NEMA [18F]-FDG phantom, 13C-acetate and 13C-urea sources, and hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate were imaged repeatedly with PET and/or 13C-MRSI. Measurements evaluated for interference effects included PET activity values in the largest sphere and a background region; total number of PET...

  5. Complex program of advance in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychev, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    A draft of the complex program of advance in science and technology of the CMEA member-countries is described in brief. The basis of the program includes five priority trends electronics development complex automatization, advanced development of nuclear energy, production of new materials and tecnologies of their production and processing, advanced developmen of biotechnologies. Development of nuclear energy will be based on WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type NPPs. Heat-only nuclear stations and power and heat nuclear stations will receive a large development effort, as well as sodium-cooled fast reactors of the BN type having 800 and 1600 MW capacity, high-temperature gas-cooled breeders of the BGR-300 type, gas-cooled reactors of the VG-400 type for high-temperature heat supply (500-1000 deg C). It is contemplated to design the TOKAMAK-15 research thermonuclear facility and a pilot thermonuclear reactor for power generation and plutonium production. The program also comprises works aimed at improving reliability and safety of the nuclear installations

  6. Recent developments in positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents recent detector developments and perspectives for positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation used for medical research, as well as the physical processes in positron annihilation, photon scattering and detection, tomograph design considerations, and the potentials for new advances in detectors. 117 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Recent developments in positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents recent detector developments and perspectives for positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation used for medical research, as well as the physical processes in positron annihilation, photon scattering and detection, tomograph design considerations, and the potentials for new advances in detectors. 117 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs

  9. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  11. Precision Medicine and PET/Computed Tomography in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Esther; Sanli, Yasemin; Marcus, Charles; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-10-01

    Recent advances in genomic profiling and sequencing of melanoma have provided new insights into the development of the basis for molecular biology to more accurately subgroup patients with melanoma. The development of novel mutation-targeted and immunomodulation therapy as a major component of precision oncology has revolutionized the management and outcome of patients with metastatic melanoma. PET imaging plays an important role in noninvasively assessing the tumor biological behavior, to guide individualized treatment and assess response to therapy. This review summarizes the recent genomic discoveries in melanoma in the era of targeted therapy and their implications for functional PET imaging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Incremental value of PET and MRI in the evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalian, Hamid; O'Donnell, James K; Bolen, Michael; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular system is affected by a wide range of pathological processes, including neoplastic, inflammatory, ischemic, and congenital aetiology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are state-of-the-art imaging modalities used in the evaluation of these cardiovascular disorders. MRI has good spatial and temporal resolutions, tissue characterization and multi-planar imaging/reconstruction capabilities, which makes it useful in the evaluation of cardiac morphology, ventricular and valvar function, disease characterization, and evaluation of myocardial viability. FDG-PET provides valuable information on the metabolic activity of the cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia, inflammation, and neoplasm. MRI and FDG-PET can provide complementary information on the evaluation of several cardiovascular disorders. For example, in cardiac masses, FDG-PET provides the metabolic information for indeterminate cardiac masses. MRI can be used for localizing and characterizing abnormal hypermetabolic foci identified incidentally on PET scan and also for local staging. A recent advance in imaging technology has been the development of integrated PET/MRI systems that utilize the advantages of PET and MRI in a single examination. The goal of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review on the incremental value of PET and MRI in the evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. • MRI has good spatial and temporal resolutions, tissue characterization, and multi-planar reconstruction • FDG-PET provides valuable information on the metabolic activity of cardiovascular disorders • PET and MRI provide complementary information on the evaluation of cardiovascular disorders.

  13. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: 'Advanced science research' (Pre-review report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Advanced Science Research' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for prior assessment of 'Advanced Science Research,' in accordance with 'General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program and activities of the Advanced Science Research Center (hereinafter referred to as 'ASRC') for the period of five years from April 2010. The Committee evaluated the management and the research program of the ASRC based on the explanatory documents prepared by the ASRC and the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director and the research group leaders. This report summarizes the result of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached from page 7. (author)

  14. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases

  15. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-["1"8F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases, the

  16. A dedicated breast-PET/CT scanner: Evaluation of basic performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylman, Raymond R; Van Kampen, Will; Stolin, Alexander V; Gong, Wenbo; Jaliparthi, Gangadhar; Martone, Peter F; Smith, Mark F; Sarment, David; Clinthorne, Neal H; Perna, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Application of advanced imaging techniques, such as PET and x ray CT, can potentially improve detection of breast cancer. Unfortunately, both modalities have challenges in the detection of some lesions. The combination of the two techniques, however, could potentially lead to an overall improvement in diagnostic breast imaging. The purpose of this investigation is to test the basic performance of a new dedicated breast-PET/CT. The PET component consists of a rotating pair of detectors. Its performance was evaluated using the NEMA NU4-2008 protocols. The CT component utilizes a pulsed x ray source and flat panel detector mounted on the same gantry as the PET scanner. Its performance was assessed using specialized phantoms. The radiation dose to a breast during CT imaging was explored by the measurement of free-in-air kerma and air kerma measured at the center of a 16 cm-diameter PMMA cylinder. Finally, the combined capabilities of the system were demonstrated by imaging of a micro-hot-rod phantom. Overall, performance of the PET component is comparable to many pre-clinical and other dedicated breast-PET scanners. Its spatial resolution is 2.2 mm, 5 mm from the center of the scanner using images created with the single-sliced-filtered-backprojection algorithm. Peak NECR is 24.6 kcps; peak sensitivity is 1.36%; the scatter fraction is 27%. Spatial resolution of the CT scanner is 1.1 lp/mm at 10% MTF. The free-in-air kerma is 2.33 mGy, while the PMMA-air kerma is 1.24 mGy. Finally, combined imaging of a micro-hot-rod phantom illustrated the potential utility of the dual-modality images produced by the system. The basic performance characteristics of a new dedicated breast-PET/CT scanner are good, demonstrating that its performance is similar to current dedicated PET and CT scanners. The potential value of this system is the capability to produce combined duality-modality images that could improve detection of breast disease. The next stage in development of this system

  17. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Arlinghaus, Lori R. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Lee, Tzu-Cheng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kang, Hakmook [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Linden, Hannah M. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kinahan, Paul E. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yankeelov, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.yankeelov@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors’ primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max}, respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, Bland–Altman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.4–30.9 min), which was significantly—but not completely—reduced by the linear correction method. SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} were

  18. Simultaneous PET/MRI with (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (hyperPET): phantom-based evaluation of PET quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L; Henriksen, Sarah T; Vignaud, Alexandre; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas; Klausen, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Integrated PET/MRI with hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((13)C-MRSI) offers simultaneous, dual-modality metabolic imaging. A prerequisite for the use of simultaneous imaging is the absence of interference between the two modalities. This has been documented for a clinical whole-body system using simultaneous (1)H-MRI and PET but never for (13)C-MRSI and PET. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI as well as hyperpolarized (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is evaluated using phantom experiments. Combined PET and (13)C-MRSI phantoms including a NEMA [(18)F]-FDG phantom, (13)C-acetate and (13)C-urea sources, and hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate were imaged repeatedly with PET and/or (13)C-MRSI. Measurements evaluated for interference effects included PET activity values in the largest sphere and a background region; total number of PET trues; and (13)C-MRSI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for urea and acetate phantoms. Differences between measurement conditions were evaluated using t tests. PET and (13)C-MRSI data acquisition could be performed simultaneously without any discernible artifacts. The average difference in PET activity between acquisitions with and without simultaneous (13)C-MRSI was 0.83 (largest sphere) and -0.76 % (background). The average difference in net trues was -0.01 %. The average difference in (13)C-MRSI SNR between acquisitions with and without simultaneous PET ranged from -2.28 to 1.21 % for all phantoms and measurement conditions. No differences were significant. The system was capable of (13)C-MRSI of hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate. Simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is feasible. Phantom experiments showed that possible interference effects introduced by acquiring data from the two modalities simultaneously are small and non-significant. Further experiments can now investigate the benefits of simultaneous PET and

  19. Assessment of MR-compatibility of SiPM PET insert using short optical fiber bundles for small animal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.G.; Hong, S.J.; Ko, G.B.; Yoon, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Song, I.C.; Rhee, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide new perspectives in human disease research because of their complementary in-vivo imaging techniques. Previously, we have developed an MR-compatible PET insert based on optical fibers using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). However when echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence was performed, signal intensity was slowly decreased by −0.9% over the 5.5 minutes and significant geometrical distortion was observed as the PET insert was installed inside an MRI bore, indicating that the PET electronics and its shielding boxes might have been too close to an MR imaging object. In this paper, optical fiber bundles with a length of 54 mm instead of 31 mm were employed to minimize PET interference on MR images. Furthermore, the LYSO crystals with a size of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7.0 mm 3 were used instead of 2.47 × 2.74 × 20.0 mm 3 for preclinical PET/MR applications. To improve the MR image quality, two receive-only loop coils were used. The effects of the PET insert on the SNR of the MR image either for morphological or advanced MR pulse sequences such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), functional MRI (fMRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were investigated. The quantitative MR compatibility such as B 0 and B 1 field homogeneity without PET, with 'PET OFF', and with 'PET ON' was also evaluated. In conclusion, B 0 maps were not affected by the proposed PET insert whereas B 1 maps were significantly affected by the PET insert. The advanced MRI sequences such as DWI, EPI, and MRS can be performed without a significant MR image quality degradation

  20. 18F-FDG PET/CT in Neurolymphomatosis: Report of 3 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canh, Nguyen Xuan; Tan, Ngo Van; Tung, Tran Thanh; Son, Nguyen Truong; Maurea, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Neurolymphomatosis is a rare manifestation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by infiltration of peripheral nerves, nerve roots, plexus and cranial nerves by malignant lymphocytes. This report presents positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)imaging with 2-deoxy-2- 18 F-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) in 3 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with nerve infiltration, including one newly diagnosed lymphoma, one recurrent lymphoma in previous nerve lesions and one newly recurrent lymphoma. PET/CT could reveal the affected neural structures including cranial nerves, spinal nerve roots, brachial plexus, cervicothoracic ganglion, intercostal nerves, branches of the vagus nerve, lumbosacral plexus and sciatic nerves. There was relative concordance between PET/CT and MRI in detection of affected cranial nerves. PET/CT seemed to be better than MRI in detection of affected peripheral nerves. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was a whole-body imaging technique with the ability to reveal the affected cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots and plexus in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A thorough understanding of disease and use of advanced imaging modalities will increasingly detect neurolymphomatosis

  1. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  2. Rapid evaluation of the cost-effectiveness o FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.; Wong, D.C.; Griffiths, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal cancer using Australian data whilst avoiding the time delays, costs and ethical difficulties associated with intensive patient follow-up. A decision tree sensitivity analysis was used. The study population comprised patients with recurrent colorectal under consideration for resection of apparently isolated hepatic metastasis in whom demonstration of extra-hepatic tumour would preclude surgery.The results of FDG-PET in a consecutive series of 75 such patients referred to the Wesley PET centre were used to determine the range of possible values for disease prevalence and specificity, assuming the value for PET sensitivity as reported in the federal government's PET review. These values, along with the diagnostic accuracy of CT and Australian costs for procedures (PET = $1200), were entered into decision trees modelling a diagnostic strategy comprising CT only and an alternative strategy where patients without extrahepatic tumour on CT also undergo FDG-PET. The cost per patient, accuracy and Incremental Cost-Accuracy Ratio (ICAR) were determined for each strategy. The PET strategy is cheaper for all possible values of disease prevalence and PET specificity ($306-328 / patient) and is more cost-effective for values of disease prevalence above 0.18 or PET specificity above 0.86. At a typical disease prevalence of 0.3 (PET specificity 0.92), the ICAR for the PET strategy is $9700 versus $11,200 for CT. PET remains cost saving even if the best reported values for sensitivity of CT and worse values for PET are used. FDG-PET for recurrent colorectal cancer in Australia would be cost saving and most probably cost-effective. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Microfluidics without channels: highly-flexible synthesis on a digital-microfluidic chip for production of diverse PET tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, Robert Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is used for fundamental studies of living biological organisms and microbial ecosystems in applications ranging from biofuel production to environmental remediation to the study, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring of human disease. Routine access to PET imaging, to monitor biochemical reactions in living organisms in real time, could accelerate a broad range of research programs of interest to DOE. Using PET requires access to short-lived radioactive-labeled compounds that specifically probe the desired living processes. The overall aims of this project were to develop a miniature liquid-handling technology platform (called “microfluidics”) that increases the availability of diverse PET probes by reducing the cost and complexity of their production. Based on preliminary experiments showing that microfluidic chips can synthesis such compounds, we aimed to advance this technology to improve its robustness, increase its flexibility for a broad range of probes, and increase its user-friendliness. Through the research activities of this project, numerous advances were made; Tools were developed to enable the visualization of radioactive materials within microfluidic chips; Fundamental advances were made in the microfluidic chip architecture and fabrication process to increase its robustness and reliability; The microfluidic chip technology was shown to produce useful quantities of an example PET probes, and methods to further increase the output were successfully pursued; A “universal” chip was developed that could produce multiple types of PET probes, enabling the possibility of “on demand” synthesis of different probes; and Operation of the chip was automated to ensure minimal radiation exposure to the operator Based on the demonstrations of promising technical feasibility and performance, the microfluidic chip technology is currently being commercialized. It is anticipated that costs of microfluidic chips can be

  4. Looking forward to a PET scanner designed for non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keiji

    1992-01-01

    The cerebral cortex of non-human primates has been divided, mainly by anatomical techniques, into an enormous number of areas. We are looking forward to a PET scanner designed for non-human primates, with a hope to determine active brain regions when the animal does various cognitive tasks. This measurement with PET can be combined with single cell recordings and anatomical tracer studies in non-human primates. Another big hope is to detect a change of active regions as the learning advances. (author)

  5. Respiratory Motion Management in PET/CT: Applications and Clinical Usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Luca; Ponti, Elena De; Morzenti, Sabrina; Spadavecchia, Chiara; Crivellaro, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Breathing movement can introduce heavy bias in both image quality and quantitation in PET/CT. The aim of this paper is a review of the literature to evaluate the benefit of respiratory gating in terms of image quality, quantification and lesion detectability. A review of the literature published in the last 10 years and dealing with gated PET/CT technique has been performed, focusing on improvement in quantification, lesion detectability and diagnostic accuracy in neoplastic lesion. In addition, the improvement in the definition of radiotherapy planning has been evaluated. There is a consistent increase of the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) in gated PET images when compared to ungated ones, particularly for lesions located in liver and in lung. Respiratory gating can also increase sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/CT. Gated PET/CT can be used for radiation therapy planning, reducing the uncertainty in target definition, optimizing the volume to be treated and reducing the possibility of "missing" during the dose delivery. Moreover, new technologies, able to define the movement of lesions and organs directly from the PET sinogram, can solve some problems that currently are limiting the clinical use of gated PET/CT (i.e.: extended acquisition time, radiation exposure). The published literature demonstrated that respiratory gating PET/CT is a valid technique to improve quantification, lesion detectability of lung and liver tumors and can better define the radiotherapy planning of moving lesions and organs. If new technical improvements for motion compensation will be clinically validated, gated technique could be applied routinely in any PET/CT scan. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Pet Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Pet Allergy ▸ Pet Allergy Quiz Share | Pet Allergy Quiz More than half of U.S. households ... cat family. Yet, millions of people suffer from pet allergies. Take this quiz to test your knowledge ...

  7. Colorectal cancer staging: comparison of whole-body PET/CT and PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio A; Coutinho, Artur M; Sahani, Dushyant V; Vangel, Mark G; Gee, Michael S; Hahn, Peter F; Witzel, Thomas; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Catana, Ciprian; Mahmood, Umar; Rosen, Bruce R; Gervais, Debra

    2017-04-01

    Correct staging is imperative for colorectal cancer (CRC) since it influences both prognosis and management. Several imaging methods are used for this purpose, with variable performance. Positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is an innovative imaging technique recently employed for clinical application. The present study was undertaken to compare the staging accuracy of whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) with whole-body PET/MR in patients with both newly diagnosed and treated colorectal cancer. Twenty-six patients, who underwent same day whole-body (WB) PET/CT and WB-PET/MR, were evaluated. PET/CT and PET/MR studies were interpreted by consensus by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Correlations with prior imaging and follow-up studies were used as the reference standard. Correct staging was compared between methods using McNemar's Chi square test. The two methods were in agreement and correct for 18/26 (69%) patients, and in agreement and incorrect for one patient (3.8%). PET/MR and PET/CT stages for the remaining 7/26 patients (27%) were discordant, with PET/MR staging being correct in all seven cases. PET/MR significantly outperformed PET/CT overall for accurate staging (P = 0.02). PET/MR outperformed PET/CT in CRC staging. PET/MR might allow accurate local and distant staging of CRC patients during both at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.

  8. TU-AB-BRA-10: Prognostic Value of Intra-Radiation Treatment FDG-PET and CT Imaging Features in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J; Pollom, E; Durkee, B; Aggarwal, S; Bui, T; Le, Q; Loo, B; Hara, W [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Cui, Y [Hokkaido University, Global Institute for Collaborative Research and Educat, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hokkaido University, Global Institute for Collaborative Research and Educat, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To predict response to radiation treatment using computational FDG-PET and CT images in locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods: 68 patients with State III-IVB HNC treated with chemoradiation were included in this retrospective study. For each patient, we analyzed primary tumor and lymph nodes on PET and CT scans acquired both prior to and during radiation treatment, which led to 8 combinations of image datasets. From each image set, we extracted high-throughput, radiomic features of the following types: statistical, morphological, textural, histogram, and wavelet, resulting in a total of 437 features. We then performed unsupervised redundancy removal and stability test on these features. To avoid over-fitting, we trained a logistic regression model with simultaneous feature selection based on least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). To objectively evaluate the prediction ability, we performed 5-fold cross validation (CV) with 50 random repeats of stratified bootstrapping. Feature selection and model training was solely conducted on the training set and independently validated on the holdout test set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the pooled Result and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated as figure of merit. Results: For predicting local-regional recurrence, our model built on pre-treatment PET of lymph nodes achieved the best performance (AUC=0.762) on 5-fold CV, which compared favorably with node volume and SUVmax (AUC=0.704 and 0.449, p<0.001). Wavelet coefficients turned out to be the most predictive features. Prediction of distant recurrence showed a similar trend, in which pre-treatment PET features of lymph nodes had the highest AUC of 0.705. Conclusion: The radiomics approach identified novel imaging features that are predictive to radiation treatment response. If prospectively validated in larger cohorts, they could aid in risk-adaptive treatment of HNC.

  9. Prognostic value of pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and human papillomavirus type 16 testing in locally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Nai-Ming; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China); Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Tsan, Din-Li; Lin, Chien-Yu [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China); Huang, Chung-Guei [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Taipei (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China); Wang, Hung-Ming; Hsu, Cheng-Lung [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China); Liao, Chun-Ta [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China)

    2012-11-15

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) positivity is associated with favourable survival in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We report here a study of the prognostic significance of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT functional parameters and HPV-16 infection in OPSCC patients. We retrospectively analysed 60 patients with stage III or IV OPSCC who had had a pretherapy {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan and had completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 58) or curative radiotherapy (n = 2). All patients were followed up for {>=}24 months or until death. We determined total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and the maximal standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the primary tumour and neck lymph nodes from the pretherapy {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan. Optimal cut-offs of the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters were obtained by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Pretherapy tumour biopsies were studied by polymerase chain reaction to determine HPV infection status. The pretherapy tumour biopsies were positive for HPV-16 in 12 patients (20.0 %). Cox regression analyses revealed HPV-16 positivity and tumour TLG >135.3 g to be independently associated with overall survival (p = 0.027 and 0.011, respectively). However, only tumour TLG >135.3 g was independently associated with progression-free survival, disease-free survival and locoregional control (p = 0.011, 0.001 and 0.034, respectively). A scoring system was formulated to define distinct overall survival groups using tumour TLG and HPV-16 status. Patients positive for HPV-16 and with tumour TLG {<=}135.3 g experienced better survival than those with tumour TLG >135.3 g and no HPV infection (p = 0.001). Tumour TLG was an independent predictor of survival in patients with locally advanced OPSCC. A scoring system was developed and may serve as a risk stratification strategy for guiding therapy. (orig.)

  10. TOF-PET/MR和TOF-PET/CT在体部恶性肿瘤SUVmax值的比较%Comparision of SUVmax of TOF-PET/MR and TOF-PET/CT in body malignant tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋天彬; 卢洁; 崔碧霄; 马杰; 杨宏伟; 马蕾; 梁志刚

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨时间飞行(TOF)技术PET/CT和PET/MR检查体部恶性病变SUVmax值的一致性.方法 回顾性分析接受TOF-PET/CT和TOF-PET/MR检查的体部恶性肿瘤患者20例,分为先PET/CT后PET/MR组和先PET/MR后PET/CT组,每组10例.采用Bland-Altma图评价两次检查病灶SUVmax值的一致性,采用多因素方差分析评价扫描顺序和机器类型对病灶的SUVmax测量值的影响.结果 TOF-PET/CT与TOF-PET/MR检查病灶的SUVmax值有较好的一致性[先PET/CT后PET/MR组:均值差为3.06,95%CI(-7.5,13.6),先PET/MR后PET/CT组:均值差3.0,95%CI(-2.4,8.3)].扫描顺序对于恶性病灶的SUVmax有影响(F=46.00,P<0.001),而机器类型对恶性病灶的SUVmax值无影响(F=0.005,P=0.95).结论 TOF-PET/MR和TOF-PET/CT在体部恶性病变SUVmax值测量方面具有相当的诊断价值,且延迟显像SUVmax的增加与采集时间有关,而与检查机器类型无关.%Objective To explore the consistency of time-of-flight (TOF) technology of PET/MRI and PET/CT for max standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of body malignant tumors.Methods A retrospective analysis of TOF-PET/CT and TOF-PET/MR imaging data about twenty patients with body malignant tumors was performed.Patients were divided into two groups (each n=10),including PET/CT first and sequentially PET/MR group and PET/MR first and sequentially PET/CT group.Bland-Altman figure was used to evaluate consistency of SUVmax of malignant lesions between TOF-PET/CT and TOF-PET/MR.Multi-way ANOVA was used to analysis effect of machine type and exam order on SUVmaxof malignant lesions in TOF-PET/CT and TOF-PET/MR.Results SUVmax of malignant lesions in TOF-PET/CT and TOF-PET/MR had good consistency in two groups (PET/CT first and sequentially PET/MR group:Mean difference was 3.06,95%CI was [-7.5,13.6];PET/MR first and sequentially PET/CT group:Mean difference was 3.0,95%CI was [-2.4,8.3]).SUVmax was not influenced by machine type (F=0.005,P=0.95),but exam order (F=46.00,P<0

  11. UV-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid in the sub-micronchannels of oxidized PET track-etched membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report on functionalization of track-etched membrane based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET TeMs) oxidized by advanced oxidation systems and by grafting of acrylic acid using photochemical initiation technique for the purpose of increasing functionality thus expanding its practical application. Among advanced oxidation processes (H2O2/UV) system had been chosen to introduce maximum concentration of carboxylic acid groups. Benzophenone (BP) photo-initiator was first immobilized on the surfaces of cylindrical pores which were later filled with aq. acrylic acid solution. UV-irradiation from both sides of PET TeMs has led to the formation of grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains inside the membrane sub-micronchannels. Effect of oxygen-rich surface of PET TeMs on BP adsorption and subsequent process of photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) were studied by ESR. The surface of oxidized and AA grafted PET TeMs was characterized by UV-vis, ATR-FTIR, XPS spectroscopies and by SEM.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of response evaluation after chemoradiation in patients with advanced oropharyngeal cancer using 18F-FDG-PET-CT and/or diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greuter, Marjolein Je; Schouten, Charlotte S; Castelijns, Jonas A; de Graaf, Pim; Comans, Emile Fi; Hoekstra, Otto S; de Bree, Remco; Coupé, Veerle Mh

    2017-04-11

    Considerable variation exists in diagnostic tests used for local response evaluation after chemoradiation in patients with advanced oropharyngeal cancer. The yield of invasive examination under general anesthesia (EUA) with biopsies in all patients is low and it may induce substantial morbidity. We explored four response evaluation strategies to detect local residual disease in terms of diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness. We built a decision-analytic model using trial data of forty-six patients and scientific literature. We estimated for four strategies the proportion of correct diagnoses, costs concerning diagnostic instruments and the proportion of unnecessary EUA indications. Besides a reference strategy, i.e. EUA for all patients, we considered three imaging strategies consisting of 18 FDG-PET-CT, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI), or both 18 FDG-PET-CT and DW-MRI followed by EUA after a positive test. The impact of uncertainty was assessed in sensitivity analyses. The EUA strategy led to 96% correct diagnoses. Expected costs were €468 per patient whereas 89% of EUA indications were unnecessary. The DW-MRI strategy was the least costly strategy, but also led to the lowest proportion of correct diagnoses, i.e. 93%. The PET-CT strategy and combined imaging strategy were dominated by the EUA strategy due to respectively a smaller or equal proportion of correct diagnoses, at higher costs. However, the combination of PET-CT and DW-MRI had the highest sensitivity. All imaging strategies considerably reduced (unnecessary) EUA indications and its associated burden compared to the EUA strategy. Because the combined PET-CT and DW-MRI strategy costs only an additional €927 per patient, it is preferred over immediate EUA since it reaches the same diagnostic accuracy in detecting local residual disease while leading to substantially less unnecessary EUA indications. However, if healthcare resources are limited, DW-MRI is the strategy of choice because of lower

  13. SU-E-J-174: Adaptive PET-Based Dose Painting with Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, N; Mackie, T; Thomadsen, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: PET imaging can be converted into dose prescription directly. Due to the variability of the intensity of PET the image, PET prescription maybe superior over uniform dose prescription. Furthermore, unlike the case in image reconstruction of not knowing the image solution in advance, the prescribed dose is known from a PET image a priori. Therefore, optimum beam orientations are derivable. Methods: We can assume the PET image to be the prescribed dose and invert it to determine the energy fluence. The same method used to reconstruct tissue images from projections could be used to solve the inverse problem of determining beam orientations and modulation patterns from a dose prescription [10]. Unlike standard tomographic reconstruction of images from measured projection profiles, the inversion of the prescribed dose results in photon fluence which may be negative and therefore unphysical. Two-dimensional modulated beams can be modelled in terms of the attenuated or exponential radon transform of the prescribed dose function (assumed to be the PET image in this case), an application of a Ram-Lak filter, and inversion by backprojection. Unlike the case in PET processing, however, the filtered beam obtained from the inversion represents a physical photon fluence. Therefore, a positivity constraint for the fluence (setting negative fluence to zero) must be applied (Brahme et al 1982, Bortfeld et al 1990) Results: Truncating the negative profiles from the PET data results in an approximation of the derivable energy fluence. Backprojection of the deliverable fluence is an approximation of the dose delivered. The deliverable dose is comparable to the original PET image and is similar to the PET image. Conclusion: It is possible to use the PET data or image as a direct indicator of deliverable fluence for cylindrical radiotherapy systems such as TomoTherapy

  14. Optimal FDG PET/CT volumetric parameters for risk stratification in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: results from the ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235 trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salavati, Ali [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Duan, Fenghai [Brown University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Sciences, Providence, RI (United States); Snyder, Bradley S. [Brown University School of Public Health, Center for Statistical Sciences, Providence, RI (United States); Wei, Bo [Emory University, Department of Biostatistics, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA (United States); Houshmand, Sina; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Khiewvan, Benjapa [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mahidol University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Opanowski, Adam [ACR Center for Research and Innovation, American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Simone, Charles B. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Siegel, Barry A. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St, Louis, MO (United States); Machtay, Mitchell [Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-11-15

    In recent years, multiple studies have demonstrated the value of volumetric FDG-PET/CT parameters as independent prognostic factors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to determine the optimal cut-off points of pretreatment volumetric FDG-PET/CT parameters in predicting overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC and to recommend imaging biomarkers appropriate for routine clinical applications. Patients with inoperable stage IIB/III NSCLC enrolled in ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235 were included. Pretreatment FDG-PET scans were quantified using semiautomatic adaptive contrast-oriented thresholding and local-background partial-volume-effect-correction algorithms. For each patient, the following indices were measured: metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), SUVmax, SUVmean, partial-volume-corrected TLG (pvcTLG), and pvcSUVmean for the whole-body, primary tumor, and regional lymph nodes. The association between each index and patient outcome was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Optimal cut-off points were estimated using recursive binary partitioning in a conditional inference framework and used in Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank testing. The discriminatory ability of each index was examined using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and corresponding area under the curve (AUC(t)). The study included 196 patients. Pretreatment whole-body and primary tumor MTV, TLG, and pvcTLG were independently prognostic of OS. Optimal cut-off points were 175.0, 270.9, and 35.5 cm{sup 3} for whole-body TLG, pvcTLG, and MTV, and were 168.2, 239.8, and 17.4 cm{sup 3} for primary tumor TLG, pvcTLG, and MTV, respectively. In time-dependent ROC analysis, AUC(t) for MTV and TLG were uniformly higher than that of SUV measures over all time points. Primary tumor and whole-body parameters demonstrated similar patterns of separation for those patients above versus below the optimal cut

  15. NIRS report of investigations for the development of the next generation PET apparatus. FY 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The present status of studies conducted by representative technology fields for the development of the next generation PET apparatus, and the summary of opinions given by investigators of nuclear medicine are reported. The former involves chapters of: Summary of representative technologies for the development of the next generation PET apparatus; Count rate analysis of PET apparatuses for the whole body and small animals by PET simulator; Scintillator; DOI (depth of interaction) detector-evaluation of the detector with 256-ch fluorescence polarization-photomultiplier tubes (FP-PMT) trial apparatus etc; Examination of multi-slice DOI-MR compatible detector for PET; Development of application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for processing the front-end signals; Detector simulation; Circuit for processing PET detector signals; Signal processing-coincidence circuit; Data collection system; Signal processing technology for the next generation PET; Reconstruction of statistical PET image using DOI signals; Monte Carlo simulation and Unique directions-PET for infants and for the whole body autonomic nervous systems and mental activity; and Actual design and evaluation of image reconstruction by statistical means. Opinions are: Progress of clinical PET apparatus; Desirable PET drugs and apparatuses; From clinical practice for the development of the next generation PET apparatus; From clinical psychiatric studies for the development; From application of drug development and basic researches; From brain PET practice; From clinical PET practice; and The role of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in PET development. Also involved is the publication list. (N.I.)

  16. Dedicated brain PET system of PET/MR for brain research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Li; Liu, Yaqiang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Wei, Qingyang; Xu, Tianpeng

    2015-01-01

    This work is to replace PET ring in human brain PET/MR system with a dedicated wearable PET insert, aimed at improving both patient feasibility and system performance for brain imaging. The designed PET/MR system includes two parts: the inside parts, including a radio frequency (RF) coil and PET ring, are mounted on patient’s head, and the outside part, a MR imager, is dependent of patient. The RF coil is the innermost layer, surrounded by an outer PET-ring layer. They are supported by a MRcompatible structure. And both RF coil and PET detectors are placed inside a standard clinical 3-T MR imager. From the design of the system we can infer that some advantages can be achieved. First, high sensitivity will be achieved with the same amount crystals as the PET ring is more close to region-of-interest area, at a reduced cost. Second, by using a 2-layer depth of interaction (DOI) detector, the parallax effect can be minimized. The resolution will benefit from short positron range caused by magnetic field and smaller ring diameter will also reduce the effect of non-collinearity. Thirdly, as the PET ring is mounted on head, impact of patient motion will be reduced.

  17. Dedicated brain PET system of PET/MR for brain research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li; Liu, Yaqiang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Wei, Qingyang; Xu, Tianpeng [Institute of Medical Physics, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-18

    This work is to replace PET ring in human brain PET/MR system with a dedicated wearable PET insert, aimed at improving both patient feasibility and system performance for brain imaging. The designed PET/MR system includes two parts: the inside parts, including a radio frequency (RF) coil and PET ring, are mounted on patient’s head, and the outside part, a MR imager, is dependent of patient. The RF coil is the innermost layer, surrounded by an outer PET-ring layer. They are supported by a MRcompatible structure. And both RF coil and PET detectors are placed inside a standard clinical 3-T MR imager. From the design of the system we can infer that some advantages can be achieved. First, high sensitivity will be achieved with the same amount crystals as the PET ring is more close to region-of-interest area, at a reduced cost. Second, by using a 2-layer depth of interaction (DOI) detector, the parallax effect can be minimized. The resolution will benefit from short positron range caused by magnetic field and smaller ring diameter will also reduce the effect of non-collinearity. Thirdly, as the PET ring is mounted on head, impact of patient motion will be reduced.

  18. Sequential FDG-PET and induction chemotherapy in locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the Oesophago-gastric junction (AEG): The Heidelberg Imaging program in Cancer of the oesophago-gastric junction during Neoadjuvant treatment: HICON trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, Sylvie; Debus, Jürgen; Jäger, Dirk; Münter, Marc W; Gall, Carl von; Stange, Annika; Haag, Georg M; Weitz, Jürgen; Haberkorn, Uwe; Lordick, Florian; Weichert, Wilko; Abel, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET ( 18 F-FDG-PET) can be used for early response assessment in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the oesophagogastric junction (AEG) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It has been recently shown in the MUNICON trials that response-guided treatment algorithms based on early changes of the FDG tumor uptake detected by PET are feasible and that they can be implemented into clinical practice. Only 40%-50% of the patients respond metabolically to therapy. As metabolic non-response is known to be associated with a dismal prognosis, metabolic non-responders are increasingly treated with alternative neoadjuvant chemotherapies or chemoradiation in order to improve their clinical outcome. We plan to investigate whether PET can be used as response assessment during radiochemotherapy given as salvage treatment in early metabolic non-responders to standard chemotherapy. The HICON trial is a prospective, non-randomized, explorative imaging study evaluating the value of PET as a predictor of histopathological response in metabolic non-responders. Patients with resectable AEG type I and II according to Siewerts classification, staged cT3/4 and/or cN+ and cM0 by endoscopic ultrasound, spiral CT or MRI and FDG-PET are eligible. Tumors must be potentially R0 resectable and must have a sufficient FDG-baseline uptake. Only metabolic non-responders, showing a < 35% decrease of SUV two weeks after the start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy are eligible for the study and are taken to intensified taxane-based RCT (chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy) before surgery. 18 FDG-PET scans will be performed before (= Baseline) and after 14 days of standard neoadjuvant therapy as well as after the first cycle of salvage docetaxel/cisplatin chemotherapy (PET 1) and at the end of radiochemotherapy (PET2). Tracer uptake will be assessed semiquantitatively using standardized uptake values (SUV). The percentage difference ΔSUV = 100 (SUV Baseline - SUV PET1 )/SUV Baseline

  19. Iodine-124 PET dosimetry in differentiated thyroid cancer: recovery coefficient in 2D and 3D modes for PET(/CT) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzen, Walter; Weise, Reiner; Kupferschläger, Jürgen; Freudenberg, Lutz; Brandau, Wolfgang; Bares, Ronald; Burchert, Wolfgang; Bockisch, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    This study evaluated the absolute quantification of iodine-124 ((124)I) activity concentration with respect to the use of this isotope for dosimetry before therapies with (131)I or (131)I-labeled radiotherapeuticals. The recovery coefficients of positron emission tomography(/computed tomography) PET(/CT) systems using (124)I were determined using phantoms and then validated under typical conditions observed in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. Transversal spatial resolution and recovery measurements with (124)I and with fluorine-18 ((18)F) as the reference were performed using isotope-containing line sources embedded in water and six isotope-containing spheres 9.7 to 37.0 mm in diameter placed in water-containing body and cylinder phantoms. The cylinder phantom spheres were filled with (18)F only. Measurements in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) modes were performed using both stand-alone PET (EXACT HR(+)) and combined PET/CT (BIOGRAPH EMOTION DUO) systems. Recovery comparison measurements were additionally performed on a GE ADVANCE PET system using the cylinder phantom. The recovery coefficients were directly determined using the activity concentration of circular regions of interest divided by the prepared activity concentration determined by the dose calibrator. The recovery correction method was validated using three consecutive scans of the body phantom under our (124)I PET(/CT) protocol for DTC patients. Compared with that of (18)F, transversal spatial resolution of (124)I was slightly, but statistically significantly degraded (7.4 mm vs. 8.3 mm, P or =12.6 mm in diameter. Recovery correction is mandatory for (124)I PET quantification, even for large structures. To ensure accurate dosimetry, thorough absolute recovery measurements must be individually established for the particular PET scanner and radionuclide to be used.

  20. Sequential FDG-PET and induction chemotherapy in locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the Oesophago-gastric junction (AEG: The Heidelberg Imaging program in Cancer of the oesophago-gastric junction during Neoadjuvant treatment: HICON trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichert Wilko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (18F-FDG-PET can be used for early response assessment in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the oesophagogastric junction (AEG undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It has been recently shown in the MUNICON trials that response-guided treatment algorithms based on early changes of the FDG tumor uptake detected by PET are feasible and that they can be implemented into clinical practice. Only 40%-50% of the patients respond metabolically to therapy. As metabolic non-response is known to be associated with a dismal prognosis, metabolic non-responders are increasingly treated with alternative neoadjuvant chemotherapies or chemoradiation in order to improve their clinical outcome. We plan to investigate whether PET can be used as response assessment during radiochemotherapy given as salvage treatment in early metabolic non-responders to standard chemotherapy. Methods/Design The HICON trial is a prospective, non-randomized, explorative imaging study evaluating the value of PET as a predictor of histopathological response in metabolic non-responders. Patients with resectable AEG type I and II according to Siewerts classification, staged cT3/4 and/or cN+ and cM0 by endoscopic ultrasound, spiral CT or MRI and FDG-PET are eligible. Tumors must be potentially R0 resectable and must have a sufficient FDG-baseline uptake. Only metabolic non-responders, showing a 18FDG-PET scans will be performed before ( = Baseline and after 14 days of standard neoadjuvant therapy as well as after the first cycle of salvage docetaxel/cisplatin chemotherapy (PET 1 and at the end of radiochemotherapy (PET2. Tracer uptake will be assessed semiquantitatively using standardized uptake values (SUV. The percentage difference ΔSUV = 100 (SUVBaseline - SUV PET1/SUVBaseline will be calculated and assessed as an early predictor of histopathological response. In a secondary analysis, the association between the difference

  1. Effect of Attenuation Correction on Regional Quantification Between PET/MR and PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teuho, Jarmo; Johansson, Jarkko; Linden, Jani

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A spatial bias in brain PET/MR exists compared with PET/CT, because of MR-based attenuation correction. We performed an evaluation among 4 institutions, 3 PET/MR systems, and 4 PET/CT systems using an anthropomorphic brain phantom, hypothesizing that the spatial bias would be minimized....../MR systems, CTAC was applied as the reference method for attenuation correction. RESULTS: With CTAC, visual and quantitative differences between PET/MR and PET/CT systems were minimized. Intersystem variation between institutions was +3.42% to -3.29% in all VOIs for PET/CT and +2.15% to -4.50% in all VOIs...... for PET/MR. PET/MR systems differed by +2.34% to -2.21%, +2.04% to -2.08%, and -1.77% to -5.37% when compared with a PET/CT system at each institution, and these differences were not significant (P ≥ 0.05). CONCLUSION: Visual and quantitative differences between PET/MR and PET/CT systems can be minimized...

  2. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI: An update and initial experience at HC-FMUSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Summary The new technology of PET/MRI is a prototype of hybrid imaging, allowing for the combination of molecular data from PET scanning and morphofunctional information derived from MRI scanning. Recent advances regarding the technical aspects of this device, especially after the development of MRI-compatible silicon photomultipliers of PET, permitted an increase in the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI translated into dose reduction and higher imaging quality. Among several clinical applications, PET/MRI gains ground initially in oncology, where MRI per se plays an essential role in the assessment of primary tumors (which is limited in the case of PET/CT, including prostate, rectal and gynecological tumors. On the other hand, the evaluation of the lungs remains an enigma although new MRI sequences are being designed to overcome this. More clinical indications of PET/MRI are seen in the fields of neurology, cardiology and inflammatory processes, and the use of PET/MRI also opens perspectives for pediatric populations as it involves very low radiation exposure. Our review aimed to highlight the current indications of PET/MRI and discuss the challenges and perspectives of PET/MRI at HC-FMUSP.

  3. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, C.; Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L.; Byars, L.; Michel, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner

  4. Technologies Advance UAVs for Science, Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center and West Virginia University enabled Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, of Manassas, Virginia, to develop cost-effective composite manufacturing capabilities and open a facility in West Virginia. The company now employs 160 workers at the plant, tasked with crafting airframe components for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program. While one third of the company's workforce focuses on Global Hawk production, the rest of the company develops advanced UAV technologies that are redefining traditional approaches to unmanned aviation. Since the company's founding, Aurora s cutting-edge work has been supported with funding from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

  5. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  6. Prototype design of singles processing unit for the small animal PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P.; Zhao, L.; Lu, J.; Li, B.; Dong, R.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2018-05-01

    Position Emission Tomography (PET) is an advanced clinical diagnostic imaging technique for nuclear medicine. Small animal PET is increasingly used for studying the animal model of disease, new drugs and new therapies. A prototype of Singles Processing Unit (SPU) for a small animal PET system was designed to obtain the time, energy, and position information. The energy and position is actually calculated through high precison charge measurement, which is based on amplification, shaping, A/D conversion and area calculation in digital signal processing domian. Analysis and simulations were also conducted to optimize the key parameters in system design. Initial tests indicate that the charge and time precision is better than 3‰ FWHM and 350 ps FWHM respectively, while the position resolution is better than 3.5‰ FWHM. Commination tests of the SPU prototype with the PET detector indicate that the system time precision is better than 2.5 ns, while the flood map and energy spectra concored well with the expected.

  7. Innovations and advances in computing, informatics, systems sciences, networking and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Innovations and Advances in Computing, Informatics, Systems Sciences, Networking and Engineering  This book includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Computer Science, Informatics, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering. It includes selected papers from the conference proceedings of the Eighth and some selected papers of the Ninth International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2012 & CISSE 2013). Coverage includes topics in: Industrial Electronics, Technology & Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.  ·       Provides the latest in a series of books growing out of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering; ·       Includes chapters in the most a...

  8. Clinical PET application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Hong, Song W.; Choi, Chang W.; Yang, Seong Dae [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    PET gives various methabolic images, and is very important, new diagnostic modality in clinical oncology. In Korea Cancer Center Hospital, PET is installed as a research tool of long-mid-term atomic research project. For the efficient use of PET for clinical and research projects, income from the patients should be managed to get the raw material, equipment, manpower, and also for the clinical PET research. 1. Support the clinical application of PET in oncology. 2. Budgetary management of income, costs for raw material, equipment, manpower, and the clinical PET research project. In this year, 250 cases of PET images were obtained, which resulted total income of 180,000,000 won. 50,000,000 won was deposited for the 1998 PET clinical research. Second year PET clinical research should be managed under unified project. Increased demand for {sup 18}FDG in and outside KCCH need more than 2 times production of {sup 18}FDG in a day purchase of HPLC pump and {sup 68}Ga pin source which was delayed due to economic crisis, should be done early in 1998. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Mentoring Faculty: Results from National Science Foundation's ADVANCE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Faculty mentoring programs are common components of National Science Foundation ADVANCE awards. The ADVANCE program aims to increase the number of women on the faculty in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) departments through grants to individuals and to entire institutions. These grants target a change in institutional culture so that faculty from non-majority groups will succeed and thrive. Mentoring programs are generally designed to fit the particular institution(s) or target population (e.g., meteorologists at the beginning of their careers). A successful mentoring program makes the implicit knowledge necessary for faculty success explicit: policies and practices are made transparent; routes for finding answers are clarified or generated with faculty input; faculty overcome a sense of isolation and develop a community. Mentoring programs may be formal, with assigned mentors and mentees, or informal, with opportunities for beginning, middle and advanced career STEM faculty to mingle, generally over food and sometimes with a formal speaker. The programs are formally evaluated; in general, attention to mentoring generates better outcomes for all faculty. Research indicates that most successful scientists have a network of mentors rather than relying on one person to help navigate department, institution, and profession. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's (UNL) award, ADVANCE-Nebraska, offered opportunities for faculty to informally network over luncheons with women speakers, advanced in their careers. We also offered after-hours networking receptions. In response to faculty feedback, we shifted to a series of panel discussions entitled "Conversations". Most panels were conducted by successful UNL faculty; about one-third had an outside expert on a given topic. Topics were chosen based on faculty feedback and targeted specifically to beginning faculty (How to Start Up a Lab; How to Balance Teaching and Writing), mid-career faculty (Putting

  10. Combined PET/MR: The Real Work Has Just Started. Summary Report of the Third International Workshop on PET/MR Imaging; February 17-21, 2014, Tübingen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D L; Antoch, G; Bartenstein, P; Barthel, H; Beer, A J; Bisdas, S; Bluemke, D A; Boellaard, R; Claussen, C D; Franzius, C; Hacker, M; Hricak, H; la Fougère, C; Gückel, B; Nekolla, S G; Pichler, B J; Purz, S; Quick, H H; Sabri, O; Sattler, B; Schäfer, J; Schmidt, H; van den Hoff, J; Voss, S; Weber, W; Wehrl, H F; Beyer, T

    2015-06-01

    This paper summarises the proceedings and discussions at the third annual workshop held in Tübingen, Germany, dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined PET/MRI systems in humans. Two days of basic scientific and technical instructions with "hands-on" tutorials were followed by 3 days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round-table discussions and dialogue boards with specific themes. These included the use of PET/MRI in paediatric oncology and in adult neurology, oncology and cardiology, the development of multi-parametric analyses, and efforts to standardise PET/MRI examinations to allow pooling of data for evaluating the technology. A poll taken on the final day demonstrated that over 50 % of those present felt that while PET/MRI technology underwent an inevitable slump after its much-anticipated initial launch, it was now entering a period of slow, progressive development, with new key applications emerging. In particular, researchers are focusing on exploiting the complementary nature of the physiological (PET) and biochemical (MRI/MRS) data within the morphological framework (MRI) that these devices can provide. Much of the discussion was summed up on the final day when one speaker commented on the state of PET/MRI: "the real work has just started".

  11. PET and PET/CT in oncology: the key of diagnostic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortelmans, L.; Stroobants, S.; Spaepen, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present use of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology. This lecture is divided to the following parts: (1) Assessment of treatment response; (2) Treatment monitoring by PET: clinical examples; (3) PET for early response assessment; (4) Use of PET in Radiotherapy planning

  12. Quantitation of Maillard reaction products in commercially available pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    During processing of pet food, the Maillard reaction occurs, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The aim of this study was to quantitate MRPs (fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine

  13. 'PET -Compton' system. Comparative evaluation with PET system using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called 'PET-Compton' systems and includes comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation is done on a PET-Compton system consisting of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named 'Clear-PET' and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e + ) and γ quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. (Author)

  14. The journey: from X-rays to PET-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, Tariq Hussain

    2010-01-01

    has a common patient palette (bed), which travels from the CT gantry to the PET gantry. These advancements have led to better image registration and higher patient throughput. With further developments in crystal design, time of flight processing, CT based partial volume correction, multi-detector CT, short breath holding times, respiratory gating and newer reconstruction algorithms. PET-CTs of today have reached an unprecedented resolution reaching 2 mm across the field of view in the PET component with sub millimeter resolutions in CT. In short we have reached a long way over the last century, from X-Rays to the inception of PET-MRI, the only hindrance is the availability and high cost which we hope will improve in the days to come

  15. Fluorine-18 nuclide and its PET imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingfang

    2003-01-01

    Fluorine-18 has predominant physical features with long half-life and the enough time for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and PET imaging. Also, the chemical nature of fluorine-18 is similar to that of hydrogen, and the fluorine-18 labelled organic molecules can not change the non-labelled molecular character. Therefore, fluorine-18 is widely applied in the labelled glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotide, receptor-ligand and neurotransmitter molecular etc., with the propose of detecting the blood flow, metabolism, synthesis of the protein and the neurotransmitter function in brain by PET imaging. It is very important in the basic science and clinical research to understand and master the preparation of the fluorine-18 and its labelled compounds

  16. PET-COMPTON System. Comparative evaluation with PET System using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera HernAndez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A.; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called PET-Compton systems and has included comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation was done on a PET-Compton system made-up of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named Clear-PET and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e+) and quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. By means of analytical reconstruction using SSRB (Single Slide Rebinning) method were obtained superior spatial resolution in PET-Compton system for all tested radionuclides (reaching sub-millimeter values of for 22Na source). However this analysis done by simulation have shown limited global efficiency values in PET-Compton system (in the order of 10 -5 -10 -6 %) instead of values around 5*10 -1 % that have been achieved in PET system. (author)

  17. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, Roger N; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E; Price, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts

  18. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Roger N.; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E.; Price, Julie C.

    2015-11-01

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts

  19. Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Neff, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Over its more than thirty-year history, the Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (ATI) program within the Division of Astronomical Sciences has provided grants to support the development and deployment of detectors and instrumentation for ground-based astronomy. This program has enabled scientific advances in diverse fields from solar physics to exoplanets to cosmology. ATI has provided instrumentation for both small and large observatories from radio through visible wavebands. It has played a role in the early development of major initiatives such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Technology development for astronomy unfolds over a longer period than the lifetime of a single grant. This review will consider ATI from an historical perspective to assess its impact on astronomy.

  20. Role of PET/CT for precision medicine in lung cancer: perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Bennett S

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses the role of PET/CT in contributing to precision medicine in lung cancer, and provides the perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) on this process. The mission and vision of SNMMI are listed, along with the guidance provided by SNMMI to promote best practice in precision medicine. Basic principles of PET/CT are presented. An overview of the use of PET/CT imaging in lung cancer is discussed. In lung cancer patients, PET/CT is vitally important for optimal patient management. PET/CT is essential in determining staging and re-staging of disease, detecting recurrent or residual disease, evaluating response to therapy, and providing prognostic information. PET/CT is also critically important in radiation therapy planning by determining the extent of active disease, including an assessment of functional tumor volume. The current approach in tumor imaging is a significant advance over conventional imaging. However, recent advances suggest that therapeutic response criteria in the near future will be based on metabolic characteristics and will include the evaluation of biologic characteristics of tumors to further enhance the effectiveness of precision medicine in lung cancer, producing improved patient outcomes with less morbidity.

  1. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  2. Comparison of dosimetry between PET/CT and PET alone using 11C-ITMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kimiteru; Sakata, Muneyuki; Wagarsuma, Kei; Toyohara, Jun; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ishii, Kenji; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Oda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    We used a new tracer, N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino) pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4- 11 C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ( 11 C-ITMM), to compare radiation doses from positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with previously published doses from PET alone. Twelve healthy volunteers [six males (mean age ± SD, 27.7 ± 6.7 years) and six females (31.8 ± 14.5 years)] in 12 examinations were recruited. Dose estimations from PET/CT were compared with those from PET alone. Regions of interest (ROIs) in PET/CT were delineated on the basis of low-dose CT (LD-CT) images acquired during PET/CT. Internal and external radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 and CT-Expo software. The effective dose (ED) for 11 C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT was estimated to be 4.7 ± 0.5 μSv/MBq for the male subjects and 4.1 ± 0.7 μSv/MBq for the female subjects. The mean ED for 11 C-ITMM calculated from PET alone in a previous report was estimated to be 4.6 ± 0.3 μSv/MBq (males, n = 3). The ED values for 11 C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT in the male subjects were almost identical to those from PET alone. The absorbed doses (ADs) of the gallbladder, stomach, red bone marrow, and spleen calculated from PET/CT were significantly different from those calculated from PET alone. The EDs of 11 C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT were almost identical to those calculated from PET alone. The ADs in several organs calculated from PET/CT differed from those from PET alone. LD-CT images acquired during PET/CT may facilitate organ identification.

  3. "Discoveries in Planetary Sciences": Slide Sets Highlighting New Advances for Astronomy Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, D. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Beyer, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary science is a field that evolves rapidly, motivated by spacecraft mission results. Exciting new mission results are generally communicated rather quickly to the public in the form of press releases and news stories, but it can take several years for new advances to work their way into college textbooks. Yet it is important for students to have exposure to these new advances for a number of reasons. In some cases, new work renders older textbook knowledge incorrect or incomplete. In some cases, new discoveries make it possible to emphasize older textbook knowledge in a new way. In all cases, new advances provide exciting and accessible examples of the scientific process in action. To bridge the gap between textbooks and new advances in planetary sciences we have developed content on new discoveries for use by undergraduate instructors. Called 'Discoveries in Planetary Sciences', each new discovery is summarized in a 3-slide PowerPoint presentation. The first slide describes the discovery, the second slide discusses the underlying planetary science concepts, and the third presents the big picture implications of the discovery. A fourth slide includes links to associated press releases, images, and primary sources. This effort is generously sponsored by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, and the slide sets are available at http://dps.aas.org/education/dpsdisc/. Sixteen slide sets have been released so far covering topics spanning all sub-disciplines of planetary science. Results from the following spacecraft missions have been highlighted: MESSENGER, the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Cassini, LCROSS, EPOXI, Chandrayan, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Express, and Venus Express. Additionally, new results from Earth-orbiting and ground-based observing platforms and programs such as Hubble, Keck, IRTF, the Catalina Sky Survey, HARPS, MEarth, Spitzer, and amateur astronomers have been highlighted. 4-5 new slide sets are

  4. Additional value of PET-CT in the staging of lung cancer: comparison with CT alone, PET alone and visual correlation of PET and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wever, W. de; Marchal, G.; Bogaert, J.; Verschakelen, J.A.; Ceyssens, S.; Mortelmans, L.; Stroobants, S.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) is a new imaging modality offering anatomic and metabolic information. The purpose was to evaluate retrospectively the accuracy of integrated PET-CT in the staging of a suggestive lung lesion, comparing this with the accuracy of CT alone, PET alone and visually correlated PET-CT. Fifty patients undergoing integrated PET-CT for staging of a suggestive lung lesion were studied. Their tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) statuses were determined with CT, PET, visually correlated PET-CT and integrated PET-CT. These TNM stages were compared with the surgical TNM status. Integrated PET-CT was the most accurate imaging technique in the assessment of the TNM status. Integrated PET-CT predicted correctly the T status, N status, M status and TNM status in, respectively, 86%, 80%, 98%, 70% versus 68%, 66%,88%, 46% with CT, 46%, 70%, 96%, 30% with PET and 72%, 68%, 96%, 54% with visually correlated PET-CT. T status and N status were overstaged, respectively, in 8% and 16% with integrated PET-CT, in 20% and 28% with CT, in 16% and 20% with PET, in 12% and 20% with visually correlated PET-CT and understaged in 6% and 4% with integrated PET-CT, versus 12% and 6% with CT, 38% and 10% with PET and 12% with visually correlated PET-CT. Integrated PET-CT improves the staging of lung cancer through a better anatomic localization and characterization of lesions and is superior to CT alone and PET alone. If this technique is not available, visual correlation of PET and CT can be a valuable alternative. (orig.)

  5. Pet-Related Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-11-15

    Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member. Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated. Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women. Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections. People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets. Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular. Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections. Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination. The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals. Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.

  6. Advancing the science of forest hydrology A challenge to agricultural and biological engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Wayne Skaggs; Carl Trettin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, agricultural and biological engineers have provided major advances in science, engineering, and technology to increase food and fiber production to meet the demands of a rapidly growing global population. The land base for these technological advances has originated largely from forested lands, which have experienced dramatic declines over the...

  7. Development of PET insert for simultaneous PET/MR imaging of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jiwoong; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jin Ho; Kim, Sangsu; Im, Ki Chun; Lim, Hyun Keong [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Changheun; Park, HyunWook; Cho, Gyuseong [Departments of Electrical Engineering and Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-29

    Recently, there has been great interest on the development of combined PET/MR, which is a useful tool for both functional and anatomic imaging. The purpose of this study was to develop a MR compatible PET insert for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain and to evaluate the performance of the hybrid PET-MRI. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks arranged in a ring of 390 mm diameter with 60 mm axial FOV. Each detector block was composed of 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each of which consisted of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 GAPD array. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuits (PDCs) and then transferred to FPGA-embedded DAQ modules. The PDCs and DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box and located at the rear of the MR bore inside MRI room. 3-T human MRIs of two different vendors were used to evaluate the MR compatibility of developed PET insert. No significant changes of the PET performance and the homogeneity of MR images caused by the non-compatibility of PET-MRI were observed with the 2 different MRIs. The signal intensities of MR images were slightly degraded (<3.6%) with the both MRI systems. The difference between independently and simultaneously acquired PET images of brain phantom was negligibly small (<4.3%). High quality simultaneous brain PET and MRI of 3 normal volunteers were successfully acquired. Experimental results indicate that the high performance compact and lightweight PET insert for hybrid PET/MRI, which could be utilized with the MRI from various manufactures, can be developed using GAPD arrays and charge signal transmission method proposed in this study.

  8. Advances and challenges in computational plasma science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W M; Chan, V S

    2005-01-01

    Scientific simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behaviour. Recent advances in simulations of magnetically confined plasmas are reviewed in this paper, with illustrative examples, chosen from associated research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics and other topics. Progress has been stimulated, in particular, by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modelling. This was enabled by two key factors: (a) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (b) access to powerful new computational resources. Excellent progress has been made in developing codes for which computer run-time and problem-size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Examples include the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPPs to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations that have accelerated advances in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. These calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In looking towards the future, the current results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. This

  9. Development of a MPPC-based prototype gantry for future MRI-PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurei, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kato, T.; Fujita, T.; Ohshima, T.; Taya, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a high spatial resolution, compact Positron Emission Tomography (PET) module designed for small animals and intended for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. This module consists of large-area, 4 × 4 ch MPPC arrays (S11830-3344MF; Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) optically coupled with Ce-doped (Lu,Y)2(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) scintillators fabricated into 16 × 16 matrices of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 pixels. We set the temperature sensor (LM73CIMK-0; National Semiconductor Corp.) at the rear of the MPPC acceptance surface, and apply optimum voltage to maintain the gain. The eight MPPC-based PET modules and coincidence circuits were assembled into a gantry arranged in a ring 90 mm in diameter to form the MPPC-based PET system. We have developed two types PET gantry: one made of non-magnetic metal and the other made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resins. The PET gantry was positioned around the RF coil of the 4.7 T MRI system. We took an image of a point }22Na source under fast spin echo (FSE) and gradient echo (GE), in order to measure the interference between the MPPC-based PET and MRI. The spatial resolution of PET imaging in a transaxial plane of about 1 mm (FWHM) was achieved in all cases. Operating with PET made of ABS has no effect on MR images, while operating with PET made of non-magnetic metal has a significant detrimental effect on MR images. This paper describes our quantitative evaluations of PET images and MR images, and presents a more advanced version of the gantry for future MRI/DOI-PET systems.

  10. Recent Advances in Hyporheic Zone Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    The hyporheic zone exists beneath and adjacent to streams and rivers where surface water and groundwater interact. It provides unique habitat for aquatic organisms, can buffer surface water temperatures, and can be highly reactive, processing nutrients and improving water quality. The hyporheic zone is the subject of considerable research and the past year in WRR witnessed important conceptual advances. A key focus was rigorous evaluation of mixing between surface water and groundwater that occurs within hyporheic sediments. Field observations indicate that greater mixing occurs in the hyporheic zone than in deeper groundwater, and this distinction has been explored by recent numerical modeling studies, but more research is needed to fully understand the causes. A commentary this year in WRR proposed that hyporheic mixing is enhanced by a combination of fluctuating boundary conditions and multiscale physical and chemical spatial heterogeneity but confirmation is left to future research. This year also witnessed the boundaries of knowledge pushed back in a number of other key areas. Field quantification of hyporheic exchange and reactions benefited from advances including the use and interpretation of high frequency nutrient sensors, actively heater fiber optic sensors, isotope tracers, and geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity imaging. Conceptual advances were made in understanding the effects of unsteady environmental conditions (e.g., tides and storms) and preferential flow on hyporheic processes. Finally, hyporheic science is being brought increasingly to bear on applied issues such as informing nutrient removal crediting for stream restoration practices, for example in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  11. Potential Applications of PET/MR Imaging in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Nkoulou, René

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in hybrid PET/MR imaging have opened new perspectives for cardiovascular applications. Although cardiac MR imaging has gained wider adoption for routine clinical applications, PET images remain the reference in many applications for which objective analysis of metabolic and physiologic parameters is needed. In particular, in cardiovascular diseases-more specifically, coronary artery disease-the use of quantitative and measurable parameters in a reproducible way is essential for the management of therapeutic decisions and patient follow-up. Functional MR images and dynamic assessment of myocardial perfusion from transit of intravascular contrast medium can provide useful criteria for identifying areas of decreased myocardial perfusion or for assessing tissue viability from late contrast enhancement of scar tissue. PET images, however, will provide more quantitative data on true tissue perfusion and metabolism. Quantitative myocardial flow can also lead to accurate assessment of coronary flow reserve. The combination of both modalities will therefore provide complementary data that can be expected to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of diagnostic procedures. But the true potential of hybrid PET/MR imaging may reside in applications beyond the domain of coronary artery disease. The combination of both modalities in assessment of other cardiac diseases such as inflammation and of other systemic diseases can also be envisioned. It is also predicted that the 2 modalities combined could help characterize atherosclerotic plaques and differentiate plaques with a high risk of rupture from stable plaques. In the future, the development of new tracers will also open new perspectives in evaluating myocardial remodeling and in assessing the kinetics of stem cell therapy in myocardial infarction. New tracers will also provide new means for evaluating alterations in cardiac innervation, angiogenesis, and even the assessment of reporter gene technologies

  12. Impact of (18)F-Fluoride PET on Intended Management of Patients with Cancers Other Than Prostate Cancer: Results from the National Oncologic PET Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillner, Bruce E; Siegel, Barry A; Hanna, Lucy; Duan, Fenghai; Shields, Anthony F; Quinn, Bruce; Coleman, R Edward

    2014-07-01

    The National Oncologic PET Registry prospectively assessed the impact of PET with (18)F-sodium fluoride (NaF PET) on intended management of Medicare patients with suspected or known osseous metastasis. We report our findings for cancers other than prostate and make selected comparisons to our previously reported prostate cancer cohort. Data were collected from both referring and interpreting physicians before and after NaF PET in patients (age ≥ 65 y) stratified for initial staging (IS; n = 570), for suspected first osseous metastasis (FOM; n = 1,814; breast, 781 [43%]; lung, 380 [21%]; and all other cancers, 653 [36%]), and for suspected progression of osseous metastasis (POM; n = 435). The dominant indication was bone pain. If NaF PET were unavailable, conventional bone scintigraphy would have been ordered in 85% of patients. In IS, 28% of patients had suspected or confirmed nonosseous metastasis. If neither conventional bone scintigraphy nor NaF PET were available, referring physicians would have ordered other advanced imaging more than 70% of the time rather than initiate treatment for suspected FOM (11%-16%) or POM (18%-22%). When intended management was classified as either treatment or nontreatment, the intended management change for each cancer type was highest in POM, lower in IS, and lowest in FOM. For suspected FOM, intended management change was lower in breast (24%), lung (36%), or other cancers (31%), compared with prostate cancer (44%) (P definite metastases) frequencies were similar across cancer types. After normal/benign/equivocal PET results, 15% of breast, 30% lung, and 38% prostate cancer patients had treatment, likely reflecting differences in management of nonosseous disease. For patients with definite metastasis on NaF PET, nonprostate, compared with prostate, cancer patients had post-PET plans for more frequent biopsy, alternative imaging, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In the smaller IS and POM cohorts, differences among cancer types

  13. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in follicular lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dortz, Ludovic; Garin, Etienne; Guibert, Sophie de; Houot, Roch; Bayat, Sahar; Cuggia, Marc; Devillers, Anne; Le Jeune, Florence; Bahri, Haifa; Barge, Marie-Luce; Rolland, Yan; Lamy, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in staging, prognosis evaluation and restaging of patients with follicular lymphoma. A retrospective study was performed on 45 patients with untreated biopsy-proven follicular lymphoma who underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) and CT before and after chemoimmunotherapy induction treatment (rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). PET/CT detected more nodal (+51%) and extranodal (+89%) lesions than CT. PET/CT modified Ann Arbor staging in eight patients (18%). Five patients (11%) initially considered as being early stage (I/II) were eventually treated as advanced stage (III/IV). In this study, an initial PET/CT prognostic score was significantly more accurate than the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score in identifying patients with poor prognosis (i.e. patients with incomplete therapeutic response or early relapse). The accuracy of PET/CT for therapeutic response assessment was higher than that of CT (0.97 vs 0.64), especially due to its ability to identify inactive residual masses. In addition, post-treatment PET/CT was able to predict patients' outcomes. The median progression-free survival was 48 months in the PET/CT-negative group as compared with 17.2 months for the group with residual uptake (p -4 ). FDG PET/CT is useful for staging and assessing the prognosis and therapeutic response of patients with follicular lymphoma. (orig.)

  14. Current status and future role of brain PET/MRI in clinical and research settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, P.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O. [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Drzezga, A. [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-01-09

    Hybrid PET/MRI systematically offers a complementary combination of two modalities that has often proven itself superior to the single modality approach in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Emerging PET tracers, technical advances in multiparametric MRI and obvious workflow advantages may lead to a significant improvement in the diagnosis of dementia disorders, neurooncological diseases, epilepsy and neurovascular diseases using PET/MRI. Moreover, simultaneous PET/MRI is well suited to complex studies of brain function in which fast fluctuations of brain signals (e.g. related to task processing or in response to pharmacological interventions) need to be monitored on multiple levels. Initial simultaneous studies have already demonstrated that these complementary measures of brain function can provide new insights into the functional and structural organization of the brain. (orig.)

  15. Current status and future role of brain PET/MRI in clinical and research settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, P.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O.; Drzezga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid PET/MRI systematically offers a complementary combination of two modalities that has often proven itself superior to the single modality approach in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Emerging PET tracers, technical advances in multiparametric MRI and obvious workflow advantages may lead to a significant improvement in the diagnosis of dementia disorders, neurooncological diseases, epilepsy and neurovascular diseases using PET/MRI. Moreover, simultaneous PET/MRI is well suited to complex studies of brain function in which fast fluctuations of brain signals (e.g. related to task processing or in response to pharmacological interventions) need to be monitored on multiple levels. Initial simultaneous studies have already demonstrated that these complementary measures of brain function can provide new insights into the functional and structural organization of the brain. (orig.)

  16. Comparative analysis of PET/CT and PET/MR image characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma%对比分析头颈部鳞状细胞癌PET/CT与PET/MR特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白乐; 程勇; 唐勇进; 凌雪英

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate PET/CT and PET/MR characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).Methods Totally 40 patients with HNSCC underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT and MR scans of head and neck before anti-tumor treatment.PET positive lesions of HNSCC,including primary lesions and lymph nodes were evaluated by 2 radiologists independently.Then the imaging quality,fusion quality,lesion conspicuity and lesion characteristics were assessed based on PET/CT,PET/MR T1WI and PET/MR T2WI.Results Ninety PET positive lesions in all 40patients were evaluated,including 40 primary lesions and 50 lymph nodes.Similar imaging quality and fusion quality of PET/CT,PET/MR T1WI and PET/MR T2WI were obtained without statistical difference (both P>0.05).For the lesion conspicuity,PET/MR T1WI and PET/MR T2WI demonstrated significantly better than PET/CT in positive primary lesions and lymph nodes (all P<0.05).For the characteristics of positive primary lesions,PET/MR T2WI provided more information than PET/CT in 29 lesions,equal to PET/CT in 4 lesions,and less than PET/CT in 7 lesions.Conclusion The application of PET/MR in HNSCC is feasible,being superior to PET/CT in indication of lesions in head and neck area.%目的 探讨头颈部鳞状细胞癌(HNSCC)的PET/CT及PET/MR特征.方法 纳入未经抗肿瘤治疗的头颈部鳞状细胞癌患者40例,所有患者均接受PET/CT及头颈部MR检查.由2名观察者独立观察PET阳性病灶,包括阳性原发灶及阳性淋巴结;并对PET/CT、PET/MR T1WI及PET/MR T2WI的图像质量、融合准确度、病灶清晰度、病灶特征等进行评分.分析2名观察者间的一致性.结果 40例患者共90个PET阳性病灶,包括阳性原发灶40个、阳性淋巴结50个.PET/CT、PET/MR T1WI及PET/MR T2WI在图像质量及融合准确度方面差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05);在显示阳性原发灶及阳性淋巴结的清晰度方面,PET/MR T1WI及PET/MR T2WI均优于PET/CT(P均<0.05).40个阳性原发灶中,PET

  17. Present and future of PET and PET/CT in gynaecologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musto, Alessandra; Rampin, Lucia; Nanni, Cristina; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Fanti, Stefano; Rubello, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To review the published data in literature on patients affected by gynaecological malignancies to establish the role of 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in comparison to conventional imaging (CI). Materials and methods: All papers specifically addressed to the role of 18 F-FDG PET and PET/CT in gynaecological malignancies published on PubMed/Medline, in abstracts from the principal international congresses, in the guidelines from national Societies that had appeared in literature until November 2009 were considered for the purpose of the present study. Results and conclusions: The use of 18 F-FDG PET, and even more of 18 F-FDG PET/CT, is increasing in the follow up of patients with gynaecologic malignancies and suspected recurrent disease: there is evidence in the literature that 18 F-FDG PET/CT has a higher sensitivity than CI in depicting occult metastatic spread. An interesting issue is represented by patients with ovarian cancer with an increase of the specific biomarker, CA-125, and negative/inconclusive findings at CI. The use of 18 F-FDG PET in differential diagnosis and staging is more controversial, but there is some evidence that a baseline PET examination performed before commencing therapy, for staging purpose, is also useful to evaluate the response to chemoradiation treatment. In several papers it has been suggested a relevant role of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating the entity of response to treatment and therefore to plan the subsequent therapeutic strategy.

  18. Predicting neo-adjuvant chemotherapy response and progression-free survival of locally advanced breast cancer using textural features of intratumoral heterogeneity on F-18 FDG PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Yemi; Chung, Jin; Kim, Bom Sahn

    2018-03-30

    Predicting response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is important. This study investigated the prognostic value of tumor heterogeneity evaluated with textural analysis through F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We enrolled 83 patients with LABC who had completed NAC and curative surgery. Tumor texture indices from pretreatment FDG PET and DWI were extracted from histogram analysis and 7 different parent matrices: co-occurrence matrix, the voxel-alignment matrix, neighborhood intensity difference matrix, intensity size-zone matrix (ISZM), normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (NGLCM), neighboring gray-level dependence matrix (NGLDM), and texture spectrum matrix. The predictive values of textural features were tested regarding both pathologic NAC response and progression-free survival. Among 83 patients, 46 were pathologic responders, while 37 were nonresponders. The PET texture indices from 7 parent matrices, DWI texture indices from histogram, and 1 parent matrix (NGLCM) showed significant differences according to NAC response. On multivariable analysis, number nonuniformity of PET extracted from the NGLDM was an independent predictor of pathologic response (P = .009). During a median follow-up period of 17.3 months, 14 patients experienced recurrence. High-intensity zone emphasis (HIZE) and high-intensity short-zone emphasis (HISZE) from PET extracted from ISZM were significant textural predictors (P = .011 and P = .033). On Cox regression analysis, only HIZE was a significant predictor of recurrence (P = .027), while HISZE showed borderline significance (P = .107). Tumor texture indices are useful for NAC response prediction in LABC. Moreover, PET texture indices can help to predict disease recurrence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended

  20. International conference on Advances in Engineering Technologies and Physical Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong; Rieger, Burghard; IAENG Transactions on Engineering Technologies : Special Edition of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2011

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains thirty revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in an international conference in engineering technologies and physical science and applications. The conference serves as good platforms for the engineering community to meet with each other and to exchange ideas. The conference has also struck a balance between theoretical and application development. The conference is truly international meeting with a high level of participation from many countries. Topics covered include chemical engineering, circuits, communications systems, control theory, engineering mathematics, systems engineering, manufacture engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers the state of art of tremendous advances in engineering technologies and physical science and applications, and also serves as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on engineering technologies and physical science and applications.

  1. PET-based molecular imaging in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.H.; Heiss, W.D.; Li, H.; Knoess, C.; Schaller, B.; Kracht, L.; Monfared, P.; Vollmar, S.; Bauer, B.; Wagner, R.; Graf, R.; Wienhard, K.; Winkeler, A.; Rueger, A.; Klein, M.; Hilker, R.; Galldiks, N.; Herholz, K.; Sobesky, J.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive assessment of physiological, metabolic and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. Advances in detector technology have led to a considerable improvement in the spatial resolution of PET (1-2 mm), enabling for the first time investigations in small experimental animals such as mice. With the developments in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analysed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. The main and most intriguing advantage of molecular imaging is the kinetic analysis of a given molecular event in the same experimental subject over time. This will allow non-invasive characterisation and ''phenotyping'' of animal models of human disease at various disease stages, under certain pathophysiological stimuli and after therapeutic intervention. The potential broad applications of imaging molecular events in vivo lie in the study of cell biology, biochemistry, gene/protein function and regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and characterisation of transgenic animals. Most importantly, molecular imaging will have great implications for the identification of potential molecular therapeutic targets, in the development of new treatment strategies, and in their successful implementation into clinical application. Here, the potential impact of molecular imaging by PET in applications in neuroscience research with a special focus on neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology is reviewed. (orig.)

  2. 18F-FDG PET in the management of endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Angel; Chang, Ting-Chang; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Wu, Tzu-I; Ng, Koon-Kwan; Hsueh, Swei; Tsai, Chien-Sheng; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the clinical impact of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in endometrial cancer. We aimed to assess the value of integrating FDG-PET into the management of endometrial cancer in comparison with conventional imaging alone. All patients with histologically confirmed primary advanced (stage III/IV) or suspicious/documented recurrent endometrial cancer, with poor prognostic features (serum CA-125 >35 U/ml or unfavourable cell types), or surveillance after salvage therapy were eligible. Before FDG-PET scanning, each patient had received magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography (MRI-CT). The receiver operating characteristic curve method with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) was used to compare the diagnostic efficacy. Clinical impacts were determined on a scan basis. Forty-nine eligible patients were accrued and 60 studies were performed (27 primary staging, 33 post-therapy surveillance or restaging on relapse). The clinical impact was positive in 29 (48.3%) of the 60 scans. Mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) of true-positive lesions were 13.2 (range 5.7-37.4) for central pelvic lesions and 11.1 (range 1.5-37.4) for metastases. The sensitivity of FDG-PET alone (P<0.0001) or FDG-PET plus MRI-CT (P<0.0001) was significantly higher than that of MRI-CT alone in overall lesion detection. FDG-PET plus MRI-CT was significantly superior to MRI-CT alone in overall lesion detection (AUC 0.949 vs 0.872; P=0.004), detection of pelvic nodal/soft tissue metastases (P=0.048) and detection of extrapelvic metastases (P=0.010), while FDG-PET alone was only marginally superior by AUC (P=0.063). Whole-body FDG-PET coupled with MRI-CT facilitated optimal management of endometrial cancer in well-selected cases. (orig.)

  3. PET/CT in malignant melanoma: contrast-enhanced CT versus plain low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluger, Thomas; Schneider, Vera; Fougere, Christian la; Bartenstein, Peter; Weiss, Mayo; Melzer, Henriette Ingrid; Coppenrath, Eva; Berking, Carola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) versus non-enhanced low-dose CT (NECT) in the staging of advanced malignant melanoma with 18 F-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. In total, 50 18 F-FDG PET/CT examinations were performed in 50 patients with metastasized melanoma. For attenuation correction, whole-body NECT was performed followed by diagnostic CECT with contrast agent. For the whole-body PET, 18 F-FDG was applied. Criteria for evaluation were signs of vital tumour tissue (extent of lesions, contrast enhancement, maximum standardized uptake value >2.5). Findings suspicious for melanoma were considered lesions. NECT, CECT and 18 F-FDG PET were evaluated separately, followed by combined analysis of PET/NECT and PET/CECT. Findings were verified histologically and/or by follow-up (>6 months). Overall, 232 lesions were analysed, and 151 proved to be metastases. The sensitivity of NECT, CECT, PET, PET/NECT and PET/CECT was 62, 85, 90, 97 and 100%, and specificity was 52, 63, 88, 93 and 93%, respectively. Compared to CECT, NECT obtained additional false-negative results: lymph node (n = 19) and liver/spleen metastases (n = 9). Misinterpreted physiological structures mainly caused additional false-positive findings (n = 17). In combined analysis of PET/NECT, six false-positive [other tumours (n = 2), inflammatory lymph nodes (n = 2), inflammatory lung lesion (n = 1), blood vessel (n = 1)] and five false-negative findings [liver (n = 3), spleen (n = 1), lymph node metastases (n = 1)] remained. On PET/CECT, six false-positive [inflammatory lymph nodes (n = 3), other tumours (n = 2), inflammatory lung lesion (n = 1)] and no false-negative findings occurred. However, additional false findings on PET/NECT (6 of 232) did not change staging compared to PET/CECT. Our results indicate that it is justified to perform PET/NECT instead of PET/CECT for melanoma staging. (orig.)

  4. Synergies between electromagnetic calorimetry and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, William W.

    2002-01-01

    The instrumentation used for the nuclear medical imaging technique of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) shares many features with the instrumentation used for electromagnetic calorimetry. Both fields can certainly benefit from technical advances in many common areas, and this paper discusses both the commonalties and the differences between the instrumentation needs for the two fields. The overall aim is to identify where synergistic development opportunities exist. While such opportunities exist in inorganic scintillators, photodetectors, amplification and readout electronics, and high-speed computing, it is important to recognize that while the requirements of the two fields are similar, they are not identical, and so it is unlikely that advances specific to one field can be transferred without modification to the other

  5. Head and neck imaging with PET and PET/CT: artefacts from dental metallic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, Gerhard W.; Hany, Thomas F.; Kamel, Ehab; Schulthess von, Gustav K.; Buck, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Germanium-68 based attenuation correction (PET Ge68 ) is performed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for quantitative measurements. With the recent introduction of combined in-line PET/CT scanners, CT data can be used for attenuation correction. Since dental implants can cause artefacts in CT images, CT-based attenuation correction (PET CT ) may induce artefacts in PET images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dental metallic artwork on the quality of PET images by comparing non-corrected images and images attenuation corrected by PET Ge68 and PET CT . Imaging was performed on a novel in-line PET/CT system using a 40-mAs scan for PET CT in 41 consecutive patients with high suspicion of malignant or inflammatory disease. In 17 patients, additional PET Ge68 images were acquired in the same imaging session. Visual analysis of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution in several regions of the head and neck was scored on a 4-point scale in comparison with normal grey matter of the brain in the corresponding PET images. In addition, artefacts adjacent to dental metallic artwork were evaluated. A significant difference in image quality scoring was found only for the lips and the tip of the nose, which appeared darker on non-corrected than on corrected PET images. In 33 patients, artefacts were seen on CT, and in 28 of these patients, artefacts were also seen on PET imaging. In eight patients without implants, artefacts were seen neither on CT nor on PET images. Direct comparison of PET Ge68 and PET CT images showed a different appearance of artefacts in 3 of 17 patients. Malignant lesions were equally well visible using both transmission correction methods. Dental implants, non-removable bridgework etc. can cause artefacts in attenuation-corrected images using either a conventional 68 Ge transmission source or the CT scan obtained with a combined PET/CT camera. We recommend that the non-attenuation-corrected PET images also be

  6. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and PET/CT in Burkitt's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dkarantanis@nuclmed.ne [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Durski, Jolanta M.; Lowe, Val J.; Nathan, Mark A.; Mullan, Brian P. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Georgiou, Evangelos [Medical Physics Department, Medical School, University of Athens (Greece); Johnston, Patrick B. [Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wiseman, Gregory A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To explore the value of {sup 18}F fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods: All Burkitt's lymphoma patients referred for FDG PET or FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) exams at our institution from June 2003 to June 2006 were included. Selected patients were followed and clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. Results from FDG PET-PET/CT, as blindly reviewed by a consensus of two experienced readers, were compared with the status of the disease as determined by other laboratory, clinical and imaging exams and clinical follow-up. FDG PET-PET/CT results were classified as true positive or negative and false positive or negative. The degree of FDG uptake in the positive lesions was semiquantified as maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax). Results: Fifty-seven FDG PET-PET/CT exams were done in 15 patients. Seven exams were done for initial staging, 8 during and 14 after the completion of therapy, and 28 for disease surveillance. For nodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 8, true negative in 47 and false positive in 2 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%). For extranodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 6, true negative in 48 and false positive in 3 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%). The mean SUVmax for the positive nodal lesions was 15.7 (range 6.9-21.7, median 18.5) and for extranodal lesions was 14.2 (range 6.2-24.3, median 12.4). Conclusions: FDG PET-PET/CT is sensitive for the detection of viable disease in Burkitt's lymphoma. Affected areas demonstrated high degree of uptake that was reversible upon successful implementation of treatment.

  7. Standardised uptake values from PET/CT images: comparison with conventional attenuation-corrected PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souvatzoglou, M.; Ziegler, S.I.; Martinez, M.J.; Dzewas, G.; Schwaiger, M.; Bengel, F.; Busch, R.

    2007-01-01

    In PET/CT, CT-derived attenuation factors may influence standardised uptake values (SUVs) in tumour lesions and organs when compared with stand-alone PET. Therefore, we compared PET/CT-derived SUVs intra-individually in various organs and tumour lesions with stand-alone PET-derived SUVs. Thirty-five patients with known or suspected cancer were prospectively included. Sixteen patients underwent FDG PET using an ECAT HR+scanner, and subsequently a second scan using a Biograph Sensation 16PET/CT scanner. Nineteen patients were scanned in the reverse order. All images were reconstructed with an iterative algorithm (OSEM). Suspected lesions were grouped as paradiaphragmatic versus distant from the diaphragm. Mean and maximum SUVs were also calculated for brain, lung, liver, spleen and vertebral bone. The attenuation coefficients (μ values) used for correction of emission data (bone, soft tissue, lung) in the two data sets were determined. A body phantom containing six hot spheres and one cold cylinder was measured using the same protocol as in patients. Forty-six lesions were identified. There was a significant correlation of maximum and mean SUVs derived from PET and PET/CT for 14 paradiaphragmatic lesions (r=0.97 respectively; p<0.001 respectively) and for 32 lesions located distant from the diaphragm (r=0.87 and r=0.89 respectively; p<0.001 respectively). No significant differences were observed in the SUVs calculated with PET and PET/CT in the lesions or in the organs. In the phantom, radioactivity concentration in spheres calculated from PET and from PET/CT correlated significantly (r=0.99; p<0.001). SUVs of cancer lesions and normal organs were comparable between PET and PET/CT, supporting the usefulness of PET/CT-derived SUVs for quantification of tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  8. Present and future of PET and PET/CT in gynaecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musto, Alessandra [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Policlinico Sant' Orsola Malpighi, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Rampin, Lucia [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Radiology, Medical Physics, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, viale tre martiri 140, 45100 Rovigo (Italy); Nanni, Cristina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Policlinico Sant' Orsola Malpighi, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Marzola, Maria Cristina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Radiology, Medical Physics, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, viale tre martiri 140, 45100 Rovigo (Italy); Fanti, Stefano [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Policlinico Sant' Orsola Malpighi, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Rubello, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.rubello@libero.it [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Radiology, Medical Physics, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, viale tre martiri 140, 45100 Rovigo (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    Objectives: To review the published data in literature on patients affected by gynaecological malignancies to establish the role of {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in comparison to conventional imaging (CI). Materials and methods: All papers specifically addressed to the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and PET/CT in gynaecological malignancies published on PubMed/Medline, in abstracts from the principal international congresses, in the guidelines from national Societies that had appeared in literature until November 2009 were considered for the purpose of the present study. Results and conclusions: The use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET, and even more of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, is increasing in the follow up of patients with gynaecologic malignancies and suspected recurrent disease: there is evidence in the literature that {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has a higher sensitivity than CI in depicting occult metastatic spread. An interesting issue is represented by patients with ovarian cancer with an increase of the specific biomarker, CA-125, and negative/inconclusive findings at CI. The use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in differential diagnosis and staging is more controversial, but there is some evidence that a baseline PET examination performed before commencing therapy, for staging purpose, is also useful to evaluate the response to chemoradiation treatment. In several papers it has been suggested a relevant role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating the entity of response to treatment and therefore to plan the subsequent therapeutic strategy.

  9. Quantitative and Visual Assessments toward Potential Sub-mSv or Ultrafast FDG PET Using High-Sensitivity TOF PET in PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Spencer C; Bahroos, Emma; Hawkins, Randall A; Nardo, Lorenzo; Ravanfar, Vahid; Capbarat, Emily V; Seo, Youngho

    2018-06-01

    Newer high-performance time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) systems have the capability to preserve diagnostic image quality with low count density, while maintaining a high raw photon detection sensitivity that would allow for a reduction in injected dose or rapid data acquisition. To assess this, we performed quantitative and visual assessments of the PET images acquired using a highly sensitive (23.3 cps/kBq) large field of view (25-cm axial) silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based TOF PET (400-ps timing resolution) integrated with 3 T-MRI in comparison to PET images acquired on non-TOF PET/x-ray computed tomography (CT) systems. Whole-body 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) PET/CT was acquired for 15 patients followed by whole body PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an average injected dose of 325 ± 84 MBq. The PET list mode data from PET/MRI were reconstructed using full datasets (4 min/bed) and reduced datasets (2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 min/bed). Qualitative assessment between PET/CT and PET/MR images were made. A Likert-type scale between 1 and 5, 1 for non-diagnostic, 3 equivalent to PET/CT, and 5 superior quality, was used. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) of normal tissues and lesions detected were measured and compared. Mean visual assessment scores were 3.54 ± 0.32, 3.62 ± 0.38, and 3.69 ± 0.35 for the brain and 3.05 ± 0.49, 3.71 ± 0.45, and 4.14 ± 0.44 for the whole-body maximum intensity projections (MIPs) for 1, 2, and 4 min/bed PET/MR images, respectively. The SUV mean values for normal tissues were lower and statistically significant for images acquired at 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 min/bed on the PET/MR, with values of - 18 ± 28 % (p PET/MR datasets. High-sensitivity TOF PET showed comparable but still better visual image quality even at a much reduced activity in comparison to lower-sensitivity non-TOF PET. Our data translates to a seven times

  10. Advanced biomass science and technology for bio-based products: proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Hse; Zehui Jiang; Mon-Lin Kuo

    2009-01-01

    This book was developed from the proceedings of the Advanced Biomass Science and Technology for Bio-Based Products Symposium held in Beijing, China, May 23-25, 2007. The symposium was designed to provide a forum for researchers, producers, and consumers of biomass and bio-based products; to exchange information and ideas; and to stimulate new research and...

  11. Feasibility of [18F]FDG-PET and coregistered CT on clinical target volume definition of advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; IBFM-CNR, Milan; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan; Ceresoli, G.L.; Gregorc, V.; Rizzo, G.; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan; Artioli, D.; Cattaneo, M.; Castellone, P.; Picchio, M.; Landoni, C.; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan; Fazio, F.; IBFM-CNR, Milan; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan; Scientific Institute H.S. Raffaele, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Aim. To prospectively evaluate the impact of co registered positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) planning in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods. Twenty-one patients (median age: 57 years; range: 42-80 years) referred to 3D-CRT for NSCLC were recruited. Positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG-PET) and conventional CT images were coregistered (PET/CT images) using a commerciaI software package based on surface matching technique. Neoplastic areas were contoured on [ 18 F]FDGPET images with the aid of the correspondent CT image by a nuclear medicine physician. CT images and their relative PET contours were then transferred to treatment planning system. A radiation oncologist firstly contoured clinical target volumes (CTV) on CT scan alone (CTV-CT), and then on co registered PET/CT images (CTV-PET/CT). CTV-CT and CTV-PET/CT were compared for each patient; a difference higher than 25% was considered of clinical relevance. Results. Three patients were shifted to palliative radiotherapy for metastatic disease or very large tumor size, showed by [ 18 F]FDG-PET. Of the remaining 18 patients a CTV change, after inclusion of PET/CT data, was observed in 10/18 cases (55%): larger in 7/18 (range 33-279%) and smaller in 3/18 patients (range 26-34%), mainly due to inclusion or exclusion of Iymph-nodal disease and to better definition of tumor extent. CTV changes smaller than 25% occurred in the remaining 8/18 patients. Conclusion. [ 18 F]FDG-PET and CT images co-registration in radiotherapy treatment planning Ied to a change in CTV definition in the majority of our patients, which may signillcantly modify management and radiation treatment modality in these patients

  12. Imaging with 124I in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: is PET/MRI superior to PET/CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binse, I.; Poeppel, T.D.; Ruhlmann, M.; Gomez, B.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J.; Umutlu, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI for their usefulness in detecting and categorizing cervical iodine-positive lesions in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using 124 I as tracer. The study group comprised 65 patients at high risk of iodine-positive metastasis who underwent PET/CT (low-dose CT scan, PET acquisition time 2 min; PET/CT 2 ) followed by PET/MRI of the neck 24 h after 124 I administration. PET images from both modalities were analysed for the numbers of tracer-positive lesions. Two different acquisition times were used for the comparisons, one matching the PET/CT 2 acquisition time (2 min, PET/MRI 2 ) and the other covering the whole MRI scan time (30 min, PET/MRI 30 ). Iodine-positive lesions were categorized as metastasis, thyroid remnant or inconclusive according to their location on the PET/CT images. Morphological information provided by MRI was considered for evaluation of lesions on PET/MRI and for volume information. PET/MRI 2 detected significantly more iodine-positive metastases and thyroid remnants than PET/CT 2 (72 vs. 60, p = 0.002, and 100 vs. 80, p = 0.001, respectively), but the numbers of patients with at least one tumour lesion identified were not significantly different (21/65 vs. 17/65 patients). PET/MRI 30 tended to detect more PET-positive metastases than PET/MRI 2 (88 vs. 72), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Of 21 lesions classified as inconclusive on PET/CT, 5 were assigned to metastasis or thyroid remnant when evaluated by PET/MRI. Volume information was available in 34 % of iodine-positive metastases and 2 % of thyroid remnants on PET/MRI. PET/MRI of the neck was found to be superior to PET/CT in detecting iodine-positive lesions. This was attributed to the higher sensitivity of the PET component, Although helpful in some cases, we found no substantial advantage of PET/MRI over PET/CT in categorizing iodine-positive lesions as either metastasis or thyroid remnant

  13. Science and sociability: women as audience at the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1831-1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, Rebekah; Withers, Charles W J

    2008-03-01

    This essay recovers the experiences of women at the meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) from its founding in 1831 to the end of the Victorian era. It aims to add to research on women in science by reconsidering the traditional role of women as consumers rather than producers of knowledge and to that on science popularization by focusing on audience experience rather than on the aims and strategies of popularizers. The essay argues that, in various ways, the ubiquitous and visible female audience came to define the BAAS audience and "the public" for science more generally. The women who swelled the BAAS audiences were accepted as a social element within the meetings even as they were regarded critically as scientific participants. Portrayed as passive and nonscientific, women allowed the male scientific elites to distance themselves from their audiences. Arguing from diary and other evidence, we present examples that complicate existing notions of audiences for science as necessarily active.

  14. Magnetic Resonance-based Motion Correction for Quantitative PET in Simultaneous PET-MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges

    2017-07-01

    Motion degrades image quality and quantitation of PET images, and is an obstacle to quantitative PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR offers a tool that can be used for correcting the motion in PET images by using anatomic information from MR imaging acquired concurrently. Motion correction can be performed by transforming a set of reconstructed PET images into the same frame or by incorporating the transformation into the system model and reconstructing the motion-corrected image. Several phantom and patient studies have validated that MR-based motion correction strategies have great promise for quantitative PET imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How to use PET/CT in the evaluation of response to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decazes, Pierre; Thureau, Sébastien; Dubray, Bernard; Vera, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Radiotherapy is a major treatment modality for many cancers. Tumor response after radiotherapy determines the subsequent steps of the patient's management (surveillance, adjuvant or salvage treatment and palliative care). Tumor response assessed during radiotherapy offers a promising opportunity to adapt the treatment plan to reduced / increased target volume, to specifically target sub-volumes with relevant biological characteristics (metabolism, hypoxia, proliferation ...) and to further spare the organs at risk. In addition to its role in the diagnosis and the initial staging, Positron Emission Tomography combined with a Computed Tomography (PET/CT) provides functional information and is therefore attractive to evaluate tumor response. To review the published data addressing PET/CT as an evaluation tool in irradiated tumors. Reports on PET/CT acquired at various times (during radiotherapy, after initial (chemo-)radiotherapy, after definitive radiotherapy and during posttreatment follow-up) in solid tumors (lung, head-and-neck, cervix, esophagus, prostate and rectum) were collected and reviewed. Various tracers and technical are also discussed. 18F-FDG PET/CT has a well-established role in clinical routine after definitive chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancers. 18F-choline PET/CT is indicated in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure. 18F-FDG PET/CT is optional in many others circumstances and the clinical benefits of assessing tumor response with PET/CT remain a field of very active research. The combination of PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) may prove to be valuable in irradiated rectal and cervix cancers. Tumor response can be evaluated by PET/CT with clinical consequences in multiple situations, notably in head and neck and prostate cancers, after radiotherapy. Further clinical evaluation for most cancers is still needed, possibly in association to MRI.

  16. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Comparison of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT with [18F]NaF PET/CT in the evaluation of bone metastases in metastatic prostate cancer patients prior to radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprimny, Christian; Svirydenka, Anna; Fritz, Josef; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Nilica, Bernhard; Decristoforo, Clemens; Haubner, Roland; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Buxbaum, Sabine; Horninger, Wolfgang; Virgolini, Irene Johanna

    2018-05-16

    /CT, 18 F-NaF PET/CT detects a higher number of pathologic bone lesions in advanced stage PC patients scheduled for radionuclide therapy. Our data suggest that 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET should be combined with 18 F-NaF PET in PC patients with skeletal metastases for restaging prior to initiation or modification of therapy.

  18. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  19. Training the "assertive practitioner of behavioral science": advancing a behavioral medicine track in a family medicine residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Dennis J; Holloway, Richard L; Fons, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of a Behavioral Medicine track in a family medicine residency designed to train physicians to proactively and consistently apply advanced skills in psychosocial medicine, psychiatric care, and behavioral medicine. The Behavioral Medicine track emerged from a behavioral science visioning retreat, an opportunity to restructure residency training, a comparative family medicine-psychiatry model, and qualified residents with high interest in behavioral science. Training was restructured to increase rotational opportunities in core behavioral science areas and track residents were provided an intensive longitudinal counseling seminar and received advanced training in psychopharmacology, case supervision, and mindfulness. The availability of a Behavioral Medicine track increased medical student interest in the residency program and four residents have completed the track. All track residents have presented medical Grand Rounds on behavioral science topics and have lead multiple workshops or research sessions at national meetings. Graduate responses indicate effective integration of behavioral medicine skills and abilities in practice, consistent use of brief counseling skills, and good confidence in treating common psychiatric disorders. As developed and structured, the Behavioral Medicine track has achieved the goal of producing "assertive practitioners of behavioral science in family medicine" residents with advanced behavioral science skills and abilities who globally integrate behavioral science into primary care.

  20. The application of PET and PET-CT in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianmin; Pan Liping; Li Dongxue

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the common malignancies in woman, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET is a well-established method for detecting, staging, cancer recurrence, therapeutic response and prognosis of cervical cancer. PET-CT can accurately locate the anatomical sites of tracer uptake and improve the diagnostic accuraccy of PET. (authors)

  1. The petit rat (pet/pet), a new semilethal mutant dwarf rat with thymic and testicular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-12-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and their longitudinal bones were shorter than those of controls without skeletal malformations. Most organs of male pet/pet rats, especially the thymus, testis, adipose tissue surrounding the kidney, and accessory sex organs, weighed markedly less at 140 d of age than did those of their normal counterparts. The thymus of pet/pet rats was small with abnormal thymic follicles. Testes from pet/pet rats exhibited 2 patterns of abnormal histology. Spermatogenesis was present in testes that were only slightly anomalous, but the seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter. In severely affected testes, most of the seminiferous tubules showed degeneration, and interstitial tissue was increased. Plasma growth hormone concentrations did not differ between pet/pet and normal male rats. The dwarf phenotype of pet/pet rats was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. These results indicate that the pet/pet rat has a semilethal growth-hormone-independent dwarf phenotype that is accompanied by thymic and testicular anomalies and low birth weight.

  2. Value of PET and PET-CT for monitoring tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET or PET-CT is an accurate test for differentiating residual viable tumor tissue from therapy-induced changes in tumor. Furthermore, quantitative assessment of therapy-induced changes in tumor 18 F-FDG uptake may allow the prediction of tumor response. Treatment may be adjusted according to tumor response. So it is increasingly used to monitor tumor respo