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Sample records for advancing paternal age

  1. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  2. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zofnat Wiener-Megnazi; Ron Auslender; Martha Dirnfeld

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades.The same trend is seen also for men.The influence of maternal age on fertility,chromosomal anomalies,pregnancy complications,and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring,has been thoroughly investigated,and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling.Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention.The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of oaternal age on reoroductive outcome.

  3. Advanced paternal age and mortality of offspring under 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhoj, S K; Jespersen, Louise Norman; Nissen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    and external causes. What is known already: Advanced paternal age has previously been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and some long term health problems in the offspring. This is possibly due to specific point mutations, a condition known to increase in the sperm with increasing paternal......Study question: Do children born to fathers of advanced age have an increased risk of dying before the age of 5 years? Summary answer: Children born to fathers aged 40 years or more have an increased risk of dying in early childhood due to an excess risk of fatal congenital anomalies, malignancies...... Labour Market Research, the Medical Birth Registry and the Registry of Causes of Death was linked using the unique civil registry number. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the risk of under-five mortality. The effect of paternal age was examined using restricted...

  4. Advanced Paternal Age and Risk of Musculoskeletal Congenital Anomalies in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhøj, Stine Kjær; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests that advanced paternal age increases the risk of musculoskeletal congenitalanomalies (CAs) in offspring, but findings are inconsistent. This study aims to investigate the risk of musculoskeletal CAsaccording to paternal age at birth in an unselected population...... riskof syndromic musculoskeletal CAs for fathers aged 40+ years. While associations between paternal age 50+ years andincreased risk of all subtypes of musculoskeletal CAs were indicated, advanced paternal age likely plays a minor role inthe etiology of these anomalies....... covering cohort of children. STUDY DESIGN: A register-based prospective study of 1,605,885 children born in Denmark, 1978–2004, using information from record-linked healthand administrative registers. The association between paternal age and overall musculoskeletal CAs, limb anomalies...

  5. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Svensson

    Full Text Available Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875. Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4 points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  6. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  7. Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Kasper Daniel; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2004-01-01

    A possible detrimental paternal age effect on offspring health due to mutations of paternal origin should be reflected in an association between paternal age and fetal loss. The authors used data from a prospective study of 23,821 pregnant women recruited consecutively to the Danish National Birth...... Cohort from 1997 to 1999 to assess the association between paternal age and fetal death. Fathers of the pregnancies were identified by record linkage to population registers. The paternal age-related risks of fetal death and its components, early and late fetal loss, were estimated using survival...... lifestyle during pregnancy. Various approaches to adjustment for potential residual confounding of the relation by maternal age did not affect the relative risk estimates. The paternal age-related risk of late fetal death was higher than the risk of early fetal death and started to increase from the age of...

  8. New Perspectives on Rodent Models of Advanced Paternal Age: Relevance to Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Foldi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of various adverse health outcomes, including autism and schizophrenia. With respect to biological mechanisms for this association, there are many more germline cell divisions in the life history of a sperm relative to that of an oocyte. This leads to more opportunities for copy error mutations in germ cells from older fathers. Evidence also suggests that epigenetic patterning in the sperm from older men is altered. Rodent models provide an experimental platform to examine the association between paternal age and brain development. Several rodent models of advanced paternal age (APA have been published with relevance to intermediate phenotypes related to autism. All four published APA models vary in key features creating a lack of consistency with respect to behavioural phenotypes. A consideration of common phenotypes that emerge from these APA-related mouse models may be informative in the exploration of the molecular and neurobiological correlates of APA.

  9. Advanced paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia in Iranians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokri Bahareh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1958 many, but not all studies have demonstrated that paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia. There may be many different explanations for differences between studies, including study design, sample size, collection criteria, heterogeneity and the confounding effects of environmental factors that can for example perturb epigenetic programming and lead to an increase in disease risk. The small number of children in Western families makes risk comparisons between siblings born at different paternal ages difficult. In contrast, more Eastern families have children both at early and later periods of life. In the present study, a cross-sectional population study in an Iranian population was performed to compare frequency of schizophrenia in younger offspring (that is, older paternal age versus older offspring. Methods A total of 220 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (cases from both psychiatric hospitals and private clinics and 220 individuals from other hospital wards (controls, matched for sex and age were recruited for this study. Patients with neurological problem, substance abuse, mental retardation and mood disorder were excluded from both groups. Results Birth rank comparisons revealed that 35% vs 24% of the cases vs the controls were in the third or upper birth rank (P = 0.01. Also, the mean age of fathers at birth in case group (30 ± 6.26 years was significantly more than the control group (26.45 ± 5.64 years; P = 0.0001. The age of 76 fathers at birth in case group was over 32 versus 33 fathers in control group. Individuals whose fathers' age was more than 32 (at birth were at higher risk (2.77 times for schizophrenia versus others (P P = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis suggests that maternal age is less likely to be involved in the higher risk of schizophrenia than advanced parental age. Discussion This study demonstrates a relationship between paternal age and schizophrenia in large

  10. Implications of Advancing Paternal Age: Does It Affect Offspring School Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson A, Abel KM, Dalman C, Magnusson C

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts...

  11. Advancing paternal age is associated with deficits in social and exploratory behaviors in the offspring: a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca G Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring. METHODS: C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young and 10 months (old, and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group. Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02 and exploratory (p = 0.02 behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity. CONCLUSIONS: Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors.

  12. Paternal age and offspring congenital heart defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Xiu Juan; Yuan, Wei; Huang, Guo Ying;

    2015-01-01

    Paternal age has been associated with offspring congenital heart defects (CHDs), which might be caused by increased mutations in the germ cell line because of cumulated cell replications. Empirical evidences, however, remain inconclusive. Furthermore, it is unknown whether all subtypes of CHDs are.......17-2.43). We observed similar results when subanalyses were restricted to children born to mothers of 27-30 years old. After taking into consideration of maternal age, our data suggested that advanced paternal age was associated with an increased prevalence of one subtype of offspring congenital heart defects...

  13. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  14. [Influence of paternal age in schizophrenia].

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Alexandre; Szöke, Andrei; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

    2011-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, with a strong genetic component. Despite a reduced fertility in this disorder, its prevalence is maintained and could be explained by de novo genetic mutations. Advanced paternal age (APA) is a major source of new mutations in human beings and could thus be associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in offspring. New mutations related to APA have been implicated as a cause of sp...

  15. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  16. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben C Arslan

    Full Text Available Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  17. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukanta Saha; Barnett, Adrian G; Claire Foldi; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W.; Buka, Stephen L.; McGrath, John J

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Over the last few decades, changes in society in the developed world have made it increasingly common for couples to wait until their late thirties to have children. In 1993, 25% of live births within marriage in England and Wales were to fathers aged 35–54 years, but by 2003 it was 40%. It is well known that women's fertility declines with age and that older mothers are more likely to have children with disabilities such as Down's syndrome. In contrast, many men ...

  18. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Halekoh, Ulrich; Möller, Sören; Kimura, Masayuki; Horvath, Kent; Kark, Jeremy D; Christensen, Kaare; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Aviv, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans....... Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age...

  19. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Paternal Trait Level

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; IACONO, WILLIAM G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...

  20. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; IACONO, WILLIAM G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...

  1. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level

    OpenAIRE

    Ruben C Arslan; Lars Penke; Wendy Johnson; Iacono, William G.; Matt McGue

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...

  2. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Simon L Conti; Eisenberg, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence a...

  3. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Souza, E; Morris, David Jackson; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome.......To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome....

  4. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491

  5. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L Conti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted. Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age.

  6. Effects of paternal age and offspring cognitive ability in early adulthood on the risk of schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) are both associated with the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in young adult offspring. We hypothesized that the offspring SSD risk gradient associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. We investigated joint and ...

  7. Paternal age in relation to offspring intelligence in the West of Scotland twenty-07 prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Whitley; Deary, Ian J; Der, Geoff; G David Batty; Michaela Benzeval

    2012-01-01

    Background: The adverse effects of advancing maternal age on offspring's health and development are well understood. Much less is known about the impact of paternal age.Methods: We explored paternal age-offspring cognition associations in 772 participants from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Offspring cognitive ability was assessed using Part 1 of the Alice Heim 4 (AH4) test of General Intelligence and by reaction time (RT).Results: There was no evidence of a parental age association wi...

  8. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza, E.; Morris, Joan K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome. Design Case-control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the sa

  9. Negative effects of paternal age on children's neurocognitive outcomes can be explained by maternal education and number of siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined cross-sectional patterns in six developmental outcome measures among children in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (n = 31,346. Many of these outcomes at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y of age (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test are negatively correlated with paternal age when important family characteristics such as maternal education and number of siblings are not included as covariates. But controlling for family characteristics in general and mother's education in particular renders the effect of paternal age statistically insignificant for most developmental measures. CONCLUSIONS: Assortative mating produces interesting relationships between maternal and paternal characteristics that can inject spurious correlation into observational studies via omitted variable bias. Controlling for both nature and nurture reveals little residual evidence of a link between child neurocognitive outcomes and paternal age in these data. Results suggest that benefits associated with the upward trend in maternal education may offset any negative effects of advancing paternal age.

  10. Paternal age in relation to offspring intelligence in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Whitley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of advancing maternal age on offspring's health and development are well understood. Much less is known about the impact of paternal age. METHODS: We explored paternal age-offspring cognition associations in 772 participants from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Offspring cognitive ability was assessed using Part 1 of the Alice Heim 4 (AH4 test of General Intelligence and by reaction time (RT. RESULTS: There was no evidence of a parental age association with offspring RT. However, we observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and offspring AH4 score with the lowest scores observed for the youngest and oldest fathers. Adjustment for parental education and socioeconomic status somewhat attenuated this association. Adjustment for number of, particularly older, siblings further reduced the scores of children of younger fathers and appeared to account for the lower offspring scores in the oldest paternal age group. CONCLUSION: We observed a paternal age association with AH4 but not RT, a measure of cognition largely independent of social and educational experiences. Factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status and number of, particularly older, siblings may play an important role in accounting for paternal age-AH4 associations. Future studies should include parental intelligence.

  11. Paternal age effect: Replication in schizophrenia with intriguing dissociation between bipolar with and without psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Douglas S; Pato, Michele T; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Miller, Brian R; Malaspina, Dolores; Buckley, Peter F; Sobell, Janet L; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Cohort Consortium, Genomic Psychiatry; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is a risk factor for schizophrenia (Sz) and bipolar disorder (BP). Putative mechanisms include heritable genetic factors, de novo mutations, and epigenetic mechanisms. Few studies have explored phenotypic features associated with APA. The Genomic Psychiatry Cohort established a clinically characterized repository of genomic samples from subjects with a Sz-BP diagnosis or unaffected controls, 12,975 with parental age information. We estimated relative risk ratios for Sz, schizoaffective depressed and bipolar types (SA-D, SA-B), and BP with and without history of psychotic features (PF) relative to the control group, comparing each paternal age group to the reference group 20-24 years. All tests were two-sided with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Subjects with fathers age 45+ had significantly higher risk for all diagnoses except for BP w/o PF. APA also bore no significant relation to family psychiatric history. In conclusion, we replicated APA as a risk factor for Sz. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of APA in a BP sample stratified by psychosis history, extending this association only in BP w/PF. This suggests that phenotypic expression of the APA effect in Sz-BP spectrum is psychosis, per se, rather than other aspects of these complex disorders. The lack of a significant relationship between paternal age and familial disease patterns suggests that underlying mechanisms of the paternal age effect may involve a complex interaction of heritable and non-heritable factors. The authors discuss implications and testable hypotheses, starting with a focus on genetic mechanisms and endophenotypic expressions of dopaminergic function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26183902

  12. Offspring's Leukocyte Telomere Length, Paternal Age, and Telomere Elongation in Sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Cherkas, Lynn F; Kato, Bernet S; Demissie, Serkalem; Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Brimacombe, Michael; Cupples, Adrienne; Hunkin, Janice L; Gardner, Jefferey P; Lu, Xiaobin; Cao, Xiaojian; Sastrasinh, Malinee; Province, Michael A; Hunt, Steven C; Christensen, Kaare; Levy, Daniel; Spector, Tim D; Aviv, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex genetic trait. It shortens with age and is associated with a host of aging-related disorders. Recent studies have observed that offspring of older fathers have longer LTLs. We explored the relation between paternal age and offspring's LTLs in 4 different...... cohorts. Moreover, we examined the potential cause of the paternal age on offspring's LTL by delineating telomere parameters in sperm donors. We measured LTL by Southern blots in Caucasian men and women (n=3365), aged 18-94 years, from the Offspring of the Framingham Heart Study (Framingham Offspring....... Paternal age had an independent effect, expressed by a longer LTL in males of the Framingham Offspring and Danish Twins, males and females of the NHLBI-Heart, and females of UK Twins. For every additional year of paternal age, LTL in offspring increased at a magnitude ranging from half to more than twice...

  13. Paternal age and diet: The contributions of a father's experience to susceptibility for post-concussion symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehar, Harleen; Yu, Katrina; Ma, Irene; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2016-09-22

    In an attempt to improve current understanding of risk factors that influence individual susceptibility to poor outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion, this project investigated whether modifications to paternal experiences (Advanced Age (AA) or High-Fat Diet (HFD)) affected offspring susceptibility to behavioral symptomology and changes in gene expression following pediatric concussion in a rodent model. The study demonstrated that paternal treatment prior to conception altered behavioral outcomes and molecular characterization of offspring. Offspring of AA fathers demonstrated abnormal behavioral performance when compared to offspring of control fathers. Similarly, paternal HFD altered pathophysiological outcomes for offspring, contributing to the heterogeneity in post-concussion syndrome. Additionally, this study provided insight into the mechanisms that mediate non-genetic paternal inheritance. Paternal treatment and the mTBI significantly influenced expression of a majority of the genes under examination in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, with changes being dependent upon sex and the brain region examined. These epigenetic changes may have contributed to the differences in offspring susceptibility to concussion. PMID:27365176

  14. Paternal-age and birth-order effect on the human secondary sex ratio.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruder, A

    1985-01-01

    Because of conflicting results in previous analyses of possible maternal and paternal effects on the variation in sex ratio at birth, records of United States live births in 1975 were sorted by offspring sex, live birth order (based on maternal parity), parental races, and, unlike prior studies, ungrouped parental ages. Linear regression and logistic analysis showed significant effects of birth order and paternal age on sex ratio in the white race data (1.67 million births; 10,219 different c...

  15. Effect of paternal age in achondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, and osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orioli, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castilla, E.E. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigacion Clinica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Scarano, G.; Mastroiacovo, P. [Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)

    1995-11-06

    The paternal ages of nonfamilial cases of achondroplasia (AC) (n = 78), thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) (n = 64), and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (n = 106), were compared with those of matched controls, from an Italian Indagine Policentrica Italiana sulle Malformazioni Congenite (IPIMC) and a South American Estudio Colaborativo Latinoamericano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) series. The degree of paternal age effect on the origin of these dominant mutations differed among the three conditions. Mean paternal age was highly elevated in AC, 36.30 {plus_minus} 6.74 years in the IPIMC, and 37.19 {plus_minus} 10.53 years in the ECLAMC; less consistently elevated in TD, 33.60 {plus_minus} 7.08 years in the IPIMC, and 36.41 {plus_minus} 9.38 years in the ECLAMC; and only slightly elevated in OI in the ECLAMC, 31.15 {plus_minus} 9.25 years, but not in the IPIMC, 32.26 {plus_minus} 6.07 years. Increased maternal age or birth order in these conditions disappeared when corrected for paternal age. Approximately 50% of AC and TD cases, and only 30% of OI cases, were born to fathers above age 35 years. For AC and TD, the increase in relative incidence with paternal age fitted an exponential curve. The variability of paternal age effect in these new mutations could be due, among other reasons, to the high proportion of germ-line mosaicism in OI parents, or to the localization of the AC gene, mapped to the 4p16.3 region, in the neighborhood of an unstable DNA area. 28 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  16. The Ups and Downs of Mutation Frequencies during Aging Can Account for the Apert Syndrome Paternal Age Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Ro Yoon; Jian Qin; Rivka L Glaser; Ethylin Wang Jabs; Wexler, Nancy S; Rebecca Sokol; Norman Arnheim; Peter Calabrese

    2009-01-01

    Author Summary Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of some genetic diseases increases with the age of the father. This “paternal age effect” is traditionally explained by the fact that, as men age, the male germ-line cells continue to divide, and each division presents an additional chance for mutation. Apert syndrome is an example of such a disease; virtually all cases are caused by spontaneous base substitution mutations of paternal origin at either one of just two sites. In thi...

  17. Contrasting Effects of Maternal and Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sukanta; Barnett, Adrian G; Foldi, Claire; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W.; Buka, Stephen L.; McGrath, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Over the last few decades, changes in society in the developed world have made it increasingly common for couples to wait until their late thirties to have children. In 1993, 25% of live births within marriage in England and Wales were to fathers aged 35–54 years, but by 2003 it was 40%. It is well known that women's fertility declines with age and that older mothers are more likely to have children with disabilities such as Down's syndrome. In contrast, many men ...

  18. Role of maternal and paternal age in an assisted reproductive program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabš Dunja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many infertile couples try to become parents spontaneously, neglecting the possibility to conceive artificially, so they seek medical help in their late reproductive age. Maternal age Major aspects of maternal age in regard to assisted reproduction consider oocytes, ovaries and endometrium. Also, some habits and maternal diseases associated with aging may have an impact on fertility (smoking, atherosclerosis, previous gynecological operations etc.. Even though estimating the ovarian reserve is the most objective test in assessing female fertility, it has a limited predictive value in younger women. A short protocol of ovulation induction showed best results in women with poor ovarian reserve, but recent studies recommend low-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in these cases. Paternal age With aging, sperm parameters become worse, which points to the neglected role of the father in assisted reproduction. Conclusion Thus, parental age plays an important role in assisted reproductive programs.

  19. The observed human sperm mutation frequency cannot explain the achondroplasia paternal age effect

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Navidi, William; Grewal, Raji; Cohn, Dan; Eskenazi, Brenda; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Arnheim, Norman

    2002-01-01

    The lifelong spermatogonial stem cell divisions unique to male germ cell production are thought to contribute to a higher mutation frequency in males. The fact that certain de novo human genetic conditions (e.g., achondroplasia) increase in incidence with the age of the father is consistent with this idea. Although it is assumed that the paternal age effect is the result of an increasing frequency of mutant sperm as a man grows older, no direct molecular measurement of the germ-line mutation ...

  20. Association of paternal age at birth and the risk of breast cancer in offspring: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Keun-Young

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older paternal age may increase the germ cell mutation rate in the offspring. Maternal age may also mediate in utero exposure to pregnancy hormones in the offspring. To evaluate the association between paternal and maternal age at birth with the risk of breast cancer in female offspring, a case-control study was conducted in Korea. Methods Histologically confirmed breast cancer cases (n = 1,011 and controls (n = 1,011 with no present or previous history of cancer, matched on year of birth and menopausal status, were selected from several teaching hospitals and community in Seoul during 1995–2003. Information on paternal and maternal ages and other factors was collected by interviewed questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were estimated by unconditional logistic regression model adjusting for family history of breast cancer in 1st or 2nd degree relatives, and lifetime estrogen exposure duration. Results The risk of breast cancer significantly increased as the paternal age increased (p for trend = 0.025. The association was stronger after controlling for maternal age; women whose fathers were aged ≥40 years at their birth had 1.6-fold increased risk of breast cancer compared with fathers aged Conclusion These findings suggest that older paternal age increases the risk of breast cancer in their female offspring.

  1. Paternal age and general cognitive ability-a cross sectional study of Danish male conscripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGrath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Offspring of older men have impaired cognitive ability as children, but it is unclear if this impairment persists into adulthood. The main objective of this study was to explore the association between paternal age at offspring birth and general cognitive ability as young adults. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study with prospectively collected data on obstetric factors and parental education. SETTING: Nationwide Danish sample. PARTICIPANTS: Male conscripts (n = 169,009. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: General cognitive ability as assessed by the Børge Priens test score, an intelligence test with components related to logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning. RESULTS: We observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and general cognitive ability (slightly lower test scores in the offspring of fathers aged less than 25 years and older than 40 years, compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years. However, after adjustment for maternal age, parental education and birth order the shape of the association changed. Offspring of fathers younger than 20 still showed slightly lower cognitive ability (-1.11 (95% CI -1.68 to -0.54, but no significant impairments were identified in the men whose fathers were older than 29 years at the time of their birth (e.g. the mean difference in test score in the offspring of fathers aged 40 to 44 years were -0.03 [95% CI (-0.27 to 0.20] compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find that the offspring of older fathers had impaired cognitive ability as young adults. Whereas, we found a tendency that the offspring of teen fathers have lower cognitive ability. Thus, our results suggest that any potentially deleterious effects of older fathers on general cognitive ability as young adults may be counter-balanced by other potentially beneficial factors.

  2. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  3. Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Rémi; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Variability in demographic traits between individuals within populations has profound implications for both evolutionary processes and population dynamics. Parental effects as a source of non-genetic inheritance are important processes to consider to understand the causes of individual variation. In iteroparous species, parental age is known to influence strongly reproductive success and offspring quality, but consequences on an offspring fitness component after independence are much less studied. Based on 37 years longitudinal monitoring of a long-lived seabird, the wandering albatross, we investigate delayed effects of parental age on offspring fitness components. We provide evidence that parental age influences offspring performance beyond the age of independence. By distinguishing maternal and paternal age effects, we demonstrate that paternal age, but not maternal age, impacts negatively post-fledging offspring performance. PMID:27053738

  4. Delayed paternal age of reproduction in humans is associated with longer telomeres across two generations of descendants

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres are repeating DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that protect and buffer genes from nucleotide loss as cells divide. Telomere length (TL) shortens with age in most proliferating tissues, limiting cell division and thereby contributing to senescence. However, TL increases with age in sperm, and, correspondingly, offspring of older fathers inherit longer telomeres. Using data and samples from a longitudinal study from the Philippines, we first replicate the finding that paternal...

  5. An old problem in a new age: Revisiting the clinical dilemma of misattributed paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercher, Laura; Jamal, Leila

    2016-03-01

    Clinical genetics has wrestled with the problem of misattributed paternity for decades. While there are no clear directives on policy, surveys suggest that genetics professionals are inclined to avoid disclosure when possible. Changes associated with the increased use of genomic testing will alter the context and may limit the benefits of non-disclosure. Multi-site testing will preclude the uncertainty often associated with single-gene testing. Increased use of genetic testing in clinical and non-clinical settings will create new opportunities for the subsequent unmasking of misattributed relationships, as will the presence of test results in the electronic medical record. Family health history information will become more valuable as it is used more often and to better effect in risk assessment, diagnosis, treatment and reproductive decision-making. These changes associated with genomic testing increase the risks and decrease the benefits associated with the nondisclosure of misattributed paternity. For ethical and practical reasons, genetics professionals, and those who advise them, should consider a greater emphasis on the value of carefully planned disclosure. PMID:27047759

  6. An old problem in a new age: Revisiting the clinical dilemma of misattributed paternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hercher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical genetics has wrestled with the problem of misattributed paternity for decades. While there are no clear directives on policy, surveys suggest that genetics professionals are inclined to avoid disclosure when possible. Changes associated with the increased use of genomic testing will alter the context and may limit the benefits of non-disclosure. Multi-site testing will preclude the uncertainty often associated with single-gene testing. Increased use of genetic testing in clinical and non-clinical settings will create new opportunities for the subsequent unmasking of misattributed relationships, as will the presence of test results in the electronic medical record. Family health history information will become more valuable as it is used more often and to better effect in risk assessment, diagnosis, treatment and reproductive decision-making. These changes associated with genomic testing increase the risks and decrease the benefits associated with the nondisclosure of misattributed paternity. For ethical and practical reasons, genetics professionals, and those who advise them, should consider a greater emphasis on the value of carefully planned disclosure.

  7. The association between paternal age and schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population%父亲生育年龄与子女罹患精神分裂症的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月静; 刘祥; 赵高峰; 马小红; 李涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether advanced paternal age is related to an increased risk of schizophrenia in Chinese Han population. Methods A case-control design study was performed. Three hundred and fifty-one patients with schizophrenia and 199 unrelated healthy volunteers were recruited. By using Logistic regression, paternal age was divided into five categories, and maternal age into four categories. Setting the paternal age of 26-30 years as reference, the OR, P values and 95% CI of the other paternal age categories were analyzed, respectively. The participant's sex, age and parental age at birth were used as covariants for adjusting confounding effects. Results The OR for schizophrenia in offspring whose paternal age at birth of 31-35 years, 36-40 years, and ≥41 years categories were 3.834, 8.805, and 11.619 respectively. The advanced maternal age had no significant effects on the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Conclusion The advanced paternal age was associated with elevated risk for schizophrenia in offspring among a Han Chinese population. Putative biological mechanisms may include accumulated de novo mutations and alterations in epigenetic regulations with aging in spermatogenesis.%目的 探讨在汉族人群中生父生育年龄与子女罹患精神分裂症风险的相关性.方法 收集351例精神分裂症患者与199名健康志愿者进行病例对照研究.将患者生父母生育年龄分组,以26~30岁组作为参照组,分别对生父母生育年龄的不同组别进行分类变量的Logistic回归分析,并予被试年龄、性别、生母或生父生育年龄等进行校正.结果 校正后,与生育年龄在26~30岁的父亲相比,31~35岁、36~40岁、≥41岁3个年龄组父亲子女罹患精神分裂症的OR值分别为3.834、8.805和11.619(P0.05).生母各生育年龄组P值无统计学意义.结论 生父生育年龄与子女罹患精神分裂症显著相关;生父生育年龄越大,子女罹患精神分裂症的风险越

  8. Role of maternal and paternal age in an assisted reproductive program

    OpenAIRE

    Tabš Dunja; Radunović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Many infertile couples try to become parents spontaneously, neglecting the possibility to conceive artificially, so they seek medical help in their late reproductive age. Maternal age Major aspects of maternal age in regard to assisted reproduction consider oocytes, ovaries and endometrium. Also, some habits and maternal diseases associated with aging may have an impact on fertility (smoking, atherosclerosis, previous gynecological operations etc.). Even though estimating the ova...

  9. Early birds are sexy: male age, dawn song and extrapair paternity in blue tits, Cyanistes (formerly Parus) caeruleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poesel, Angelika; Kunc, H.P.; Foerster, K.;

    2006-01-01

    . Studies have shown that female blue tits prefer older males and that aspects of dawn song reflect male quality, but it remains unknown whether dawn song characteristics correlate with male age. We compared dawn song characteristics of second-year (SY) and older (ASY) male blue tits (cross......-sectional analysis), and tested for age-related changes within individuals (longitudinal analysis) and differential overwinter survival of SY males. We further investigated the relation between dawn song and paternity gain and loss. We found that ASY male blue tits began to sing earlier relative to sunrise than did...

  10. Paternal child-feeding attitudes in relationship to the obese or lean status of their elementary school age son

    OpenAIRE

    Frigge, Caren

    1985-01-01

    The present study assessed the relationship between the paternal use of food in a contingency manner and the physical status of the respective son. The prevalence of childhood obesity has been documented to be significant in this country (Mayer, 1968; Collipp, 1975; Forbes, 1975; Hafen, 1981). The etiology of the increasing percentages of obese children is based upon a variety of variables. Parental influence on children's eating habits and socioeconomic variables, which ...

  11. 老年男性采用单精子卵泡浆内注射(ICSI)治疗结果分析%Effects of paternal age on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江峰; 彭献东; 陈华; 陈国武; 孙晓溪; 赵伟鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome. Methods There were two age groups of men in the study including Group A(n=27, with a mean age of 64± 3 years) and Group B(n=54, with a mean age of 35±2 years). The ages of female partners were matched between the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference in fertilization rate between the two groups (75.3 versus 82.4%). There was a significantly higher pregnancy rate in younger men group (P<0.01). However, the long-term outcome of these pregnancies needs further investigation. Semen analysis showed that semen volume,sperm concentration and sperm morphology in Group A than that in Group B (P<0.05), but these changes did not affect the fertilization rate. Conclusion:Advance paternal age might have an effect on the pregnancy rate after ICSI.%目的:回顾性分析老龄男性对单精子卵泡浆内注射(ICSI)结果影响。方法将男性患者分成两组,平均年龄(64±3)岁以上为研究A组(27例),平均年龄(35±2)岁为对照B组(54例),该两组的女性配偶平均年龄相仿。结果两组之间的受精率无明显统计学差异(75.3%与82.4%),但B组的临床妊娠率要明显高于A组(P<0.01),但仍需要更多研究。另外A组患者精液分析显示精液量、精子浓度、正常精子形态率均明显低于B组(P<0.05),但这并不影响卵子的受精率。结论男性年龄会影响ICSI治疗后的临床妊娠率。

  12. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Chapman-Novakofski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food and endogenously (in humans with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research.

  13. Perinatal Outcomes in Advanced Age Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Yılmaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of advanced maternal age on pregnancy outcomes Methods: A retrospective analysis of 951 birth registry records of Zeynep Kamil Hospital, were analyzed between Janu­ary 2003 and December 2007. Study group was made up of women ≥40 years old and control group was made up of women younger than 40 years. Results: Mean maternal age was 41.48 years in the study group and 26.41 years in the control group. Mean gesta­tional age at the time of delivery is 37.73 weeks in study group and 38.10 weeks in the control group. There was no statistical difference in terms of preterm delivery, multiple pregnancy, fetal anomaly, IUGR, superimpose preeclampsia oligohidramnios, presentation anomaly and placenta previa rates between the study and control groups. Incidence of preeclampsia (p=0.041, Chronic hypertension (p=0.001, GDM (p= 0.003,is found to be higher in study group. Cesar­ean birth rate is higher (p<0.05 and hospitalization time is longer in study group (p=0.001. 1st minute and 5th minute APGAR scores of the study group (6.99±2, 8.27±2 was lower than the 1st minute and 5th Minutes APGAR scores of the control group (7.38±1.6, 8.58±1.7. Neonatal intensive care unit administration rate is seen also higher in study group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Advanced maternal age was related to increased pregnancy complications and poor perinatal outcome. Preeclampsia, GDM, chronic hypertension is seen more common in advanced age pregnancies. Neonatal intensive care administration is higher and APGAR scores are lower; cesarean delivery was performed more common, and hospitaliza­tion time was longer in advanced age pregnancies. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (2: 157-162

  14. Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Barner; Okello, J. B. A.; Wittemyer, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Information on age- and tactic-related paternity success is essential for understanding the lifetime reproductive strategy of males and constitutes an important component of the fitness trade-offs that shape the life-history traits of a species. The degree of reproductive skew impacts the genetic...

  15. Is later better or worse? Association of advanced parental age with offspring cognitive ability among half a million young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-04-01

    Parental ages are increasing in the developed world, and postponed parenthood may have a negative association with the cognitive ability of offspring. There is, however, inconclusive evidence regarding the impact of both maternal and paternal ages. We have been able to reduce or eliminate unobserved confounding by using methods that account for fixed parental characteristics shared by brothers. Associations between parental age and intelligence quotient (IQ) among 565,433 Swedish males (birth cohorts 1951 to 1976) were analyzed, with IQ measured at conscription examinations (given between ages 17 and 20 years). When we accounted for the IQ time trend by adjusting for birth year, advanced paternal age showed no association with offspring IQ; however, maternal ages above 30 years were inversely associated with offspring IQ. For example, maternal ages 40-44 years were associated with an offspring IQ that was 0.07 standard deviations lower than that for maternal ages 25-29 years (P age, as without birth year adjustment, advanced maternal age was positively associated with IQ. Although the results confirmed that maternal age was negatively associated with offspring IQ, the association was small enough that delaying parenthood resulted in higher offspring IQ scores because of the positive IQ test score trend. PMID:23467498

  16. "Autonomy-enhancing Paternalism"

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Martin; Leonhard K. Lades

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral economics has shown that individuals sometimes make decisions that are not in their best interests. This insight has prompted calls for behaviorally informed policy interventions popularized under the notion of "libertarian paternalism." This type of "soft" paternalism aims at helping individuals without reducing their freedom of choice. We highlight three problems of libertarian paternalism: the difficulty of detecting what is in the best interest of an individual, the focus on fr...

  17. Who wants paternalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie Kragh; Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    Little is known about the demand side of paternalism. We investigate attitudes towards paternalism among Danish students. The main question is whether demand for paternalism is related to self-control, either because people with self-control problems seek commitment devices to overcome these...... problems, or because people with good self-control want those who lack it to change their behaviors. We find no evidence linking self-control to attitudes towards weak forms of paternalism (e.g. nudges or information about health consequences). But respondents with good selfcontrol are significantly more...... favorable towards strong paternalism (e.g. restricting choices or sin taxes) than those struggling with self-control....

  18. Who wants paternalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie K.; Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the demand side of paternalism. We investigate attitudes towards paternalism among Danish students. The main question is whether demand for paternalism is related to self-control, either because people with self-control problems seek commitment devices to overcome these...... problems, or because people with good self-control want those who lack it to change their behaviours. We find no evidence linking self-control to attitudes towards weak forms of paternalism (e.g., nudges or information about health consequences). But respondents with good self-control are significantly...... more favourable towards strong paternalism (e.g., restricting choices or sin taxes) than those struggling with self-control....

  19. Causal effects of paternity leave on children and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara; Jon H. Fiva; Lars J. Kirkebøen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use a parental leave reform directed towards fathers to identify the causal effects of paternity leave on children’s and parents’ outcomes. We document that paternity leave causes fathers to become more important for children’s cognitive skills. School performance at age 16 increases for children whose father is relatively higher educated than the mother. We find no evidence that fathers’ earnings and work hours are affected by paternity leave. Contrary to expectation, mother...

  20. Paternalism and Antipaternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n1p165This paper aims to examine the relation between paternalism and antipaternalism. The original intention is disable the arguments seeking to justify acceptance on the part of Mill of moral and legal paternalism. The work will also investigate the concern milleans with the concepts of autonomy and self-development, positioning itself for a reading of Mill as a thinker who advocates a weak version of paternalism. This research suggests, moreover, the communication with the interpreters of contemporary Mill, which will assess the impact of their ideas on the current dialogue on the liberty and paternalism.

  1. Advanced method for cable aging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' started in FY2002. Until the end of FY2006, approximately 80% of the planned aging data has been acquired by the cable aging evaluation tests. The LOCA tests for nine kinds of cables were also conducted using the simultaneous aging specimens. Based on these results, the outlines of 'Guidelines for environmental qualification test for cables (Draft)' were developed. And a tentative assessment for seven kinds of cables was made using data acquired until present according to the outlines of guidelines. (author)

  2. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women of Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Valadan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate prenatal and obstetrical outcome in mothers aged 40years or older.Materials and methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted for the women aged 40 yearsand over who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond from January 2004 to December 2005 at fourHospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. For comparison, a control group of patients whowere 20-29 years of age was considered.Results: There were statistically significant increases in the rates of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia,caesarean section, breech presentation and stillbirth in women 40 years of age or older.Conclusion: There is a need to offer older women special counseling both before and after conception sothat they become informed of the increased risks involved.

  3. Influence of advanced age of maternal grandmothers on Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Nallur B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS is the most common chromosomal anomaly associated with mental retardation. This is due to the occurrence of free trisomy 21 (92–95%, mosaic trisomy 21 (2–4% and translocation (3–4%. Advanced maternal age is a well documented risk factor for maternal meiotic nondisjunction. In India three children with DS are born every hour and more DS children are given birth to by young age mothers than by advanced age mothers. Therefore, detailed analysis of the families with DS is needed to find out other possible causative factors for nondisjunction. Methods We investigated 69 families of cytogenetically confirmed DS children and constructed pedigrees of these families. We also studied 200 randomly selected families belonging to different religions as controls. Statistical analysis was carried out using logistic regression. Results Out of the 69 DS cases studied, 67 were free trisomy 21, two cases were mosaic trisomy 21 and there were none with translocation. The number of DS births was greater for the young age mothers compared with the advanced age mothers. It has also been recorded that young age mothers (18 to 29 years born to their mothers at the age 30 years and above produced as high as 91.3% of children with DS. The logistic regression of case- control study of DS children revealed that the odds ratio of age of grandmother was significant when all the four variables were used once at a time. However, the effect of age of mother and father was smaller than the effect of age of maternal grandmother. Therefore, for every year of advancement of age of the maternal grandmother, the risk (odds of birth of DS baby increases by 30%. Conclusion Besides the known risk factors, mother's age, father's age, the age of the maternal grandmother at the time of birth of the mother is a risk factor for the occurrence of Down syndrome.

  4. Paternity analysis in Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

    2007-12-01

    Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR). PMID:17928093

  5. Welfare Notions for Soft Paternalism

    OpenAIRE

    Grüne-Yanoff, Till

    2009-01-01

    Recently, evidence from behavioural research has given rise to new arguments against anti-paternalism. This anti-anti-paternalism argues that certain kinds of paternalism - interventions in people's choices that improve their own good - are indeed permissible even when people's liberty is an important objective. These permissible kinds of paternalism are distinguished from non-permissible kinds by their characterisation as 'soft','weak', 'libertarian' or 'asymmetric'. In this paper, I argue t...

  6. Recent advances in vertebrate aging research 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Among the notable trends seen in this year's highlights in mammalian aging research is an awakening of interest in the assessment of age-related measures of mouse health in addition to the traditional focus on longevity. One finding of note is that overexpression of telomerase extended life and improved several indices of health in mice that had previously been genetically rendered cancer resistant. In another study, resveratrol supplementation led to amelioration of several degenerative conditions without affecting mouse lifespan. A primate dietary restriction (DR) study found that restriction led to major improvements in glucoregulatory status along with provocative but less striking effects on survival. Visceral fat removal in rats improved their survival, although not as dramatically as DR. An unexpected result showing the power of genetic background effects was that DR shortened the lifespan of long-lived mice bearing Prop1(df), whereas a previous report in a different background had found DR to extend the lifespan of Prop1(df) mice. Treatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, enhanced the survival of even elderly mice and improved their vaccine response. Genetic inhibition of a TOR target made female, but not male, mice live longer. This year saw the mTOR network firmly established as a major modulator of mammalian lifespan. PMID:20331443

  7. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  8. Mutations in fibroblast growth-factor receptor 3 in sporadic cases of achondroplasia occur exclusively on the paternally derived chromosome.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkin, D J; Szabo, J K; Cameron, R; Henderson, S; Bellus, G A; Mack, M L; Kaitila, I; Loughlin, J.; Munnich, A; Sykes, B; Bonaventure, J.; Francomano, C A

    1998-01-01

    More than 97% of achondroplasia cases are caused by one of two mutations (G1138A and G1138C) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, which results in a specific amino acid substitution, G380R. Sporadic cases of achondroplasia have been associated with advanced paternal age, suggesting that these mutations occur preferentially during spermatogenesis. We have determined the parental origin of the achondroplasia mutation in 40 sporadic cases. Three distinct 1-bp polymorphisms we...

  9. Paternal occupation and anencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. (Texas Department of Health, Austin (USA))

    1990-03-01

    It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

  10. In-vitro Fertilization in Women of Advanced Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreiter M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Postponement of family planning can be seen as a consequence of increased life expectancy and extended education in industrialized countries. The increasing number of prospective parents undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF due to advanced reproductive age, however, reflects the discrepancy between socio-cultural development and physical limits. Assisted reproduction is, therefore, challenged to create and adapt treatment regimens for women of advanced reproductive age to bridge between this wish for late parenthood and the age-related decline in fecundity. Consequently, the knowledge concerning age-related changes of reproductive functions gains in importance. While follicular depletion and impaired oocyte quality, frequently also called ‘diminished ovarian reserve’, are generally acknowledged as the underlying mechanisms for the decline in maternal fecundity, the way to correctly assess the status of ovarian reserve has remained controversial. Besides increasing attempts to achieve conception, deferring pregnancy and delivery into older age also implies medical risks and ethical considerations. The use of IVF in older women, therefore, raises the issue of the utilization of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in the assessment of embryonic aneuploidies, as well as in attempts to optimize pregnancy rates with IVF. Moreover, expected future concepts in assisted reproduction are warranted to allow for the establishment of viable singleton pregnancies in women of advanced reproductive age.

  11. Paternalism and partial autonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, O.

    1984-01-01

    A contrast is often drawn between standard adult capacities for autonomy, which allow informed consent to be given or withheld, and patients' reduced capacities, which demand paternalistic treatment. But patients may not be radically different from the rest of us, in that all human capacities for autonomous action are limited. An adequate account of paternalism and the role that consent and respect for persons can play in medical and other practice has to be developed within an ethical theory...

  12. Probability and paternity testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Elston, R C

    1986-01-01

    A probability can be viewed as an estimate of a variable that is sometimes 1 and sometimes 0. To have validity, the probability must equal the expected value of that variable. To have utility, the average squared deviation of the probability from the value of that variable should be small. It is shown that probabilities of paternity calculated by the use of Bayes' theorem under appropriate assumptions are valid, but they can vary in utility. In particular, a recently proposed probability of p...

  13. Paternalism and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    Does bounded rationality make paternalism more attractive? This Essay argues that errors will be larger when suppliers have stronger incentives or lower costs of persuasion and when consumers have weaker incentives to learn the truth. These comparative statics suggest that bounded rationality will often increase the costs of government decisionmaking relative to private decisionmaking, because consumers have better incentives to overcome errors than government decisionmakers, consumers have s...

  14. Continuity and change in gender relations in advanced old age

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Gail

    1997-01-01

    With greater numbers and a greater proportion of people reaching advanced old age, it is possible that a socially approved life stage may develop which older people can accept as their own. On the evidence presented in this survey, men will need to become more like women if they are to improve the quality of their lives.

  15. Sad Dads: Paternal Postpartum Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Pilyoung; Swain, James E.

    2007-01-01

    The postpartum period is associated with many adjustments to fathers that pose risks for depression. Estimates of the prevalence of paternal postpartum depression (PPD) in the first two months postpartum vary in the postpartum period from 4 to 25 percent. Paternal PPD has high comorbidity with maternal PPD and might also be associated with other postpartum psychiatric disorders. Studies so far have only used diagnostic criteria for maternal PPD to investigate paternal PPD, so there is an urge...

  16. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. PMID:25934599

  17. PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Laxmy*, Vinayachandran S, Guhan Beena and Sumangala Devi D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the incidence and general outcome of pregnancy in advanced maternal age attending IMCH for delivery from July 1st 2008 to June 30th 2009. To compare the pregnancy outcome of gravitas of AMA and the younger counter parts with special reference to incidence of pregnancy morbidities like GDM, hypertension, abnormal placentation, incidence of LSCS and other instrumental delivers, preterm deliveries and neonatal outcome and maternal mortality. A prospective study of all women of advanced maternal age (>35 yrs admitted for delivery in Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH during a period of one year. The study design is Prospective cohort study and it was conducted in Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Calicut, a Tertiary referral center catering to around 16000-18000 deliveries per year, with 508 beds. The duration of study period is one year, July 1st 2008 to June 30th 2009. Data was collected by interviewing subjects, their relatives, attending doctors and reviewing their records. The sample size is 286 women admitted to IMCH labour room above 35 years of age and 300 controls belonging to 20-25 years age group admitted to labour room for delivery. From the study results our conclusions are Incidence of Pregnancy in advanced maternal age is 1.78% in 2009. Treatment for infertility, Bad obstetric history, Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, Gestational diabetes, Preterm delivery, Intrauterine growth restriction, Foetal distress, Still births, Cesarian section rate, and Co morbidities like leiomyomas and maternal mortality rates were more and statistically significant in Advanced maternal age compared to the younger counter parts.

  18. ADVANCE: research project of aging in wiring electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the project ADVANCE (Ageing Diagnostics and Pronostics of low-voltage I and C Cables) whose objective is to adapt, optimize and rating techniques of Condition Monitoring for nuclear power plants cables, enabling know the State of degradation of the cable along its length, and together with the establishment of acceptance criteria appropriate to estimate their residual life. In the paper outlines the main stages of the project and the current state of the same.

  19. End-of-Life Decisions and Advanced Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that most people die in advanced old age, little attention is given to cases involving older people in debates about the moral and legal dimensions of end-of-life decision making. The purpose of this paper is to establish some of the ways our discussions should change as we pay attention to important factors influencing end-of-life decisions for people in advanced old age. Focusing on the prevalence of comorbidities and the likelihood that people in advanced old age will experience an extended period of declining function before death, I argue that our debates should be expanded to include greater consideration of how we want to live in the final stages of life. With this, I am arguing against the tendency to think that “end-of-life” decision making concerns only making decisions about when and how it is appropriate to terminate a person’s life. I argue, further, that we should move away from the medicalization of dying.

  20. Emotional well-being in advanced old age: comparative study by age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Buz Delgado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In very old age, emotional states become the most important reasonto maintain life satisfaction. In this study we examined the role of positive and negative emotions on the judgment of life satisfaction in advanced old age and the age and gender differences in a sample of 400 elderly people of Salamanca, aged between 75 and 104. The results show a higher frequency of positive emotions than negative, with the most frequent of the former being attentive,active and strong, and the less frequent ones being excited and inspired. Among the more frequent negative emotions are feeling jittery, nervous and alert, and the less frequent ones are feeling guilty, hostile and ashamed. In addition, there are differences in terms of both age (people aged between 75 and 84 are more active, enthusiastic and inspired and gender (very old women are more jittery, nervous, proud, afraid, scared and upset. Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that remaining lively, happy, interested and alert to events is essential for maintaining the life satisfaction of people aged over 75. These results confirm that positive emotions are a potential resource for psychological esilience in advanced old age.

  1. A distinct subtype of ''metatropic dysplasia variant'' characterised by advanced carpal skeletal age and subluxation of the radial heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. ''Metatropic dysplasia variants'' are a group of bone dysplasias whose skeletal abnormalities are similar to, but milder than, those of classical metatropic dysplasia. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity has not been thoroughly elucidated. Objective. The objective was to designate a distinct subtype of these metatropic dysplasia variants. Materials and methods. The subjects were four Japanese patients, two sporadic cases and two siblings, who all had identical skeletal changes. The radiological features in these patients were compared with those of previously reported metatropic dysplasia variants. Results. Moderate platyspondyly with pear-shaped and/or anterior-tongued vertebral bodies, halberd pelvis, and dumbbell deformity of the tubular bones were regarded as hallmarks of metatropic dysplasia variants. The peculiar skeletal change in our patients was advanced carpal skeletal age in childhood, unlike most patients reported as metatropic dysplasia variants who manifest delayed carpal ossification. Another hallmark was congenital dislocation of the radial heads. A description of a patient with similar skeletal changes was found in the literature. Conclusion. These patients are considered to represent a distinct subgroup of metatropic dysplasia variants. It remains unknown whether the present siblings represent an autosomal recessive trait or an autosomal dominant trait with germinal mosaicism related to increased paternal age. (orig.)

  2. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Paternal postnatal depression – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuszyńska-Bogucka, Wioletta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Among the factors responsible for the occurrence of paternal postnatal depression, the following are the most frequent: biological factors (mainly hormonal changes, mental pathogens (mainly a specific personal profile, including neuroticism, perfectionism and obsessiveness, mental disorders and problems such as fear, anxiety or mental disorders, marital coincidence of depression, a high level of stress experienced and lower quality of sexual life in the postpartum period, and finally – socioeconomic status (mainly poverty, young age of the spouse, his low level of education and structural problems in the family. However, it should be noticed that the subject of paternal postnatal depression is relatively rarely taken up in research or discussed in specialist magazines. Conclusions. However, due to the fact that postnatal depression, both in mothers and in fathers, greatly impacts the life of the child and the functioning of the family, it seems that this area of research is of crucial importance. The identification of risk factors of depression in new fathers may not only lead to a more profound understanding and description of the ethiology and symptomatology of paternal postnatal depression, but also to distinguishing a risk group in order to provide it with professional prophylactic and therapeutic care

  4. [Neutrophilic dermatosis in ulcerative colitis occurring in advanced age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Maldonado, M D; Calvo Catalá, J; Ronda Gasulla, A; Hortelano Martínez, E; Herrera Ballester, A; Febrer Bosch, I

    1994-08-01

    The Neutrophilic dermatosis (ND) is considered as an independent entity with diverse clinical manifestations among which there are: gangrenous pyoderma, nodous erythema, Sweets Syndrome, vesiculopustula eruptions associated to ulcerous colitis and intestinal short circuit syndrome with or without short circuit. Histologically, they are characterized by infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, generally at the dermic level, but also at the epidermic. They are usually associated to systemic diseases, especially to chronic intestinal inflammatory disease. Our aim was to describe two forms of clinical presentation of neutrophilic dermatosis: gangrenous pyoderma and vesiculopustula eruption, associated to ulcerous colitis starting at advances ages. PMID:7772690

  5. Parental age effects on cortical morphology in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P; Gilliam, M; Malek, M; Rodriguez, N; Greenstein, D; Clasen, L; Evans, A; Rapoport, J; Giedd, J

    2012-06-01

    The age at which a parent has a child impacts the child's cognition and risk for mental illness. It appears that this risk is curvilinear, with both age extremes associated with lower intelligence and increased prevalence of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. We extracted lobar volumes, surface areas, and cortical thickness from 489 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 171 youth. Using linear mixed model regression, we determined the association between parental age and offspring's neuroanatomy, adjusting for offspring's age, sex, intelligence, and parental socioeconomic class. For gray matter volumes, quadratic paternal and maternal age terms contributed significantly (maternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.2, P = 0.03; paternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.4, P = 0.02) delineating an inverted "U" relationship between parental age and gray matter volume. Cortical volume increased with both advancing paternal and maternal age until around the early 30s after which it fell. Paternal age effects were more pronounced on cortical surface area, whereas maternal age impacted more on cortical thickness. There were no significant effects of parental age on white matter volumes. These parental age effects on cerebral morphology may form part of the link between parental age extremes and suboptimal neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:21817090

  6. Probability of paternity in paternity testing using the DNA fingerprint procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, M; Ishiyama, I

    1989-01-01

    For the purpose of applying DNA fingerprinting to paternity testing, we established a general formula to calculate the probability of paternity and evaluated the ability of DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity. PMID:2591980

  7. Relationship of personal-social variables to belief in paternalism in parent caregiving situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, V G

    1990-09-01

    Paternalism in family caregiving may jeopardize the older persons' autonomy; it needs to be better understood. Study objectives were to determine the relationship of belief in paternalism to personal-social characteristics and to determine the relative importance of these variables as predictors of belief in paternalism. Forty-six pairs of daughters (age 49.7) and mothers (age 77.7) were measured on belief in paternalism, dogmatism, attitude toward elders, affective feelings toward the other, and background and caregiving variables. Among both mothers and daughters, dogmatism and attitude toward elders were related to belief in paternalism; daughters' affective feelings was also related. Caregiving variables were unrelated, and demographic background was important only for daughters. Attitude toward elders was the strongest predictor. Results were interpreted in terms of a traditional family ideology. PMID:2242251

  8. Avaliação da idade materna, paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal para fissura lábio-palatina Maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval evaluation for cleft lip-palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fissuras do lábio e/ou palato representam as anomalias congênitas craniofaciais mais comuns. OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco ambientais em pacientes com fissuras lábio-palatinas não-sindrômicas, em um Serviço de Minas Gerais. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo caso-controle, avaliando 100 crianças com fissuras e 100 crianças sem alterações clínicas. As dimensões de análise (idade, cor de pele, sexo, classificação das fissuras, idade materna e paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal foram obtidas a partir de um questionário, sendo posteriormente construído banco de dados e as análises realizadas pelo programa SPSS 17.0. Os resultados foram analisados com risco relativo para cada variável, para estimar odds ratios com intervalo de confiança de 95% seguido de análise bivariada e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Entre as 200 crianças, 54% foram do sexo masculino e 46% do feminino. Com relação à cor da pele, houve predomínio de parda, branca e preta, respectivamente. Entre os tipos de fissuras, as mais comuns foram as fissuras lábio-palatinas (54%, seguidas pela fissura labial (30% e fissura palatina (16%. CONCLUSÃO: Embora com uma população limitada, verificou-se associação entre idade materna e risco aumentado para fissuras lábio-palatinas, porém idade paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal não foram significantes.Cleft lip and palate (CL/P are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. AIM: To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval, obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the

  9. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. PMID:26805771

  10. Contribution of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) to circulating AGE: role of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Imrhan, Victorine

    2015-12-14

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether macronutrient content (low-fat v. high-fat diet) influences an indicator of advanced glycation end products (AGE), N(ε) carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), in the context of a 1-d, high-AGE diet. The effect of the diets on inflammatory markers was also assessed. A total of nineteen overweight and obese adults (nine men and ten women) without known disease were recruited to participate in a crossover challenge of a high-fat, high-AGE (HFHA) and low-fat, high-AGE (LFHA) diet. In each phase patients had fasting blood drawn, followed by consumption of a high-fat or low-fat breakfast test meal, then three postprandial blood draws at 1, 2 and 3 h after consuming the test meal. After consuming high-AGE meals for the remainder of the day, participants returned the next day for a follow-up analysis. A different pattern in the 3-h post-meal CML and soluble receptor for AGE response to the two diets was observed (P=0·01 and 0·05, respectively). No change in serum CML was observed following consumption of a LFHA breakfast (535 (25th-75th percentile 451-790) to 495 (25th-75th percentile 391-682) ng/ml; P=0·36), whereas a rise in CML occurred after the HFHA breakfast (463 (25th-75th percentile 428-664) to 578 (25th-75th percentile 474-865) ng/ml; P=0·05). High sensitivity C-reactive protein and high molecular weight adiponectin were not affected by either diet. These findings suggest that dietary CML may not be as important in influencing serum CML as other dietary factors. In addition, acute exposure to dietary CML may not influence inflammation in adults without diabetes or kidney disease. This is contrary to previous findings. PMID:26392152

  11. Hospital Based Paternity Establishment in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jessica; Thoennes, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Describes the impact of the Colorado's Child Support Improvement Project on voluntary paternity acknowledgment rate, which increased almost 24% from 1991 to 1994. Program activities include simplifying voluntary acknowledgment procedures and training hospital personnel on paternity. Voluntary paternity acknowledgment is associated with the…

  12. Aktuelles Vaterschaftsrecht Current Paternity Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Groppler

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Das Fachbuch enthält eine sehr vollständige Übersicht über die Entwicklung und die derzeitige rechtliche Situation im Bereich der Vaterschaftsfeststellung und -anfechtung. Das Buch ist in erster Linie für Praktiker/-innen geschrieben, also insbesondere für Familienrichter/-innen, Jugend- und Standesämter sowie für Anwälte und Anwältinnen, die auf dem Gebiet des Vaterschaftsrechts tätig sind. Es ist aber auch geeignet für all diejenigen, die juristisch mit Vaterschaftsproblemen zu tun haben und sich einen fundierten Überblick verschaffen wollen bzw. das Buch als Nachschlagewerk zu einzelnen Problemfeldern des Vaterschaftsrechts nutzen wollen.This specialized book contains a complete overview of the development and current legal situation in the area of the determination and contestation of paternity. The book is primarily written for practitioners, especially for family judges, youth and registry offices, as well as for male and female lawyers who work in the field of paternity law. But it is also suitable for those who deal with legal paternity problems and would like to gain a sound overview, i.e. would like to use the book as a reference work for specific problem areas of paternity law.

  13. Paternal and sibling incest: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celbis, Osman; Ozcan, M Erkan; Ozdemir, Bora

    2006-01-01

    A case is reported of a female victim of paternal incest, who had also been raped repeatedly by her elder brother for two years. A survey of the literature showed no other report of such a case from Turkey. This does not necessarily mean that the incidence of paternal and sibling incest does not happen, but may indicate that incestuous abuse is not reported or handled without making it known to legal authorities. The victim was first raped by her 16 year-old brother when she was 9 years old. He raped her repeatedly over a period of two years, until he left home. Her father began raping the victim when she was 13 year-old, leaving her pregnant at age 15. He took her to a doctor for a termination of pregnancy. The father continued abuse after the termination. The victim left home to marry a man. The father filed a lawsuit against the man for taking the victim away from home. More openness and awareness of incest in Turkey may encourage the victims to seek help from medical and legal authorities. PMID:16310400

  14. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N; Marlowe, Frank W; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T

    2009-01-22

    The 'challenge hypothesis' posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male-male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men. PMID:18826936

  15. Chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in the sorafenib age

    OpenAIRE

    Miyahara, Koji; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto,Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    The kinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only systemic therapy proven to have a positive effect on survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After development of sorafenib and its introduction as a therapeutic agent used in the clinic, several critical questions have been raised. Clinical parameters and biomarkers predicting sorafenib efficacy are the most important issues that need to be elucidated. Although it is difficult to know the responders in advance using conven...

  16. Lumbar spinal mobility changes among adults with advancing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Adamu Saidu

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : Using these data, we developed normative values of spinal mobility for each sex and age group. This study helps the clinicians to understand and correlate the restrictions of lumbar spinal mobility due to age and differentiate the limitations due to disease.

  17. The Contribution of Advanced Glycation End product (AGE) accumulation to the decline in motor function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse; Bunt, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Diminishing motor function is commonly observed in the elderly population and is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences. Advanced Glycation End products (AGE's) may contribute to age-related decline in the function of cells and tissues in normal ageing. Although the negative eff

  18. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting. PMID:22350175

  19. Inhibition and breaking of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) with bis-2-aminoimidazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mike A.; Furlani, Robert E.; Podell, Brendan K.; Ackart, David F.; Haugen, Jessica D.; Melander, Roberta J.; Melander, Christian; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), unregulated modifications to host macromolecules that occur as a result of metabolic dysregulation, play a role in many diabetes related complications, inflammation and aging, and may lead to increased cardiovascular risk. Small molecules that have the ability to inhibit AGE formation, and even break preformed AGEs have enormous therapeutic potential in the treatment of these disease states. We report the screening of a series of 2-aminoimidazloles for anti-AGE activity, and the identification of a bis-2-aminoimidazole lead compound that possesses superior AGE inhibition and breaking activity compared to the known AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine. PMID:26146419

  20. Impact of Paternal Temporary Absence on Children Left Behind

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L; Tamura, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    Using the first two waves of the Vietnam Living Standards Survey, we investigate how a father’s temporary absence affects children left behind in terms of their school attendance, household expenditures on education, and nonhousework labour supply in the 1990s. The estimating subsample is children aged 7-18 in households in which both parents usually coreside and the mother has not been absent. Our results indicate that paternal temporary absence increases non housework labour supply by his s...

  1. Advances in wine aging technologies for enhancing wine quality and accelerating wine aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; García, Juan Francisco; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed. PMID:24345051

  2. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A.; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The ...

  3. Genetic Analysis of Multiple Paternity in an Endangered Ovoviviparous Lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huayuan HUANG; Dan LUO; Cong Guo; Zhuo TANG; Zhengjun WU; Jinping CHEN

    2015-01-01

    The crocodile lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus) is an ovoviviparous lizard belonging to a monotypic family that originated during the end of the quaternary ice age. A rare species in the wild, the crocodile lizard was listed in CITES Appendix Ⅱ . Knowledge of the reproductive biology and mating system of this species is important for designing conservation strategies and improving genetic variation. To investigate the paternity of the crocodile lizards and to interpret their reproductive behaviour, we collected saliva from females, potential fathers and offspring in a semi-natural enclosure experiment and analyzed the paternity of the crocodile lizard using 12 microsatellite genetic loci. The overall observed incidence of multiple paternity was 42.9% (6 of 14 clutches) and Fis was 0.089 ± 0.056. These results indicate that the primary mating mode of the crocodile lizard is that males are polygynous while with females are polyandrous, and there is multiple paternity among offspring of the same mother.

  4. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  5. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  6. Teenage Paternity, Child Support, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirog-Good, Maureen A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the relationship between teenage premarital paternity, child support enforcement, and delinquency. The non-random data were gathered from the Marian County, Indiana District Attorney's Office and Juvenile Court. Suggests that the early establishment of paternity should be pursued and that child support enforcement strategies should…

  7. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjertson, David W; Brenner, Charles H; Baur, Max P;

    2007-01-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations...... be adopted by all laboratories involved in paternity testing as the basis for their biostatistical analysis....

  8. Perceptual restoration of degraded speech is preserved with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saija, Jefta D; Akyürek, Elkan G; Andringa, Tjeerd C; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive skills, such as processing speed, memory functioning, and the ability to divide attention, are known to diminish with aging. The present study shows that, despite these changes, older adults can successfully compensate for degradations in speech perception. Critically, the older participants of this study were not pre-selected for high performance on cognitive tasks, but only screened for normal hearing. We measured the compensation for speech degradation using phonemic restoration, where intelligibility of degraded speech is enhanced using top-down repair mechanisms. Linguistic knowledge, Gestalt principles of perception, and expectations based on situational and linguistic context are used to effectively fill in the inaudible masked speech portions. A positive compensation effect was previously observed only with young normal hearing people, but not with older hearing-impaired populations, leaving the question whether the lack of compensation was due to aging or due to age-related hearing problems. Older participants in the present study showed poorer intelligibility of degraded speech than the younger group, as expected from previous reports of aging effects. However, in conditions that induce top-down restoration, a robust compensation was observed. Speech perception by the older group was enhanced, and the enhancement effect was similar to that observed with the younger group. This effect was even stronger with slowed-down speech, which gives more time for cognitive processing. Based on previous research, the likely explanations for these observations are that older adults can overcome age-related cognitive deterioration by relying on linguistic skills and vocabulary that they have accumulated over their lifetime. Alternatively, or simultaneously, they may use different cerebral activation patterns or exert more mental effort. This positive finding on top-down restoration skills by the older individuals suggests that new cognitive training methods

  9. Premature Aging of the Microcirculation in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thang, Oanh H.D.; Serné, Erik H; Grooteman, Muriel P.C.; Smulders, Yvo M.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Tangelder, Geert-Jan; Nubé, Menso J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD. Methods Acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Mic...

  10. Development and evaluation of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester, William; Parslow, Ruth A; Lewis, Virginia J; Fullam, Rachael S; Sjanta, Rebekah; Jackson, Lynne; White, Vanessa; Hudson, Rosalie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To report on the quality of advance care planning (ACP) documents in use in residential aged care facilities (RACF) in areas of Victoria Australia prior to a systematic intervention; to report on the development and performance of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan template used during the intervention. Design An audit of the quality of pre-existing documentation used to record resident treatment preferences and end-of-life wishes at participating RACFs; development and pilot ...

  11. Bone age advancement in prepubertal children with obesity and premature adrenarche: possible potentiating factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sopher, Aviva B.; Jean, Amy M.; Zwany, Sarah K.; Winston, Diana M.; Pomeranz, Christy B.; Bell, Jennifer J.; McMahon, Donald J.; Hassoun, Abeer; Fennoy, Ilene; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and premature adrenarche (PA) are both associated with bone age (BA) advancement of unclear etiology, which may lead to earlier puberty, suboptimal final height and obesity in adulthood. Our objective was to understand the hormonal and anthropometric characteristics of BA advancement in a spectrum of prepubertal children with and without obesity and PA.

  12. The paternal function in anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Nucara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of anorexia is taken up by giving preference, as the high point of observation, to the area of the so-called relationship with the Other, with particular reference to the unconscious vicissitudes of the Self, mother and father triangulation, in the context of two original psychoanalytical concepts: namely, A. Ferrari's oedipal constellation, and J. Lacan's oedipal significance of the “Name of the Father”. The deepening of these concepts, together with their relation to the problem of the space (or its lack between the self and the Other, leads to the conclusion that a “deficit” of the paternal, oedipal function-which leaves the individual exposed to the unbearable anguish of being fused with a dangerous, absorbing maternal Other-may lead this individual to save him/herself from the danger of being nullified in the Other by making an extreme attempt to flee into the withdrawal of the“anorexic choice”. From this viewpoint, one crucial moment in the analytical process is referred to recovering the paternal oedipal function in order to redress the previously destabilized oedipal order. The crucial stages in the treatment of a female patient are gone over again in order to visualize how the dynamics of the space between the self and the Other are reflected on the anorexic person„s experience of her body.

  13. Management of human immunodeficiency virus infection in advanced age

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, M; Justice, AC; Lampiris, HW; Valcour, V

    2013-01-01

    Importance: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - positive patients treated with antiretroviral therapy now have increased life expectancy and develop chronic illnesses that are often seen in older HIV-negative patients. Objective: To address emerging issues related to aging with HIV. Screening older adults for HIV, diagnosis of concomitant diseases, management of multiple comorbid medical illnesses, social isolation, polypharmacy, and factors associated with end-of-life care are reviewed. Evi...

  14. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Humbert,1 Brigitte Dréno,2 Jean Krutmann,3 Thomas Anton Luger,4 Raoul Triller,5 Sylvie Meaume,6 Sophie Seité71Research and Studies Centre on the Integument (CERT, Clinical Investigation Centre (CIC BT506, Department of Dermatology, Besançon University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 2Department of Dermato-Cancerology, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France; 3IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany; 4Department of Dermatology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 5International Centre of Dermatology, Hertford British Hospital, Levallois, France; 6Geriatric Service, Wounds and Healing, Rothschild Hôspital, Paris, France; 7La Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories, Asnières, FranceAbstract: The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the

  15. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W; Kim, Ivana K

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130

  16. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Yonekawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  17. 精索静脉曲张手术对大龄不育男性的作用%Varicocelectomy for Infertile Couples with Advanced Paternal Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Armand Zini; Jason Boman; Keith Jarvi; Abdulaziz Baazeem; 张沂南

    2008-01-01

    目的 评估大龄精索静脉曲张患者的再生育情况.方法 我们分析了581例患有精索静脉曲张及不孕症的非无精症患者.结果 在这些不孕症伴精索静脉曲张的患者中,40岁及以上的患者有115名,40岁以下的有466名.40岁及以上组中继发不育的比例明显高于40岁以下组[分别为43%(50/115)和19%(87/466),P<0.001].精索静脉结扎术后,两组间的精子参数基线和自然妊娠率并无显著性差异(分别为39%和49%).但40岁及以上组中经精索静脉结扎术的患者,其妻子的自然妊娠率明显高于同年龄组中未经手术治疗的对照组(分别为49%和21%;P<0.05).结论 研究结果表明,精索静脉手术后,男方的年龄对妊娠结果无不利影响.我们的数据支持对合并精索静脉曲张及不孕症的大龄男性施行精索静脉结扎术.

  18. The Contribution of advanced glycation End product (AGE) accumulation to the decline in motor function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse; Bunt, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan; Schans, Cees van der; Hobbelen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Diminishing motor function is commonly observed in the elderly population and is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences. Advanced Glycation End products (AGE’s) may contribute to age-related decline in the function of cells and tissues in normal ageing. Although the negative eff

  19. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are cross-sectionally associated with insulin secretion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Josephine M; Sourris, Karly C; de Courten, Maximilian;

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that chronic exposure to high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), in particular from dietary sources, can impair insulin secretion. In the present study, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between AGEs and acute insulin secretion during an...

  20. PREFERENCE THEORY IN ADVANCED AGE AND THE OLDER CZECH WORKFORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vidovićová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we make use of preference theory developed by Hakim (2000 in the context of reconciling work and family to cover and explain different patterns of retirement exit paths and retirement satisfaction levels in the Czech Republic. We propose that lifestyle preferences and values may help to explain why some older workers continue to work while others are determined to retire as early as possible. Three types are identified among the 55–65 age group: work oriented, retirement oriented, and adaptive. The data shows that self-perception of the respondent as being active or more rest-oriented is associated with actual labour market activity of the respondent. Different types also perceive and evaluate labour market exit differently, and most importantly they differ in their reaction to various labour market and pension policies and family/partnership conditions. In the discussion we challenge the notion of active ageing as a general “one-size-fits-all” policy and urge that more attention be paid to the role of individual values and preferences when looking at the organisation of latter life roles.

  1. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Daniel O; Dobolyi, David G; Isaacs, David A; Roman, Olivia C; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A; Neimat, Joseph S; Donahue, Manus J; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H; Landman, Bennett A; Bowman, Aaron B; Dawant, Benoit M; Rane, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson's Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2(nd), or 3(rd) order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  2. Variation in the gaze, caloric test and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential with advancing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharda Sarda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate age related changes on Caloric test, Gaze Test and Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP. Materials and Methods: The participants included 50 individuals ranging from 20-70 years having no complaint of dizziness or any major illness. The basic audiological test battery was carried out followed by Caloric test, Gaze Test and the VEMP. Results: There was no consistent pattern seen on the caloric test and gaze test with advancing age while VEMP showed significant increase in latency and decrease in amplitude of both P13 and N23 as the age advances. Discussion: The comparison of the mean SPV values do not show an age related pattern because the caloric test does not challenge the semicircular canal system enough so as to reveal its defects. The age related changes in the cVEMP parameters could be attributed to the age related degeneration in the vestibular sense organ

  3. Establishing Paternity: An Analysis of Cases from Two Arizona Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols-Casebolt, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Used data from sample of 877 child support paternity cases to determine what case characteristics influenced likelihood of successfully establishing paternity. Results indicated demographic differences between cases with and without paternity established but these differences were much less important to establishing paternity than obtaining…

  4. Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; den Boer, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the...

  5. Public Service Motivation and Paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Pedersen, Lene; Qvistgaard, Lars

    holds a potential to improve public service provision (Belle, 2013, Andersen et al., 2014), it also has dark sides (Van Loon et al., 2015, forthcoming). The aim of this paper is to analyze and discuss how one type of public service motivated individuals (paternalistic knights) and constitute a problem...... context which can be seen as a democratic micro-cosmos. The results show that self-sacrifice - which is ‘the footing’ on which the PSM motivation rests - is indeed positively associated to paternalism, and this indicates that PSM may be linked to a democratic problem. However, commitment to the public...... central independent variables are two dimensions of the PSM construct; namely self-sacrifice and commitment to the public interest, whereas the central independent variable is paternalistic orientation. All three variables are measured with survey constructs in a cross sectional survey design. The survey...

  6. Reflecting on the Father: Childhood Family Structure and Women's Paternal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, Edythe M.; Newton, Rae R.

    2012-01-01

    The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants' evaluations of…

  7. ADVANCE: research project of aging in wiring electric; ADVANCE: Proyecto de investigacion de envejecimiento en cableado electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, J. C.; Ruiz Rabanedo, S.; Testa, J.

    2013-07-01

    This document summarizes the project ADVANCE (Ageing Diagnostics and Pronostics of low-voltage I and C Cables) whose objective is to adapt, optimize and rating techniques of Condition Monitoring for nuclear power plants cables, enabling know the State of degradation of the cable along its length, and together with the establishment of acceptance criteria appropriate to estimate their residual life. In the paper outlines the main stages of the project and the current state of the same.

  8. Paternalism, obesity, and tolerable levels of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author examines the relationship between paternalism and childhood obesity. In particular he examines the risks of paternalistic intervention in order to prevent or curtail the occurrence of obesity among young children.

  9. Patients Presenting with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: Epidemiological Features by Age Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Lee, Young Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-02-01

    We explored factors influencing presentation with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease by age group. Data were derived from a city-wide cross-sectional survey of 759 HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. The significance of each observed factor was assessed via multivariate logistic regression. Of subjects aged 20-34 years, lower educational level had a positive influence on presentation with advanced HIV disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.34); those recently diagnosed with HIV were more likely to be presented with advanced HIV disease (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 0.99-10.2). Of the subjects aged 35-49 years, those w ith advanced HIV disease were more likely to have been diagnosed during health check-ups (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.15-7.32) or via clinical manifestations (aOR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.39-9.36). Of the subjects aged ≥ 50 years, presentation with advanced HIV disease was significantly more common in older subjects (aOR per increment of 5 years, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.32-3.23) and less common among individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2000-2006 (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.83). In conclusion, a lower educational level in younger subjects and more advanced age in older subjects positively influence the presentation of advanced HIV disease. PMID:26839469

  10. Religion as a means to assure paternity

    OpenAIRE

    Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706...

  11. Advancing Age, Advantaged Youth: Parental Age and the Transmission of Resources to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…

  12. Paternity testing a non-linkage based marker assisted selection scheme for outbred forage species

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many major perennial forage species, genomic tools and infrastructure development has advanced enough that their utilization in marker assisted selection (MAS) can be cheaply explored. This paper presents a paternity testing MAS in diploid red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Utilizing individual ...

  13. Factors associated with having the first baby at an advanced age

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Anne Britt Vika

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate characteristics of women and men who have their first baby at an advanced age, reasons for postponing childbirth, and consequences in terms of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal age at first birth has increased in many modern societies; in both Sweden and Norway, first-time mothers are now about five years older, compared with the previous generation. This delaying of parenthood has been associated with an increased need for artificial repro...

  14. The Contribution of Advanced Glycation End product (AGE) accumulation to the decline in motor function

    OpenAIRE

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse; Bunt, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan; Schans, Cees van der; Hobbelen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Diminishing motor function is commonly observed in the elderly population and is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences. Advanced Glycation End products (AGE’s) may contribute to age-related decline in the function of cells and tissues in normal ageing. Although the negative effect of AGE’s on the biomechanical properties of musculoskeletal tissues and the central nervous system have been previously described, the evidence regarding the effect on motor function is fragmen...

  15. Surface exposure dating of Little Ice Age ice cap advances on Disko Island, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Timothy; Jomelli, Vincent; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Swingedouw, Didier; Favier, Vincent; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA: 1200-1920 AD) glacier advances in Greenland often form the most extensive positions of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice cap and margins since the Early Holocene. Across Greenland these advances are commonly represented by un-vegetated moraines, usually within 1-5 km of the present ice margin. However, chronological constraints on glacier advances during this period are sparse, meaning that GrIS and ice cap behavior and advance/retreat chronology remains poorly understood during this period. At present the majority of ages are based on historical accounts, ice core data, and radiocarbon ages from proglacial threshold lakes. However, developments in the accuracy and precision of surface exposure methods allow dating of LIA moraine boulders, permitting an opportunity to better understand of ice dynamics during this period. Geomorphological mapping and surface exposure dating (36Cl) were used to interpret moraine deposits from the Lyngmarksbræen on Disko Island, West Greenland. A Positive Degree Day (PDD) model was used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and mass balance changes for two distinct paleo-glacial extents. Three moraines (M1, M2, and M3) were mapped in the field, and sampled for 36Cl surface exposure dating. The outermost moraine (M1) was of clearly different morphology to the inner moraines, and present only in small fragments. M2 and M3 were distinct arcuate termino-lateral moraines within 50 m of one another, 1.5 km from the present ice margin. The weighted average of four 36Cl ages from M1 returned an early Holocene age of 8.4 ± 0.6 ka. M2 (four samples) returned an age of 0.57 ± 0.04 ka (1441 AD) and M3 (four samples) returned an age of 0.28 ± 0.02 ka (1732 AD). These surface exposure ages represent the first robustly dated Greenlandic ice cap moraine sequence from the LIA. The two periods of ice cap advance and marginal stabilisation are similar to recorded periods of LIA GrIS advance in west Greenland, constrained

  16. Cosmogenic 10Be constraints on Little Ice Age glacial advances in the eastern Tian Shan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Li, Yingkui; Harbor, Jon; Liu, Gengnian; Yi, Chaolu; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-04-01

    Presumed Little Ice Age (LIA) glacial advances, represented by a set of fresh, sharp-crested, boulder covered and compact moraines a few hundred meters downstream from modern glaciers, have been widely recognized in the Central Asian highlands. However, few studies have constrained the formation ages of these moraines. We report 31 10Be exposure ages from presumed LIA moraines in six glacial valleys in the Urumqi River headwater area and the Haxilegen Pass area of the eastern Tian Shan, China. Our results reveal that the maximum LIA glacial extent occurred mainly around 430 ± 100 yr, a cold and wet period as indicated by proxy data from ice cores, tree rings, and lake sediments in Central Asia. We also dated a later glacial advance to 270 ± 55 yr. However, 10Be exposure ages on several presumed LIA moraines in front of small, thin glaciers are widely scattered and much older than the globally recognized timing of the LIA. Historical topographic maps indicate that most glaciers were more extensive in the early 1960s, and two of our 10Be sample sites were located close to the ice front at that time. Boulders transported by these small and thin glaciers may be reworked from deposits originally formed prior to the LIA glacial advances, producing apparently old and widely scattered exposure ages due to varied nuclide inheritance. Other published ages indicated an earlier LIA advance around 790 ± 300 yr in the easternmost Tian Shan, but in our study area the more extensive advance around 430 ± 100 yr likely reworked or covered deposits from this earlier event.

  17. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFranke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain MRIs. The Brain Age Gap Estimation (i.e., BrainAGE score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM completed an MRI at 3T, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001, whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034, whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor (TNFα levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe depression. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019 and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025. In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM.

  18. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction

  19. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J. [Department of Stomatology, Air Force General Hospital PLA, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2014-09-19

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  20. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence. PMID:22429791

  1. Advanced age decreases local calcium signaling in endothelium of mouse mesenteric arteries in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, Erika M; Everhart, Jesse E; Segal, Steven S

    2016-05-01

    Aging is associated with vascular dysfunction that impairs tissue perfusion, physical activity, and the quality of life. Calcium signaling in endothelial cells (ECs) is integral to vasomotor control, exemplified by localized Ca(2+) signals within EC projections through holes in the internal elastic lamina (IEL). Within these microdomains, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization is integral to smooth muscle cell (SMC) relaxation via coupling through myoendothelial gap junctions. However, the effects of aging on local EC Ca(2+) signals (and thereby signaling between ECs and SMCs) remain unclear, and these events have not been investigated in vivo. Furthermore, it is unknown whether aging affects either the number or the size of IEL holes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that local EC Ca(2+) signaling is impaired with advanced age along with a reduction in IEL holes. In anesthetized mice expressing a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent protein (GCaMP2) selectively in ECs, our findings illustrate that for mesenteric arteries controlling splanchnic blood flow the frequency of spontaneous local Ca(2+) signals in ECs was reduced by ∼85% in old (24-26 mo) vs. young (3-6 mo) animals. At the same time, the number (and total area) of holes per square millimeter of IEL was reduced by ∼40%. We suggest that diminished signaling between ECs and SMCs contributes to dysfunction of resistance arteries with advanced age.Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/aging-impairs-endothelial-ca2-signaling/. PMID:26945073

  2. Maternal and Paternal Perceptions of Social Competence in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Kimberly; Phares, Vicky

    2007-01-01

    We examined maternal and paternal perceptions of social competence in children and adolescents. One hundred forty-seven parents rated scenarios depicting children who varied in age, gender, and social competence. Parents also completed questionnaires assessing the amount of time they spend with their own children, their gender identity, their…

  3. Effects of a Paternal Participation Program during Cesarean Section on Paternal Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyoung Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeIn this study effects of a paternal participation program during cesarean section on paternal infant attachment were investigate. The experimental treatment was an integrative nursing intervention to promote father to infant attachment.MethodsStudy design was a non-equivalent control group posttest design. The program consisted of emotional support to spouse and father towards infant attachment immediately following cesarean birth. Participants were 66 men, partners of women with normal full term pregnancy having a cesarean section with spinal or epidural anesthesia, (experimental group, 34; control group, 32. The experiment was carried out from August 1 to October 30, 2010. Control group data were obtained from May 1 to June 30, 2012. Posttest was performed 72 hours after cesarean birth. A self-report questionnaire including a paternal attachment instrument was used. Data were analyzed using t-test, propensity score matching, and analysis of covariance with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program.ResultsTotal score for paternal infant attachment in the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<.001. After matching, significant differences were found between the two groups through all subcategories. Adjusted mean score for paternal infant attachment verified experimental effects.ConclusionResults indicate that this paternal participation program during cesarean section is effective in improving paternal infant attachment.

  4. Difference in psychosocial well-being between paternal and maternal AIDS orphans in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This study compares psychosocial well-being between paternal and maternal orphans in rural China in a sample (n = 459) of children who had lost one parent to HIV and who were in family-based care. Measures included academic marks, education expectation, trusting relationships with current caregivers, self-reported health status, depression, loneliness, posttraumatic stress, and social support. No significant differences were reported between maternal and paternal orphans, except that paternal orphans reported better trusting relationships with caregivers than maternal orphans. Children with a healthy surviving parent reported significantly better scores for depression, loneliness, posttraumatic stress, and social support than children with a sick parent. Analyses showed significance with regard to orphan status on academic marks and trusting relationships with caregivers while controlling for age, gender, surviving parent's health status, and family socioeconomic status. Results underscore the importance of psychosocial support for children whose surviving parent is living with HIV or another illness. PMID:20133172

  5. Single paternity of clutches in American Woodcock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziel, H.; McAuley, D.G.; Rhymer, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Based on behavioral observations, the mating system of American Woodcock has been variously described as monogamous, a dispersed lek, or resource defense polygyny. Males perform elaborate mating displays that attract females to their display sites where copulations occur. We used microsatellite markers, developed for Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax), to assess paternity in American Woodcock. In 3 yr, we collected blood samples from 21 females and broods and 90 males. We found no evidence of multiple paternity within broods; paternity in all broods could be explained by 1 father. For 8 broods, we were able to infer probable fathers from males we sampled in the field. All 8 broods were found close to the singing site of the male or males that matched as possible fathers. Two males may have fathered 2 broods each, suggesting that polygyny may be a component of the woodcock mating system.

  6. Paternalism, Public Health Ethics, and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2015-01-01

    from harming themselves is notoriously controversial, at least to liberals. It amounts to paternalism – something liberals have traditionally been loath to accept. Furthermore, the equality-generating credential of the available policy measures is in some cases doubtful. To assess the problem of...... uncontroversial in terms of the problem of paternalism than their proponents are inclined to think. More familiar measures aiming to make the health-endangering behavior more expensive and/or difficult or outright prohibiting it stand a good chance of reducing inequalities, whilst not being more controversial...

  7. The Definition of Nudge and Libertarian Paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2016-01-01

    approach to behaviour change relates to libertarian paternalism. This paper sets out to improve the clarity and value of the definition of nudge by reconciling it with its theoretical foundations in behavioural economics. In doing so it not only explicates the relationship between nudges and libertarian...... paternalism, but also clarifies how nudges relate to incentives and information, and may even be consistent with the removal of certain types of choices. In the end we are left with a revised definition of the concept of nudge that allows for consistently categorising behaviour change interventions as such...

  8. 45 CFR 302.31 - Establishing paternity and securing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing paternity and securing support. 302... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.31 Establishing paternity and securing support..., to establish the paternity of such child; and (2) In the case of any individual with respect to...

  9. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of paternity and support. 11.609 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The Court of Indian Offenses shall have jurisdiction of all suits brought to determine the paternity of...

  10. A REVIEW ON ADVANCED GLYCATION END-PRODUCTS (AGE AND THEIR ROLE IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRTESH RAUT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex and heterogeneous group of compounds known as “Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE” have been associated with diabetes related complications. Till date it is not known if they are the cause or consequence of the complications observed. The chemistry of AGE formation and their patho-biochemistry particularly related to the diabetic microvascular complications of nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy also their role in the accelerated vasculopathy observed in diabetes are discussed. Also, the concept of carbonyl stress as a cause of AGE toxicity and the alterations in the concentrations of AGE in the body, particularly in relation to diabetes and its complications such as nephropathy are also mentioned and also along with age. We have also highlighted the problems relating to current methods of AGE detection and measurement which include the lack of a universally established method of detection or unit of measurement. A review of the agents used for the treatment of advanced glycation end-products accumulation is also mentioned.

  11. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals. PMID:26575814

  12. Paternity Testing Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics: recommendations on genetic investigations in paternity cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Allen, Robert W; Carracedo, Angel; Geada, Helena; Guidet, Francois; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Martin, Wolfgang; Mayr, Wolfgang R; Olaisen, Bjørnar; Pascali, Vince L; Schneider, Peter M

    2002-01-01

    The International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has established a Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) with the purpose of formulating international recommendations concerning genetic investigations in paternity testing. The PTC recommends that paternity testing be performed in accordance with...... the ISO 17025 standards. The ISO 17025 standards are general standards for testing laboratories and the PTC offers explanations and recommendations concerning selected areas of special importance to paternity testing....

  13. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during on...

  14. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  15. Advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome: evidence from a large contemporary cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C Kenny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent decades have witnessed an increase in mean maternal age at childbirth in most high-resourced countries. Advanced maternal age has been associated with several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Although there are many studies on this topic, data from large contemporary population-based cohorts that controls for demographic variables known to influence perinatal outcomes is limited. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study using data on all singleton births in 2004-2008 from the North Western Perinatal Survey based at The University of Manchester, UK. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women aged 30-34, 35-39 and ≥40 years with women aged 20-29 years using log-linear binomial regression. Models were adjusted for parity, ethnicity, social deprivation score and body mass index. RESULTS: The final study cohort consisted of 215,344 births; 122,307 mothers (54.19% were aged 20-29 years, 62,371(27.63% were aged 30-34 years, 33,966(15.05% were aged 35-39 years and 7,066(3.13% were aged ≥40 years. Women aged 40+ at delivery were at increased risk of stillbirth (RR = 1.83, [95% CI 1.37-2.43], pre-term (RR = 1.25, [95% CI: 1.14-1.36] and very pre-term birth (RR = 1.29, [95% CI:1.08-1.55], Macrosomia (RR = 1.31, [95% CI: 1.12-1.54], extremely large for gestational age (RR = 1.40, [95% CI: 1.25-1.58] and Caesarean delivery (RR = 1.83, [95% CI: 1.77-1.90]. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. These risks are independent of parity and remain after adjusting for the ameliorating effects of higher socioeconomic status. The data from this large contemporary cohort will be of interest to healthcare providers and women and will facilitate evidence based counselling of older expectant mothers.

  16. Paternity Testing in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…

  17. Adolescent Fathers: The Question of Paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes legislation and court decisions that affect unwed and/or adolescent African-American fathers. Addresses the following concerns: (1) paternity; (2) child support; and (3) legal rights and responsibilities. Recommends development of programs to help potential fathers understand their rights and responsibilities. (FMW)

  18. Sellafield paternal cases. Letter to the editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief letter points out that with regard to the Sellafield paternal irradiation cases, such legal proceedings can be little more than a costly charade if the dosimetry or radiobiology on which they rest is out of date, incomplete or lacks pertinence. (UK)

  19. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  20. Paternal inheritance of mitochondria in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Soichi

    2010-03-01

    To analyze mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)inheritance, differences in mtDNA between Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas smithii, respiration deficiency and antibiotic resistance were used to distinguish mtDNA origins. The analyses indicated paternal inheritance. However, these experiments raised questions regarding whether paternal inheritance occurred normally.Mitochondrial nucleoids were observed in living zygotes from mating until 3 days after mating and then until progeny formation. However, selective disappearance of nucleoids was not observed. Subsequently, experimental serial backcrosses between the two strains demonstrated strict paternal inheritance. The fate of mt+ and mt- mtDNA was followed using the differences in mtDNA between the two strains. The slow elimination of mt+ mtDNA through zygote maturation in darkness was observed, and later the disappearance of mt+ mtDNA was observed at the beginning of meiosis. To explain the different fates of mtDNA, methylation status was investigated; however, no methylation was detected. Variously constructed diploid cells showed biparental inheritance. Thus, when the mating process occurs normally, paternal inheritance occurs. Mutations disrupting mtDNA inheritance have not yet been isolated. Mutations that disrupt maternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) do not disrupt inheritance of mtDNA. The genes responsible for mtDNA inheritance are different from those of chloroplasts. PMID:20069335

  1. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jonathan [University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Xu, Beibei [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J. [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Martinez, Maria Elena [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murphy, James D., E-mail: j2murphy@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  2. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  3. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  4. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Among Primiparae at Very Advanced Maternal Age: At What Price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Alon; Glasser, Saralee; Schiff, Eyal; Zahav, Aliza Segev; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-04-01

    Objectives In light of the potential physical and emotional costs to both woman and child, this study was conducted to assess pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in primiparae at very advanced maternal age (VAMA, aged ≥45) compared to younger primiparae. Methods Retrospective cohort study comparing 222 VAMA primiparae and a reference group of 222 primiparae aged 30-35, delivering at Sheba Medical Center from 2008 through 2013.Results VAMA primiparae were more likely than younger primiparae to be single, to have chronic health conditions, and higher rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational-hypertension (GHTN) and preeclampsia-eclampsia. VAMA primiparae conceived mostly by oocyte donation. They were more likely to be hospitalized during pregnancy, to deliver preterm and by cesarean birth. Infants of VAMA primiparae were at greater risk for low birthweight and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission. There were no differences in outcomes between VAMA primiparae with or without preexisting chronic conditions, or between those aged 45-49 and ≥50. In multivariable analysis VAMA was an independent risk factor for GDM, GHTN and preeclamsia-eclampsia, with adjusted odds ratio of 2.38 (95 % CI 1.32, 4.29), 5.80 (95 % CI 2.66, 12.64) and 2.45 (95 % CI 1.03, 5.85); respectively. The effect of age disappeared in multiple pregnancies. Conclusions Primiparity at VAMA holds a significant risk for adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The absence of chronic medical conditions or the use of a young oocyte donor does not improve these outcomes. Multiple pregnancies hold additional risk and may diminish the effect of age. Primiparity at an earlier age should be encouraged. PMID:26686195

  5. Perceived childhood paternal acceptance-rejection among adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the childhood perceptual difference of paternal acceptance-rejection between those having psychological disorders and non-clinical population during adulthood. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Karwan-e-Hayat, Psychiatric Care and Rehabilitation Centre, Keamari, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to August 2011. Methodology: To test our hypotheses, 69 participants were selected from Karwan-e-Hayat Psychiatric Care and Rehabilitation Centre, Karachi on the basis of purposive sampling technique and 79 from Karachi city on the basis of convenient sampling technique. To measure their perceived paternal acceptance-rejection during childhood, Adult Parental acceptance-rejection questionnaire (PARQ)/control: father-short form (Urdu translation) was administered. The statistical analysis of data was done with the predictive analytics software (PASW). Results: One hundred and forty eight (78 males and 70 females) participants with mean age of 31.28 +- 9.54 years were included. Out of them 69 (40 males and 29 females) were clinical cases of depression, mania and psychosis with mean age of 33.26 +- 9.51 years. Seventy nine (38 males and 41 females) were normal individuals with mean age of 29.54 +- 9.29 years of the demographics corresponding to the clinical population. Independent t-test revealed a significant difference in perceived childhood father acceptance-rejection between clinical and non-clinical population (p < 0.05) and significant gender difference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The studied clinical population and male participants perceived to be more rejected by their father during their childhood than non-clinical population and female participants. (author)

  6. Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamminpää Reeta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N = 15,437 compared with those 35 and over (N = 2,387 who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks, low Apgar score (5 min., small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4% than younger women (6.4%. They had more prior terminations (25 ( Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia.

  7. The Definition of Nudge and Libertarian Paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the concepts of ‘nudge’ and ‘libertarian paternalism’ have become popular theoretical as well as practical concepts inside as well as outside academia. But in spite of the widespread interest, confusion reigns as to what exactly is to be regarded as a nudge and how the underlying...... approach to behaviour change relates to libertarian paternalism. This paper sets out to improve the clarity and value of the definition of nudge by reconciling it with its theoretical foundations in behavioural economics. In doing so it not only explicates the relationship between nudges and libertarian...... paternalism, but also clarifies how nudges relate to incentives and information, and may even be consistent with the removal of certain types of choices. In the end we are left with a revised definition of the concept of nudge that allows for consistently categorising behaviour change interventions as such...

  8. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eBangen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors, advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor. This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus, inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines.

  9. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references

  10. Handgrip Strength: Indications of Paternal Inheritance in Three European Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cournil, Amandine; Jeune, Bernard; Skytthe, Axel;

    2010-01-01

    analyses were performed with 144 nondependent parents (r = .32; CI: 0.04; 0.55 versus r = -.25; CI: -0.61 to 0.21; p = .03). These results were similarly observed in the three regions of the study, where mean levels of handgrip strength strongly differed. CONCLUSIONS: It suggests that age-related effects......BACKGROUND: Handgrip strength is an indicator of overall muscle strength. Poor handgrip strength is a risk factor for disability and mortality. We aimed to investigate the pattern of inheritance of handgrip strength in a sample of parent-offspring pairs from three different European regions in...... weakly correlated (r = .16; p < .01). However, paternal-offspring correlation was significantly higher than maternal-offspring correlation (r = .26; confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.41 versus r = .03; CI: -0.14 to 0.19; p = .04). This difference was particularly marked for daughters (r = -.07; CI: -0...

  11. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products as a Molecular Mechanism for Aging as a Risk Factor in Osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which

  12. Well-Being Affects Changes in Perceptual Speed in Advanced Old Age: Longitudinal Evidence for a Dynamic Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstorf, Denis; Lovden, Martin; Rocke, Christina; Smith, Jacqui; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2007-01-01

    This study examined competing hypotheses about dynamic cross-domain associations between perceptual speed and well-being in advanced old age. We applied the bivariate dual change score model (J. J. McArdle & F. Hamagami, 2001) to 13-year incomplete longitudinal data from the Berlin Aging Study (P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer, 1999; N = 516, 70-103…

  13. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Daniel O.; Dobolyi, David G.; Isaacs, David A.; Roman, Olivia C.; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Donahue, Manus J.; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H.; Landman, Bennett A.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Rane, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson’s Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2nd, or 3rd order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  14. Advanced Age and Mild Thyrotoxicosis are Associated with Nodular Goiter in Graves Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Yener

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary goal of this study is to evaluate predictors of nodular goiter in Graves Disease (GD.Materials and Methods: A total of 202 consecutive patients (mean age: 45; 145 female, 57 male were enrolled. All patients were treated with antithyroid drugs as initial therapy. TSH, FT3, FT4, TRAb, ATPO, and ATG were measured. Radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid ultrasonography were performed, and thyroid volume and nodule diameter were assessed. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed on thyroid nodules ≥8mm. Results: Diffuse goiter was detected in 51% of patients. Solitary nodules were detected in 16%, and multi-nodular disease in 33%. Mean nodule diameter was 8.82 mm. Nodular disease was slightly more common in women (p=0.063. Patients with nodular GD were older (p=0.004, had lower levels of FT3 (p=0.016 and TRAB (p=0.002 when compared with subjects with diffuse GD. Age (OR:6.867 was the independent variable predicting nodular GD. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of nodules was associated with advanced age and milder thyrotoxicosis. Apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells due to excess iodine might interfere with nodule formation, and lead to diffuse goiter in severe thyrotoxicosis. Because of increased rate if malignancy in GD, comprehensive evaluation of thyroid nodules of any size is mandatory. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 1-4

  15. Contingent negative variation in the aged with memory impairment in the course of advance towards dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Yianjian; Jiang Zhanglin; Wu Yang

    2000-01-01

    Aim To investigate the feature and general trend of the contingent negativc variation (CNV) in the aged with memory iapairment(AMI) in the course of advance towards dementia. Method CNV and Hasegawa's dementia scale for the aged(HDS)in 69 of AMI(serving as the study group) and 22 of normal elderly subjects selected from well-matched in age(serving as the control group) were examined at first. 2-3 years later, 22 of the stuty group were examined again. The wave forms and relevant indexes of CNV were observed and analyzed. Results The results showed that the RT and the time of the PINY was longer, the amplitudes and the areas of the EW and the whole wave of the CNV decreased along with the development of the memory and cognitive dysfunction in AMI. Conclusion A significant relationship was observed between severity of cognitive dysfunction, and the reduction degree of amplitude, prolongatia of RT on CNV. The CNV could constitute a valuable clue for the study of pathophysiological brain function in the early stage of mental deterioration and useful for dynamically observing the course and degree of the cognitive dysfunction in AMI.

  16. Individual variation in paternal responses of virgin male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): behavioral and physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. de Jong; A. Korosi; B.N. Harris; J.P. Perea-Rodriguez; W. Saltzman

    2012-01-01

    California mice Peromyscus californicus are a rodent species in which fathers provide extensive paternal care; however, behavioral responses of virgin males toward conspecific neonates vary from paternal behavior to tolerance to infanticide. Indirect evidence suggests that paternal responses might b

  17. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  18. Cable aging and condition monitoring of radiation resistant nano-dielectrics in advanced reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  19. Spatial patterns of extra-pair paternity: beyond paternity gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, Lotte; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) focus either on a specific male's extra-pair gains or his extra-pair losses. For an individual bird however, mate choice or mate availability may underlie strong spatial restrictions. Disregarding this spatial aspect may underestimate or mask effects of parameters influencing observed EPP patterns. Here, we propose a spatially explicit model for investigating the probability of having extra-pair offspring (EPO) within local networks of breeding pairs. The data set includes all realized and unrealized potential extra-pair matings. This method is biologically meaningful because it allows (a) considering both members of an extra-pair mating and their social mates, and (b) direct modelling of the spatial context in which extra-pair behaviour occurs. The method has the advantage that it can provide inference about the relative contribution of spatial and non-spatial parameters, and about the relative importance of male and female neighbourhoods. We apply this method to parentage data from 1025 broods collected over 12 breeding seasons in two independent study populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We investigate a set of predictions based on the EPP literature, namely that EPP depends on male age and body size, breeding density and breeding synchrony. In all analyses, we control for breeding distance, a parameter that is expected to influence EPP even under random mating. The results show that older and larger males were more likely to sire EPO, but both effects decreased with increasing breeding distance. Local breeding density but not synchrony predicted whether a particular male-female combination had EPO, at least in one of the study areas. Apart from breeding distance, male age had the strongest effect on EPP, followed by a measure of breeding density. The method thus allows a comprehensive assessment of the relative importance of different types of spatial and non-spatial parameters to explain variation in the

  20. High resolution melt-curve analysis to fine map a locus controlling the paternal sorting of mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are required for normal growth and development and play an important role in programmed cell death and aging. The mitochondrial DNA is maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. One exception is cucumber (Cucumis sativus), whose mitochondrial DNA is paternally transmit...

  1. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs Accumulation by Pyridoxamine Modulates Glomerular and Mesangial Cell Estrogen Receptor α Expression in Aged Female Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pereira-Simon

    Full Text Available Age-related increases in oxidant stress (OS play a role in regulation of estrogen receptor (ER expression in the kidneys. In this study, we establish that in vivo 17β-estradiol (E2 replacement can no longer upregulate glomerular ER expression by 21 months of age in female mice (anestrous. We hypothesized that advanced glycation end product (AGE accumulation, an important source of oxidant stress, contributes to these glomerular ER expression alterations. We treated 19-month old ovariectomized female mice with pyridoxamine (Pyr, a potent AGE inhibitor, in the presence or absence of E2 replacement. Glomerular ERα mRNA expression was upregulated in mice treated with both Pyr and E2 replacement and TGFβ mRNA expression decreased compared to controls. Histological sections of kidneys demonstrated decreased type IV collagen deposition in mice receiving Pyr and E2 compared to placebo control mice. In addition, anti-AGE defenses Sirtuin1 (SIRT1 and advanced glycation receptor 1 (AGER1 were also upregulated in glomeruli following treatment with Pyr and E2. Mesangial cells isolated from all groups of mice demonstrated similar ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression changes to those of whole glomeruli. To demonstrate that AGE accumulation contributes to the observed age-related changes in the glomeruli of aged female mice, we treated mesangial cells from young female mice with AGE-BSA and found similar downregulation of ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression. These results suggest that inhibition of intracellular AGE accumulation with pyridoxamine may protect glomeruli against age-related oxidant stress by preventing an increase of TGFβ production and by regulation of the estrogen receptor.

  2. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psycholo...

  3. Advanced age and the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implan-tation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama Alsara; Ahmad Alsarah; Heather Laird-Fick

    2014-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is common in the elderly. Although surgical replacement of the valve has been the gold standard of management, many patients have been excluded from surgery because they were very old, frail, or had co-morbidities that increased operative risks. In the last decade, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a new treatment option suitable for these patients. This article reviews the available literature on the role of TAVI in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis. Published studies showed that elderly individuals who underwent TAVI experienced better in-hospital recovery, and similar short and mid-term mortality compared to those underwent surgical treatment of AS. However, long-term outcomes of TAVI in elderly patients are still unknown. The available data in the literature on the ef-fect of advanced age on clinical outcomes of TAVI are limited, but the data that are available suggest that TAVI is a beneficial and tolerable procedure in very old patients. Some of the expected complications after TAVI are reported more in the oldest patients such as vascular in-jures. Other complications were comparable in TAVI patients regardless of their age group. However, very old patients may need closer monitoring to avoid further morbidities and mortality.

  4. 父源因素对胎儿生长发育的不良影响研究进展%Advances of the Adverse Effects of Paternal Factors on Fetal Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周梦林; 应俊; 陈丹青

    2015-01-01

    The fetal development is closely related with the adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, dystocia, congenital malformation, premature baby, low weight baby and so on. It is also a potential predictor of the fetal origin of some adult diseases. Most of the researches on the risk factors affecting fetal development were focused on the mother origin in recent years. The risk factors of father origin can be classified into two groups: the heredity-related factors such as age, diseases, somatotype, lifestyle and environmental exposure which could disturb the integrity of genomics of father origin or the genomic expression; the social and environmental factors such as psychological state, occupation and income which could mainly affect maternal pregnancy environment and life quality. Two kinds of factors can result in abnormal fetal development in uterus, which is related to adverse outcomes of pregnancy. It is benefit for the fetal development and the infant and adult health to offer genetic counseling to those couples with high-risk factors.%胎儿在宫内的生长发育不仅与流产、难产、畸形、早产、低体质量儿等不良妊娠结局密切相关,而且能用于评估成年期罹患某些疾病的风险。近年国内外关于胎儿生长发育的研究大多关注的是母源因素,对父源因素的研究相对较少。父亲影响胎儿发育的主要因素可以分为两类,即包括年龄、疾病、体型、生活方式、暴露环境在内的遗传因素和以心理状态、职业、经济收入为代表的社会环境因素,前者直接影响父源基因的完整性和表达情况,而后者主要影响母体的生活环境和生活质量,这两类因素的不良发展均可能导致胎儿在宫内的生长发育发生异常,从而出现各种不良妊娠结局。

  5. Konference Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2006), s. 833-835. ISSN 0038-0288. [Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parental leave * paternity leave * fathering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  6. First Things First: Paternity and Child Support for Nonmarital Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, Ann

    1993-01-01

    Establishing a child's legal paternity is the first step to gaining specific rights and benefits which can be critical to a child's well-being, such as emotional and financial security. Discusses specific procedures that Washington, Virginia, and other states have enacted to more easily establish paternity. (MDM)

  7. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie D Ellis

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  8. Advanced life events (ALEs) that impede aging-in-place among seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Lee A; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Sunkara, Priya; Forcucci, Chris; Campbell, Dianne; Mitzen, Phyllis; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wishes of many seniors to age-in-place in their own homes, critical events occur that impede their ability to do so. A gap exists as to what these advanced life events (ALEs) entail and the planning that older adults perceive is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify seniors' perceptions and planning toward ALEs that may impact their ability to remain in their own home. We conducted focus groups with 68 seniors, age ≥65 years (mean age 73.8 years), living in the community (rural, urban, and suburban), using open-ended questions about perceptions of future heath events, needs, and planning. Three investigators coded transcriptions using constant comparative analysis to identify emerging themes, with disagreements resolved via consensus. Subjects identified five ALEs that impacted their ability to remain at home: (1) Hospitalizations, (2) Falls, (3) Dementia, (4) Spousal Loss, and (5) Home Upkeep Issues. While recognizing that ALEs frequently occur, many subjects reported a lack of planning for ALEs and perceived that these ALEs would not happen to them. Themes for the rationale behind the lack of planning emerged as: uncertainty in future, being too healthy/too sick, offspring influences, denial/procrastination, pride, feeling overwhelmed, and financial concerns. Subjects expressed reliance on offspring for navigating future ALEs, although many had not communicated their needs with their offspring. Overcoming the reasons for not planning for ALEs is crucial, as being prepared for future home needs provides seniors a voice in their care while engaging key supporters (e.g., offspring). PMID:26952382

  9. Understanding the meaning of past, present and future in advanced age : very old person's experiences of ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Margareta

    2000-01-01

    The overall aim of the thesis was to understand elderly people's lived experiences of ageing and their life situation in very old age. The participating persons have been involved in and followed through all studies in the thesis. In study I some characteristics of quality of life in old age were illustrated by means of empirical data and Allardt's definition of the concept. To the elderly people investigated, quality of life meant contentment and a peaceful life, independen...

  10. Kinetics and specificity of paternal mitochondrial elimination in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianwan; Liang, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Miao, Long; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, mitochondria are inherited maternally. The autophagy process is critical for paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how paternal mitochondria, but not maternal mitochondria, are selectively targeted for degradation is poorly understood. Here we report that mitochondrial dynamics have a profound effect on PME. A defect in fission of paternal mitochondria delays PME, whereas a defect in fusion of paternal mitochondria accelerates PME. Surprisingly, a defect in maternal mitochondrial fusion delays PME, which is reversed by a fission defect in maternal mitochondria or by increasing maternal mitochondrial membrane potential using oligomycin. Electron microscopy and tomography analyses reveal that a proportion of maternal mitochondria are compromised when they fail to fuse normally, leading to their competition for the autophagy machinery with damaged paternal mitochondria and delayed PME. Our study indicates that mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in regulating both the kinetics and the specificity of PME. PMID:27581092

  11. Paternal psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershler Ruth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of social and family environments in the development of mental health problems among children and youth has been widely investigated. However, the degree to which parental working conditions may impact on developmental psychopathology has not been thoroughly studied. Methods We conducted a case-control study of several mental health outcomes of 19,833 children of sawmill workers and their association with parental work stress, parental socio-demographic characteristics, and paternal mental health. Results Multivariate analysis conducted with four distinct age groups (children, adolescents, young adults, and adults revealed that anxiety based and depressive disorders were associated with paternal work stress in all age groups and that work stress was more strongly associated with alcohol and drug related disorders in adulthood than it was in adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusion This study provides support to the tenet that being exposed to paternal work stress during childhood can have long lasting effects on the mental health of individuals.

  12. Cost-Utility Analyses of Cataract Surgery in Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyan; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore the cost-utility of cataract surgery in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for age-related cataract and with a history of advanced AMD at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, were included in the study. All of the participants underwent successful phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and utility value elicited by time trade-off method from patients at 3-month postoperative time were compared with those before surgery. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in a lifetime were calculated at a 3% annual discounted rate. Costs per QALY gained were calculated using the bootstrap method, and probabilities of being cost-effective were presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA in the operated eye increased from 1.37 ± 0.5 (Snellen, 20/469) to 0.98 ± 0.25 (Snellen, 20/191) (p < 0.001); BCVA in the weighted average from both eyes (=75% better eye + 25% worse eye) was changed from 1.13 ± 0.22 (Snellen, 20/270) to 0.96 ± 0.17 (Snellen, 20/182) (p < 0.001). Utility values from both patients and doctors increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Patients gained 1.17 QALYs by cataract surgery in their lifetime. The cost per QALY was 8835 Chinese yuan (CNY) (1400 U.S. dollars [USD]). It is cost-effective at the threshold of 115,062 CNY (18,235 USD) per QALY in China recommended by the World Health Organization. The cost per QALY varied from 7045 CNY (1116 USD) to 94,178 CNY (14,925 USD) in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Visual acuity and quality of life assessed by utility value improved significantly after surgery

  13. The most extensive Holocene advance in the Stauning Alper, East Greenland, occurred in the Little Ice Age

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Brenda L.; Baroni, Carlo; Denton, George H.

    2008-01-01

    We present glacial geologic and chronologic data concerning the Holocene ice extent in the Stauning Alper of East Greenland. The retreat of ice from the late-glacial position back into the mountains was accomplished by at least 11 000 cal years B.P. The only recorded advance after this time occurred during the past few centuries (the Little Ice Age). Therefore, we postulate that the Little Ice Age event represents the maximum Holocene ice extent in this part of East Greenland.

  14. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated. PMID:20413888

  15. Multilocus DNA fingerprinting in paternity analysis: a Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes O. Lucía

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA polymorphism is very useful in paternity analysis. The present paper describes paternity studies done using DNA profiles obtained with the (CAC5 probe. All of the subjects studied were involved in nonjudicial cases of paternity. Genomic DNA digested with HaeIII was run on agarose gels and hybridized in the gel with the (CAC5 probe labeled with 32P. The mean number of bands larger than the 4.3 kb per individual was 16.1. The mean proportion of bands shared among unrelated individuals was 0.08 and the mean number of test bands was 7.1. This corresponded to an exclusion probability greater than 0.999999. Paternity was excluded in 34.5% of the cases. The mutation frequency estimated from non-excluded cases was 0.01143 bands per child. In these cases, the paternity was confirmed by a locus-specific analysis of eight independent PCR-based loci. The paternity index was computed in all non-excluded cases. It can be concluded that this method is a powerful and inexpensive alternative to solve paternity doubts.

  16. Influence of Paternal Age on Assisted Reproduction Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    We Will Retrospectively Assess Our Databases in Our Clinic:; Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Valencia (Spain); Searching for Assisted Reproduction Procedures; (IUI, Standard IVF/ICSI Cycles and Ovum Donation IVF/ICSI Cycles); Who Were Referred to Our Unit to Cryopreserve Sperm During the Period; From January 2000 to December 2006.

  17. Microsatellite DNA analysis as a tool for forensic paternity testing (DNA paternity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Igor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite analysis. By using serological or HLA-testing, the alleged father can be excluded as the biological father, but, regardless of the degree of probability, positive paternity results cannot be obtained without DNA testing. According to the results of the National Human Genome Project, human genome consists of approximatelly 30.000 genes. The vast majority of human DNA is not organized in genes and has no genetic expression or visible function. Non-coding DNA contains genetic markers important for human identification. Short tandem repeats, or STRs, are a class of microsatellites consisting of tandemly repeated sequences of 2 to 6 base pair length monomers. Most of the microsatellites show a high degree of polymorphism, which can be evaluated by PCR technique, and used in criminalistics, forensic identification and parentage testing. A source of DNA in parentage testing are blood samples or buccal swabs which are routinelly used. Amplification of isolated DNA can be performed in 25-30 cycles by PCR, and fragments are separated by capillary electrophoresis. Conclusion. The probability of paternity of 99.99% or higher corresponds to the paternity "practicaly proven", indicating that the alleged father is the biological father. Such results can be obtained only by DNA testing. DNA-testing laboratories are required to conduct validation of laboratory facilities, equipment and staff and are subject to permanent control by the society. .

  18. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  19. Plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and NF-κB activity are independent determinants of diastolic and pulse pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G; Dougherty, Sonia L;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: High levels of circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can initiate chronic low-grade activation of the immune system (CLAIS) with each of these factors independently associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Therefore, our objective was to...

  20. Diabetic kidney disease: a role for advanced glycation end-product receptor 1 (AGE-R1)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Aowen; Forbes, Josephine M

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic patients are postulated to be in a perpetual state of oxidative stress and inflammation at sites where chronic complications occur. The accumulation of AGEs derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources (such as the diet) have been implicated in the development and progression of diabetic complications, particularly nephropathy. There has been some interest in investigating the potential for reducing the AGE burden in chronic disease, through the action of AGE "clearance" receptors, such as the advanced glycation end-product receptor 1 (AGE-R1). Reducing the burden of AGEs has been linked to attenuation of inflammation, slower progression of diabetic complications (in particular vascular and renal complications) and has been shown to extend lifespan. To date, however, there have been no direct investigations into whether AGE-R1 has any role in modulating normal kidney function, or specifically during the development and progression of diabetes. This mini-review will focus on the recent advances in knowledge around the mechanistic function of AGE-R1 and the implications of this for the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:27270766

  1. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hideki; Saeki, Tomoko; Otani, Toru; Suzuki, Takaichiro; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Nishino, Hoyoku; Fukuda, Sanae; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2006-03-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has manifold biological activities including immunomodulative and antioxidative effects. It is used as a major component of nonprescription tonics and cold-prevention medicines or dietary supplements. Advanced-cancer patients decline in immune functions and quality of life (QOL). The study's subjects were patients with inoperable colorectal, liver, or pancreatic cancer. In a randomized double-blind trial, AGE was administered to one group and a placebo was administered to another for 6 mo. The primary endpoint was a QOL questionnaire based on the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT). The subendpoints were changes in the natural-killer (NK) cell activity the salivary cortisol level from before and after administering AGE. Out of 55 patients invited to participate in the trial, 50 (91%) consented to enroll. They consisted of 42 patients with liver cancer (84%), 7 patients with pancreatic cancer (14%), and 1 patient with colon cancer (2%). Drug compliance was relatively good in both the AGE and placebo groups. Although no difference was observed in QOL, both the number of NK cells and the NK cell activity increased significantly in the AGE group. No adverse effect was observed in either group. The study showed that administering AGE to patients with advanced cancer of the digestive system improved NK cell activity, but caused no improvement in QOL. PMID:16484572

  2. Paternal overprotection in obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression with obsessive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takafumi; Taga, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Yoshitake; Fukui, Kenji

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a parental rearing style showing a low level of care on the parental bonding instrument (PBI) is a risk factor for depression, and that there is a relationship between the overprotective rearing style on the PBI and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, there is no study on the parental rearing attitudes in depressive patients divided into two groups based on their obsessive traits. In this study, we evaluated the parental rearing attitudes and examined the differences among four groups: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. We divided the depressive patients into severe and mild groups based on their obsessive traits on the Mausdley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). We compared PBI scores among four groups of 50 subjects matched for age and sex: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. The paternal protection scores in the depressive patients with severely obsessive traits and the OCD patients were significantly higher than those in the depressive patients with mildly obsessive traits and healthy volunteers. This study indicated that the depressive patients with severe obsessive traits and the OCD patients have similar paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes. We conclude that the paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes are linked to the development of OCD and depression with obsessive traits, and are not linked to the development of depression itself. PMID:16194254

  3. Socioendocrine and morphological correlates of paternity in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovitch, F B; Nürnberg, P

    1996-05-01

    When females mate with several males, problems arise in identifying sire and in determining factors contributing to differential male reproductive success. Three potential primary correlates of differential reproduction in males include fighting ability, sperm competition, and body condition. We collected a variety of socioendocrine and morphological measurements from sexually mature rhesus macaques to determine corollaries of paternity. We studied a troop of about 150 rhesus macaques living in a 0.3 ha corral and identified the sires of 70% of infants using multilocus DNA fingerprints. Eight of 21 males sired offspring, and dominant males were more successful than subordinate males. Neither canine size nor age influenced the probability of siring offspring. Male reproductive success was primarily an outcome of the number of females mated with, which was associated with an ensemble of traits including high dominance rank, large body size, relatively voluminous testicles and good body condition. Testes size was significantly larger in sires than in non-sires, but among sires the number of progeny produced was not correlated with testicle size. Sires began the mating season with more body fat than non-sires, but the energetic costs of mating resulted in a 50% reduction in abdominal skinfold thickness during the mating season. We conclude that social status exerts a major impact on paternity by affecting the number of females mated with, that male quality is a critical factor modulating paternity, and that male feeding strategies have a direct influence on variation in male reproductive success. PMID:8699435

  4. Concurrent hippocampal induction of MHC II pathway components and glial activation with advanced aging is not correlated with cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonntag William E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related cognitive dysfunction, including impairment of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory, affects approximately half of the aged population. Induction of a variety of neuroinflammatory measures has been reported with brain aging but the relationship between neuroinflammation and cognitive decline with non-neurodegenerative, normative aging remains largely unexplored. This study sought to comprehensively investigate expression of the MHC II immune response pathway and glial activation in the hippocampus in the context of both aging and age-related cognitive decline. Methods Three independent cohorts of adult (12-13 months and aged (26-28 months F344xBN rats were behaviorally characterized by Morris water maze testing. Expression of MHC II pathway-associated genes identified by transcriptomic analysis as upregulated with advanced aging was quantified by qPCR in synaptosomal fractions derived from whole hippocampus and in hippocampal subregion dissections (CA1, CA3, and DG. Activation of astrocytes and microglia was assessed by GFAP and Iba1 protein expression, and by immunohistochemical visualization of GFAP and both CD74 (Ox6 and Iba1. Results We report a marked age-related induction of neuroinflammatory signaling transcripts (i.e., MHC II components, toll-like receptors, complement, and downstream signaling factors throughout the hippocampus in all aged rats regardless of cognitive status. Astrocyte and microglial activation was evident in CA1, CA3 and DG of intact and impaired aged rat groups, in the absence of differences in total numbers of GFAP+ astrocytes or Iba1+ microglia. Both mild and moderate microglial activation was significantly increased in all three hippocampal subregions in aged cognitively intact and cognitively impaired rats compared to adults. Neither induction of MHCII pathway gene expression nor glial activation correlated to cognitive performance. Conclusions These data demonstrate a

  5. Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascati, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

  6. Postfertilization autophagy of sperm organelles prevents paternal mitochondrial DNA transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawi, Sara; Louvet-Vallée, Sophie; Djeddi, Abderazak; Sachse, Martin; Culetto, Emmanuel; Hajjar, Connie; Boyd, Lynn; Legouis, Renaud; Galy, Vincent

    2011-11-25

    In sexual reproduction of most animals, the spermatozoon provides DNA and centrioles, together with some cytoplasm and organelles, to the oocyte that is being fertilized. Paternal mitochondria and their genomes are generally eliminated in the embryo by an unknown degradation mechanism. We show that, upon fertilization, a Caenorhabditis elegans spermatozoon triggers the recruitment of autophagosomes within minutes and subsequent paternal mitochondria degradation. Whereas the nematode-specific sperm membranous organelles are ubiquitinated before autophagosome formation, the mitochondria are not. The degradation of both paternal structures and mitochondrial DNA requires an LC3-dependent autophagy. Analysis of fertilized mouse embryos shows the localization of autophagy markers, which suggests that this autophagy event is evolutionarily conserved to prevent both the transmission of paternal mitochondrial DNA to the offspring and the establishment of heteroplasmy. PMID:22033522

  7. Multilocus DNA fingerprinting: the independence problem in quantitative paternity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, M

    1994-02-01

    A simulation study was performed in order to determine whether or not the assumption of independence, made in the quantitative analysis of multilocus DNA fingerprints, represents an inadmissible over-simplification. A total of 10,000 cases of true and false paternity, respectively, were simulated in twenty replicas of various genetic models. Log-likelihood ratios (paternity vs. non-paternity; LR) were calculated using published likelihood formulae and assuming position-wise independence. The resulting LR distributions were compared to (i) the results of a classical analysis of the underlying genotype data, and (ii) the distributions expected from the likelihood model employed in the LR calculations. Although considerable discrepancies were observed between these distributions, decision making about paternity appeared to be only marginally affected, especially when only a fraction of each multilocus DNA fingerprint was analyzed. PMID:8026429

  8. Degree of protandry reflects level of extrapair paternity in migratory songbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppack, Timothy; Tøttrup, Anders Peter; Spottiswoode, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Males of most migratory organisms, including many birds, precede female conspecifics on their journey to the breeding areas. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of protandrous migration, yet they have rarely been tested at the interspecific level. Here, we provide...... time-lag in spring passage between males and females of five Palearctic migratory songbird species is positively associated with levels of extrapair paternity available from the literature. This suggests that males arrive relatively more in advance of females in species with high sperm competition...

  9. Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijper, B; Lane, N.; POMIANKOWSKI, A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males - 'mother's curse'. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individual...

  10. GxE Interactions Between FOXO Genotypes and Tea Drinking Significantly Affect Cognitive Disability at Advanced Ages in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting;

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at...... advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around...... age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health...

  11. Serum carboxymethyllysine, an advanced glycation end product, and age-related macular degeneration: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D; Cotch, Mary Frances; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiríksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B; Sun, Kai; Klein, Ronald; Jonasson, Fridbert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schaumberg, Debra A

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Advanced glycation end products have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between serum carboxymethyllysine (CML), a major circulating advanced glycation end product, and AMD in older adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 4907 older adults (aged ≥66 years) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study in Iceland. EXPOSURES Serum CML and risk factors for AMD. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Early or late AMD, assessed through fundus images taken through dilated pupils using a 45° digital camera and grading for drusen size, type, area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions, and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. RESULTS Of the 4907 participants, 1025 (20.9%) had early AMD and 276 (5.6%) had late AMD. Mean (SD) serum CML concentrations among adults with no AMD, early AMD, and late AMD (exudative AMD and pure geographic atrophy) were 618.8 (195.5), 634.2 (206.4), and 638.4 (192.0) ng/mL, respectively (to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.00489; P = .07). Log serum CML (per 1-SD increase) was not associated with any AMD (early and late AMD) (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.04; P = .44) or with late AMD (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.82-1.08; P = .36) in respective multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and renal function. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Higher serum CML concentration had no significant cross-sectional association with prevalent AMD in this large population-based cohort of older adults in Iceland. PMID:24481410

  12. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  13. 198Au grain implantation for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy using 198Au grains is minimally invasive and the only curative treatment for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status available in our institution. From March 1993 to February 2008, 198Au grains were used to treat a group of 96 Stage I–II tongue cancer patients who could not undergo surgery or brachytherapy using 192Ir pins because of an advanced age (≥75 years) or poor performance status (≥2). The patients were followed for 3.9 ± 3.3 years, and the cause-specific survival and local control rates were determined. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The results were compared with those for a group of 193 early tongue-cancer patients who underwent treatment using iridium pins. The 5-year cause-specific survival and local control rates of the 198Au grains group were 71% and 68%, respectively, both of which were 16% lower than the corresponding rates for the 192Ir pins group. Our study demonstrated that as the last curative treatment available, 198Au grain implantation could be used to achieve moderate treatment results for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status

  14. Research advances on the anti-aging profile of Fructus lycii: An ancient Chinese herbal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, SCW; Chang, RCC; Zhang, KY; Tong, Y; Song, J.; Wong, RNS

    2008-01-01

    Fructus lycii is a common Chinese herbal medicine used in China for nearly 2000 years. It has beneficial effects on eyes, liver and kidneys; and it has long been considered to be an anti-aging herb in ancient Chinese medicine. Modern studies have partially probed the magic anti-aging property of F. lycii. The beneficial effects of F. lycii on aging are largely attributed to its bioactive components such as polysaccharides, carotenoids and flavonoids. This review focuses on the anti-aging aspe...

  15. Effect of advancing age on pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers of Cuttack: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija Priyadarshini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental pollution is a worldwide phenomenon. Petrol pump workers are exposed to toxic substances present in petrol and diesel and also to various air pollutants. Long term exposure of these chemical vapours leads to deleterious effects on respiratory functions that range from mild cough to lung cancer. In the present study an attempt has been made to find out the correlation of advancing age and toxic effects of vapours on respiratory system by comparing pulmonary function tests in petrol pump workers and subjects not exposed to petrol. Methods: The study comprised of 60 petrol pump workers in age group 30-60 years working for more than 1 year. 60 healthy age matched male served as controls. Age, smoking habits, duration of exposure and health conditions of each subject were recorded. The pulmonary function was assessed in all subjects by Medspiror having Helios 401 software. The pulmonary function parameters studied were FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF25-75%, PEFR and MVV. The parameters were compared by using Student’s t-test, ANOVA and multiple comparison Bonferroni tests. Results: A statistically significant decline in FEV1, FVC, PEFR, FEF25-75% and MVV was observed in petrol pump workers with advancing age. However, decline in FEV1/FVC was significant in elderly age of 50 to 60 years. Conclusion: Elder workers were more susceptible to harmful effects of benzene and other gaseous pollutants on pulmonary functions. Early recognition and removal of susceptible workers from work place before chronic impairment develops will prove to be beneficial.

  16. Maternal and paternal support for physical activity and healthy eating in preschool children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Trost, Stewart G

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental support is a key influence on children’s health behaviours; however, no previous investigation has simultaneously explored the influence of mothers’ and fathers’ social support on eating and physical activity in preschool-aged children. This study evaluated the singular and combined effects of maternal and paternal support for physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FV) on preschoolers’ PA and FV. Methods A random sample comprising 173 parent–child dyad...

  17. Aging, mitochondria and male reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2009-12-01

    The rise in life expectancy over the last century, together with higher maternal and paternal ages and have highlighted the issue of reduced fertility with advancing age. Aging of the male reproductive system is incited by multi-factorial changes at molecular, cellular and regulatory levels, and individual characteristics are highly variable, although strongly influenced by lifestyle and environmental factors. Damage accumulated with age leads to progressive deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, thereby inducing changes in target organs such as the testis, penis and prostate. Elderly human males produce less testosterone, have fewer motile sperm and a higher incidence of erectile dysfunction and prostate disorders, all of which contribute to lower fertility. Cellular aging can manifest itself at several levels. Aging cells progressively accumulate "waste" products, resulting in a decreased functionally. Changes to mitochondria are among the most remarkable features observed in aging cells and several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely in terms of the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles may play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. Furthermore, mitochondrial energy metabolism is also crucial for male reproductive function and mitochondria may therefore constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss. PMID:20021411

  18. 年龄对男性精液参数及DNA完整性的影响%Effects of advanced paternal age on standard sperm parameters and sperm DNA integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯开波; 崔鑫; 任权

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨男性年龄与精子染色质结构完整性及精液常规参数的影响.方法 选择男科门诊不育患者100人,依据年龄分成2组,小于40岁的青年组和大于40岁的中年组,分别观察两组患者的精液常规参数、精子形态学分析及精子染色质结构的完整性(DFI).结果 两组精子总数及形态学分析无明显差异,中年组的精子活力明显低于青年组,青年组精子染色质的完整性明显优于中年组.结论 男性年龄的增大明显降低男性的生育能力,精子DNA完整性是评估男性生育能力的有力指标,高龄拟生育二胎男性应常规进行精液常规分析及DFI检查,发现异常及时处理,减少配偶异常妊娠及TTP等.

  19. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Liane

    2016-01-01

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. PMID:27097924

  20. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Paula; Hobson, Liane

    2016-04-27

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. PMID:27097924

  1. Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, B; Lane, N; Pomiankowski, A

    2015-02-01

    A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males - 'mother's curse'. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individuals bear multiple cytoplasmic alleles in the presence of paternal leakage, bottlenecks and recurrent mutation. When fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements within an individual are additive, we find that sexually antagonistic polymorphism is restricted to cases of strong selection on males. However, when fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements are nonlinear, much more extensive polymorphism can be supported in the cytoplasm. In particular, mitochondrial mutants that have strong beneficial fitness effects in males and weak deleterious fitness effects in females when rare (i.e. 'reverse dominance') are strongly favoured under paternal leakage. We discuss how such epistasis could arise through preferential segregation of mitochondria in sex-specific somatic tissues. Our analysis shows how paternal leakage can dampen the evolution of deleterious male effects associated with predominant maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, potentially explaining why 'mother's curse' is less pervasive than predicted by earlier work. PMID:25653025

  2. Paternal leakage, heteroplasmy, and the evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, David E

    2013-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes are usually transmitted to the progeny from the maternal parent. However, cases of paternal transmission are known and are perhaps more common than once thought. This review will consider recent evidence, both direct and indirect, of paternal transmission (leakage) of the mitochondrial genome of seed plants, especially in natural populations, and how this can result in offspring that carry a mixture of maternally and paternally derived copies of the genome; a type of heteroplasmy. It will further consider how this heteroplasmy facilitates recombination between genetically distinct partners; a process that can enhance mitochondrial genotypic diversity. This will then form the basis for a discussion of five evolutionary questions that arise from these observations. Questions include how plant mitochondrial genome evolution can be placed on a sexual to asexual continuum, whether cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) facilitates the evolution of paternal leakage, whether paternal leakage is more likely in populations undergoing admixture, how leakage influences patterns of gene flow, and whether heteroplasmy occurs in natural populations at a frequency greater than predicted by crossing experiments. It is proposed that each of these questions offers fertile ground for future research on a diversity of plant species. PMID:23952142

  3. Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  4. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 ± 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 ± 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBFCPT/rest), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 ± 0.20 and 1.10 ± 0.39 vs 1.53 ± 0.18, p CPT/rest at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBFCPT/rest after smoking cessation (β = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  5. An Investigation into the Gender and Age Differences in the Social Coping of Academically Advanced Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Regan Clark; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2006-01-01

    In certain contexts, some academically advanced students employ coping strategies that manipulate the visibility of their ability. These strategies may include denying giftedness, hiding giftedness, gaining favor by helping others, denying the negative impact on peer acceptance, conforming to mask giftedness, and minimizing focus on popularity.…

  6. Foveal-Sparing Scotomas in Advanced Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunness, Janet S.; Rubin, Gary S.; Zuckerbrod, Abraham; Applegate, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Foveal-sparing scotomas are common in advanced dry macular degeneration (geographic atrophy). Foveal preservation may be present for a number of years. Despite good visual acuity, these patients have reduced reading rates. Magnification may not be effective if the text becomes too large to "fit" within the central spared area. (Contains 2 tables…

  7. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (Ppatterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  8. Paternal kin recognition and infant care in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Elizabeth J; Wikberg, Eva C; Kawamura, Shoji; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence for paternal kin recognition and paternally biased behaviors is mixed among primates. We investigate whether infant handling behaviors exhibit paternal kin biases in wild white-faced capuchins monkeys (Cebus capucinus) by comparing interactions between infants and genetic sires, potential sires, siblings (full sibling, maternal, and paternal half-siblings) and unrelated handlers. We used a linear mixed model approach to analyze data collected on 21 focal infants from six groups in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Our analyses suggest that the best predictor of adult and subadult male interactions with an infant is the male's dominance status, not his paternity status. We found that maternal siblings but not paternal siblings handled infants more than did unrelated individuals. We conclude that maternal but not paternal kinship influence patterns of infant handling in white-faced capuchins, regardless of whether or not they can recognize paternal kin. Am. J. Primatol. 78:659-668, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26815856

  9. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  10. Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

  11. Involved fathering: Expanding conceptualisations of men’s paternal caring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Smit

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatherhood has received increased attention during the past few decades in both scholarly writings and public forums, yet the conceptualisation of involved fathering has remained largely limited to the idea that men are merely childcare assistants. In this article the generativity perspective on fathering is considered as a possible theoretical expansion of what paternal involvement may entail. Taking the concept of generativity, as defined by Erik Erikson in his psychosocial development theory, as point of departure, generative fathering refers to paternal conduct that responds to the physical, emotional and cognitive needs of a child. This kind of involved fathering implies that a father is focused on lovingly nurturing his child and improving the wellbeing of his offspring, instead of merely conforming to what is stipulated by society and cultural norms with regard to paternal role obligations.

  12. Primate paternal care: interactions between biology and social experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Anne E.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids are involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their offspring. PMID:26253726

  13. Brief Report: Parental Age and the Sex Ratio in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anello, Alene; Reichenberg, Abraham; Luo, Xiaodong; Schmeidler, James; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kryzak, Lauren A.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    The male-to-female (M:F) ratio for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), typically about 4:1, appears to decrease with increasing paternal age, but this relationship has not been systematically tested. With 393 ASD cases from families with two or more ASD cases, we categorized paternal age into five age groups (less than 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45+)…

  14. Transgenerational effects of paternal exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Paternal F0 irradiation with 1 Gy of attenuated 137Cs gamma rays in CD1 mice 6 weeks prior to conception of F1 offspring involves sperm that were Type B spermatogonia at the time of irradiation. We have demonstrated that this paternal F0 germ cell irradiation affects animal and biochemical endpoints including adult animal body weight, hepatic protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) enzyme activity levels and p53 and p21-waf1 protein levels and in as many as three generations of offspring. These data suggest that irradiated Type B spermatogonia develop a capacity to transmit transgenerational effects that are inherited in a non-Mendelian manner across two or more generations. In this study we have replaced the outbred CD1 strain of mice with the C57BL/6 strain of mice. We now have data that suggests that heritable effects of paternal F0 irradiation of the Type B spermatogonia observed in three successive generations of CD1 mice are also present in the C57BL/6 strain of mice following a paternal F0 radiation exposure using a low dose of ionizing radiation (0.1 Gy attenuated 137-Cs gamma rays). Three generations of offspring from irradiated p53 null and C57BL/6 male mice have been evaluated for effects on animal and biochemical endpoints. The data suggest that the absence of p53 at the time of paternal F0 irradiation may affect the correlative animal and biochemical endpoints evaluated. These biochemical data, together with the results of microsatellite DNA expansion analysis, will provide us with important information regarding the mechanism by which irradiation of the paternal F0 Type B spermatogonia initiates the heritable biological phenotype we have observed and the possible role of genomic instability

  15. Resolving Questioned Paternity Issues Using a Philippine Genetic Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corazon De Ungria

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of the Philippines genetic database consisting of seven Short Tandem Repeat (STR markers for testing of ten questioned paternity cases was investigated. The markers used were HUMvWA, HUMTH01, HUMCSF1PO, HUMFOLP23, D8S306, HUMFES/FPS, and HUMF13A01. These markers had a combined Power of Paternity Exclusion of 99.17%. Due to the gravity of some cases handled in the laboratory, routine procedures must be assessed to determine the capacity of the analysis to exclude a non-father of predict paternity. Clients showed a preference for only testing father and child to lower costs and reduce conflicts, particularly when the mother objects to the conduct of DNA tests, or when she is deceased or cannot be located. The Probability of Paternity was calculated with and without the mother’s profile in each of the cases. In all instances, results were more informative when the mother’s DNA profile was included. Moreover, variations in the allelic distribution of five STR markers among eight Caucasian, one African-American, and two Amerindian (Argentina populations resulted in significant differences in Probability of Paternity estimates compared to those calculated using the Philippine Database.Based on the results of the present study, it is recommended that tests on alleged father-child samples be performed to screen for at least two mismatches. In the absence of theses mismatches, further analysis that includes the mother’s DNA profile is recommended. Moreover, it is recommended that a Philippines genetic database be used for DNA-based paternity testing in the Philippines.

  16. Does multiple paternity improve fitness of the frog Crinia georgiana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P G; Roberts, J D

    2000-06-01

    In the Australian myobatrachid frog Crinia georgiana simultaneous polyandry occurs in about half of all matings, which leads to multiple paternity, but reduced fertilization success and occasional female mortality. Multiple paternity may provide benefits to females that compensate for these costs, for example, through enhanced genetic diversity of a clutch. In nature, embryos and tadpoles of C. georgiana develop in shallow, temporary pools and may be exposed to fluctuating water levels and the risk of desiccation between rain events. Fertilization by genetically diverse sires may act as a bet hedge against these conditions. To evaluate this hypothesis, females were artificially mated with one or two males in the field and eggs and larvae reared in the laboratory under constant or fluctuating developmental conditions. Experiment 1 exposed embryos from single- and multiple-paternity clutches to conditions where eggs were completely covered during development or eggs sat in air on a moist substrate. Experiment 2 exposed freshly hatched larvae from single- and multiple-paternity clutches to constant wet conditions, where larvae were completely covered, or fluctuating wet conditions, where larvae ranged from being completely submersed to partially exposed over a 13-day cycle. We measured mean performance and best performance as alternate measures of genetic benefits. There were no effects of paternity on percent survival to hatching, time to hatching, body size at hatching, percent survival to metamorphosis, time to metamorphosis, or body size at metamorphosis. We also analyzed variance within clutches as a measure of genetic diversity. Again there were no predictable effects of multiple paternity. Polyandry does not appear to provide any genetic benefits that compensate for the high costs of polyandry in this species. PMID:10937269

  17. Associations Between Paternal Responsiveness and Stress Responsiveness in the Biparental California Mouse, Peromyscus californicus

    OpenAIRE

    Chauke, Miyetani

    2012-01-01

    The mechanistic basis of paternal behavior in mammals is poorly understood. Assuming there are parallels between the factors mediating maternal and paternal behavior, it can be expected that the onset of paternal behavior is facilitated by reductions in stress responsiveness, as occurs in females of several mammalian species. This dissertation describes studies investigating the role of stress responsiveness in the expression of paternal behavior in biparental, monogamous California mice (Per...

  18. Advance: research project on aging electrical wiring in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Nuclear Power Plants get older it is more important to know the real condition of low voltage, instrumentation, power and control cables. Additionally, as new plants are being built, the election of cables and the use of in-situ monitoring techniques to get reliable aging indicators, can be very useful during the plant life. The goal of this Project is to adapt, optimize and asses Condition Monitoring techniques for Nuclear Power Plants cables. These techniques, together with the appropriate acceptance criteria, would allow specialists to know the state of the cable over its entire length and estimate its residual life. In the Project, accelerated ageing is used in cables installed in European NPPs in order to evaluate different techniques to detect local and global ageing. Results are compared with accepted tests to validate its use for the estimation of cables residual life. This paper describes the main stages of the Project and some results. (Author)

  19. Low birthweight and prematurity in relation to paternal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing <2500 g and a following child were studied. We identified 14 147 pairs of siblings from Danish national registers...

  20. Tobacco control: an analysis on paternalism and liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bastos Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at verifying if the measures adopted in Brazil for tobacco control are paternalistic and if they, in any way, restrict individual liberties. Firstly, some of the theories on paternalism and their relation to liberty will be analyzed, focusing on the Libertarian Paternalism doctrine. Then, measures for tobacco control adopted in other countries and in Brazil will be discussed. Finally, each measure adopted in Brazil will be thoroughly analyzed, in order to verify if it restricts liberty and if there are less restrictive measures available. The conclusion is that the measures adopted in Brazil, even though they are predominantly paternalistic, do not necessarily restrict individual liberties.

  1. For Your Child's Sake...Establish Paternity [and] Collect Child Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    These brochures explain briefly the importance of establishing paternity for unwed mothers. By establishing paternity and enforcing child support orders, fathers can be required to help raise their child legally and financially. The brochures consist of two separate sheets. "For Your Child's Sake...Establish Paternity" presents several questions…

  2. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-9 - Maternity and paternity absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maternity and paternity absence. 1.410(a)-9... Maternity and paternity absence. (a) Elapsed time—(1) Rule. For purposes of applying the rules of § 1.410(a...)(5)(E) and 411(a)(6)(E) (relating to maternity or paternity absence), the severance from service...

  3. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  4. Colorectal cancer treatment in an ageing world - Technical advances, treatment decisions and multidisciplinary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, A.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has risen in recent years and currently over 50% of patients are over 70 years of age. Many questions regarding the optimal management of the growing group of elderly colorectal cancer patients are still unanswered. The research presented in this thesis focuses on

  5. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20–90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (P<0.05), anti-hypertensive (P<0.05), anti-diabetic drug use (men P<0.05, women P=0.06) and waist circumference for the male cohort (P<0.05), after adjusting for age. Subjects with ABA had spatially extensive gray matter loss in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes (false-discovery-rate-corrected q<0.001). ABA patterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  6. Palliative chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients 80 years of age and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P.; Sud, S.; Zhang, T.; Asmis, T.; Wheatley-Price, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (crc) has a median diagnostic age of 68 years. Despite significant progress in chemotherapy (ctx) options, few data on outcomes or toxicity from ctx in patients 80 years of age and older are available. We investigated ctx in such patients with metastatic crc (mcrc), hypothesizing high rates of hospitalization and toxicity. Methods A retrospective chart review identified patients 80 years of age and older with mcrc who initiated ctx between 2005–2010 at our institution. Patient demographics and ctx data were collected. Endpoints included rates of hospitalization, ctx discontinuation because of toxicity, and overall survival. Results In 60 patients, ctx was initiated on 88 occasions. Median age in the cohort was 83 years; 52% were men; 72% lived with family; 53% had a modified Charlson comorbidity index of 2 or greater; and 31% were taking 6 or more prescription medications at baseline. At baseline, 33% of the patients were anemic (hemoglobin 11×109/L), and 48% had renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). In 53%, ctx was given as first-line treatment. The initial ctx dose was adjusted in 67%, and capecitabine was the most common chemotherapeutic agent (45%). In 19 instances (22%), the patient was hospitalized during or within 30 days of ctx; in 26 instances (30%), the ctx was discontinued because of toxicity, and in 48 instances (55%), the patient required at least 1 dose reduction, omission, or delay. Median overall survival was 17.8 months (95% confidence interval: 14.3 to 20.8 months). Conclusions In the population 80 years of age and older, ctx for mcrc is feasible; however, most recipients will require dose adjustments, and a significant proportion will be hospitalized or stop ctx because of toxicity. Prospective research incorporating geriatric assessment tools is required to better select these older patients for ctx. PMID:27330342

  7. From here to paternity: neural correlates of the onset of paternal behavior in California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Chauke, Miyetani; Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2009-08-01

    In a minority of mammalian species, including humans, fathers play a significant role in infant care. Compared to maternal behavior, the neural and hormonal bases of paternal care are poorly understood. We analyzed behavioral, neuronal and neuropeptide responses towards unfamiliar pups in biparental California mice, comparing males housed with another male ("virgin males") or with a female before ("paired males") or after ("new fathers") the birth of their first litter. New fathers approached pups more rapidly and spent more time engaging in paternal behavior than virgin males. In each cage housing two virgin males, one was spontaneously paternal and one was not. New fathers and paired males spent more time sniffing and touching a wire mesh ball containing a newborn pup than virgin males. Only new fathers showed significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) following exposure to a pup-containing ball, as compared to an empty ball. Moreover, Fos-LIR in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (STMV and STMPM) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) was increased in new fathers, independent of test condition. No differences were found among the groups in Fos-LIR in oxytocinergic or vasopressinergic neurons. These results suggest that sexual and paternal experiences facilitate paternal behavior, but other cues play a role as well. Paternal experience increases Fos-LIR induced by distal pup cues in the MPO, but not in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons. Fatherhood also appears to alter neurotransmission in the BNST and DRC, regions implicated in emotionality and stress-responsiveness. PMID:19433091

  8. Parental age effects on odor sensitivity in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Dolores; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Antonius, Daniel; Dracxler, Roberta; Rothman, Karen; Puthota, Jennifer; Gilman, Caitlin; Feuerstein, Jessica L; Keefe, David; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond R; Buckley, Peter; Lehrer, Douglas S; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    A schizophrenia phenotype for paternal and maternal age effects on illness risk could benefit etiological research. As odor sensitivity is associated with variability in symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia, we examined if it was related to parental ages in patients and healthy controls. We tested Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL) as an explanatory factor, as LTL is associated with paternal age and schizophrenia risk. Seventy-five DSM-IV patients and 46 controls were assessed for detection of PEA, WAIS-III for cognition, and LTL, assessed by qPCR. In healthy controls, but not schizophrenia patients, decreasing sensitivity was monotonically related to advancing parental ages, particularly in sons. The relationships between parental aging and odor sensitivity differed significantly for patients and controls (Fisher's R to Z: χ(2)  = 6.95, P = 0.009). The groups also differed in the association of odor sensitivity with cognition; lesser sensitivity robustly predicted cognitive impairments in patients (schizophrenia patients. In patients, decreased odor sensitivity strongly predicted cognitive deficits, whereas more sensitive acuity was associated with older parents. These data support separate risk pathways for schizophrenia. A parental age-related pathway may produce psychosis without impairing cognition and odor sensitivity. Diminished odor sensitivity may furthermore be useful as a biomarker for research and treatment studies in schizophrenia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26224136

  9. The Intergenerational Effects of Paternal Migration on Schooling and Work: What Can We Learn from Children's Time Allocations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M

    2011-11-01

    This paper explores the short-run effects of a father's U.S. migration on his children's schooling and work outcomes in Mexico. To get around the endogeneity of paternal migration, I use individual fixed effects and instrumental variables estimation (FEIV) where the instrumental variables are based on U.S. city-level employment statistics in two industries popular with Mexican immigrants. Overall, the estimates suggest that in the short-run, children reduce study hours and increase work hours in response to a father's U.S. migration. Decomposing the sample into sex- and age-specific groups suggests that this is mainly driven by the effects of paternal migration on 12-15 year-old boys. These results are consistent with a story in which the immediate aftermath of a father's migration is one of financial hardship that is borne in part by relatively young children. PMID:22505791

  10. The Intergenerational Effects of Paternal Migration on Schooling and Work: What Can We Learn from Children's Time Allocations?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the short-run effects of a father's U.S. migration on his children's schooling and work outcomes in Mexico. To get around the endogeneity of paternal migration, I use individual fixed effects and instrumental variables estimation (FEIV) where the instrumental variables are based on U.S. city-level employment statistics in two industries popular with Mexican immigrants. Overall, the estimates suggest that in the short-run, children reduce study hours and increase work hours in response to a father's U.S. migration. Decomposing the sample into sex- and age-specific groups suggests that this is mainly driven by the effects of paternal migration on 12–15 year-old boys. These results are consistent with a story in which the immediate aftermath of a father's migration is one of financial hardship that is borne in part by relatively young children. PMID:22505791

  11. Justifiability of amniocentesis on the basis of positive findings of triple test, ultrasound scan and advanced maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav Bukvic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities based on maternal age (≥35 years, positive ultrasound findings or a positive triple test. Materials and methods. Retrospective six-year study. The pregnant women routinely underwent established clinical and laboratory practice at the Department of Medical Genetics between 1997 and 2003. The women’s case notes were examined to identify indications for karyotyping, gestation period and the outcome of karyotyping and pregnancy. Results. Invasive antenatal tests were performed on 1440 cases, 1168 (81.11% age 35(a, 72 (5.00% positive triple test (b, 24 (1.67% positive ultrasound scanning (c and 176 (12.2% other (psychological, personal reasons, etc (d. The overall positive predictive value was 1.67% (1.6%(a, 1.4% (b, 12.5% (c, 0.0% (d. The constructed model of logistic regression gave an odds-ratio of 8.647 for the “positive ultrasound result vs. maternal age ≥35” indication, while the odds-ratio for the triple test vs. maternal age ≥35 was 0.854. Conclusions. Amniocentesis and cytogenetic analysis of foetal karyotype should be presented as a diagnostic possibility to all women over 35 years. The application of biochemical markers was far from the expected results. If we compare results for indication positive ultrasound scanning vs. maternal age, an oddsratio of ~9 was obtained. These results demonstrate that the likelihood of obtaining positive results (i.e. the presence of chromosome alterations from an amniocentesis having this indication is almost 9 times higher than from having an amniocentesis performed solely for advanced maternal age.

  12. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  13. Continuity and change in friendships in advanced old age: findings from the Berkeley older generation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, D

    1999-01-01

    A longitudinal study of friendships between young-old and old-old adults found far more continuity than change in amount of contact with friends. Nevertheless, activities with casual friends more often occurred in groups, whereas activities with close friends were more often concerned with exchanging confidences, with sharing interesting experiences and thoughts, and with helping each other. Gender differences are more pronounced than life-course differences. Men declined in number of new friends, in their desire for close friendships, in the less intimate nature of their interactions with friends, and in involvement in beyond-family activities, while women did not change. Questions about closest friends revealed only a trivial difference between men and women in young-old age; but in old-old age, men (but not women) had declined in many measures of friendship. PMID:10498019

  14. Severe asthma in school-age children: evaluation and phenotypic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverstone, Andrea; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2015-05-01

    Although the majority of children with asthma have a favorable clinical response to treatment with low to moderate doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), a small subset of children have "severe" asthma characterized by ongoing symptoms and airway inflammation despite treatment with high doses of ICS and even oral corticosteroids. Although there is symptom heterogeneity in the affected children, children with severe asthma share the risk for adverse outcomes, including recurrent and potentially life-threatening exacerbations, which contribute to substantial economic burden. This article reviews current knowledge of severe asthma in school-age children (age 6-17 years) with a focus on recent literature published after January 2012. Clinical management approaches for children with severe asthma are discussed as well as current phenotyping efforts and emerging phenotypic-directed therapies that may be of benefit for subpopulations of children with severe asthma in the future. PMID:26134431

  15. Adverse perinatal outcomes for advanced maternal age: a cross-sectional study of Brazilian births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Karla O. Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in women aged ≥41 years relatively to those aged 21-34. METHODS: Approximately 8.5 million records of singleton births in Brazilian hospitals in the period 2004-2009 were investigated. Odds ratios were estimated for preterm and post-term births, for low Apgar scores at 1 min and at 5 min, for asphyxia, for low birth weight, and for macrosomia. RESULTS: For pregnant women ≥41, increased risks were identified for preterm births, for post-term births (except for primiparous women with schooling ≥12 years, and for low birth weight. When comparing older vs. younger women, higher educational levels ensure similar risks of low Apgar score at 1 min (for primiparous mothers and term births, of low Apgar score at 5 min (for term births, of macrosomia (for non-primiparous women, and of asphyxia. CONCLUSION: As a rule, older mothers are at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, which, however, may be mitigated or eliminated, depending on gestational age, parity, and, especially, on the education level of the pregnant woman.

  16. Elemental Music and Dance Pedagogy (EMDP: Artistic and Pedagogical Opportunities for People in Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schönherr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Age and ageing are issues of high significance in our times, and lead us to ask how this prolonged lifespan can be spent in a most self-determined, meaningful and satisfying way. The author’s personal approach to working with this age group is described and complemented by personal reflections on this subject. The many objectives include non-musical goals as well as music-oriented objectives which can instigate valuable and satisfying musical experiences of a high quality. Fundamental principles include: becoming a player – taking an active part; the interplay of music, speech, movement and dance; improvisation and forms. Important parts of sessions are described as well as their goals: the greeting ritual is of importance and warm-up exercises can be offered using movement or body percussion. Singing well-known songs as well as new ones, and playing Orff instruments are valuable activities. Movement is also an important part of the sessions where diverse objects such as gloves, sticks or peacock feathers are used. The Orff approach has the wonderful advantage of being multifaceted, putting emphasis on improvisation and individual creativity which allows making music according to one’s own abilities – something that is important for elderly people – and offering many different impulses to feel, to live and physically express music.

  17. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. PMID:25648250

  18. A systematic review of factors influencing uptake of invasive fetal genetic testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Lea; Turchetti, Daniela; Skirton, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Women of advanced maternal age have a higher risk of having a child affected by a chromosomal disorder than younger childbearing women and are frequently offered invasive testing during pregnancy. The aim of our systematic review was to identify and analyse the current evidence base regarding factors that influence the uptake of invasive fetal testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age. We conducted a systematic review. A search of The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase and Medline databases was undertaken for papers published in English and Italian from January 2002 to May 2012. Eleven studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, were subjected to quality assessment and included in the review. We analysed the data using thematic analysis. The factors influencing women were classified as either external or psychosocial factors. External factors included the opportunity for screening, screening results and use of genetic counselling. Psychosocial factors related to ethnicity, socio-demographic status and attendance of partners during counselling. It is difficult to draw firm conclusions as to the principle factors that influence uptake of invasive tests by women of AMA. More research is needed to enhance understanding of relevant factors to ensure that services are offered in a way that acknowledges practical as well as psychosocial influences. This type of research will help to equip midwives and other professionals caring for women during pregnancy to ensure that women are supported to make the choices that are appropriate for them and their families. PMID:23453699

  19. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...

  20. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  1. Polymorphic DNA sequences and their application in paternity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of polymorphic sequences of DNA, especially satellite, mini satellite and micro satellite sequences are presented. Own experience from the use of multi and single locus analysis of DNA in paternity testing has been compared with the results of research in other laboratories. Critical points of both types of analysis are discussed. (author). 53 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  2. polypatex: an r package for paternity exclusion in autopolyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Alexander B; Elliott, Carole; Hopley, Tara; Lovell, David; Young, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Microsatellite markers have demonstrated their value for performing paternity exclusion and hence exploring mating patterns in plants and animals. Methodology is well established for diploid species, and several software packages exist for elucidating paternity in diploids; however, these issues are not so readily addressed in polyploids due to the increased complexity of the exclusion problem and a lack of available software. We introduce polypatex, an r package for paternity exclusion analysis using microsatellite data in autopolyploid, monoecious or dioecious/bisexual species with a ploidy of 4n, 6n or 8n. Given marker data for a set of offspring, their mothers and a set of candidate fathers, polypatex uses allele matching to exclude candidates whose marker alleles are incompatible with the alleles in each offspring-mother pair. polypatex can analyse marker data sets in which allele copy numbers are known (genotype data) or unknown (allelic phenotype data) - for data sets in which allele copy numbers are unknown, comparisons are made taking into account all possible genotypes that could arise from the compared allele sets. polypatex is a software tool that provides population geneticists with the ability to investigate the mating patterns of autopolyploids using paternity exclusion analysis on data from codominant markers having multiple alleles per locus. PMID:26613799

  3. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determination of good cause for refusal to cooperate under section 454(29) of the Act. (2) A contested paternity... Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics), and private health care providers (including obstetricians... enforcement (IV-D) services; (C) Head Start and child care agencies (including child care information...

  4. Paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Fulda, Kimberly G; Kurian, Anita K; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Moerbe, Micky M

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose was to examine the association between paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight stratified by maternal race/ethnicity. Methods Birth data for Tarrant County, Texas 2006–2010 were analyzed. Very low birth weight was dichotomized as yes (

  5. Genetic Analyses of Sorting of Paternally Transmitted Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organelles are maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. However paternal transmission of plastids and mitochondria occurs rarely in plants. Cucumber is a unique model plant for organellar genetics because its three genomes show differential transmission: maternal for chlorop...

  6. [Family law, witness of the analysis of prenatal paternity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Raquel; Marfil, Jorge A; González Poveda, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyse from a scientific and legal perspective, how paternity analysis in the prenatal period can be reliably performed exactly the same as with newborns, and therefore, establish kinship in accordance with established regulations. In other words, there is an option for those who might not want to wait until birth to establish kinship. PMID:19860347

  7. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  8. Male reproductive skew, paternal relatedness, and female social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2008-07-01

    Female social relationships among primates are thought to be shaped by socio-ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. We suggest that patterns of paternal relatedness among females influence measures of social tolerance that have been used to classify species into different social relationship categories. As kin support and kin preference have only been measured for matrilineal kin and related individuals exchange less aggression and have a higher conciliatory tendency, the observed low nepotism levels and high tolerance levels may be an artifact of hidden paternal relatedness among the nonkin category. Using comparative data on macaques, we investigate this hypothesis using male reproductive skew as a proxy for paternal relatedness. Within the limitations of the study we show that populations classified as being less nepotistic, and more tolerant exhibit higher levels of reproductive skew. This first result and the reasoning behind may motivate future students of social relationships to take paternal relatedness into consideration. Potential implications of this finding if repeated with larger samples include that variation in aspects of macaque social relationships may be explained without considering phylogeny or the strength of between-group contest competition for food. PMID:18421769

  9. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  10. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between parenting styles. Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) emerge as equilibrium outcomes, and are ...

  11. On the paternal origin of trisomy 21 Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonsson Anna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, characterized by an extra free chromosome 21 is the most common genetic cause for congenital malformations and learning disability. It is well known that the extra chromosome 21 originates from the mother in more than 90% of cases, the incidence increases with maternal age and there is a high recurrence in young women. In a previous report we have presented data to indicate that maternal trisomy 21 (T21 ovarian mosaicism might provide the major causative factor underlying these patterns of DS inheritance. One important outstanding question concerns the reason why the extra chromosome 21 in DS rarely originates from the father, i.e. in less than 10% of T21 DS cases. We here report data indicating that one reason for this parental sex difference is a very much lower degree of fetal testicular in comparison to ovarian T21 mosaicism. Results We used fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH with two chromosome 21-specific probes to determine the copy number of chromosome 21 in fetal testicular cell nuclei from four male fetuses, following termination of pregnancy for a non-medical/social reason at gestational age 14-19 weeks. The cells studied were selected on the basis of their morphology alone, pending immunological specification of the relevant cell types. We could not detect any indication of testicular T21 mosaicism in any of these four male fetuses, when analysing at least 2000 cells per case (range 2038-3971, total 11.842. This result is highly statistically significant (p Conclusion Based on these observations we suggest that there is a significant sex difference in degrees of fetal germ line T21 mosaicism. Thus, it would appear that most female fetuses are T21 ovarian mosaics, while in sharp contrast most male fetuses may be either very low grade T21 testicular mosaics or they may be non-mosaics. We further propose that this sex difference in germ line T21 mosaicism may explain the much less frequent

  12. Maternal and paternal filicides: a retrospective review of filicides in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Anne; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Karkola, Kari; Vanamo, Tuija; Merikanto, Juhani

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to illustrate the differences in maternal and paternal filicides in Finland during a 25-year period. In the sample of 200 filicides [neonaticides (n = 56), filicide-suicides (n = 75), other filicides (n = 69)], the incidence was 5.09 deaths per 100,000 live births: 59 percent of filicides were committed by mothers, 39 percent by fathers, and 2 percent by stepfathers. The mean age of the maternal victims (1.6 y) was significantly lower than that of the paternal victims (5.6 y), but no correlation between the sex of the victim and the sex of the perpetrator was found, and the number of female and male victims was equal. The sample of other filicides (n = 65) was studied more closely by forensic psychiatric examination and review of collateral files. Filicidal mothers showed mental distress and often had psychosocial stressors of marital discord and lack of support. They often killed for altruistic reasons and in association with suicide. Maternal perpetrators also dominated in filicide cases in which death was caused by a single episode or recurrent episodes of battering. Psychosis and psychotic depression were diagnosed in 51 percent of the maternal perpetrators, and 76 percent of the mothers were deemed not responsible for their actions by reason of insanity. Paternal perpetrators, on the other hand, were jealous of their mates, had a personality disorder (67%), abused alcohol (45%), or were violent toward their mates. In 18 percent of the cases, they were not held responsible for their actions by reason of insanity. During childhood, most of the perpetrators had endured emotional abuse from their parents or guardians, some of whom also engaged in alcohol abuse and domestic violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between maternal and paternal filicides in a sample of 200 cases in Finland. This report also provides a psychosocial profile of the perpetrator and victim in 65 filicides and a

  13. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks

  14. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States); Moreau, Régis [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Hagen, Tory, E-mail: Tory.Hagen@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks.

  15. Mosaic paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Diana; Atwal, Paldeep Singh; Angell, Cathy; Gadi, Inder; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We report on a 6-month-old girl with two apparent cell lines; one with trisomy 21, and the other with paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy (GWUPiD), identified using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based microarray and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic loci. The patient has Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) due to paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) at chromosome location 11p15 (UPD 11p15), which was confirmed through methylation analysis. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is present, which is associated with paternal UPD 11p15.5; and she likely has medullary nephrocalcinosis, which is associated with paternal UPD 20, although this was not biochemically confirmed. Angelman syndrome (AS) analysis was negative but this testing is not completely informative; she has no specific features of AS. Clinical features of this patient include: dysmorphic features consistent with trisomy 21, tetralogy of Fallot, hemihypertrophy, swirled skin hyperpigmentation, hepatoblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Her karyotype is 47,XX,+21[19]/46,XX[4], and microarray results suggest that the cell line with trisomy 21 is biparentally inherited and represents 40-50% of the genomic material in the tested specimen. The difference in the level of cytogenetically detected mosaicism versus the level of mosaicism observed via microarray analysis is likely caused by differences in the test methodologies. While a handful of cases of mosaic paternal GWUPiD have been reported, this patient is the only reported case that also involves trisomy 21. Other GWUPiD patients have presented with features associated with multiple imprinted regions, as does our patient. PMID:26219535

  16. Patient-Specific Age: The Other Side of the Coin in Advanced Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Magdalena M; Marozin, Sabrina; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are present as a rare subpopulation within any type of stroma in the body of higher animals. Prominently, MSC have been recognized to reside in perivascular locations, supposedly maintaining blood vessel integrity. During tissue damage and injury, MSC/pericytes become activated, evade from their perivascular niche and are thus assumed to support wound healing and tissue regeneration. In vitro MSC exhibit demonstrated capabilities to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue cell types. Hence, many MSC-based therapeutic approaches have been performed to address bone, cartilage, or heart regeneration. Furthermore, prominent studies showed efficacy of ex vivo expanded MSC to countervail graft-vs.-host-disease. Therefore, additional fields of application are presently conceived, in which MSC-based therapies potentially unfold beneficial effects, such as amelioration of non-healing conditions after tendon or spinal cord injury, as well as neuropathies. Working along these lines, MSC-based scientific research has been forged ahead to prominently occupy the clinical stage. Aging is to a great deal stochastic by nature bringing forth changes in an individual fashion. Yet, is aging of stem cells or/and their corresponding niche considered a determining factor for outcome and success of clinical therapies? PMID:26696897

  17. Patient-specific age: the other side of the coin in advanced mesenchymal stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Maria Schimke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are present as a rare subpopulation within any type of stroma in the body of higher animals. Prominently, MSC have been recognized to reside in perivascular locations, supposedly maintaining blood vessel integrity. During tissue damage and injury, MSC/pericytes become activated, evade from their perivascular niche and are thus assumed to support wound healing and tissue regeneration.In vitro MSC exhibit demonstrated capabilities to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue cell types. Hence, many MSC-based therapeutic approaches have been performed to address bone, cartilage or heart regeneration. Furthermore, prominent studies showed efficacy of ex vivo expanded MSC to countervail graft-versus-host-disease. Therefore, additional fields of application are presently conceived, in which MSC-based therapies potentially unfold beneficial effects, such as amelioration of non-healing conditions after tendon or spinal cord injury, as well as neuropathies. Working along these lines, MSC-based scientific research has been forged ahead to prominently occupy the clinical stage.Aging is to a great deal stochastic by nature bringing forth changes in an individual fashion. Yet, is aging of stem cells or/and their corresponding niche considered a determining factor for outcome and success of clinical therapies?

  18. The influence of advanced age on the morbi-mortality of gastric cancer after curative surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Mayol-Oltra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: gastric cancer (GC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in Spain after lung, colorectal, breast and prostate tumours. Surgery remains the only potentially curative treatment in localized gastric cancer. Objective: the aim of our study is to evaluate and compare the clinical and surgical aspects, development of postoperative complications and outcomes of patients over 75 years old compared with younger patients in our centre. Material and methods: comparative retrospective study, from March 2003 to June 2011. We diagnosed 166 cases of GC, 109 (65 % underwent curative surgery. Two groups were settled: group M: ≥ 75 years (41 patients and group m: < 75 years (68 patients. We analyzed age, sex, comorbidities, tumour location, clinical stage, perioperative chemotherapy, surgical technique, postoperative complications, recurrence and mortality from cancer. Results: a more frequent presence of cardiovascular comorbidities and a greater postoperative mortality by medical causes were the only significant differences between both groups. Also, a lower proportion of patients in group M received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent D1 lymphadenectomy. However, the rate of local and systemic recurrence and overall survival were similar in both groups. Conclusions: age should not be considered a contraindication for curative surgery on GC. The general condition and comorbidities are more important to contraindicate surgical treatment.

  19. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of maternal and paternal warmth on depression symptoms in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Barrio, Victoria; Holgado-Tello, F Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel A

    2016-08-30

    The main aim of this study is to examine the concurrent and longitudinal effects of perceived affection of mothers and fathers separately on the self-reported symptoms of children's depression. Data were obtained from a 3-wave study of 535 families with children (41.3% boys) aged 9-15 years of age. Structural equation models were performed to test different models. Significant effects of mothers' and fathers' affection on depression symptomatology over the three years were found. The longitudinal effects of parental warmth on the child's depression symptoms were mediated over time by the previous levels of the mother's and father's warmth. The presence of parental warmth can lessen the severity of depression symptoms, especially when paternal and maternal warmth are applied consistently over a long period of time. These results were invariant across the child's sex. Treatments for childhood depression should take place over extended periods of time including both fathers and mothers. PMID:27262265

  20. Heteroplasmy and paternally oriented shift of the organellar DNA composition in barley-wheat hybrids during backcrosses with wheat parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksyonova, Elena; Sinyavskaya, Marina; Danilenko, Nina; Pershina, Lidia; Nakamura, Chiharu; Davydenko, Oleg

    2005-10-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (ct) genome inheritance was studied in barley-wheat hybrids, as were their progenies obtained from backcrosses with different common wheat cultivars, by monitoring the composition of 4 mtDNA (coxI, a 5'-flanking region of cob, nad3-orf156, and 5'-upstream region of 18S/5S) and 2 ctDNA (simple-sequence repeat locus downstream of trnS and a 3'-flanking region of rbcL) loci. In male sterile F1 and BC1 plants, maternal barley mtDNA fragments were mainly detected and very low levels of paternal wheat fragments were occasionally detected by PCR in coxI, a 5'-flanking region of cob and nad3-orf156, whereas a 5'-upstream region of 18S/5S showed clear heteroplasmy, containing both maternal and paternal copies, with maternal copies prevailing. Plants showing such heteroplasmic mtDNA composition remained either semisterile or became completely sterile in the later backcross generations. Only maternal ctDNA copies were detected in these plants. In 3 stable, self-fertile, and vigourous lines obtained in the advanced backcross generations and possessing recombinant wheat nuclear genome, however, only mt- and ctDNA copies of wheat parents were detected; thus, the original alloplasmic condition appeared to be lost. Our results suggest that transmission followed by selective replication of the paternal wheat organellar DNA leads to a paternally oriented shift of the organellar DNA composition in barley-wheat hybrids, which correlates with the restoration of fertility and plant vigour. These 2 processes seem to be related to nucleocytoplasmic compatibility and to be under the control of the nuclear genome composition. PMID:16391682

  1. Genetic risks following exposure of maternal and paternal germ cells to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the risk, after paternal exposure to X-rays, male mice (NMRI strain) were irradiated with 20 and 200 rad and mated with non-irradiated females from day 2 to day 160 p.r. Embryos were then obtained from the fertilized females, 1 day and 9.5 days after detection of a vaginal plug, and preparations were then made for chromosomal analysis, using G-banding. In both, early and later embryos, we found aneuploid as well as structurally abnormal karyotypes. The incidence of aneuploidy after paternal exposure to 200 rad was not statistically different from the 20 rad-group. In the pronuclei we found a higher incidence of chromosomally abnormal embryos than in the 9.5 days-old embryos. The radiation-effect on oocytes was studied in three species: mouse (NMRI), Chinese hamster and the Djungarian hamster. All females were irradiated 2 hrs. after HCG and chromosomes analysed from ovulated oocytes at metaphase II, that means immediately after the first meiotic division. From these experiments we suggest that irradiation of mammalian oocytes may: 1) Increase the incidence of genome mutations; 2) Has no effect whatever; 3) Decrease the incidence of genome mutations, as for example, in non-disjunction. Factors such as species, strain, age, as well as actual hormonal constitution, may therefore contribute to the process of radiation-induced genome mutations. (orig./MG)

  2. Inferred Paternity and Male Reproductive Success in a Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael J; Hanson, M Bradley; Hempelmann, Jennifer A; Ayres, Katherine L; Emmons, Candice K; Schorr, Gregory S; Baird, Robin W; Balcomb, Kenneth C; Wasser, Samuel K; Parsons, Kim M; Balcomb-Bartok, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    We used data from 78 individuals at 26 microsatellite loci to infer parental and sibling relationships within a community of fish-eating ("resident") eastern North Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca). Paternity analysis involving 15 mother/calf pairs and 8 potential fathers and whole-pedigree analysis of the entire sample produced consistent results. The variance in male reproductive success was greater than expected by chance and similar to that of other aquatic mammals. Although the number of confirmed paternities was small, reproductive success appeared to increase with male age and size. We found no evidence that males from outside this small population sired any of the sampled individuals. In contrast to previous results in a different population, many offspring were the result of matings within the same "pod" (long-term social group). Despite this pattern of breeding within social groups, we found no evidence of offspring produced by matings between close relatives, and the average internal relatedness of individuals was significantly less than expected if mating were random. The population's estimated effective size was <30 or about 1/3 of the current census size. Patterns of allele frequency variation were consistent with a population bottleneck. PMID:21757487

  3. Clinical features of three girls with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Jennifer M; Conlin, Laura K; Bhatti, Tricia R; Dubbs, Holly A; Harris, Mary Catherine; Izumi, Kosuke; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Saitta, Sulagna; States, Lisa J; Swarr, Daniel T; Wilkens, Alisha B; Zackai, Elaine H; Zelley, Kristin; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Nichols, Kim E; Palladino, Andrew A; Spinner, Nancy B; Deardorff, Matthew A

    2013-08-01

    Here we describe three subjects with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy (GWpUPD) each of whom presented initially with overgrowth, hemihyperplasia (HH), and hyperinsulinism (HI). Due to the severity of findings and the presence of additional features, SNP array testing was performed, which demonstrated mosaic GWpUPD. Comparing these individuals to 10 other live-born subjects reported in the literature, the predominant phenotype is that of pUPD11 and notable for a very high incidence of tumor development. Our subjects developed non-metastatic tumors of the adrenal gland, kidney, and/or liver. All three subjects had pancreatic hyperplasia resulting in HI. Notably, our subjects to date display minimal features of other diseases associated with paternal UPD loci. Both children who survived the neonatal period have displayed near-normal cognitive development, likely due to a favorable tissue distribution of the mosaicism. To understand the range of UPD mosaicism levels, we studied multiple tissues using SNP array analysis and detected levels of 5-95%, roughly correlating with the extent of tissue involvement. Given the rapidity of tumor growth and the difficulty distinguishing malignant and benign tumors in these GWpUPD subjects, we have utilized increased frequency of ultrasound (US) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening in the first years of life. Because of a later age of onset of additional tumors, continued tumor surveillance into adolescence may need to be considered in these rare patients. PMID:23804593

  4. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-10-22

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  5. Advanced age is a risk factor for proximal adenoma recurrence following colonoscopy and polypectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H-C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of risk factors for recurrence of colorectal adenomas may identify patients who could benefit from individual surveillance strategies. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrence of colorectal adenomas in a high-risk population. METHODS: Data were used...... from a randomized clinical trial that showed no effect of aspirin-calcitriol-calcium treatment on colorectal adenoma recurrence. Patients at high risk of colorectal cancer who had one or more sporadic colorectal adenomas removed during colonoscopy were followed up for 3 years. Independent risk factors...... associated with recurrence and characteristics of recurrent adenomas were investigated in a generalized linear model. RESULTS: After 3 years, the recurrence rate was 25·8 per cent in 427 patients. For younger subjects (aged 50 years or less), the recurrence rate was 19 per cent; 18 of 20 recurrent adenomas...

  6. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study. PMID:25914174

  7. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha S. Chowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD for 13–14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p < 0.05, n = 8 litters per group. Histological analysis of the kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD.

  8. Short-limb dwarfism and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a patient with paternal isodisomy 14: 45,XYidic(14)(p11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C.A.; Moore, C.M.; Kaye, C.I. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-11

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to result in specific disorders either due to imprinting and/or homozygosity of mutant alleles. Here we present the findings in a child with paternal UPD14. Ultrasound evaluation was performed at 30 weeks of gestation because of abnormally large uterine size. Pertinent ultrasound findings included polyhydramnios, short limbs, abnormal position of hands, small thorax, and nonvisualization of the fetal stomach. Postnatally the infant was found to have a low birth weight, short birth length, contractures, short limbs, and a small thorax with upslanting ribs. Assisted ventilation and gastrostomy were required. At age 6 months, the infant required hospitalization for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which responded to Atenolol{reg_sign}. Initial cytogenetic studies demonstrated an apparently balanced de novo Robertsonian translocation involving chromosomes 14 and a karyotype designation of 45,XY,t(14q14q). No indication of mosaicism for trisomy 14 was observed in metaphase spreads prepared from peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin-derived fibroblasts. C-band and fluorescence in situ hybridization results demonstrated that the chromosome was dicentric. DNA analyses showed paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 14. Based on the cytogenetic and DNA results a final karyotype designation of 45,XY,idic(14)(p11) was assigned to this infant with paternal isodisomy of chromosome 14. 41 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sabiha S; Lecomte, Virginie; Erlich, Jonathan H; Maloney, Christopher A; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) for 13-14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD. PMID:27563922

  10. Laser-Assisted Hatching of Embryos in Women of Advanced Age after in Vitro Fertilization: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Gwo Horng

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: For infertile women aged over 37 years, failure of the zona pellucida to ruptureis believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitrofertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. It has beensuggested that assisted hatching of embryos will increase the pregnancy ratewith IVF by means of mechanically facilitating the hatching process.Methods: One hundred twenty cycles of IVF/ICSI in females aged over 37 years wereanalyzed. Women included in this study were allocated into 2 groups. Ingroup I, embryos were cultured and transferred without laser-assisted hatching(LAH, whereas embryos of group II were examined and treated withLAH just before being transferred. Laser manipulations were performedusing a 1.48-μm (infrared diode laser (Fertilase. The laser was aimed at thezona to create openings of about 20 μm in diameter.Results: The mean ages of women in groups I and II were 38.8¡ 1.8 and 39.5¡ 1.6years, respectively ( p = 0.17. The number of retrieved oocytes, endometrialthickness, and number and quality of transferred embryos did not significantlydiffer between the 2 groups. Rates of implantation (7.3% and 6.7%,respectively, p = 0.89, pregnancy (16.3% and 17.5%, respectively, p = 0.86,and early pregnancy loss did not differ between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Our data failed to demonstrate any benefit of LAH in improving implantationor pregnancy rates in women of advanced age, suggesting that factorsother than laser drilling of the zona should be considered.

  11. Grandparents as Guards: A Game Theoretic Analysis of Inheritance and Post Marital Residence in a World of Uncertain Paternity

    OpenAIRE

    Brishti Guha

    2012-01-01

    I unify the following (1) men face paternal uncertainty while women do not face maternal uncertainty, (2) putative fathers and paternal kin care about true paternity, (3) paternity confidence is systematically lower in matrilocal cultures than in patrilocal ones, (4) inheritance tends to be patrilineal in high paternity confidence cultures and matrilineal in low confidence ones, and (5) most societies with patrilineal inheritance were patrilocal while most societies with matrilineal inheritan...

  12. Modelling 3D crack propagation in ageing graphite bricks of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, crack propagation in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) graphite bricks with ageing properties is studied using the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM). A parametric study for crack propagation, including the influence of different initial crack shapes and propagation criteria, is conducted. The results obtained in the benchmark study show that the crack paths from X-FEM are similar to the experimental ones. The accuracy of the strain energy release rate computation in a heterogeneous material is also evaluated using a finite difference approach. Planar and non-planar 3D crack growth simulations are presented to demonstrate the robustness and the versatility of the method utilized. Finally, this work contributes to the better understanding of crack propagation behaviour in AGR graphite bricks and so contributes to the extension of the AGR plant lifetimes in the UK by reducing uncertainties. (author)

  13. Morphometric Evaluation of the Blood Pressure Related Organs in Nili-Ravi Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis With Advancing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hussain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty clinically healthy buffaloes of either sex were divided into two age-groups of equal size i.e., young (12-42 months and adult (48-96 months. Histological sections were prepared by routine method and stained by H&E. AutoCAD® image analysis software and ocular micrometer were used for the morphometric evaluations. Studies revealed that the adrenal cortex of buffalo was divided into four zones, zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, zona fasciculate and zona reticularis. The zona fasciculata was recorded as the widest and zona reticularis narrowest zone of the adrenal cortex. The volume of cardiomyocytic nuclei (μm3, volume of renal corpuscles (μm3×103, volume of nuclei of cells of zona glomerulosa (μm3, thickness of the zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia and zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex in adult buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01 higher as compared to their younger counterparts. It is conceivable that the development of blood related parameters showed an increase parallel to the advancing age in order to adjust with the increasing blood pressure due to physiological development process in buffalo.

  14. Advanced age, altered level of consciousness and a new diagnosis of diabetes are independently associated with hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbera Anthonia O

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited literature on hypernatreamia in the setting of hyperglycaemic crisis. This is despite the fact that the presence of hypernatreamia may impact on the classification of hyperglycaemic crisis and its management particularly with regards to the nature of fluid therapy. We determined the prevalence of hypernatreamia and its associated factors at presentation for hyperglycaemic crisis. Methods This was a retrospective review of data for hyperglycaemic crisis admissions in Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. The prevalence of hypernatreamia (uncorrected Serum Sodium at presentation >145 mmol/L was determined. Hyperosmolality was defined by calculated effective osmolality >320 mosmols/Kg. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken using variables that were statistically significant in univariate analysis to ascertain those that were independently associated (Odds Ratio (OR with 95% Confidence Interval (CI with hypernatreamia. Results The prevalence of hypernatreamia in our admissions for hyperglycaemic crisis was 11.7% (n = 32/273 including 171 females and 102 males. All admissions with hypernatreamia met the criteria for hyperosmolality. Age ≥ 60 years (OR = 3.9 95% CI 1.3-12.3; P = 0.018, Altered level of consciousness (OR = 8.8 95% CI 2.3-32.8; P Conclusion The prevalence rate of hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic admissions was high with all hypernatreamic admissions meeting the criteria for hyperosmolality. Advanced age, altered conscious level and a new diagnosis of diabetes were independently associated with hypernatreamia.

  15. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting;

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at...... interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles, and the research on the effects of nutrigenomics interactions could potentially be useful for rejuvenation therapies in the clinic or associated healthy aging intervention programs.......Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at...... advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...

  16. Paternal Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Fetal Growth Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Hillman, Sara; Peebles, Donald M.; Williams, David J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fathers of low–birth weight offspring are more likely to have type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life. We investigated whether paternal insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors were evident at the time that fetal growth–restricted offspring were born. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We carried out a case-control study of men who fathered pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction, in the absence of recognized fetal disease (n = 42), compared with men who...

  17. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  18. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  19. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  20. Paternal depression and infant outcomes: the role of expressed emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Netsi, Elena; Ramchandani, Paul; Psychogiou, Lamprini

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine expressed emotion (EE) in depressed fathers one year postpartum. Paternal depression in the postnatal period has been shown to place children at risk for emotional and behavioural problems. However, the mechanism through which the risk is transmitted remains unidentified. EE, a measure of family environment, has been investigated in children and adolescents and has been associated to child psychopathology. EE has also been found to mediate th...

  1. Paternal fenvalerate exposure influences reproductive functions in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

  2. Primate paternal care: Interactions between biology and social experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Anne E; Ziegler, Toni E

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids may be involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their partners and offspring. PMID:26253726

  3. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA: degradation of paternal mitochondria by allogeneic organelle autophagy, allophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2012-03-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally observed in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this clearance of paternal mitochondria has remained largely unknown. Recently, we showed that autophagy is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Shortly after fertilization, autophagosomes are induced locally around the penetrated sperm components. These autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genomes remain even in the larval stage. Therefore, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is accomplished by autophagic degradation of paternal mitochondria. We also found that another kind of sperm-derived structure, called the membranous organelle, is degraded by zygotic autophagy as well. We thus propose to term this allogeneic (nonself) organelle autophagy as allophagy. PMID:22302002

  4. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  5. High frequency of extra-pair paternity in an urban population of Cooper's Hawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Stout, William C.; Talbot, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Raptors exhibit some of the highest rates of intra-pair copulations among birds, perhaps in an attempt by males to reduce the risk of being cuckolded. Indeed, the frequency of extra-pair fertilizations reported in studies of raptors to date is relatively low (0-11.2%). Socially monogamous Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) exhibit one of the highest copulation rates among birds, yet there are no published accounts of extra-pair copulations (or paternity). We studied a population of Cooper's Hawks in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during three breeding seasons (2003, 2004, and 2007), examining the possible effects of age (1 yr old vs. ≥ 2 yr old), adult mass, and brood size on the frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that 19.3% of nestlings (N = 27/140) were extra-pair young (EPY), and 34% of all broods (N = 15/44) had at least one EPY. The sires of the EPY in our study were identified for only two broods, suggesting that floater males may have engaged in extra-pair copulations with territorial females. We found that brood size was a good predictor of the occurrence of EPP (EPP) in nests, but adult mass and female age were not. To our knowledge, these possible correlates of the occurrence of EPP in raptors had not previously been investigated. Male Cooper's Hawks provide food for females during the pre-nesting period, and delivery of food is, in contrast to other raptor species, typically followed by copulation. Thus, one possible explanation of the relatively high rates of EPP in our study is that females might accept or even solicit extra-pair copulations from males other than their mates as a means of maximizing energy intake for egg production. Such behavior might be particularly likely in our study area, i.e., a food-rich urban setting with a high breeding density of Cooper's Hawks.

  6. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ronald G.; ALONZO, DANA; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems double...

  7. Simulating Dynamic Capabilities and Value Creation in Family Firms : Is Paternalism an "Asset" or a "Liability"?

    OpenAIRE

    Chirico, Francesco; Nordqvist, Mattias; Colombo, Gianluca; MOLLONA, edoardo

    2012-01-01

    The authors conduct a simulation study using system dynamics methods to interpret how and when paternalism affects dynamic capabilities (DCs) and by association value creation in family firms. Their simulation experiments suggest that the effect of paternalism on DCs and value creation varies over time. Initially, increasing levels of family social capital and low levels of paternalism are associated with high rates of DCs and value creation accumulation (asset). Later, higher levels of pater...

  8. Paternal preconceptional radiation exposure in the nuclear industry and leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in young people in Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinlen, L. J.; Clarke, K; Balkwill, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine if a relation exists between paternal exposure to relatively high levels of radiation in the Scottish nuclear industry and the risk of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is subsequently conceived children. DESIGN--Matched case-control study with three controls for each case. SETTING--The whole of Scotland. SUBJECTS--The fathers of 1024 children with leukaemia and 237 children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed in Scotland below the age of 25 among those born in Sc...

  9. Consistent paternity skew through ontogeny in Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D H Sherman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of studies in postcopulatory sexual selection use paternity success as a proxy for fertilization success. However, selective mortality during embryonic development can lead to skews in paternity in situations of polyandry and sperm competition. Thus, when assessment of paternity fails to incorporate mortality skews during early ontogeny, this may interfere with correct interpretation of results and subsequent evolutionary inference. In a previous series of in vitro sperm competition experiments with amphibians (Litoria peronii, we showed skewed paternity patterns towards males more genetically similar to the female. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use in vitro fertilizations and sperm competition trials to test if this pattern of paternity of fully developed tadpoles reflects patterns of paternity at fertilization and if paternity skews changes during embryonic development. We show that there is no selective mortality through ontogeny and that patterns of paternity of hatched tadpoles reflects success of competing males in sperm competition at fertilization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study shows that previous inferences of fertilization success from paternity data are valid for this species, rigorous testing of these assumptions is required to ensure that differential embryonic mortality does not confound estimations of true fertilization success.

  10. Effect of PKC-β Signaling Pathway on Expression of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in Different Cell Models in Response to Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisienny C. T. Rempel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are compounds classified as uremic toxins in patients with chronic kidney disease that have several pro-inflammatory effects and are implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To explore the mechanisms of AGEs–endothelium interactions through the receptor for AGEs (RAGE in the PKC-β pathway, we evaluated the production of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in human endothelial cells (HUVECs, monocytes, and a coculture of both. AGEs were prepared by albumin glycation and characterized by absorbance and electrophoresis. The effect of AGEs on cell viability was assessed with an MTT assay. The cells were also treated with AGEs with and without a PKC-β inhibitor. MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in the cell supernatants were estimated by ELISA, and RAGE was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. AGEs exposure did not affect cell viability, but AGEs induced RAGE, MCP-1, and VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs. When HUVECs or monocytes were incubated with AGEs and a PKC-β inhibitor, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 expression significantly decreased. However, in the coculture, exposure to AGEs and a PKC-β inhibitor produced no significant effect. This study demonstrates, in vitro, the regulatory mechanisms involved in MCP-1 production in three cellular models and VCAM-1 production in HUVECs, and thus mimics the endothelial dysfunction caused by AGEs in early atherosclerosis. Such mechanisms could serve as therapeutic targets to reduce the harmful effects of AGEs in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  11. Shifting paradigms in diminished ovarian reserve and advanced reproductive age in assisted reproduction: customization instead of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly G; Babayev, Samir N; Bukulmez, Orhan

    2015-05-01

    As women are increasingly delaying childbearing into their 30s and beyond, diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) and advanced reproductive age (ARA) patients are bound to become a large proportion of all assisted reproductive technology practices. Traditional controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols for DOR and/or ARA have had some limited success, but pregnancy rates are lower and cycle cancellation rates are higher than their younger counterparts with normal ovarian reserve. Though many physicians have a selection of favorite standard protocols that they use, patients with DOR may require closer monitoring and customization of the treatment cycle to address the common problems that come with low ovarian reserve. Frequent issues that surface in women with DOR and/or ARA include poor follicular response, premature luteinizing hormone surge, and poor embryo quality. Limited published evidence exists to guide treatment for DOR. However, use of minimal or mild doses of gonadotropins, avoidance of severe pituitary suppression, and consideration for luteal phase stimulation and a "freeze all" approach are possible customized treatment options that can be considered for such patients who have failed more traditional COS protocols. PMID:26036898

  12. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sabet

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL, mildly deficient (DEF, or supplemental (SUPP quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating

  13. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis: the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Veena, S. R.; Krishnaveni, G.V.; Karat, S. C.; Osmond, C.; Fall, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Design Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9·5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 30 ± 2 weeks’ gestation...

  14. ICONE-4: Proceedings. Volume 5: Radioactive waste disposal; Decontamination and decommissioning; Aging assessment and license renewals; Global advances in nuclear codes and standards; Major component reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings from this conference are divided into five volumes. This volume is divided into the following sections: spent fuel and nuclear waste processing; transportation and characterization of nuclear wastes; spent fuel and high level waste storage and disposal; D and D (decontamination and decommissioning) of reactors; D and D of nonreactor facilities; D and D related techniques and technology; assessment and management of aging, degradation, and damage; aging effects on failures; license extension and regulatory issues; assessment of aging effects; global advances in nuclear codes and standards; steam generator reliability; and reliability of reactor vessels and internals. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  15. Recent advances towards a theory of catchment hydrologic transport: age-ranked storage and the Ω-functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Models that faithfully represent spatially-integrated hydrologic transport through the critical zone at sub-watershed scales are essential building blocks for large-scale models of land use and climate controls on non-point source contaminant delivery. A particular challenge facing these models is the need to represent the delay between inputs of soluble contaminants (such as nitrate) at the field scale, and the solute load that appears in streams. Recent advances in the theory of time-variable transit time distributions (e.g. Botter et al., GRL 38(L11403), 2011) have provided a rigorous framework for representing conservative solute transport and its coupling to hydrologic variability and partitioning. Here I will present a reformulation of this framework that offers several distinct advantages over existing formulations: 1) the derivation of the governing conservation equation is simple and intuitive, 2) the closure relations are expressed in a convenient and physically meaningful way as probability distributions Ω(ST)Omega(S_T) over the storage ranked by age STS_T, and 3) changes in transport behavior determined by storage-dependent dilution and flow-path dynamics (as distinct from those due only to changes in the rates and partitioning of water flux) are completely encapsulated by these probability distributions. The framework has been implemented to model to the rich dataset of long-term stream and precipitation chloride from the Plynlimon watershed in Wales, UK. With suitable choices for the functional form of the closure relationships, only a small number of free parameters are required to reproduce the observed chloride dynamics as well as previous models with many more parameters, including reproducing the observed fractal 1/f filtering of the streamflow chloride variability. The modeled transport dynamics are sensitive to the input precipitation variability and water balance partitioning to evapotranspiration. Apparent storage-dependent age

  16. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kuk Hui; Son, Myeongjoo; Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Byun, Kyunghee

    2016-08-19

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. PMID:27301641

  17. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...

  18. Every Child Deserves Two Parents: Establishing Paternity for Children of Single Teenage Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Janet M.

    Single teenage parents and expectant parents in four community-based programs were provided with information about establishing the paternity of their children. The information presented included the benefits, obligations and consequences of paternity establishment for the mother, father, child and society. The goal was to educate single teenagers…

  19. Maternal and Paternal Parenting during Adolescence: Forecasting Early Adult Psychosocial Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of maternal and paternal parenting behavior during adolescence to four domains of early adult functioning. Higher levels of maternal firm control were associated with more secure early adult romantic attachment and lower levels of educational achievement. There were no main effects for fathers, but paternal parenting…

  20. Genetic Mapping of Psm, A Unique Locus Controlling Paternal Sorting of the Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passage of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) through cell cultures produces plants with a distinctive mosaic (MSC) phenotype that shows paternal transmission. The mitochondrial (mt) DNA of cucumber is paternally transmitted and the MSC phenotype is associated with rearrangements in the mt DNA. We identif...

  1. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, F; Shafigh, F; Roohi, E

    2016-01-01

    In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents' libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans. PMID:27424551

  2. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  3. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  4. Polygynandry, extra-group paternity and multiple-paternity litters in European badger (Meles meles) social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry

    2007-12-01

    The costs and benefits of natal philopatry are central to the formation and maintenance of social groups. Badger groups, thought to form passively according to the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), are maintained through natal philopatry and delayed dispersal; however, there is minimal evidence for the functional benefits of such grouping. We assigned parentage to 630 badger cubs from a high-density population in Wytham Woods, Oxford, born between 1988 and 2005. Our methodological approach was different to previous studies; we used 22 microsatellite loci to assign parent pairs, which in combination with sibship inference provided a high parentage assignment rate. We assigned both parents to 331 cubs at > or = 95% confidence, revealing a polygynandrous mating system with up to five mothers and five fathers within a social group. We estimated that only 27% of adult males and 31% of adult females bred each year, suggesting a cost to group living for both sexes. Any strong motivation or selection to disperse, however, may be reduced because just under half of the paternities were gained by extra-group males, mainly from neighbouring groups, with males displaying a mixture of paternity strategies. We provide the strongest evidence to date for multiple-paternity litters, and for the first time show that within-group and extra-group males can sire cubs in the same litter. We investigate the factors that may play a role in determining the degree of delayed dispersal and conclude that the ecological constraints hypothesis, benefits of philopatry hypothesis, and life history hypothesis may all play a part, as proposed by the broad constraints hypothesis. PMID:17971085

  5. Degradation of paternal mitochondria by fertilization-triggered autophagy in C. elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2011-11-25

    The mitochondrial genome is believed to be maternally inherited in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism responsible for this clearance has been unknown. Here, we show that autophagy, which delivers cytosolic components to lysosomes for degradation, is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans. Immediately after fertilization, sperm-derived components trigger the localized induction of autophagy around sperm mitochondria. Autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genome remain even in the first larval stage. Thus, fertilization-triggered autophagy is required for selective degradation of paternal mitochondria and thereby maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA. PMID:21998252

  6. Elimination of paternal mitochondria through the lysosomal degradation pathway in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Xue, Ding

    2011-12-01

    In mammals, the inheritance of mitochondrion and its DNA (mtDNA) is strictly maternal, despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional mitochondria into the oocyte during fertilization. The mechanisms responsible for the elimination of the paternal mitochondria remain largely unknown. We report here that this paternal mitochondrial elimination process is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the lysosomal pathway actively participates in this process. Molecular and cell biological analyses indicate that in wild-type animals paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are destroyed within two hours after fertilization. In animals with compromised lysosomes, paternal mitochondria persist until late embryonic stages. Therefore, the lysosomal pathway plays an important role in degrading paternal mitochondria introduced into the oocyte during fertilization. Our study indicates that C. elegans is an excellent animal model for understanding and dissecting this conserved biological process critical for animal development and reproduction. PMID:22105480

  7. Elimination of paternal mitochondria through the lysosomal degradation pathway in C.elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Zhou; Haimin Li; Ding Xue

    2011-01-01

    In mammals,the inheritance of mitochondrion and its DNA (mtDNA) is strictly maternal,despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional mitochondria into the oocyte during fertilization.The mechanisms responsible for the elimination of the paternal mitochondria remain largely unknown.We report here that this paternal mitochondrial elimination process is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans,and that the lysosomal pathway actively participates in this process.Molecular and cell biological analyses indicate that in wild-type animals paternal mitoehondria and mtDNA are destroyed within two hours after fertilization.In animals with compromised lysosomes,paternal mitochondria persist until late embryonic stages.Therefore,the lysosomal pathway plays an important role in degrading paternal mitochondria introduced into the oocyte during fertilization.Our study indicates that C.elegans is an excellent animal model for understanding and dissecting this conserved biological process critical for animal development and reproduction.

  8. Heteroplasmy suggests paternal co-transmission of multiple genomes and pervasive reversion of maternally into paternally transmitted genomes of mussel (Mytilus) mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Humberto; Stuckas, Heiko; Skibinski, David O F

    2003-01-01

    Marine mussels of the genus Mytilus have two types of mitochondrial DNA with separate paternal and maternal inheritance. Females are homoplasmic for an F genome that is transmitted to all offspring, whereas males are heteroplasmic for this F genome and for a highly diverged (> 20%) M genome that is transmitted only to sons. Here we provide phylogenetic evidence based on lrRNA sequence data that most of the paternal genomes in European M. trossulus have an introgressive female M. edulis origin and are nearly indistinguishable in sequence from F types of M. trossulus. This observation is best explained by the hypothesis that introgressed F type molecules have recently invaded the paternal route and have assumed the role of M molecules, then resetting to zero the time of sequence divergence between M and F lineages. European M. trossulus shows a high prevalence of males heteroplasmic for three different mitochondrial DNA types all having the same two paternal types and the same maternal type, consistent with paternal co-transmission of multiple genomes. Co-transmission of the same genomes must apparently operate uninterruptedly for several generations in spite of the very different evolutionary origin of the specific molecules that are transmitted paternally and maternally in European M. trossulus. PMID:15008410

  9. Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep (Ovine aries)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Xingbo

    2001-01-01

    [1]Albuquerque, L. G., Keown, J. F., Van Vleck, L. D., Variances of direct genetic effects, maternal genetic effects, and cyto-plasmic inheritance effects for milk yield, fat yield, and fat percentage, J. Dairy Sci., 1998, 81(2): 544-549.[2]Wallace, D. C., Mitochondrial diseases in man and mouse, Science, 1999, 283: 1482-1488.[3]Gray, M. W., Burger, G., Lang, B. F., Mitochondrial evolution, Science, 1999, 283: 1476-1481.[4]Sutovsky, P., Schatten, G., Paternal contributions to the mammalian zygote: fertilization after sperm-egg fusion. Int. Rev. Cytol., 2000, 195: 1-65.[5]Hutchison, C. A., Newbold, J. E., Potter, S. S. et al., Maternal inheritance of mammalian mitochondrial DNA, Nature, 1974, 251: 536-538.[6]Kondo, R., Matsuura, E. T., Chigusa, S. I., Further observation of paternal transmission of Drosophila mitochondrial DNA by PCR selective amplification method, Genet. Res., 1992, 59(2):81-84.[7]Danan, C., Sternberg, D., Van Steirteghem, A. et al., Evaluation of parental mitochondrial inheritance in neonates born af-ter intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 1999, 65(2): 463-473.[8]Gyllensten, U., Wharton, D., Josefsson, A. et al., Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in mice, Nature, 1991, 352(6332): 255-257.[9]Shitara, H., Hayashi, J. I., Takahama, S. et al., Maternal inheritance of mouse mtDNA in interspecific hybrids: segregation of the leaked paternal mtDNA followed by the prevention of subsequent paternal leakage, Genetics, 1998, 148(2): 851-857.[10]Steinborn, R., Zakhartchenko, V., Jelyazkkov, J. et al., Composition of parental mitochondrial DNA in cloned bovine em-bryos, FEBS Lett., 1998, 426(3): 352-356.[11]Lansman, R. A., Avise, J. C., Huettel, M. D. et al., Critical experimental test of the possibility of "paternal leakage" of mitochondrial DNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1983, 80(7): 1969-1971.[12]Meusel, M. S., Moritz, R. F., Transfer of paternal mitochondrial DNA during

  10. Epigenetic inheritance and evolution: A paternal perspective on dietary influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubry, Adelheid

    2015-07-01

    The earliest indications for paternally induced transgenerational effects from the environment to future generations were based on a small number of long-term epidemiological studies and some empirical observations. Only recently have experimental animal models and a few analyses on human data explored the transgenerational nature of phenotypic changes observed in offspring. Changes include multiple metabolic disorders, cancer and other chronic diseases. These phenotypes cannot always be explained by Mendelian inheritance, DNA mutations or genetic damage. Hence, a new compelling theory on epigenetic inheritance is gaining interest, providing new concepts that extend Darwin's evolutionary theory. Epigenetic alterations or "epimutations" are being considered to explain transgenerational inheritance of parentally acquired traits. The responsible mechanisms for these epimutations include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA-mediated effects. This review explores the literature on a number of time-dependent environmentally induced epigenetic alterations, specifically those from dietary exposures. We suggest a role for the male germ line as one of nature's tools to capture messages from our continuously changing environment and to transfer this information to subsequent generations. Further, we open the discussion that the paternally inherited epigenetic information may contribute to evolutionary adaptation. PMID:25769497

  11. Paternal reproductive success drives sex allocation in a wild mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coltman, David W; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-02-01

    Parents should bias sex allocation toward offspring of the sex most likely to provide higher fitness returns. Trivers and Willard proposed that for polygynous mammals, females should adjust sex-ratio at conception or bias allocation of resources toward the most profitable sex, according to their own body condition. However, the possibility that mammalian fathers may influence sex allocation has seldom been considered. Here, we show that the probability of having a son increased from 0.31 to 0.60 with sire reproductive success in wild bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Furthermore, our results suggest that females fertilized by relatively unsuccessful sires allocated more energy during lactation to daughters than to sons, while the opposite occurred for females fertilized by successful sires. The pattern of sex-biased offspring production appears adaptive because paternal reproductive success reduced the fitness of daughters and increased the average annual weaning success of sons, independently of maternal allocation to the offspring. Our results illustrate that sex allocation can be driven by paternal phenotype, with profound influences on the strength of sexual selection and on conflicts of interest between parents. PMID:26792564

  12. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad ( Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  13. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  14. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies

  15. 45 CFR 309.100 - What procedures for the establishment of paternity must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures for the establishment of paternity... establishment of paternity must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? (a) A Tribe or... paternity included in this section. The Tribe must include in its Tribal IV-D plan procedures under...

  16. Clinical outcomes of helical tomotherapy for super-elderly patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer. Comparison with patients under 80 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the clinical outcomes of helical tomotherapy in 23 patients aged ≥80 years with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer and compared the results with data from 171 patients under 80 years. All patients received helical tomotherapy in our hospital between September 2009 and October 2012. The median follow-up periods were 35 months in the aged group and 34 months in the younger group. The median prescribed dose in helical tomotherapy was 78 Gy in 39 fractions (range, 72–78 Gy). The 3-year overall survival and biochemical relapse-free rates were 92% and 96% in the aged group and 99.4% and 97.3% in the younger group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the biochemical relapse-free rates. The 3-year cumulative incidences of late Grade 2 or higher rectal toxicity and urinary toxicity were 13% and 4.8% in the aged group and 7.0% and 1.2% in the younger group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the aged group and the younger group in the cumulative incidence rates of rectal toxicity or urinary toxicity. No patients exhibited Grade 4 or higher toxicity, and all patients improved with conservative therapy. Helical tomotherapy in super-elderly patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer had good biochemical control rates without severe late toxicity. Definitive helical tomotherapy may be the treatment of choice for patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer, even in those older than 80 years of age. (author)

  17. Advance: research project on aging electrical wiring in nuclear power plants; Advance: proyecto de investigacion de envejecimiento en cableado electrico en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, J. C.; Ruiz, S.

    2013-07-01

    As Nuclear Power Plants get older it is more important to know the real condition of low voltage, instrumentation, power and control cables. Additionally, as new plants are being built, the election of cables and the use of in-situ monitoring techniques to get reliable aging indicators, can be very useful during the plant life. The goal of this Project is to adapt, optimize and asses Condition Monitoring techniques for Nuclear Power Plants cables. These techniques, together with the appropriate acceptance criteria, would allow specialists to know the state of the cable over its entire length and estimate its residual life. In the Project, accelerated ageing is used in cables installed in European NPPs in order to evaluate different techniques to detect local and global ageing. Results are compared with accepted tests to validate its use for the estimation of cables residual life. This paper describes the main stages of the Project and some results. (Author)

  18. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure alters the small noncoding RNA profile in sperm and modifies anxiety and depressive phenotypes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, A K; Fennell, K A; Perreau, V M; Fox, A; O'Bryan, M K; Kim, J H; Bredy, T W; Pang, T Y; Hannan, A J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that physiological and behavioral traits may be transgenerationally inherited through the paternal lineage, possibly via non-genomic signals derived from the sperm. To investigate how paternal stress might influence offspring behavioral phenotypes, a model of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation was used. Male breeders were administered water supplemented with corticosterone (CORT) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated female mice. Female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers displayed altered fear extinction at 2 weeks of age. Only male F1 offspring exhibited altered patterns of ultrasonic vocalization at postnatal day 3 and, as adults, showed decreased time in open on the elevated-plus maze and time in light on the light-dark apparatus, suggesting a hyperanxiety-like behavioral phenotype due to paternal CORT treatment. Interestingly, expression of the paternally imprinted gene Igf2 was increased in the hippocampus of F1 male offspring but downregulated in female offspring. Male and female F2 offspring displayed increased time spent in the open arm of the elevated-plus maze, suggesting lower levels of anxiety compared with control animals. Only male F2 offspring showed increased immobility time on the forced-swim test and increased latency to feed on the novelty-supressed feeding test, suggesting a depression-like phenotype in these animals. Collectively, these data provide evidence that paternal CORT treatment alters anxiety and depression-related behaviors across multiple generations. Analysis of the small RNA profile in sperm from CORT-treated males revealed marked effects on the expression of small noncoding RNAs. Sperm from CORT-treated males contained elevated levels of three microRNAs, miR-98, miR-144 and miR-190b, which are predicted to interact with multiple growth factors, including Igf2 and Bdnf. Sustained elevation of glucocorticoids is therefore involved in the transmission of paternal

  19. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. PMID:23584184

  20. What do we know about the nutritional status of the very old? Insights from three cohorts of advanced age from the UK and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tom R; Mendonça, Nuno; Granic, Antoneta; Siervo, Mario; Jagger, Carol; Seal, Chris J; Kerse, Ngaire; Wham, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2016-08-01

    Very old people (referred to as those aged 85 years and over) are the fastest growing age segment of many Western societies owing to the steady rise of life expectancy and decrease in later life mortality. In the UK, there are now more than 1·5 million very old people (2·5 % of total population) and the number is projected to rise to 3·3 million or 5 % over the next 20 years. Reduced mobility and independence, financial constraints, higher rates of hospitalisation, chronic diseases and disabilities, changes in body composition, taste perception, digestion and absorption of food all potentially influence either nutrient intake or needs at this stage of life. The nutritional needs of the very old have been identified as a research priority by the British Nutrition Foundation's Task Force report, Healthy Ageing: The Role of Nutrition and Lifestyle. However, very little is known about the dietary habits and nutritional status of the very old. The Newcastle 85+ study, a cohort of more than 1000 85-year olds from the North East of England and the Life and Living in Advanced Age study (New Zealand), a bicultural cohort study of advanced ageing of more than 900 participants from the Bay of Plenty and Rotorua regions of New Zealand are two unique cohort studies of ageing, which aim to assess the spectrum of health in the very old as well as examine the associations of health trajectories and outcomes with biological, clinical and social factors as each cohort ages. The nutrition domain included in both studies will help to fill the evidence gap by identifying eating patterns, and measures of nutritional status associated with better, or worse, health and wellbeing. This review will explore some of this ongoing work. PMID:27165559

  1. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathryn M; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated. PMID:17849021

  2. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Fontaine

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs. We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  3. Paternal uniparental disomy 14: introducing the 'coat-hanger' sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 (patUPD14) is a rare condition, this being the eighth report. A male infant, born prematurely, was noted to have extremely lax skin and bilateral inguinal hernias. Skin biopsy confirmed the clinical diagnosis of congenital cutis laxa, but this did not explain the limb abnormalities. Radiographic findings (particularly the 'coat-hanger' configuration of the ribs on the chest radiograph), suggested a diagnosis of patUPD14, which was confirmed following DNA analysis. The patient died after prolonged respiratory failure. This combination of patUPD14 and congenital cutis laxa has not previously been described. Radiology can play a pivotal role in guiding the geneticist's choice of investigation. (orig.)

  4. Demonstration of paternal inheritance of plastids in Picea (Pinaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was purified from Picea glauca, P. pungens, P. engelmannii, and P. omorika, and was digested with several restriction endonucleases. Interspecific restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of cpDNA were identified. The RFLPs were identified as cpDNA by the hybridization of cloned, 32-P labeled, petunia cpDNA to the polymorphic bands, and by the lack of hybridization of a cloned and labeled mtDNA probe from maize. Chloroplast DNA RFLPs that showed no intraspecific variation when examined across the natural range for each species, were used as markers to follow the inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids. The inheritance of plastids was determined for F1-hybrids from reciprocal crosses of P. glauca and P. pungens, P. glauca and P. omorika, and F1-hybrids of P. engelmannii x pungens. All 31 F1-hybrids examined showed the cpDNA genotypes of the pollen parent, or the paternal species

  5. Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, inhibits advanced glycation end product (AGE)-elicited mesangial cell damage by suppressing AGE receptor (RAGE) expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptor RAGE mediates the progressive alteration in renal architecture and loss of renal function in diabetic nephropathy. Oxidative stress generation and inflammation also play a central role in diabetic nephropathy. This study investigated whether and how nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), blocked the AGE-elicited mesangial cell damage in vitro. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, down-regulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in AGE-exposed mesangial cells. AGE increased mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in mesangial cells, both of which were prevented by the treatment with nifedipine, but not amlodipine. The beneficial effects of nifedipine on AGE-exposed mesangial cells were blocked by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Although nifedipine did not affect expression levels of PPAR-γ, it increased the PPAR-γ transcriptional activity in mesangial cells. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-inflammatory agent against AGE by suppressing RAGE expression in cultured mesangial cells via PPAR-γ activation.

  6. Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, inhibits advanced glycation end product (AGE)-elicited mesangial cell damage by suppressing AGE receptor (RAGE) expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Takanori [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan); Yamagishi, Sho-ichi, E-mail: shoichi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan); Takeuchi, Masayoshi [Department of Pathophysiological Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa (Japan); Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya [Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2009-07-24

    The interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptor RAGE mediates the progressive alteration in renal architecture and loss of renal function in diabetic nephropathy. Oxidative stress generation and inflammation also play a central role in diabetic nephropathy. This study investigated whether and how nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), blocked the AGE-elicited mesangial cell damage in vitro. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, down-regulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in AGE-exposed mesangial cells. AGE increased mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in mesangial cells, both of which were prevented by the treatment with nifedipine, but not amlodipine. The beneficial effects of nifedipine on AGE-exposed mesangial cells were blocked by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}). Although nifedipine did not affect expression levels of PPAR-{gamma}, it increased the PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in mesangial cells. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-inflammatory agent against AGE by suppressing RAGE expression in cultured mesangial cells via PPAR-{gamma} activation.

  7. Genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy as a cause of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome associated with recurrent virilizing adrenocortical tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoin, F; Letouzé, E; Grignani, P; Patey, M; Rossignol, S; Libé, R; Pasqual, C; Lardière-Deguelte, S; Hoeffel-Fornes, C; Gaillard, D; Previderè, C; Delemer, B; Lalli, E

    2015-06-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by fetal macrosomia, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. BWS patients are at risk to develop Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and adrenal tumors. A young woman with BWS features, but with inconclusive genetic evidence for the disease, came to clinical observation for signs of virilization at the age of 16 years. An adrenocortical tumor was diagnosed and surgically resected. The tumor underwent 2 local relapses that were also surgically treated. The patient was also operated to remove a breast fibroadenoma. SNP arrays were used to analyze chromosome abnormalities in normal and tumor samples from the patient and her parents. The patient presented genome-wide mosaic paternal uniparental disomy (patUPD) both in the adrenocortical and the breast tumors, with different degrees of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The more recent relapses of the adrenocortical tumor showed a loss of part of chromosome 17p that was absent in the first tumor. Analysis of a skin biopsy sample also showed mosaic patUPD with partial LOH, while no LOH was detected in leukocyte DNA. This case shows that virilizing adrenocortical tumors may be a clinical feature of patients with BWS. The SNP array technology is useful to diagnose genome-wide patUPD mosaicism in BWS patients with an inconclusive molecular diagnosis and underlines the tumorigenic potential of the absence of the maternal genome combined with an excess of the paternal genome. PMID:25365508

  8. Risk of stillbirths and paternal occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects on the progeny of the pre conceptional father irradiation, Louise Parker and her team have begun a large cohort study turning on the whole of children born in the Cumbria area where is situated the Sellafield facility. The article published in the lancet, studies the risk of a stillbirth in function of paternal occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. For the cohort study, the crude and adjusted analysis show a statistically significant association between the risk of stillbirth and the ASD total (Annual Summary Dose, ASD, ASD total is ASD cumulated on the entire life, and ASD 90 is external radiation dose received during the 90 days preceding the conception) and between the risk of stillbirth and ASD 90. The analysis of witness-cases study confirms the existence of an association between the cumulative pre conceptional dose (FB total, FB acronym for film badge) and the risk of a stillbirth. On the other hand, the risk of stillbirth is not clearly associated to an increasing of the FB 90 (that is the external radiation dose received during the 90 days preceding the conception. The differences between the two studies about the effect of irradiation in the 90 days preceding the conception could be explained by the estimation of the measure of ASD 90 proportionately to the annual cumulative dose. It could be the case, if during one year, the workers are irregularly exposed to ionizing radiation. If it is untimely to interpret the relationship observed between the paternal occupational irradiation and the risk of stillbirth in term of causality, the study of Parker and coll. incite to the development of complementary researches on the trans-generational effects of a pre conceptional exposure to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  9. The paternal epigenome and embryogenesis: poising mechanisms for development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy G Jenkins; Douglas T Carrell

    2011-01-01

    The scope of paternal contributions during early embryonic development has long been considered limited.Dramatic changes in chromatin structure throughout spermatogenesis have been thought to leave the sperm void of complex layers of epigenetic regulation over the DNA blueprint,thus leaving the balance of that regulation to the oocyte.However,recent work in the fields of epigenetics and male factor infertility has placed this long-held,and now controversial dogma,in a new light.Elegant studies investigating chromatin and epigenetic modifications in the developing sperm cell have provided new insights that may establish a more critical role for the paternal epigenome in the developing embryo.DNA methylation,histone tail modifications,targeted histone retention and protamine incorporation into the chromatin have great influence in the developing sperm cell.Perturbations in the establishment and/or maintenance of any of these epigenetic marks have been demonstrated to affect fertility status,ranging in severity from mild to catastrophic.Sperm require this myriad of chromatin structural changes not only to serve a protective role to DNA throughout spermatogenesis and future delivery to the egg,but also,it appears,to contribute to the developmental program of the future embryo.This review will focus on our current understanding of the epigenetics of sperm.We will discuss sperm-specific chromatin modifications that result in genes essential to development being poised for activation early in embryonic development,the disruption of which may result in reduced fecundity.

  10. Reinvestigations of six unusual paternity cases by typing of autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In some relationship cases, the initial investigations of autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) lead to an ambiguous conclusion and supplementary investigations become necessary. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Six unusual paternity cases were previously investigated by other researchers and....... In two cases, the SNP results supported the conclusions based on STRs. In the last case, the SNP results spoke in favor of paternity, and the combined paternity index based on autosomal STRs and SNPs was 12.3 billion. Nevertheless, the alleged father was excluded by X-chromosome typing. CONCLUSION...

  11. Estimation of mutation rates from paternity cases using a Bayesian network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicard, P.; Dawid, A.P.; Mortera, J.; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    We present a statistical model and methodology for making inferences about mutation rates from paternity casework. This takes proper account of a number of sources of potential bias, including hidden mutation, incomplete family triplets, uncertain paternity status and differing maternal and...... paternal mutation rates, while allowing a wide variety of mutation models. A Bayesian network is constructed to facilitate computation of the likelihood function for the mutation parameters. It can process both full and summary genotypic information, from both complete putative father-mother-child triplets...

  12. Some unresolved complexities in matters involving paternity: a South African Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Albertus, Latiefa

    2014-01-01

    A controversial aspect regarding paternity in South African law is whether or not South African Courts are empowered to compel an adult or a minor to submit to DNA/blood tests. The High Courts were not unanimous in this regard, and thus the issue required clarification by the Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA). An opportunity presented itself for the SCA to not only address the issue of the use of DNA/blood tests in paternity matters, but several other issues surrounding paternity. ...

  13. Does paternal sterility impact on progeny germination and survivorship, case study in strawberries:

    OpenAIRE

    Nosrati, Houshang

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the parental role on progeny performance have mostly focused on the maternal parent, while less attention was given to the paternal parent. This study investigated the impact of paternal pollen sterility (ranging from 3.1 – to 77.2%) on F1 seed germination and progeny survivorship in Fragaria (strawberry, Rosaceae) using controlled crosses. In crosses within F. vesca ssp. vesca the paternal pollen sterility was not correlated with F1 seed germination (N = 14, p > 0.074) and prog...

  14. Parental age, genetic mutation, and cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, N A; Foley, J

    1993-01-01

    Parental age and birth order were studied in 251 patients with cerebral palsy. No parental age or birth order effects were observed in spastic quadriplegia or diplegia, but a paternal age effect was detected in those with athetoid/dystonic cerebral palsy and congenital hemiplegia. These observations indicate that some cases of athetoid/dystonic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy might arise by fresh dominant genetic mutation.

  15. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function. PMID:26933035

  16. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. → GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. → Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-κB activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-β gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-κB activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression via PPARγ activation.

  17. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Takanori [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Yamagishi, Sho-ichi, E-mail: shoichi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takeuchi, Masayoshi [Department of Pathophysiological Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa (Japan); Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya [Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}. {yields} GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-{beta} gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression

  18. Laser-Assisted Hatching of Embryos in Women of Advanced Age after in Vitro Fertilization: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Gwo Horng; Chia-Lin Chang; Hsien-Ming Wu; Chia-Woei Wang; Chun-Kai Cheng; Hung-Yuan Huang; Hsin-Shih Wang; Yoong-Kuei Soong

    2002-01-01

    Background: For infertile women aged over 37 years, failure of the zona pellucida to ruptureis believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitrofertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). It has beensuggested that assisted hatching of embryos will increase the pregnancy ratewith IVF by means of mechanically facilitating the hatching process.Methods: One hundred twenty cycles of IVF/ICSI in females aged over 37 years wereanalyzed. Women included in th...

  19. Paternity and Nested-within-Family Marker Assisted Selection in Space Planted Red Clover Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented is a cost effective marker assisted selection methodology that utilizes individual plant phenotypes, seed production based knowledge of maternity, molecular marker determined paternity, and nested within halfsib family linkage relationships. Combining all above listed components, selection...

  20. PATERNAL LEAKAGE OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA IN A FUCUS (PHAEOPHYCEAE) HYBRID ZONE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, Galice; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L

    2009-06-01

    Eukaryotic mitochondria are mostly uniparentally (maternally) inherited, although mtDNA heteroplasmy has been reported in all major lineages. Heteroplasmy, the presence of more than one mitochondrial genome in an individual, can arise from recombination, point mutations, or by occasional transmission of the paternal mtDNA (=paternal leakage). Here, we report the first evidence of mtDNA paternal leakage in brown algae. In Denmark, where Fucus serratus L. and Fucus evanescens C. Agardh have hybridized for years, we found eight introgressed individuals that possessed the very distinct haplotypes of each parental species. The finding of heteroplasmy in individuals resulting from several generations of backcrosses suggests that paternal leakage occurred in earlier generations and has persisted through several meiotic bottlenecks. PMID:27034038

  1. To nudge or not to nudge: cancer screening programmes and the limits of libertarian paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Brodersen, John

    2012-12-01

    'Nudging--and the underlying idea 'libertarian paternalism'--to an increasing degree influences policy thinking in the healthcare sector. This article discusses the influence exerted upon a woman's choice of participation in the Danish breast screening programme in light of 'libertarian paternalism'. The basic tenet of 'libertarian paternalism' is outlined and the relationship between 'libertarian paternalism' and informed consent investigated. Key elements in the process of enrolling women into the Danish mammography screening programme are introduced. It is shown that for several reasons the influence exerted upon women's choices of participation cannot be justified within a welfare-enhancing libertarian paternalistic framework. The article suggests that screening programmes alternatively adopt a liberty-enhancing approach and considers the practical implications of this alternative. PMID:22766778

  2. Acute effects of corticosterone injection on paternal behavior in California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Breanna N; Perea-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Saltzman, Wendy

    2011-11-01

    Glucocorticoids are thought to mediate the disruption of parental behavior in response to acute and chronic stress. Previous research supports their role in chronic stress; however, no study has experimentally tested the effects of acute glucocorticoid elevation on paternal behavior. We tested the prediction that acute corticosterone (CORT) increases would decrease paternal behavior in California mouse fathers and would lead to longer-term effects on reproductive success, as even short-term increases in CORT have been shown to produce lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. First-time fathers were injected with 30 mg/kg CORT, 60 mg/kg CORT or vehicle, or left unmanipulated. Interactions between the male and its pup(s) were recorded 1.5-2h after injection and scored for paternal and non-paternal behavior. Treatment groups were combined into control (unmanipulated + vehicle, n = 15) and CORT (30 mg/kg + 60 mg/kg, n = 16) for analysis based on resulting plasma CORT concentrations. CORT treatment did not alter paternal or non-paternal behaviors or any long-term measures (male body mass or temperature, pup growth rate, pup survival, interbirth interval, number or mass of pups born in the second litter). Fathers showed a significant rise in body mass at day 30 postpartum, followed by a decrease in body mass after the birth of the second litter; however, this pattern did not differ between the CORT and control groups. In summary, acute elevation of plasma CORT did not alter direct paternal behavior, body mass, or reproductive outcomes, suggesting that acute CORT elevation alone does not overtly disrupt paternal care in this biparental mammal. PMID:21939660

  3. Fathers, Mothers, Marriages, and Children: Toward a Contextual Model of Positive Paternal Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Ariel

    2000-01-01

    This research explored positive paternal involvement in the lives of children within the broader familial context of marital dynamics and positive maternal involvement. The National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) was used to obtain a longitudinal subsample of 582 first-married couples, as well as the wide range of variables necessary to explore this broader context of paternal influence. Three research questions guided the study: (I) What is the unique contribution of positive pater...

  4. The Role of Paternal Drinking Problems in the Psychological Characteristics of High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jong Sung; Jung, Jin Gyu; Ryou, Young Il; Kim, Young Seok; Uh, Won Chul

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been reported that children with parental drinking problems are at increased risk of drinking problems or psychiatric diseases in adulthood. The present study was conducted to examine the psychiatric characteristics of high school students according to paternal drinking problems. Methods The subjects were 950 high school students (390 male and 560 female). The paternal drinking problems were assessed by using the Father-Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. The Alcohol U...

  5. Paternal kin recognition in the high frequency / ultrasonic range in a solitary foraging mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler Sharon E; Scheumann Marina; Nash Leanne T; Zimmermann Elke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity. Recognition of paternal kin using vocalizations occurs in taxa with cohesive, complex social groups. This is the first investigation of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitary foraging mammal, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a frequent model for ancestral primates. We analyzed the high frequency/ultrasonic male advertisement (courtship) call and alar...

  6. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Wessels; Elmien Lesch

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurt...

  7. Evidence for Paternal Leakage in Hybrid Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Kathryn M.; Cooley, John R.; Simon, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so “paternal leakage” of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical...

  8. Elimination of paternal mitochondria through the lysosomal degradation pathway in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Xue, Ding

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the inheritance of mitochondrion and its DNA (mtDNA) is strictly maternal, despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional mitochondria into the oocyte during fertilization. The mechanisms responsible for the elimination of the paternal mitochondria remain largely unknown. We report here that this paternal mitochondrial elimination process is conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the lysosomal pathway actively participates in this process. Molecular and cell ...

  9. Is paternal mitochondrial DNA transferred to the offspring following intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    OpenAIRE

    Houshmand, Massoud; Holme, Elisabeth; Hanson, Charles; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Hamberger, Lars

    1997-01-01

    During intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) the whole sperm, including head, midpiece and tail, is injected into the middle area of the oocyte. To find out what happens to the sperm mitochondria after ICSI, we checked the first six children born after ICSI treatment for occurrence of paternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The difference between maternal and paternal mtDNA in the investigated couples in our study was confined to single-base pair substitutions and we had to rely on restriction ...

  10. Does father know best? A formal model of the paternal influence on childhood social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bögels, S.M.; Perotti, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    We explore paternal social anxiety as a specific risk factor for childhood social anxiety in a rational optimization model. In the course of human evolution, fathers specialized in external protection (e.g., confronting the external world) while mothers specialized in internal protection (e.g., providing comfort and food). Thus, children may instinctively be more influenced by the information signaled by paternal versus maternal behavior with respect to potential external threats. As a result...

  11. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A. H.; Shapira, S. K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Olshan, A F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation and birth defects in a case–control study of cases comprising over 60 different types of birth defects (n=9998) and non-malformed controls (n=4066) with dates of delivery between 1997 and 2004. Me...

  12. O Impacto da Idade Materna Avançada sobre os Resultados da Gravidez Impact of Advanced Maternal Age on the Outcome of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Cecatti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar o efeito da idade sobre os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestações ocorridas em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais. Métodos: comparamos 494 gestantes com mais de 40 anos, com 988 gestantes com idade entre 20 e 29 anos, pareando-as por paridade. Após controlar possíveis variáveis confundidoras pela análise multivariada, a idade materna avançada manteve associação com a maior prevalência de hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, parto por cesária, hemorragia puerperal, índice de Apgar baixo, morte perinatal, natimortalidade e sofrimento fetal intraparto. Resultados: a idade materna avançada esteve isoladamente associada à hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, diagnóstico de sofrimento fetal intraparto, parto por cesária e hemorragia puerperal. Com relação aos resultados neonatais, a idade materna avançada estava associada independentemente apenas ao baixo índice de Apgar, morte perinatal e óbito fetal. Conclusões: esses achados mostram a necessidade de assistência obstétrica adequada com atenção especial a esses fatores para procurar melhorar os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestantes com idade avançada.Most authors agree on the negative impact of pregnancy in women with advanced maternal age on maternal and perinatal outcome. However, it is not usual to evaluate if some considered risk factors are only confounders because they are present in women over forty years. In order to identify the isolated effect of age on maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancies in women over forty, 494 pregnancies from this age group were compared to 988 pregnancies among women aged 20 to 29 years, matched by parity. After controlling possible confounding variables through multivariate analysis, advanced maternal age maintained its association with a higher prevalence of hypertension, malpresentation, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, low Apgar score, perinatal death, late fetal

  13. A STUDY OF CHANGES IN PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH ADVANCING AGE AND THE EFFECT OF SMOKING IN MALES OF NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiny George

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As the life expectancy is rising virtually in all proportions throughout the world, awareness of the basic changes in respiratory physiology associated with aging and their clinical implication is important for clinicians. Similarly Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has emerged as a major health condition worldwide and cigarette smoking has been clearly documented as a risk factor for it. We made an attempt to assess the changes in the pulmonary function with age and also to assess the effect of smoking in males of 18-85 years from North Kerala . The pulmonary function tests were assessed on a computerized spirometer in 247 male subjects, outof which 127 were nonsmokers and 121 were smokers . The results showed a strong negative correlation between various age groups indicating a statistically significant decrease in all pulmonary function parameters as age increases(p<0.01. All the pulmonary function parameters were also significantly decreased in smokers when compared to nonsmokers of the same age groups (p<0.01. The percentage of smokers having airflow limitation (33.1% was more than 5 times that of the nonsmokers (5.6%. Thus by spirometry airflow limitation can be measured at an early stage so that subsequent morbidity can be minimized by life style changes and more targeted smoking cessation programmes.

  14. Does paternal sterility impact on progeny germination and survivorship, case study in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang NOSRATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the parental role on progeny performance have mostly focused on the maternal parent, while less attention was given to the paternal parent. This study investigated the impact of paternal pollen sterility (ranging from 3.1 – to 77.2% on F1 seed germination and progeny survivorship in Fragaria (strawberry, Rosaceae using controlled crosses. In crosses within F. vesca ssp. vesca the paternal pollen sterility was not correlated with F1 seed germination (N = 14, p > 0.074 and progeny survivorship (N = 14, p > 0. 0.710. Paternal sterility in crosses between F. vesca ssp. vesca and F. vesca ssp. monophylla did not affect on F1 seed germination (N = 7, p > 0.295 and progeny survivorship (N = 6, p > 0.812. Similarly, no correlation was found between father pollen sterility and F1 seed germination (N = 6, p > 0.924 and progeny survivorship (N = 6, p > 0.215 in crosses between F. vesca ssp. americana and F. vesca ssp. vesca. Furthermore, crossing different maternal plants by pollen of the same paternal plant in all three cross types produced progeny with variable levels of F1 seed germination and survivorship. These results indicate the crucial role of maternal plant on progeny performance and support the general idea of the importance of maternal rather than paternal parent on progeny performance.

  15. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA by diverse mechanisms to eliminate paternal mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2013-08-01

    The mitochondrion is an organelle that has its own DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria play essential roles in energy production and in various cellular processes such as metabolism and signal transduction. In most animals, including humans, although the sperm-derived paternal mitochondria enter the oocyte cytoplasm after fertilization, their mtDNA is never transmitted to the offspring. This pattern of mtDNA inheritance is well known as "maternal inheritance." However, how the paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are eliminated from the cytoplasm of gametes or zygotes remains an enigma. Recently, a variety of mechanisms, including specific nuclease-dependent systems, ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy have been shown to degrade the paternal mtDNA or the paternal mitochondria themselves in order to prevent paternal mtDNA transmission. In this review, we will address the current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the elimination of paternal mtDNA or mitochondrial structures for ensuring the maternal transmission of mtDNA. PMID:23524114

  16. The use of an advanced risk-based asset management system for evaluation of rehabilitation options for an aging hydroelectric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced risk-based asset management system, designed to assist in collating rehabilitation/ replacement options for individual components of an electric power plant was described. Application of the technique to determine rehabilitation options for an aging hydroelectric power station in Northern Ontario, was demonstrated. The method helped to assess a wide range of complex alternatives, the direct and indirect costs associated with delayed implementation of the alternatives, partial or full rehabilitation of the site, and the construction of an entirely new replacement facility.3 refs., 8 figs., 3 photos

  17. The influence of patients age, type of tumor growth, hematocrit, and radiation-induced tumor regression on the prognosis of advanced uterine cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age of patients, type of tumor growth, pretreatment hematocrit, and radiation-induced tumor regression were evaluated as possible prognostic factors in 222 patients with advanced cervical cancer treated at the Institute of Clinical Oncology in Bratislava in the period from 1960 through 1980. The five-year disease-free survival rate for Stage IIb patients was 50%, for Stage III patients 23.1%, and for Stage IV patients 13%. Radiatoin-induced tumor regression and type of tumor growth were noted to be a significant prognostic factor with regard to the control of disease in the pelvis. Age of the patients and pretreatment hematocrit were found to be a weak prognostic factor. (author). 4 figs., 6 tabs., 25 refs

  18. Recent advances in measuring cerebral blood flow and metabolism in human aging, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, sleep and the epilepsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 133Xe inhalation method, positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, X-ray transmission tomography by inhalation of 37.5% stable xenon gas during CT scanning, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques contributions to knowledge of normal aging, cerebrovascular disorders, the dementias, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, normal and abnormal sleep, migraine and cluster headache are summarized. 62 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Methodical aspects of ultrasonic research of cervical intervertebral disk and spiral canal children of the advanced school age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held ultrasound intervertebral discs (MPD), the spinal canal (PC) with the level of C2-C3 to C7-TH1 67 healthy children in the age groups 13-15 and 16-18 years. In the sagittal and axial projections defined sizes MPD PC dural spaces, radicular channels. Studied echo structure nucleus pulposus, the contours of the fibrous ring

  20. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  1. Prepubertal start of father's smoking and increased body fat in his sons: further characterisation of paternal transgenerational responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Miller, Laura L; Pembrey, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    Despite interest in the idea that transgenerational effects of adverse exposures might contribute to population health trends, there are few human data. This non-genetic inheritance is all the more remarkable when transmission is down the male-line as reported in a historical Swedish study, where the paternal grandfather's food supply in mid childhood was associated with the mortality rate in his grandsons. Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children's questionnaire data on smoking and smoking onset from 9886 fathers, we examined the growth of their children from 7-17 years. Adjusting for potential confounders, we assessed associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total fat mass and lean mass with the age at which the father had started smoking regularly. Of 5376 fathers who reported having ever smoked, 166 reported regular smoking smoking smoking Smoking by boys in mid childhood may contribute to obesity in adolescent boys of the next generation. PMID:24690679

  2. Multiple Paternity in Urban Norway Rats: Extended Ranging for Mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Gregory E; Klein, Sabra L; Norris, Douglas E; Gardner, Lynne C

    2016-05-01

    Norway rats are an abundant synanthropic species in urban settings and serve as reservoirs for many pathogens. Attempts to control their populations have met with little success. Recent genetic studies suggest that local populations are structured and few individuals move significant distances, but there is substantial gene flow. To understand these observations and their implications on control strategies, we genotyped 722 rats from 20 alleys in Baltimore to establish paternity for 180 embryos. Up to 88 males may have contributed to the litters. All litters were sired by ≥2 males, with an average of 4.9 (range 2-7) males. For dams and sires with known locations, most matings (71.7%; n = 46) occurred among animals from different alleys. The average distance between sires and dams was 114 meters (range 8-352 meters). In 10/17 (58.8%) litters, the majority of the identified sires were captured in different alleys than the females. Sires were significantly less related to females than were the males captured in the females' alleys. Although rats may generally restrict their movements, either receptive females and/or breeding males engage in mate-seeking behaviors that extend beyond movement patterns at other times. This geographically extends the sizes of local populations and buffers them from the impacts of control strategies that focus on local infestations. PMID:26885622

  3. DNA instability, paternal irradiation and leukaemia in children around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical instability of DNA under physiological conditions requires that cells have highly developed processes for repairing stochastic single-strand damage. It is proposed here that provided ionising-radiation-induced single-strand damage does not occur at a rate sufficient to perturb the dynamic steady state between degradation and repair, it can be regarded as 'irrelevant' to biological effect, leaving double-strand damage and DNA-protein crosslinks as 'relevant' damage to biological effect. At dose rates of ∼ 0.05 Gy/min low-LET radiation the rate of induced single-strand damage equals that of the spontaneous damage, and in this region a transition, with increasing dose-rate, from constant effect to increasing effect, will be expected. This is observed in studies of specific locus mutation by radiation in the male mouse. The application of this biophysical principle governing the influence of radiation dose-rate, to the association observed between paternal preconceptional dose to Sellafield workers and childhood leukaemia in their offspring, shows that the likelihood of a casual relationship is extremely remote. (author)

  4. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhvika Patidar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood.

  5. The paternal hidden agenda: Epigenetic inheritance through sperm chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Deepika; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2010-07-01

    Epigenetic modifications play a crucial role in developmental gene regulation. These modifications, being reversible, provide a layer of information over and above the DNA sequence, that has plasticity and leads to the generation of cell type-specific epigenomes during cellular differentiation. In almost all higher eukaryotes, the oocyte provides not only its cytoplasm, mitochondria, maternally deposited RNA and proteins but also an epigenetic component in the form of DNA and histone-modifications. During spermeiogenesis however, most of the histones are replaced by protamines, leading to a loss of the epigenetic component. The sperm is, therefore, viewed as a passive carrier of the paternal genome with a disproportionate, lower epigenetic contribution except for DNA methylation, to the next generation. A recent study overturns this view by demonstrating a locus-specific retention of histones, with specific modifications in the sperm chromatin at the promoters of developmentally important genes. This programmed retention of epigenetic marks with a role in embryonic development is suggested to offset, in some measure, the dominant maternal effect. This new finding helps in addressing the question of epigenetic transmission of environmental and 'lifestyle' experiences across generations and raises the question of 'parental conflict' at the loci that may be differentially marked. PMID:20448473

  6. Autonomy and paternalism in medical e-commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-08-01

    One of the overriding interests of the literature on health care economics is to discover where personal choice in market economies end and corrective government intervention should begin. Our study addresses this question in the context of John Stuart Mill's utilitarian principle of harm. Our primary objective is to determine whether public policy interventions concerning more than 35,000 online pharmacies worldwide are necessary and efficient compared to traditional market-oriented approaches. Secondly, we seek to determine whether government interference could enhance personal  utility maximization, despite its direct and indirect (unintended) costs on medical e-commerce. This study finds that containing the negative externalities of medical e-commerce provides the most compelling raison d'etre of government interference. It asserts that autonomy and paternalism need not be mutually exclusive, despite their direct and indirect consequences on individual choice and decision-making processes. Valuable insights derived from Mill's principle should enrich theory-building in health care economics and policy. PMID:25547271

  7. Fertilization and elimination of the paternal mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, J M

    2000-07-01

    With rare exceptions, mammalian mitochondria are inherited through the female. This probably serves to minimize lethal cytoplasmic gene competition and to prevent the inheritance of sperm mitochondrial DNA that has been subject to degradation by free radicals. In general, organisms are intolerant of mitochondrial heteroplasmy and, when this occurs in humans, it frequently presents as progressive and lethal bioenergetic or neurological disease. The mitochondria of spermatozoa are specifically destroyed by proteolysis in early embryonic development, in mice at the 4- to 8-cell transition. While there are concerns in human assisted reproduction that microinjection of abnormal or immature sperm cells could lead to lasting harm in the offspring through transmission of abnormal mitochondria, there is no clinical evidence to support this. There is more potential for harm through attempts to 'rescue' poor quality oocytes by cytoplasmic or nuclear transfer, as it is not currently possible to control the final fate of the donated mitochondria in relation to nuclear-mitochondrial interactions or the embryonic axes. Moreover, the balance between nuclear and mitochondrial genes and the role of cytoplasmic factors in epigenesis are still poorly understood. The future challenge for biologists is to comprehend the nature of the selective destruction of paternal mitochondria, as it appears to be a species-specific recognition phenomenon. PMID:11041517

  8. Bayesian inference on genetic merit under uncertain paternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tempelman Robert J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hierarchical animal model was developed for inference on genetic merit of livestock with uncertain paternity. Fully conditional posterior distributions for fixed and genetic effects, variance components, sire assignments and their probabilities are derived to facilitate a Bayesian inference strategy using MCMC methods. We compared this model to a model based on the Henderson average numerator relationship (ANRM in a simulation study with 10 replicated datasets generated for each of two traits. Trait 1 had a medium heritability (h2 for each of direct and maternal genetic effects whereas Trait 2 had a high h2 attributable only to direct effects. The average posterior probabilities inferred on the true sire were between 1 and 10% larger than the corresponding priors (the inverse of the number of candidate sires in a mating pasture for Trait 1 and between 4 and 13% larger than the corresponding priors for Trait 2. The predicted additive and maternal genetic effects were very similar using both models; however, model choice criteria (Pseudo Bayes Factor and Deviance Information Criterion decisively favored the proposed hierarchical model over the ANRM model.

  9. Keeping the Genealogical Structure of Paternal Breed Nuclei in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Voiculescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long period of time pigs as farm animals were considered producing a single ware, pork. Not very long ago the pork market became interested in lean meet. Some breeders tried to have it from the old breeds and lave a lent genetic progress. Other breeders decided to follow the hybridization schemes used in poultry to produce broilers. But in strains with high daily gain and gross muscles the sows fertility declined and by then by disjunction selection they have isolated strains of high fertility. Then the final animal for the market was the cross piglet obtained from these two kinds of strains or lines. The third kind of breeders decided to specializing breeds, selected for as much as possible muscle mass as paternal breeds and breeds specialized for high fertility as maternal breeds. The present paper will present the movement taking place in the genealogy of a breed nucleus of 200sows with closed reproduction. The goal of the families’ movement analysis is to find out how to ensure a convenient genealogy structure preventing consanguinity when some families are extinct by selection for daily gain.

  10. Simulating dynamic capabilities and value creation in family firms: Is paternalism an ‘asset’ or ‘liability’?

    OpenAIRE

    Chirico, Francesco; Nordqvist, Mattias; Colombo, Gianluca; MOLLONA, edoardo

    2013-01-01

    The authors conduct a simulation study using system dynamics methods to interpret how and when paternalism affects dynamic capabilities (DCs) and by association value creation in family firms. Their simulation experiments suggest that the effect of paternalism on DCs and value creation varies over time. Initially, increasing levels of family social capital and low levels of paternalism are associated with high rates of DCs and value creation accumulation (asset). Later, higher levels of p...

  11. Increased effect of the ApoE gene on survival at advanced age in healthy and long-lived Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, R; Martinussen, T; Christiansen, L; Jeune, B; Andersen-Ranberg, K; Vaupel, J W; Christensen, Kaare

    2010-01-01

    selection pressure. The ApoE ε4 allele is associated with increased mortality risk and its effect has been suggested to decrease with age. Here we investigated the effect of ApoE ε4 allele on survival in a sample of the healthiest and long-lived Danes. Methods  The study population comprised Danes born in...... 1998, 1546 had died at the end of the ten years follow up. Carriers of the ApoE ε4 allele had an increased mortality compared to non-carriers and the influence of ApoE status on mortality increased in the age interval 92-103. For the covariates, sex and independency status, the difference in relative...

  12. Comprehensive analyses of how tubule occlusion and advanced glycation end-products diminish strength of aged dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Shinno, Yuko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Saito, Mitsuru; Uemura, Reo; Arino, Masumi; Marumo, Keishi; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    In clinical dentistry, since fracture is a major cause of tooth loss, better understanding of mechanical properties of teeth structures is important. Dentin, the major hard tissue of teeth, has similar composition to bone. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of human dentin not only in terms of mineral density but also using structural and quality parameters as recently accepted in evaluating bone strength. Aged crown and root dentin (age ≥ 40) exhibited significantly low...

  13. Additive influences of maternal and paternal body mass index on weight status trajectories from childhood to mid-adulthood in the 1970 British cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Johnson, W.; Viner, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe the weight status trajectories from childhood to mid-adulthood and (ii) investigate the influence of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring’s trajectories in a nationally representative study in Great Britain. The sample comprised 4,174 (43% male) participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study with complete BMI data at ages 10, 26, 30, 34, and 42 years. Individuals’ weight status was categorised as overweight/obese or non-overweight/obese at...

  14. Paternity investigation among known false trios: ABO, Rh, MNSs, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and HLA systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaru, N N

    1993-11-01

    This paternity study was performed with trios in which the putative father was not the biological father (NBF), in order to evaluate adjustment of genetic markers employed to disclose non biological fathers for the population, and the biological meaning of likelihood of paternity in casework. All 923 generated trios had ABO, Rh, MNS, Kell and HLA systems tested; 372 of them also had Duffy and Kidd systems tested. The most powerful exclusion system was HLA, followed, in this order, by ABO, Rh, Duffy, MNSs, Kidd, and Kell. Taking into account the Indian/black/white historical miscegenation background in the population, an improvement in the performance of red blood cells as disclosers of non biological fathers could be achieved, if particular additional sera were used. In the group tested with seven different systems, direct exclusions were observed in 90.31%, and they were single system exclusions in 26.61%. In order to avoid the remote possibility of mutation, it is suggested that the number of used systems be increased. Indirect exclusions were verified in 8.87% and only 0.81% of NBF were not excluded at all. In this last group, probabilities of paternity were calculated and two values greater than 95% were obtained. To be able to accomplish the "visum et repertum" duty and to assist the court, the expert should equally emphasize: a) the probability of paternity of the alleged father and the possibility of finding an unexcluded NBF; b) the actual performance of systems used to uncover NBF, together with the probabilities of paternity of those who were not discovered; c) the previous referenced trend of probabilities of paternity of true and of non-biological fathers to cluster in distinct class intervals of likelihood of paternity. PMID:8263491

  15. Comprehensive paternity assignment: genotype, spatial location and social status in song sparrows, Melospiza Melodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Keller, Lukas F; Arcese, Peter; Bucher, Thomas; Reid, Jane M

    2010-10-01

    Comprehensive, accurate paternity assignment is critical to answering numerous questions in evolutionary ecology. Yet, most studies of species with extra-pair paternity (EPP) fail to assign sires to all offspring. Common limitations include incomplete and biased sampling of offspring and males, particularly with respect to male location and social status, potentially biasing estimated patterns of paternity. Studies that achieve comprehensive sampling and paternity assignment are therefore required. Accordingly, we genotyped virtually all males and >99% of 6-day-old offspring over 16 years in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population and used three complementary statistical methodologies to attempt complete paternity assignment for all 2207 offspring. Assignments were highly consistent across maximum likelihood methods that used solely genotype data, and heuristic and integrated Bayesian analyses that included data describing individual locations. Sires were assigned to >99% of all genotyped offspring with ≥95% confidence, revealing an EPP rate of c. 28%. Extra-pair sires primarily occupied territories neighbouring their extra-pair offspring; spatial location was therefore highly informative for paternity assignment. EPP was biased towards paired territorial males, although unpaired territorial and floater males sired c. 13% of extra-pair offspring. Failing to sample and include unpaired males as candidate sires would therefore substantially reduce assignment rates. These analyses demonstrate the integration of genetic and ecological information to achieve comprehensive paternity assignment and direct biological insight, illustrate the potential biases that common forms of incomplete sampling could have on estimated patterns of EPP, and provide an essential basis for understanding the evolutionary causes and consequences of EPP. PMID:20819155

  16. The Effect of Multiple Paternity on Genetic Diversity of Small Populations during and after Colonisation

    KAUST Repository

    Rafajlović, Marina

    2013-10-28

    Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration) has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by 2-10 males increased the heterozygosity by 10-300% in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was 10-50% compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity. 2013 Rafajlovi? et al.

  17. Risk assessment of medically assisted reproduction and advanced maternal ages in the development of Prader-Willi syndrome due to UPD(15)mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, K; Murakami, N; Fukami, M; Kagami, M; Nagai, T; Ogata, T

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that disomic oocyte-mediated uniparental disomy 15 (UPD(15)mat) is increased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) born after medically assisted reproduction (MAR). However, it remains unknown whether the increase is primarily due to MAR procedure itself or advanced maternal childbearing ages as a predisposing factor for the disomic oocyte production. To examine this matter, we studied 122 naturally conceived PWS patients (PWS-NC group) and 13 MAR-conceived patients (PWS-MAR group). The relative frequency of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat was significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group (7/13 vs 20/122, p = 0.0045), and the maternal childbearing ages were significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group [median (range), 38 (26-45) vs 30 (19-42), p = 0.0015]. However, the logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between the occurrence of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat and MAR, after adjusting for childbearing age (p = 0.25). Consistent with this, while the frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived livebirths was higher in the PWS patients than in the Japanese general population (6.4% vs 1.1%, p = 0.00018), the distribution of childbearing ages was significantly skewed to the increased ages in the PWS patients (p < 2.2 × 10(-16) ). These results argue against a positive association of MAR procedure itself with the development of UPD(15)mat. PMID:26526156

  18. Incidence of chromosome abnormalities at a second-trimester genetic amniocentesis for Mainland Chinese women of advanced maternal age: a study of 6, 584 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Qing-wei; Jiang Yu-lin; Zhou Xi-ya; Liu Jun-tao; Bian Xu-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to calculate the expected incidence of chromosomal aneuploidy at second trimester genetic amniocentesis in Mainland China in women aged 35 and older.Methods: We reviewed the genetic amniocenteses data in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2001 to June 2011.The indication for genetic amniocentesis was solely advanced maternal age (AMA).A total of 6,584 cases were included in this study.The AMA women was divided into two groups by maternal age,the group of 35-39 years old and the group of ≥40 years old.The incidence of fetal Down syndrome was compared between the two groups by chi-square test.Results: A total of 121 cases were diagnosed to be chromosomally abnormal,giving an overall incidence of 18.38‰ (121/6,584).The abnormal karyotypes included 111 cases of various aneuploidies and 10 cases with various structural abnormalities.The aneuploidies(mosaicism included)were 59 cases of (47,+ 21),25 cases of (47,+ 18),2 cases of (47,+ 13),8 cases of (45,X),3 cases of (47,XXX),13 cases of (47,XXY) and 1 case of (47,XYY).The karyotype of (47,+21) was the most frequent chromosomal abnormality,with an overall incidence of 8.96‰,account for 53.1% of all aneuploidies.Sex chromosome aneuploidies were the next most common,with a total incidence of 3.80‰.The incidence of fetal Down syndrome was significantly higher in the group of ≥40 years old than that of the group of 35-39 years old (P=0.047).Conclusions: The incidence of chromosomal aneuploidy found in this study is the first data published for Mainland China and will be helpful for the counseling of pregnant women in this age group.Consideration may be given to prenatal screening versus prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age in Mainland China.

  19. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24840232

  20. Paternal kin recognition in the high frequency / ultrasonic range in a solitary foraging mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Sharon E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity. Recognition of paternal kin using vocalizations occurs in taxa with cohesive, complex social groups. This is the first investigation of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitary foraging mammal, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, a frequent model for ancestral primates. We analyzed the high frequency/ultrasonic male advertisement (courtship call and alarm call. Results Multi-parametric analyses of the calls’ acoustic parameters and discriminant function analyses showed that advertisement calls, but not alarm calls, contain patrilineal signatures. Playback experiments controlling for familiarity showed that females paid more attention to advertisement calls from unrelated males than from their fathers. Reactions to alarm calls from unrelated males and fathers did not differ. Conclusions 1 Findings provide the first evidence of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitarily foraging mammal. 2 High predation, small body size, and dispersed social systems may select for acoustic paternal kin recognition in the high frequency/ultrasonic ranges, thus limiting risks of inbreeding and eavesdropping by predators or conspecific competitors. 3 Paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in mammals is not dependent upon a large brain and high social complexity, but may already have been an integral part of the dispersed social networks from which more complex, kin-based sociality emerged.

  1. Paternalistic Leadership in Korean Small and Medium Scale Enterprises: Applicability of a Turkish Paternalism Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş Çakar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social and cultural exchange between Korea and Turkey has been rapidly increasing and is expected to be accelerated for the future. Especially business exchange is interest of many people in both countries. This paper aims to provide insights for business people in Korea and Turkey to understand each country’s cultural aspects. Among different perspectives, paternalism is focused in the study. Paternalism is an important intersection of both cultures but it did not receive much attention. Even though both Turkish and Korean leaders are paternalistic, the origin of the characteristic is based on different background. The current studies of paternalism in Korea are based on Confucianism and economic crisis whereas those of Turkey are based on nomadic history, military Coup d'Etat, complicated bureaucracy, and economic instability. Using a paternalism scale developed with Turkish sample, this study measured Korean employees’ perception on paternalism and paternalistic leadership. The results showed that the scale is applicable in Korean organizations as well.

  2. Absence of a paternally inherited FOXP2 gene in developmental verbal dyspraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuk, Lars; Kalervo, Aino; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Skaug, Jennifer; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Finucane, Brenda; Hartung, Danielle; Innes, Micheil; Kerem, Batsheva; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J; Rivlin, Joseph; Roberts, Wendy; Senman, Lili; Summers, Anne; Szatmari, Peter; Wong, Virginia; Vincent, John B; Zeesman, Susan; Osborne, Lucy R; Cardy, Janis Oram; Kere, Juha; Scherer, Stephen W; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina

    2006-11-01

    Mutations in FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), but only a few cases have been described. We characterize 13 patients with DVD--5 with hemizygous paternal deletions spanning the FOXP2 gene, 1 with a translocation interrupting FOXP2, and the remaining 7 with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (UPD7), who were also given a diagnosis of Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS). Of these individuals with DVD, all 12 for whom parental DNA was available showed absence of a paternal copy of FOXP2. Five other individuals with deletions of paternally inherited FOXP2 but with incomplete clinical information or phenotypes too complex to properly assess are also described. Four of the patients with DVD also meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Individuals with paternal UPD7 or with partial maternal UPD7 or deletion starting downstream of FOXP2 do not have DVD. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we show the maternally inherited FOXP2 to be comparatively underexpressed. Our results indicate that absence of paternal FOXP2 is the cause of DVD in patients with SRS with maternal UPD7. The data also point to a role for differential parent-of-origin expression of FOXP2 in human speech development. PMID:17033973

  3. Paternal and maternal psychological and physical aggression and children's anxiety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the unique relationships between paternal and maternal psychological aggression (PA) and physical aggression (corporal punishment [CP] and severe physical abuse [SPA]) and children's anxiety in China. A total of 1,971 father-mother dyads completed the Chinese version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) and the Chinese version of Spence Children's Anxiety Scale for Parents (SCAS-P). Results indicated that when paternal and maternal PA, CP, and SPA were considered simultaneously, parental PA and maternal CP were both significantly predictive of children's anxiety, whereas SPA had no significant effects on children's anxiety. Specifically, both paternal and maternal PA were the most unique predictors of children's anxiety among parental psychological and physical aggression, whereas the effects of maternal CP and paternal CP were different, with maternal CP having a stronger effect on children's anxiety compared with paternal CP. The findings indicated that appropriate prevention and intervention efforts are needed to target parental PA and maternal CP. PMID:26704300

  4. Discovering misattributed paternity in genetic counselling: different ethical perspectives in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate. PMID:23443210

  5. The Psm locus controls paternal sorting of the cucumber mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, M J; Park, Y H; Bartoszewski, G

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission and there are no reports of variation for mitochondrial transmission in cucumber. We used a mitochondrially encoded mosaic (MSC) phenotype to reveal phenotypic variation for mitochondrial-genome transmission in cucumber. At least 10 random plants from each of 71 cucumber plant introductions (PIs) were crossed as the female with an inbred line (MSC16) possessing the MSC phenotype. Nonmosaic F1 progenies were observed at high frequencies (greater than 50%) in F1 families from 10 PIs, with the greatest proportions being from PI 401734. Polymorphisms near the mitochondrial cox1 gene and JLV5 region revealed that nonmosaic hybrid progenies from crosses of PI 401734 with MSC16 as the male possessed the nonmosaic-inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the paternal parent. F2) F3, and backcross progenies from nonmosaic F1 plants from PI 401734 x MSC16 were testcrossed with MSC16 as the male parent to reveal segregation of a nuclear locus (Psm for Paternal sorting of mitochondria) controlling sorting of mtDNA from the paternal parent. Psm is a unique locus at which the maternal genotype affects sorting of paternally transmitted mtDNA. PMID:15475394

  6. Men's preference for women's facial features: testing homogamy and the paternity uncertainty hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Bovet

    Full Text Available Male mate choice might be based on both absolute and relative strategies. Cues of female attractiveness are thus likely to reflect both fitness and reproductive potential, as well as compatibility with particular male phenotypes. In humans, absolute clues of fertility and indices of favorable developmental stability are generally associated with increased women's attractiveness. However, why men exhibit variable preferences remains less studied. Male mate choice might be influenced by uncertainty of paternity, a selective factor in species where the survival of the offspring depends on postnatal paternal care. For instance, in humans, a man might prefer a woman with recessive traits, thereby increasing the probability that his paternal traits will be visible in the child and ensuring paternity. Alternatively, attractiveness is hypothesized to be driven by self-resembling features (homogamy, which would reduce outbreeding depression. These hypotheses have been simultaneously evaluated for various facial traits using both real and artificial facial stimuli. The predicted preferences were then compared to realized mate choices using facial pictures from couples with at least 1 child. No evidence was found to support the paternity uncertainty hypothesis, as recessive features were not preferred by male raters. Conversely, preferences for self-resembling mates were found for several facial traits (hair and eye color, chin dimple, and thickness of lips and eyebrows. Moreover, realized homogamy for facial traits was also found in a sample of long-term mates. The advantages of homogamy in evolutionary terms are discussed.

  7. Genetic counseling, prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome in the second trimester in women of advanced maternal age: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Qing-wei; JIANG Yu-lin; ZHOU Xi-ya; LIU Jun-tao; YIN Jie; BIAN Xu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of autosomal trisomy in livebirths is strongly dependent on maternal age.Special consideration is given to the provision of prenatal screening and cytogenetic testing to women of advanced maternal age (AMA).The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of second trimester prenatal screening and amniocentesis for Down syndrome (DS) and compare the trends of choice of screening and amniocentesis among AMAwomen.Methods A total of 5404 AMA patients with natural singleton pregnancy were recruited for this prospective study from January 2008 to December 2010.The gestational weeks were from 15 weeks to 20+6 weeks.The patients referred were grouped into a screening group (2107 cases) and an amniocentesis group (3297 cases) by their own decision.The prevalence of DS was compared between the two groups by chi-square test.Choice rates for each maternal age with trends were compared by regression analysis.Results There were 18 cases of fetal DS detected in the screening group with a prevalence of 8.54‰ (18/2107).Twentyfive cases of fetal DS were diagnosed in the amniocentesis group with a prevalence of 7.58‰ (25/3297).No statistical difference was observed in the prevalence of DS between the screening and amniocentesis group (P=0.928).The invasive testing rate for DS in the amniocentesis group was 5.54 times higher than that of the screening group (1/131.88 vs.1/23.78).With the increase of the maternal age,the choice of amniocentesis increased while the choice of the screening showed an opposite trend.The choice of the AMA women between the screening and amniocantesis was significantly age relevant (P=0.012).Conclusions The second trimester serum screening in combination with maternal age was more effective than maternal age alone to screen for DS.We suggest educating the patients by recommending AMA women be informed of both screening and amniocentesis options.

  8. Omics in Ophthalmology: Advances in Genomics and Precision Medicine for Leber Congenital Amaurosis and Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Anneke I

    2016-03-01

    The genomic revolution has had a huge impact on our understanding of the genetic defects and disease mechanisms underlying ophthalmic diseases. Two examples are discussed here. The first is Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe inherited retinal dystrophy leading to severe vision loss in children, and the second is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of vision loss in the elderly. Twenty years ago, the genetic causes of these diseases were unknown. Currently, more than 20 LCA genes have been identified, and genetic testing can now successfully identify the genetic defects in at least 75% of all LCA cases. Gene-specific treatments have entered the clinical trial phase for three LCA genes, and for seven LCA genes gene-specific therapies have been tested in model systems. Age-related macular degeneration is a multifactorial disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Currently, more than 40 loci have been identified for AMD, accounting for 15%-65% of the total genetic contribution to AMD. Despite the progress that has been made so far, genetic testing is not yet recommended for AMD, but this may change if we move to clinical trials or treatments that are dependent on an individual's genotype. The identification of serum or plasma biomarkers using other "-omics" technologies may further improve predictive tests and our understanding of the disease mechanisms of AMD. Ultimately, it is anticipated that predictive tests will help to stratify patients for the most suitable therapy, which will enable the development of precision medicine, tailored to individual needs. PMID:27010695

  9. Experimentally simulating paternity uncertainty: immediate and long-term responses of male and female reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Hoi

    Full Text Available In many socially monogamous species, both sexes seek copulation outside the pair bond in order to increase their reproductive success. In response, males adopt counter-strategies to combat the risk of losing paternity. However, no study so far has tried to experimentally prove the function of behaviour for paternity assurance. Introducing a potential extra-pair partner during the female fertile period provides a standardised method to examine how pair members respond immediately (e.g. increase mate guarding or copulation frequency or long term (e.g. later parental investment and paternity uncertainty. In this study on a socially monogamous passerine species, we experimentally confronted pairs of reed warblers with a conspecific male (caged male simulating an intruder during egg-laying. Our results revealed that occurrence of an intruder during that period triggered aggression against the intruder, depending on the presence of the female. The male territory owner also attacked the female partner to drive her away from the intruder. Thus territory defence in reed warblers also serves to protect paternity. The increase in paternity uncertainty did not affect later paternal investment. Paternal investment was also independent of the actual paternity losses. In females, the experiment elicited both, immediate and long-term responses. E.g. female copulation solicitations during the intruder experiment were only observed for females which later turned out to have extra-pair chicks in their nest. In relation to long term response females faced with an intruder invested later less in offspring feeding, and had less extra-pair chicks in their nests. Extra-pair paternity also seems to be affected by female quality (body size. In conclusion female reed warblers seem to seek extra-pair fertilizations but we could demonstrate that males adopt paternity assurance tactics which seems to efficiently help them to reduce paternity uncertainty.

  10. The golden age of bio-logging: how animal-borne sensors are advancing the frontiers of ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Nickel, Barry; Bryce, Caleb M; Smith, Justine A; Wheat, Rachel E; Yovovich, Veronica

    2015-07-01

    Great leaps forward in scientific understanding are often spurred by innovations in technology. The explosion of miniature sensors that are driving the boom in consumer electronics, such as smart phones, gaming platforms, and wearable fitness devices, are now becoming available to ecologists for remotely monitoring the activities of wild animals. While half a century ago researchers were attaching balloons to the backs of seals to measure their movement, today ecologists have access to an arsenal of sensors that can continuously measure most aspects of an animal's state (e.g., location, behavior, caloric expenditure, interactions with other animals) and external environment (e.g., temperature, salinity, depth). This technology is advancing our ability to study animal ecology by allowing researchers to (1) answer questions about the physiology, behavior, and ecology of wild animals in situ that would have previously been limited to tests on model organisms in highly controlled settings, (2) study cryptic or wide-ranging animals that have previously evaded investigation, and (3) develop and test entirely new theories. Here we explore how ecologists are using these tools to answer new questions about the physiological performance, energetics, foraging, migration, habitat selection, and sociality of wild animals, as well as collect data on the environments in which they live. PMID:26378296

  11. Association of Parental Age and the Type of Down Syndrome on the Territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotonica, Mia; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Hasic, Sabaheta; Kiseljakovic, Emina; Jadric, Radivoj; Ibrulj, Slavka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advanced paternal and/or maternal age is a classic risk factor for Down syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of Down syndrome types in children and its association with maternal and paternal age in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Subjects and Methods: The cross sectional, observational study included 127 children, 49 girls and 78 boys, aged 1-180 months suspected to have Down syndrome, admitted to the Centre for Genetics, Faculty of Medicine University of Sarajevo, for cytogenetic analysis and differential diagnosis of Down syndrome during the period from January 2010 to May 2015. Standard method of 72 hours cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been applied. The accepted level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Study Results: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy (86.6%), comparing to translocation and mosaicism (7.1%; 6.3%, respectively). The highest frequency of Down syndrome cases was in mother and father’s group from 30-39 years old (57; 57 children, respectively) compared to mother and father’s groups with younger than 30 (44; 29, respectively) and 40 and older (26; 41, respectively). The significant difference was found in maternal age between translocation and mosaicism groups (p=0.036). Difference between parental years and type of Down syndrome was significant when Standard trisomy 21 and translocation (p=0.045), as well as mosaicism and translocation (p=0.036), were compared. Conclusion: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy 21, with highest occurrence in parents from 30 to 39 years old. Parents were the youngest in translocation group. Obtained results suggest that multidisciplinary approach to identifying the trigger for trisomy appearance and the influence of maternal age is required. PMID:27147778

  12. 394例高龄孕妇羊水细胞遗传学分析%Prenatal diagnosis analysis of 394 pregnant women of advanced maternal age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田卉; 任晨春; 张海霞; 梁明宏; 王文靖

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析高龄孕妇的胎儿染色体核型,探讨高龄妊娠胎儿染色体异常发生的风险.方法:采用羊水穿刺术对394例高龄孕妇进行细胞遗传学诊断,计算高龄妊娠胎儿染色体异常的比率.同时比较35 ~ 37岁、38~40岁及≥41岁组孕妇胎儿染色体异常发生率,分析不同高龄组胎儿染色体异常的风险比率.结果:394例样本中有21例染色体核型异常,异常发生率为5.33%,高于普通人群;且随孕妇年龄增长,胎儿染色体异常发生率增加.结论:高龄孕妇所孕胎儿存在染色体异常高风险,故应常规进行产前诊断.%Objective: To analyze the fetal chromosome abnormalities of pregnant women of advanced maternal age ( AMA) , and discuss the risk of chromosome abnormalities. Methods: Fetal chromosomal karyotypes were examined in 394 pregnant women of AMA by amniocentesis. Meanwhile , the study population was divided into three groups according to maternal age; 35 -37 years old, 38-40 years old and ≥41 years old, and the risk ratio of fetal chromosome abnormalities was compared among the three groups. Results: Among 394 pregnant women of AMA, 21 cases were abnormal karyotypes with the ratio of 5. 33% , which was higher than thai in common population. And the incidence of chromosome abnormalities was increased with their age increasing. Conclusion: Risk of the fetal chromosome abnormalities is high in advanced maternal age, and the prenatal diagnosis should be performed in every pregnant woman of AMA.

  13. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wessels

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurturing while growing up. Although they indicated that they perceived fathers as somewhat less involved in young adulthood; they reported being satisfied with the level of father involvement. Daughters also reported high current paternal nurturance. The findings therefore indicate that a group of middle to upper middle-class South African daughters perceived their fathers as relatively involved in their lives and suggest that their fathers’ involvement extends beyond traditional father roles.

  14. First cases of exclusive paternal care in stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. Requena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe paternal care in two pentatomid bugs, Lopadusa (Lopadusa augur Stål, 1860 and Edessa nigropunctata Berg, 1884. Field and laboratory observations showed that males remain with their eggs and early hatched nymphs, while females abandon the eggs after oviposition. Guarding males defensive behaviors towards their clutches were similar to those described for guarding females of pentatomids. Since there is no detailed information on the internal phylogeny of Pentatomidae, it is not possible to make a robust inference on whether paternal care in L. augur and E. nigropunctata has arisen independently or not. If the latter, the two new cases of paternal care we describe here represent the fifth event of independent evolution of this rare behavioral trait in Heteroptera.

  15. The Seascale childhood leukaemia cases - the mutation rates implied by paternal preconceptional radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that paternal preconceptional radiation exposure is an insufficient explanation of the excess of leukaemia cases among children born in the West Cumbrian village of Seascale. Less than 10% of the children whose fathers were employed at the Sellafield nuclear installation and received a dose of radiation prior to their conception were born in Seascale; but the statistical association between paternal preconceptional radiation dose and leukaemia is apparent only in these Seascale-born children. This paper explores the speculative proposition that the Seascale leukaemia cases are caused by a strong interaction between paternal preconceptional irradiation and exposure after conception to a specific co-factor which is confined to Seascale. This hypothesis is demonstrated to be biologically implausible, the implied rate of transmitted radiation-induced leukaemogenic mutations being far beyond the established rates for hereditary effects. (Author)

  16. Fecundity of paternal and maternal non-parental female relatives of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis.

  17. Fecundity of paternal and maternal non-parental female relatives of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Pellizzari, Elena

    2012-01-01

    A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts) from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis. PMID:23227237

  18. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.

  19. Counseling Sexual Assault Victims Who Become Pregnant after the Assault: Benefits and Limitations of First-Trimester Paternity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lee P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a patient with a history of infertility who, after becoming pregnant following a sexual assault, used chorionic villus sampling and DNA studies for paternity identification. Discusses risks and potential problems that accompany prenatal paternity testing. Ethical, moral, emotional, and religious factors should be considered in the…

  20. Results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, C.; Langkjær, Rikke B.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup;

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and an alleged father. The laboratories were encouraged to answer...

  1. Influence of postzygotic reproductive isolation on the interspecific transmission of the paternal sex ratio chromosome in Trichogramma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, G.S.; Stouthamer, R.

    2006-01-01

    The paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is a supernumerary chromosome that causes the destruction of the paternal chromosome set in the first mitosis in a fertilized egg. It is known from parasitoid wasps in the genera Nasonia and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera). In these haplodiploids, the egg fertilize

  2. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem, Depression and Life-Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevsky, Avidan; Schlechter, Melissa; Netter, Sarah; Keehn, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Our study examined variations in adolescent adjustment as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included 272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological…

  3. Exploring the efficacy of paternity and kinship testing based on single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Shao-Kang; Liu, Ya-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Qi; Bo, Xiao-Chen; Li, Zhen; Chen, Ying; Ni, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are conventional genetic markers typically used for paternity and kinship testing. As supplementary markers of STRs, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have less discrimination power but broader applicability to degraded samples. The rapid improvement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and multiplex amplification technologies also make it possible now to simultaneously identify dozens or even hundreds of SNP loci in a single pool. However, few studies have been endeavored to kinship testing based on SNP loci. In this study, we genotyped 90 autosomal human identity SNP loci with NGS, and investigated their testing efficacies based on the likelihood ratio model in eight pedigree scenarios involving paternity, half/full-sibling, uncle/nephew, and first-cousin relationships. We found that these SNPs might be sufficient to discriminate paternity and full-sibling, but impractical for more distant relatives such as uncle and cousin. Furthermore, we conducted an in silico study to obtain the theoretical tendency of how testing efficacy varied with increasing number of SNP loci. For each testing battery in a given pedigree scenario, we obtained distributions of logarithmic likelihood ratio for both simulated relatives and unrelated controls. The proportion of the overlapping area between the two distributions was defined as a false testing level (FTL) to evaluate the testing efficacy. We estimated that 85, 127, 491, and 1,858 putative SNP loci were required to discriminate paternity, full-sibling, half-sibling/uncle-nephew, and first-cousin (FTL, 0.1%), respectively. To test a half-sibling or nephew, an additional uncle relative could be included to decrease the required number of putative SNP loci to ∼320 (FTL, 0.1%). As a systematic computation of paternity and kinship testing based only on SNPs, our results could be informative for further studies and applications on paternity and kinship testing using SNP loci. PMID:26952733

  4. Clinical impact of postprogression survival for overall survival in elderly patients (aged 75 years or older with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Yoshino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of first-line single-agent chemotherapy on overall survival (OS might be confounded by subsequent treatments in elderly patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate whether progression-free survival (PFS, postprogression survival (PPS, or tumor response might be a valid surrogate endpoint for OS in this patient population. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 58 elderly patients with advanced NSCLC, who received first-line single-agent cytotoxic chemotherapy at our institution between October 2003 and November 2013. The relationships of PFS, PPS, and tumor response with OS were individually analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 46 men and 12 women with a median age of 79 years (range: 75-87 years. There were 30 adenocarcinomas, 22 squamous cell carcinomas, and 6 other histologic types with 1 stage IIIA, 9 IIIB, and 48 IV cases. The performance status (PS scores were 0, 1, and 2 in 18, 35, and 5 patients, respectively. The median PFS and OS were 2.8 and 5.4 months, respectively. Our analyses revealed a strong correlation of PPS and PFS with OS, whereas that between tumor shrinkage and OS was weak. Tumor stage and PS after initial treatment were significantly associated with PPS. Individual analysis indicated that PPS might serve as a surrogate for OS in elderly patients with advanced NSCLC receiving first-line single-agent chemotherapy. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the disease course after progression following first-line single-agent chemotherapy might influence the OS of elderly patients with advanced NSCLC.

  5. Extra-pair paternity in the long-tailed finch Poephila acuticauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Erica P; Rollins, Lee A; Holleley, Clare E; Griffith, Simon C

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of passerine birds are socially monogamous, true genetic monogamy is rare, with extra-pair paternity (EPP) occurring in almost 90% of surveyed socially monogamous species. We present the first molecular data on the genetic breeding system of the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda, a grass finch endemic to the tropical northern savannah of Australia. Although the species forms socially monogamous pair bonds during the breeding season, we found that extra-pair males sired 12.8% of 391 offspring, in 25.7% of 101 broods. Our findings provide only the second estimate of extra-pair paternity in the estrildid finch family. PMID:26788429

  6. Next generation sequencing: Improved resolution for paternal/maternal duos analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Kuang, Jin-Zhi; Nie, Tong-Gang; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    In the case of two mismatches observed in alleged parent-offspring pairs, there is doubt as to whether there is an exclusion of the putative parent or the existence of two mutations. Here, we report on four cases with two mismatches in paternal/maternal duos based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) results. The analyzed next generation sequencing (NGS) results were compared with 20 autosomal STRs derived from previous CE-based analysis. In summary, the NGS samples used offered comprehensive information of different types of markers that can improve resolutions for paternal/maternal duos analysis. PMID:27347656

  7. High variation in multiple paternity of domestic cats (Felis catus L.) in relation to environmental conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Say, L.; Pontier, D; Natoli, E

    1999-01-01

    Paternity was analysed in two domestic cat (Felis catus) populations differing in habitat structure (rural versus urban) and density (234 cats km-2 versus 2,091 cats km-2). A total of 312 offspring, 76 mothers and 65 putative fathers were typed at nine microsatellite loci in the two populations. Our data showed a high rate of multiple paternity in the urban population (70-83% of litters with more than one father), whereas it was much lower in the rural population (0-22% of litters with more t...

  8. Elimination of paternal mitochondrial DNA in intraspecific crosses during early mouse embryogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneda, H.; Hayashi, J.; Takahama, S; Taya, C; Lindahl, K F; Yonekawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    To examine whether mtDNA is uni- or biparentally transmitted in mice, we developed an assay that can detect sperm mtDNA in a single mouse embryo. In intraspecific hybrids of Mus musculus, paternal mtDNA was detected only through the early pronucleus stage, and its disappearance co-incided with loss of membrane potential in sperm-derived mitochondria. By contrast, in interspecific hybrids between M. musculus and Mus spretus, paternal mtDNA was detected throughout development from pronucleus st...

  9. Absence of a Paternally Inherited FOXP2 Gene in Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia

    OpenAIRE

    Feuk, Lars; Kalervo, Aino; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Skaug, Jennifer,; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Finucane, Brenda; Hartung, Danielle; Innes, Micheil; Kerem, Batsheva; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata J.; Rivlin, Joseph; Roberts, Wendy; Senman, Lili; Summers, Anne; Szatmari, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), but only a few cases have been described. We characterize 13 patients with DVD-5 with hemizygous paternal deletions spanning the FOXP2 gene, 1 with a translocation interrupting FOXP2, and the remaining 7 with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (UPD7), who were also given a diagnosis of Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS). Of these individuals with DVD, all 12 for whom parental DNA was available showed absence of a paternal copy...

  10. The couple that sings together stays together: duetting, aggression and extra-pair paternity in a promiscuous bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Daniel T; Greig, Emma I; Webster, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    When individuals mate outside the pair bond, males should employ behaviours such as aggression or vocal displays (e.g. duetting) that help assure paternity of the offspring they care for. We tested whether male paternity was associated with aggression or duetting in the red-backed fairy-wren, a species exhibiting high rates of extra-pair paternity. During simulated territorial intrusions, aggression and duetting were variable among and repeatable within males, suggesting behavioural consistency of individuals. Males with quicker and stronger duet responses were cuckolded less often than males with slower and weaker responses. In contrast, physical aggression was not correlated with male paternity. These results suggest that either acoustic mate guarding or male-female vocal negotiations via duetting lead to increased paternity assurance, whereas physical aggression does not. PMID:26911342

  11. Examining genotypic variation in autism spectrum disorder and its relationship to parental age and phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier DA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available David A Geier,1,2 Janet K Kern,1,3 Lisa K Sykes,2 Mark R Geier1,2 1Research Department, The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, 2Research Department, CoMeD, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, 3Research Department, CONEM US Autism Research Group, Allen, TX, USA Background: Previous studies on genetic testing of chromosomal abnormalities in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD found that ~80% have negative genetic test results (NGTRs and ~20% have positive genetic test results (PGTRs, of which ~7% were probable de novo mutations (PDNMs. Research suggests that parental age is a risk factor for an ASD diagnosis. This study examined genotypic variation in ASD and its relationship to parental age and phenotype.Methods: Phenotype was derived from detailed clinical information, and genotype was derived from high-resolution blood chromosome and blood whole-genome copy number variant genetic testing on a consecutive cohort (born: 1983–2009 of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N=218.Results: Among the subjects examined, 80.3% had NGTRs and 19.7% had PGTRs, of which 6.9% had PDNMs. NGTR subjects were born more recently (the risk of PDNMs decreasing by 12% per more recent birth year and tended to have an increased male–female ratio compared to PDNM subjects. PDNM subjects had significantly increased mean parental age and paternal age at subject’s birth (the risk of a PDNM increasing by 7%–8% per year of parental or paternal age compared to NGTR subjects. PGTR and NGTR subjects showed significant improvements in speech/language/communication with increasing age. PGTR subjects showed significant improvements in sociability, a core feature of an ASD diagnosis, with increasing age, whereas NGTR subjects showed significant worsening in sociability with increasing age.Conclusion: This study helps to elucidate different phenotypic ASD subtypes and may even indicate the need for differential diagnostic classifications. Keywords: genotype, phenotype

  12. Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao; Nakazawa, Shinpei [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

  13. Second-generation non-invasive high-throughput DNA sequencing technology in the screening of Down's syndrome in advanced maternal age women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, JIAO; ZHANG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using non-invasive DNA testing technology in screening Down's syndrome among women of advanced maternal age (AMA) and to provide evidence for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome. With a double-blind design, 8 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 87 women aged ≥35 years after 12 weeks of pregnancy. All cases were recorded with unique identification cards with clinical details and followed up until delivery. All the non-invasive prenatal testing results were confirmed by amniotic fluid fetal karyotyping (the gold standard of aneuploidy test), follow-up examination by neonatologists or neonatal blood karyotyping. The sensitivity, specificity and other indicators of non-invasive DNA testing technology were calculated based on the data of 87 women of AMA. Among the 87 women of AMA, 5 were cases with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (3 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 18 and 1 case of 47, XXX). The sensitivity and specificity reached 100% for trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and 47, XXX. The present study supports that non-invasive DNA testing is a useful method of AMA screening of Down's syndrome with 100% accuracy. Therefore, it can be used as an important alternative screening method for Down's syndrome in women of AMA. PMID:27313855

  14. Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

  15. Falls in advanced old age: recalled falls and prospective follow-up of over-90-year-olds in the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Fiona E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "oldest old" are now the fastest growing section of most western populations, yet there are scarcely any data concerning even the common problem of falls amongst the very old. Prospective data collection is encouraged as the most reliable method for researching older people's falls, though in clinical practice guidelines advise taking a history of any recalled falls. This study set out to inform service planning by describing the epidemiology of falls in advanced old age using both retrospectively and prospectively collected falls data. Methods Design: Re-survey of over-90-year-olds in a longitudinal cohort study – cross-sectional interview and intensive 12-month follow-up. Participants and setting: 90 women and 20 men participating in a population-based cohort (aged 91–105 years, in care-homes and community-dwelling recruited from representative general practices in Cambridge, UK Measurements: Prospective falls data were collected using fall calendars and telephone follow-up for one year after cross-sectional survey including fall history. Results 58% were reported to have fallen at least once in the previous year and 60% in the 1-year follow-up. The proportion reported to have fallen more than once was lower using retrospective recall of the past year than prospective reports gathered the following year (34% versus 45%, as were fall rates (1.6 and 2.8 falls/person-year respectively. Repeated falls in the past year were more highly predictive of falls during the following year – IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.6–8.7 – than just one – IRR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.3, using negative binomial regression. Only 1/5 reportedly did not fall during either the year before or after interview. Conclusion Fall rates in this representative sample of over-90-year-olds are even higher than previous reports from octogenarians. Recalled falls last year, particularly repeated falls, strongly predicted falls during follow-up. Similar proportions

  16. Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand -Te Puāwaitanga o Nga Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu, LiLACS NZ: Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayman Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people of advanced age (85 years and older is increasing and health systems may be challenged by increasing health-related needs. Recent overseas evidence suggests relatively high levels of wellbeing in this group, however little is known about people of advanced age, particularly the indigenous Māori, in Aotearoa, New Zealand. This paper outlines the methods of the study Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand. The study aimed to establish predictors of successful advanced ageing and understand the relative importance of health, frailty, cultural, social & economic factors to successful ageing for Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand. Methods/design A total population cohort study of those of advanced age. Two cohorts of equal size, Māori aged 80–90 and non-Māori aged 85, oversampling to enable sufficient power, were enrolled. A defined geographic region, living in the Bay of Plenty and Lakes District Health Board areas of New Zealand, defined the sampling frame. Rūnanga (Māori tribal organisations and Primary Health Organisations were subcontracted to recruit on behalf of the University. Measures - a comprehensive interview schedule was piloted and administered by a trained interviewer using standardised techniques. Socio-demographic and personal history included tribal affiliation for Māori and participation in cultural practices; physical and psychological health status used standardised validated research tools; health behaviours included smoking, alcohol use and nutrition risk; and environmental data included local amenities, type of housing and neighbourhood. Social network structures and social support exchanges are recorded. Measures of physical function; gait speed, leg strength and balance, were completed. Everyday interests and activities, views on ageing and financial interests complete the interview. A physical assessment by a trained nurse included

  17. Paternal involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on adolescent outcomes and maternal depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervan, S.; Granic, I.; Solomon, T.; Blokland, K.; Ferguson, B.

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from fi

  18. Academic Stressors and Anxiety in Children: The Role of Paternal Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace S. M.; Yeung, K. C.; Wong, Daniel F. K.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of paternal support in the relation between academic stress and the mental health of primary school children in Hong Kong. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 1,171 fifth and sixth graders. The results indicated that academic stress was a risk factor that heightened student anxiety levels and that parental…

  19. Preconception paternal occupational radiation exposure and the risk of childhood leukaemia: a paradox within an enigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the evidence leading to the theory that preconception paternal occupational radiation exposure is a factor involved in the incidence of childhood leukaemia near nuclear facilities. Evidence is also presented which casts doubt on this theory (UK)

  20. Integrating the Perspective of Vulnerable Heterosexual Male Adolescents to Prevent Premature Paternity and Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manseau, Helene; Blais, Martin; Engler, Kim; Bosse, Marie-Andre

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the perspective of vulnerable Canadian (Quebecker) adolescents defined as such on account of their numerous experiences with potential or actual fatherhood or exposure to sexually transmitted infection. The interviews allowed youth to talk about their experiences with paternity, their sex lives and their views on sex education.…

  1. Sperm length variation as a predictor of extrapair paternity in passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lifjeld, J. T.; Laskemoen, T.; Kleven, O.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Robertson, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 10 (2010), e13456. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : postcopulatory sexual selection * pair paternity * intraspecific variation * molecular phylogeny * mating systems * zebra finch Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2010

  2. In-Hospital Paternity Establishment and Father Involvement in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincy, Ronald; Garfinkel, Irwin; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of in-hospital paternity establishment, a federal requirement since 1993. We avoid biases in previous studies by using a national sample of nonmarital births (N= 3,254), by including detailed controls for characteristics of unwed mothers and previously unavailable controls for characteristics of fathers, and…

  3. Paternity Adjudication: In the Best Interests of the Out-of-Wedlock Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols-Casebolt, Ann

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the claim that little has been done by health, social work, and educational professionals to speak up about the fact that children born out-of-wedlock lack the economic and psychological benefits that attach to the right to legal paternity. (RWB)

  4. 78 FR 26507 - Assistance to and Support of Dependents; Paternity Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy 32 CFR Part 733 Assistance to and Support of Dependents; Paternity Complaints CFR Correction In Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 700 to 799, revised as of July 1, 2012,...

  5. Paternal/Maternal Attachment, Peer Support, Social Expectations of Peer Interaction, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how paternal and maternal attachment might relate to adolescents' peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms; 1,144 8th graders in Taiwan participated in the study. The relationships were examined through a structural equating modeling. Consistent with theoretical…

  6. "I've Fixed Things Up": Paternal Identity of Substance-Dependent Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Katz, Noam

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with how substance-dependent men perceive their paternal identity. Data were based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 Israeli fathers who were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Content analysis revealed that participants had undergone a process of parental identity formation composed of four distinct stages:…

  7. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  8. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  9. Paternal effects on early life history traits in Northwest Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll, M.-M.; Peck, M.A.; Butts, Ian A.E.;

    2013-01-01

    overall 'weaker' performance of offspring than Female 2, indicating that deviances can stem from differences in female quality. Nevertheless, paternal contributions to embryonic and larval development were still evident despite differences in female quality, showing that sire effects on offspring are...

  10. Early Determinants of Maternal and Paternal Harsh Discipline: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; van IJzendoorn, M. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Research described risk factors for maternal use of harsh discipline, but knowledge about determinants of paternal harsh discipline is lacking. This study aimed to identify determinants of harsh discipline and whether this differed between mothers and fathers. Harsh disciplining practices were self-reported by Dutch parents of 3-year-old children.…

  11. Multiple paternity in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-López, María José; Chaskelson, Saskia; Gompper, Matthew E; Eggert, Lori S

    2012-06-01

    The reproductive strategies and variation in reproductive success of ticks are poorly understood. We determined variation in multiple paternity in the American dog tick Dermancentor variabilis . In total, 48 blood-engorged female ticks and 22 male companion ticks were collected from 13 raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) hosts. In the laboratory, 56.3% of blood-engorged females laid eggs, of which 37.0% hatched or showed signs of development. We examined the presence of multiple paternity in the ensuing clutches by genotyping groups of eggs and larvae at 5 microsatellite loci and subtracting the known maternal alleles, thereby identifying male-contributed alleles. Seventy-five percent of the clutches presented multiple paternity, with a mode of 2 fathers siring the clutch. Males associated with the females on the host always sired some offspring. In 1 case, a male was the sire of clutches derived from 2 females, indicating both polygyny and polyandry may occur for this species. These results, combined with those of several other recent studies, suggest that multiple paternity might be frequent for ixodid ticks. PMID:22257158

  12. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro;

    2015-01-01

    ) on the females reproductive output, and (3) whether mating is random or some individuals have a higher than average chance of fertilizing or being fertilized (super individuals). We show that multiple paternity is common in this copepod species, that females benefit from multiple matings by increased...

  13. Does father know best? A formal model of the paternal influence on childhood social anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bögels; E.C. Perotti

    2011-01-01

    We explore paternal social anxiety as a specific risk factor for childhood social anxiety in a rational optimization model. In the course of human evolution, fathers specialized in external protection (e.g., confronting the external world) while mothers specialized in internal protection (e.g., prov

  14. Effects of Paternal Involvement on Infant Preferences for Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of the interaction of 45 Swedish infants with their mothers and fathers revealed that degree of paternal involvement had no effect on preferences displayed on measures of attachment and affiliative behaviors. At both eight and 16 months, infants showed clear preferences for their mothers over their fathers. (Author/RH)

  15. Paternal Lake Ontario fish consumption and risk of conception delay, New York state angler cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, G.M.; Mendola, P.; Vena, J.E.; Kostyniak, P.; Greizerstein, H.; Olson, J.; Stephen, F.D. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine; Sever, L.E. [Battelle, Seattle, WA (United States). Centers for Public Health and Evaluation

    1999-02-01

    The aquatic ecosystems of the Great Lakes are contaminated with a variety of compounds, some of which are considered reproductive toxicants. Few studies of paternal fish consumption and reproductive endpoints have been undertaken and serve as the impetus for study. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 2,445 female members of the New York State Angler Cohort (82% response) to update reproductive profiles and to ascertain specific information on time-to-pregnancy (TTP). The study sample includes women with a known TTP and paternal fish consumption data (n = 785). Conception delay was defined as more than 12 cycles of unprotected intercourse to achieve pregnancy. Paternal fish consumption was assessed by three measures: frequency of Lake Ontario sport fish meals in 1991, numbers of years eating fish, and estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. Adjusted ORs for number of fish meals, based on logistic regression, ranged from 0.69 to 0.80; from 0.61 to .82 for number of years eating fish; and from 0.44 to 1.14 for quartiles of estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. All confidence intervals included one. These findings suggest that, based on paternal self-reports, Lake Ontario fish consumption does not increase the risk of conception delay.

  16. Paternal overweight is associated with increased breast cancer risk in daughters in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelles, Camile Castilho; Carney, Elissa; Clarke, Johan; Nguyen, Nguyen M.; Yin, Chao; Jin, Lu; Cruz, M. Idalia; Ong, Thomas Prates; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; de Assis, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    While many studies have shown that maternal weight and nutrition in pregnancy affects offspring’s breast cancer risk, no studies have investigated the impact of paternal body weight on daughters’ risk of this disease. Here, we show that diet-induced paternal overweight around the time of conception can epigenetically reprogram father’s germ-line and modulate their daughters’ birth weight and likelihood of developing breast cancer, using a mouse model. Increased body weight was associated with changes in the miRNA expression profile in paternal sperm. Daughters of overweight fathers had higher rates of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors which were associated with delayed mammary gland development and alterations in mammary miRNA expression. The hypoxia signaling pathway, targeted by miRNAs down-regulated in daughters of overweight fathers, was activated in their mammary tissues and tumors. This study provides evidence that paternal peri-conceptional body weight may affect daughters’ mammary development and breast cancer risk and warrants further studies in other animal models and humans. PMID:27339599

  17. Paternity determination in the adder (Vipera berus)--DNA fingerprinting or random amplified polymorphic DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelström, H; Höggren, M

    1994-08-01

    We performed breeding experiments with adders (Vipera berus) to determine whether multiple matings may result in multiple paternity. DNA fingerprinting of mothers, their offspring, and possible fathers using a polydinucleotide probe [(TG)n] gave a low overall similarity between unrelated individuals (0.18 +/- 0.07; SD) and an average of 17 bands that were male-specific. In no cases were there fewer than seven paternal-specific bands present in the fingerprint of an offspring, enabling us unambiguously to identify the biological father among five males. Multiple paternity was detected in the investigated broods with offspring sired exclusively by the captive males. PCR amplification of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 16 decamer primers gave 76 bands and an average similarity of 0.95 (+/- 0.01) between the males, which were collected at different, geographically well-separated localities. Although there were on average 8.3 (+/- 1.9) bands that differ between males in pairwise comparisons, there were only 1.9 (+/- 1.1) bands per male that are specific for a particular individual. Thus, RAPDs are adequate for paternity determination only in experiments with a low number of males, whereas DNA fingerprinting offers sufficient information to discriminate between large numbers of putative fathers. PMID:7826312

  18. Maternal and paternal transmission of type 2 diabetes : influence of diet, lifestyle and adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Corpeleijn, E.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Stolk, R. P.; Spijkerman, A. M. W.; van der A, D. L.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Beulens, J. W. J.; van, der A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Transmission of family history of type 2 diabetes to the next generation is stronger for maternal than paternal diabetes in some populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this difference is explained by diet, lifestyle factors and/or adiposity. Methods. We analy

  19. Prescription of Protective Paternalism for Men in Romantic and Work Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlet, Marie; Dumont, Muriel; Delacollette, Nathalie; Dardenne, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral prescription specifies how people ought to act. Five studies investigated prescription for men of protective paternalism, a particular form of benevolent sexism, depending on contextual and individual factors. In Studies 1 and 2, female participants prescribed for men more protective paternalistic behavior toward women in a romantic…

  20. Maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting as determinants of sport participation of adolescents with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sluijs, E.M.F. van

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with a

  1. Distinct preoptic-BST nuclei dissociate paternal and infanticidal behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Tokita, Kenichi; Yoshihara, Chihiro; Amano, Taiju; Esposito, Gianluca; Huang, Arthur J; Yu, Lily M Y; Odaka, Yuri; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; McHugh, Thomas J; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2015-11-01

    Paternal behavior is not innate but arises through social experience. After mating and becoming fathers, male mice change their behavior toward pups from infanticide to paternal care. However, the precise brain areas and circuit mechanisms connecting these social behaviors are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that the c-Fos expression pattern in the four nuclei of the preoptic-bed nuclei of stria terminalis (BST) region could robustly discriminate five kinds of previous social behavior of male mice (parenting, infanticide, mating, inter-male aggression, solitary control). Specifically, neuronal activation in the central part of the medial preoptic area (cMPOA) and rhomboid nucleus of the BST (BSTrh) retroactively detected paternal and infanticidal motivation with more than 95% accuracy. Moreover, cMPOA lesions switched behavior in fathers from paternal to infanticidal, while BSTrh lesions inhibited infanticide in virgin males. The projections from cMPOA to BSTrh were largely GABAergic. Optogenetic or pharmacogenetic activation of cMPOA attenuated infanticide in virgin males. Taken together, this study identifies the preoptic-BST nuclei underlying social motivations in male mice and reveals unexpected complexity in the circuit connecting these nuclei. PMID:26423604

  2. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  3. Maternally and Paternally Silenced Imprinted Genes Differ in Their Intron Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Moore

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes exhibit silencing of one of the parental alleles during embryonic development. In a previous study imprinted genes were found to have reduced intron content relative to a non-imprinted control set (Hurst et al., 1996. However, due to the small sample size, it was not possible to analyse the source of this effect. Here, we re-investigate this observation using larger datasets of imprinted and control (non-imprinted genes that allow us to consider mouse and human, and maternally and paternally silenced, imprinted genes separately. We find that, in the human and mouse, there is reduced intron content in the maternally silenced imprinted genes relative to a non-imprinted control set. Among imprinted genes, a strong bias is also observed in the distribution of intronless genes, which are found exclusively in the maternally silenced dataset. The paternally silenced dataset in the human is not different to the control set; however, the mouse paternally silenced dataset has more introns than the control group. A direct comparison of mouse maternally and paternally silenced imprinted gene datasets shows that they differ significantly with respect to a variety of intron-related parameters. We discuss a variety of possible explanations for our observations.

  4. Paternal Depression and Risk for Child Neglect in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…

  5. Male and female behaviour and extra-pair paternity in the wheatear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie; Burke; Whitney; Thompson

    1998-03-01

    Behavioural observations and DNA fingerprinting were used to determine the relationship between male and female behaviours and levels of extra-pair paternity in the wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe. Behavioural observations were consistent with the hypothesis that males attempted to ensure paternity by mate guarding, while pursuing extra-pair copulations (EPCs) primarily outside the fertile period of their pair female. The intensity of guarding varied with time of season and was greater at late nests. However, although males on territories with late nests also experienced high intrusion rates, the intensity of guarding was influenced more by the operational sex ratio (which was female skewed at early nests) than by intrusion rates per se. We suggest that early breeding males adopted a strategy of territorial defence to ensure paternity, as opposed to guarding their female directly (which late breeding males did), to capitalize on the increased opportunities to pursue EPCs in neighbouring territories. Females were less conspicuous than males in their pursuit of EPCs, were never seen off territory or observed to solicit extra-pair males directly, and rejected the majority of EPCs. The frequency of extra-pair paternity was 11% of 73 offspring, in 29% of 17 broods, and was not correlated with the intensity of guarding. Female cooperation appeared to be important for successful copulation, and extra-pair paternity is therefore likely to be a consequence of solicited, or at least accepted, EPCs. We discuss why females might have participated in EPCs. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9514681

  6. Molecular evidence for high frequency of multiple paternity in a freshwater shrimp species Caridina ensifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Hua Yue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species.

  7. Mouse zygotes respond to severe sperm DNA damage by delaying paternal DNA replication and embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna E Gawecka

    Full Text Available Mouse zygotes do not activate apoptosis in response to DNA damage. We previously reported a unique form of inducible sperm DNA damage termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF. SCF mirrors some aspects of somatic cell apoptosis in that the DNA degradation is mediated by reversible double strand breaks caused by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B followed by irreversible DNA degradation by a nuclease(s. Here, we created zygotes using spermatozoa induced to undergo SCF (SCF zygotes and tested how they responded to moderate and severe paternal DNA damage during the first cell cycle. We found that the TUNEL assay was not sensitive enough to identify the breaks caused by SCF in zygotes in either case. However, paternal pronuclei in both groups stained positively for γH2AX, a marker for DNA damage, at 5 hrs after fertilization, just before DNA synthesis, while the maternal pronuclei were negative. We also found that both pronuclei in SCF zygotes with moderate DNA damage replicated normally, but paternal pronuclei in the SCF zygotes with severe DNA damage delayed the initiation of DNA replication by up to 12 hrs even though the maternal pronuclei had no discernable delay. Chromosomal analysis of both groups confirmed that the paternal DNA was degraded after S-phase while the maternal pronuclei formed normal chromosomes. The DNA replication delay caused a marked retardation in progression to the 2-cell stage, and a large portion of the embryos arrested at the G2/M border, suggesting that this is an important checkpoint in zygotic development. Those embryos that progressed through the G2/M border died at later stages and none developed to the blastocyst stage. Our data demonstrate that the zygote responds to sperm DNA damage through a non-apoptotic mechanism that acts by slowing paternal DNA replication and ultimately leads to arrest in embryonic development.

  8. Vascular Effects of Advanced Glycation End-Products: Content of Immunohistochemically Detected AGEs in Radial Artery Samples as a Predictor for Arterial Calcification and Cardiovascular Risk in Asymptomatic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Janda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Our aim was to determine whether vascular deposition of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs is associated with arterial calcification and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients and to assess the relationships between vascular content of AGEs and selected clinical and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods. The study comprised 54 CKD patients (33 hemodialyzed, 21 predialyzed. Examined parameters included BMI, incidence of diabetes, plasma fasting glucose, AGEs, soluble receptor for AGEs and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging, serum C-reactive protein (hsCRP, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and fetuin-A. Fragments of radial artery obtained during creation of hemodialysis access were stained for calcifications using alizarin red. AGEs deposits were identified immunohistochemically and their relative content was quantified. Results. Vascular content of AGEs was positively correlated with BMI, hsCRP, fetuin-A, PAI-1, and DPPH scavenging in simple regression; only fetuin-A was an independent predictor in multiple regression. There was a significant positive trend in the intensity of AGEs immunostaining among patients with grades 1, 2, and 3 calcifications. AGEs immunostaining intensity predicted 3-year cardiovascular mortality irrespective of patient’s age. Conclusions. The present study demonstrates an involvement of AGEs in the development of medial arterial calcification and the impact of arterial AGE deposition on cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients.

  9. Introduction: Childhood implications of parental aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedars, Marcelle I

    2015-06-01

    Men and women are increasingly delaying childbearing to the late 30s, the 40s and beyond. The implications of this societal change on childhood health and well-being have only recently been a focus of research. There are known increased perinatal risks associated with increasing maternal age, while paternal age seems to have a potentially greater negative impact on childhood health. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the aging of sperm and eggs, and how these changes impact offspring, is a critical next step as we work to help patients build healthy families. PMID:25936233

  10. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it di...

  11. An Investigation Of The Use Of Song And Territory Defense In Paternity Guarding Behavior Of The Carolina Wren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, P.; Neudorf, D. L.

    2005-05-01

    A banded population of Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus ludovicianus) was observed at Sam Houston State University's Center for Biological Field Studies in Walker Co., Texas to determine if males use paternity guarding behavior. Paternity guards are used by males to prevent the loss of paternity due to copulations that occur outside of the pair bond i.e. extra-pair copulations (EPC's). Song behavior and territory size were quantified over the breeding cycle for 5 males. Males sang at higher rates when their mates were fertile (nest building and egg laying stages) than when their mates were nonfertile (incubation and nestling stages). Males also defended larger territories during their mates' fertile stages. The results are suggestive of a paternity guard function for song and territory defense in the Carolina Wren.

  12. Utility of morphological and molecular techniques for determination of paternity in two subspecies of Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the paternity of F1 progeny using morphological and molecular methods in Diabrotica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) subspecies: Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber, also known as spotted cucumber beetle and D. undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim, als...

  13. Results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Susanne Lunøe; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted;

    2009-01-01

    Here we present the results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and two alleged fathers. The laboratories were encouraged to...... VNTR systems investigated with RFLP, 49 autosomal SNPs and 11 mtDNA SNPs. The rate of typing and reporting errors was 0.1%....

  14. Paternal mtDNA and Maleness Are Co-Inherited but Not Causally Linked in Mytilid Mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Kenchington, Ellen L.; Hamilton, Lorraine; Cogswell, Andrew; Zouros, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    Background In marine mussels of the genus Mytilus there are two mitochondrial genomes. One is transmitted through the female parent, which is the normal transmission route in animals, and the other is transmitted through the male parent which is an unusual phenomenon. In males the germ cell line is dominated by the paternal mitochondrial genome and the somatic cell line by the maternal. Research to date has not allowed a clear answer to the question of whether inheritance of the paternal geno...

  15. Paternal responsiveness is associated with, but not mediated by reduced neophobia in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chauke, Miyetani; de Jong, Trynke R.; Garland, Theodore; Saltzman, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Hormones associated with pregnancy and parturition have been implicated in facilitating the onset of maternal behavior via reductions in neophobia, anxiety, and stress responsiveness. To determine whether the onset of paternal behavior has similar associations in biparental male California mice (Peromyscus californicus), we compared paternal responsiveness, neophobia (novel-object test), and anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus maze, EPM) in isolated virgins (housed alone), paired virgins (ho...

  16. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Ko Cynthia W; Nicolaidis Christina; Saha Somnath; Koepsell Thomas D

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW) across different racial groups. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-bas...

  17. Paternal mitochondrial destruction after fertilization is mediated by a common endocytic and autophagic pathway in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Yoav; Gal, Liron; Kalifa, Yossi; Ravid, Liat; Elazar, Zvulun; Arama, Eli

    2014-05-12

    Almost all animals contain mitochondria of maternal origin only, but the exact mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still vague. We investigated the fate of Drosophila paternal mitochondria after fertilization. We demonstrate that the sperm mitochondrial derivative (MD) is rapidly eliminated in a stereotypical process dubbed paternal mitochondrial destruction (PMD). PMD is initiated by a network of vesicles resembling multivesicular bodies and displaying common features of the endocytic and autophagic pathways. These vesicles associate with the sperm tail and mediate the disintegration of its plasma membrane. Subsequently, the MD separates from the axoneme and breaks into smaller fragments, which are then sequestered by autophagosomes for degradation in lysosomes. We further provide evidence for the involvement of the ubiquitin pathway and the autophagy receptor p62 in this process. Finally, we show that the ubiquitin ligase Parkin is not involved in PMD, implying a divergence from the autophagic pathway of damaged mitochondria. PMID:24823375

  18. Establishment of paternity testing system using microsatellite markers in Chinese Holstein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Tian; Dongxiao Sun; Yuan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of microsatellite markers in paternity testing among Chinese Holstein, 30 microsatellite loci were used to differentiate 330 Chinese Holstein genotypes, according to the calculation of the allele frequency, number of alleles, effective number of alleles, genetic heterozygosity, polymorphic information content (PIC), and the exclusion probability in this cattle population. The results demonstrated that the exclusion probability ranged from 0.620 in locus BM1818 to 0.265 in locus INRA005 with the average of 0.472 and 11 microsatellite markers exceeding 0.5. The combined exclusion probability of nine microsatellite markers was over 0.99. The result showed that paternity testing of Chinese Holstein was basically resolved using the nine microsatellite markers selected.

  19. Ascertaining maternal and paternal lineage within Musa by chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA RFLP analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreel, F; Gonzalez de Leon, D; Lagoda, P; Lanaud, C; Jenny, C; Horry, J P; Tezenas du Montcel, H

    2002-08-01

    In banana, the maternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and paternal transmission of the mitochondrial DNA provides an exceptional opportunity for studying the maternal and paternal lineage of clones. In the present study, RFLP combined with hybridization of heterologous mitochondrial and chloroplastic probes have been used to characterize 71 wild accessions and 131 diploid and 103 triploid cultivated clones. In additon to Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, other species from the four Musa sections were studied to investigate their contribution to the origin of cultivated bananas. These molecular analyses enable the classification of the Musa complex to be discussed. Results ascertain relationships among and between the wild accessions and the mono- and interspecific diploid and triploid bananas, particularly for the acuminata genome. Parthenocarpic varieties are shown to be linked to M. acuminata banksii and M. acuminata errans, thus suggesting that the first center of domestication was in the Philippines - New Guinea area. PMID:12175071

  20. Exploiting synteny in Cucumis for mapping of Psm: a unique locus controlling paternal mitochondrial sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faifi, Sulieman; Meyer, Jenelle D F; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Monforte, Antonio J; Havey, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    The three genomes of cucumber show different modes of transmission, nuclear DNA bi-parentally, plastid DNA maternally, and mitochondrial DNA paternally. The mosaic (MSC) phenotype of cucumber is associated with mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and is a valuable tool for studying mitochondrial transmission. A nuclear locus (Psm) has been identified in cucumber that controls sorting of paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNA. Comparative sequencing and mapping of cucumber and melon revealed extensive synteny on the recombinational and sequence levels near Psm and placed this locus on linkage group R of cucumber and G10 of melon. However, the cucumber genomic region near Psm was surprisingly monomorphic with an average of one SNP every 25 kb, requiring that a family from a more diverse cross is produced for fine mapping and eventual cloning of Psm. The cucumber ortholog of Arabidopsis mismatch repair (MSH1) was cloned and it segregated independently of Psm, revealing that this candidate gene is not Psm. PMID:18521565

  1. Impact of a chromosome X STR Decaplex in deficiency paternity cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Filho, Aluisio; Ferreira, Samuel; Oliveira, Silviene F.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency paternity cases, characterized by the absence of the alleged father, are a challenge for forensic genetics. Here we present four cases with a female child and a deceased alleged father in which the analysis of a set of 21 or 22 autosomal STRs (AS STRs) produced results within a range of doubt when genotyping relatives of the alleged father. Aiming to increase the Paternity Index (PI) and obtain more reliable results, a set of 10 X-linked STR markers, developed by the Spanish and Portuguese Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG), was then added. Statistical analysis substantially shifted the results towards the alleged fatherhood in all four cases, with more dramatic changes when the supposed half-sister and respective mother were the relatives tested. PMID:24385853

  2. Extra-pair paternity in birds: explaining variation between species and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, M; Kempenaers, B

    1998-02-01

    Molecular techniques used to assign paternity have revealed previously unknown incidences of extra-pair paternity in socially monogamous bird species. DNA fingerprinting has now been used sufficiently often for mating-system biologists to appreciate the natural variation in the frequency of broods showing extra-pair young. The variation between species and between populations of the same species is surprisingly marked. Explaining this variation may help us to understand the factors promoting sexual selection. Recent comparative studies and detailed behavioural studies suggest that factors such as breeding density, genetic variation in the population and the intensity of sexual conflicts determine the costs and benefits to males and females of engaging in extra-pair copulations, and therefore contribute to the variation among populations. PMID:21238200

  3. Evidence of multiple paternity in Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) in Belize, CA, inferred from microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, John D; Rodriguez, David; Rainwater, Thomas R; Dever, Jennifer A; Platt, Steven G; McMurry, Scott T; Forstner, Michael R J; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2008-12-01

    Microsatellite data were generated from hatchlings collected from ten nests of Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from New River Lagoon and Gold Button Lagoon in Belize to test for evidence of multiple paternity. Nine microsatellite loci were genotyped for 188 individuals from the 10 nests, alongside 42 nonhatchlings from Gold Button Lagoon. Then mitochondrial control region sequences were generated for the nonhatchlings and for one individual from each nest to test for presence of C. acutus-like haplotypes. Analyses of five of the nine microsatellite loci revealed evidence that progeny from five of the ten nests were sired by at least two males. These data suggest the presence of multiple paternity as a mating strategy in the true crocodiles. This information may be useful in the application of conservation and management techniques to the 12 species in this genus, most of which are threatened or endangered. PMID:18831002

  4. Different degree of paternal mtDNA leakage between male and female progeny in interspecific Drosophila crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D

    2014-07-01

    Maternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in animals is thought to prevent the spread of selfish deleterious mtDNA mutations in the population. Various mechanisms have been evolved independently to prevent the entry of sperm mitochondria in the embryo. However, the increasing number of instances of paternal mtDNA leakage suggests that these mechanisms are not very effective. The destruction of sperm mitochondria in mammalian embryos is mediated by nuclear factors. Also, the destruction of paternal mitochondria in intraspecific crosses is more effective than in interspecific ones. These observations have led to the hypothesis that leakage of paternal mtDNA (and consequently mtDNA recombination owing to ensuing heteroplasmy) might be more common in inter- than in intraspecific crosses and that it should increase with phylogenetic distance of hybridizing species. We checked paternal leakage in inter- and intraspecific crosses in Drosophila and found little evidence for this hypothesis. In addition, we have observed a higher level of leakage among male than among female progeny from the same cross. This is the first report of sex-specific leakage of paternal mtDNA. It suggests that paternal mtDNA leakage might not be a stochastic result of an error-prone mechanism, but rather, it may be under complex genetic control. PMID:25077015

  5. Parental and Grandparental Ages in the Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Golding; Colin Steer; Marcus Pembrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ...

  6. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H H; McKeown, Niall J; Shaw, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection. PMID:26872354

  7. The paternal genome and the health of the assisted reproductive technology child

    OpenAIRE

    Sheena EM Lewis; Kishlay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As a number of children born by assisted reproductive technology (ART) are increasing each year across the developed world, the health of such offspring is a matter of public concern. Does the integrity of the paternal genome impact on offspring health? In societal terms, as birth rates fall, and the Western population become unsustainable, do the benefits outweigh the costs of creating and providing for this ART conceived sub population? There are little data to date to answer these question...

  8. Dynamic changes in paternal X-chromosome activity during imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Patrat, Catherine; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Diabangouaya, Patricia; Vialon, Vivian; Le Baccon, Patricia; Chow, Jennifer; Heard, Edith

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, X-chromosome dosage compensation is achieved by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes in females. In mice, X inactivation is initially imprinted, with inactivation of the paternal X (Xp) chromosome occurring during preimplantation development. One theory is that the Xp is preinactivated in female embryos, because of its previous silence during meiosis in the male germ line. The extent to which the Xp is active after fertilization and the exact time of onset of X-linked gene si...

  9. Costs of Pair Bonding and Paternal Care in Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, JC; Laugero, KD; van Westerhuyzen, JA; Hostetler, CM; Cohen, JD; Bales, KL

    2009-01-01

    The direct costs of paternal care are relatively well documented in primates, however little research has explored these effects in monogamous rodents. The present study examines the long-term effects that pairing and parenting have on male prairie voles. We hypothesized that there would be a significant weight loss over the course of pairing and parenting, presumably from the energetic demands that accompany these changes in social condition. In a longitudinal study, we followed ten male pra...

  10. Paternal and Maternal Influences on Problem Behaviors Among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Zane, Jazmin I.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary-Jane

    2009-01-01

    Using an Attachment Theory conceptual framework, associations were investigated among positive paternal and maternal relationships, and recent problem behaviors among 501 currently homeless and runaway adolescents (253 males, 248 females). Homeless and runaway youth commonly exhibit problem behaviors such as substance use, various forms of delinquency and risky sex behaviors, and report more emotional distress than typical adolescents. Furthermore, attachments to their families are often stra...

  11. Leader–member exchange (LMX), paternalism, and delegation in the Turkish business culture: An empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ekin K Pellegrini; Terri A Scandura

    2006-01-01

    Although businesses increasingly operate across cultures, there is a paucity of research that examines the influence of national culture on leadership practices. This study uses a structural equation modeling approach to investigate relationships among leader–member exchange (LMX), delegation, paternalism, and job satisfaction in Turkish business organizations. Results from a survey study of N=185 full-time employees from Turkish companies support the relationship of LMX to delegation ...

  12. Visual Phenotype Matching: Cues to Paternity Are Present in Rhesus Macaque Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Kazem, A.; Widdig, A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize kin and thus behaviourally discriminate between conspecifics based on genetic relatedness is of importance both in acquiring inclusive fitness benefits and to enable optimal inbreeding. In primates, mechanisms allowing recognition of paternal relatives are of particular interest, given that in these mating systems patrilineal information is unlikely to be available via social familiarity. Humans use visual phenotype matching based on facial features to identify their ...

  13. Consumer Bankruptcy: A Third Way Between Autonomy and Paternalism in Private Law

    OpenAIRE

    Huls, Nick

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe introduction of American ideas of consumer bankruptcy in European continental civil law systems appears to present an opportunity to resolve some of the paradoxes of paternalism analysed by Ogus. Bankruptcy law for individuals in Europe has evolved from a neglected field of procedural civil law, in which creditor autonomy was the prevailing norm, into a blossoming field of social policy and consumer protection. This article sketches the history of ‘bankruptcy waves’ and reflec...

  14. Monkeys spontaneously discriminate their unfamiliar paternal kin under natural conditions using facial cues

    OpenAIRE

    Pfefferle, Dana; Kazem, Anahita J.N.; Brockhausen, Ralf R.; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Kin recognition can enhance inclusive fitness via nepotism and optimal outbreeding. Mechanisms allowing recognition of patrilineal relatives are of particular interest in species in which females mate promiscuously, leading to paternity uncertainty. Humans are known to detect facial similarities between kin in the faces of third parties [1–4], and there is some evidence for continuity of this ability in non-human primates [5–7]. However no study has yet shown that this propensity translates i...

  15. Formation of macrocyclic lactones in the Paternò–Büchi dimerization reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Manabu Abe; Yoshikazu Hiraga; Junya Arimura; Tsutomu Mizuta

    2011-01-01

    Furan-2-ylmethyl 2-oxoacetates 1a,b, in which the furan ring and the carbonyl moiety were embedded intramolecularly, were synthesized from commercially available furan-2-ylmethanol and their photochemical reaction (hν > 290 nm) was investigated. Twelve-membered macrocyclic lactones 2a,b with Ci symmetry including two oxetane-rings, which are the Paternò–Büchi dimerization products, were isolated in ca. 20% yield. The intramolecular cyclization products, such as 3-alkox...

  16. Minisatellite mutation rates increase with extra-pair paternity among birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuervo José J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amos 1 suggested recently that a previously reported positive relationship between minisatellite mutation rates and extra-pair paternity among species of birds 2 was confounded by transcription errors and selective inclusion of studies. Here we attempted to replicate the results reported by Amos 1, but also tested for the relationship by expanding the data base by including studies published after our original paper. Results We were able to replicate the positive association between mutation rate and extra-pair paternity in birds, even after controlling statistically for the confounding effecs of mean number of bands scored, using 133 species, compared to 81 species in our first report 2. We suggest that Amos 1 failed to reach a similar conclusion due to four different potential causes of bias. First, Amos 1 missed 15 studies from the literature that we were able to include. Second, he used estimates of mutation rates that were based on both within- and extra-pair offspring, although the latter will cause bias in estimates. Third, he made a number of transcription errors from the original publications for extra-pair paternity, mutation rates, number of novel bands, and mean number of bands scored per individual. Fourth, he included Vireo olivaceus although the mutation rate estimate was based on one single offspring! Conclusion There was a positive association between mutation rates and extra-pair paternity in birds, accounting for an intermediate effect size that explained 5–11% of the variance; estimates that are bound to be conservative due to many different causes of noise in the data. This result was robust to statistical control for potentially confounding variables, highlighting that it is important to base comparative studies on all available evidence, and that it is crucial to critically transcribe data while simultaneously checking published estimates for their correctness.

  17. Effects of maternal and paternal smoking on attentional control in children with and without ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Altink, M.E.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; X. Xu; Franke, B.; Sergeant, J.A.; Faraone, S V; Buitelaar, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on its adverse effects on cognitive functioning are sparse and inconsistent. Since the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy may be due to correlated genetic risk factors rather than being a pure environmental effect, we examined the effect of prenatal exposure to smoking on attentional control, taking into account the effects of both maternal and paternal...

  18. Exposure to maternal versus paternal partner violence, PTSD and aggression in adolescent girls and boys

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, M. M.; Obsuth, I.; Odgers, C.; Reebye, P.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents who witness interparental violence (IPV) are at increased risk for perpetrating aggressive acts. They are also at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, we examined the relation between exposure to maternal vs. paternal physical IPV and adolescent girls' and boys' aggressive behavior toward mothers, fathers, friends, and romantic partners. We also assessed the influence of PTSD (as assessed by the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV (DICA-I...

  19. Does multiple paternity affect seed mass in angiosperms? An experimental test in Dalechampia scandens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, C; Albertsen, E; Falahati-Anbaran, M; Wright, J; Armbruster, W S

    2015-09-01

    Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success among pollen donors, and whether siring success and seed mass are correlated. We then report the results of an experiment on Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae), assessing these critical variables in conjunction with a comparison of seed mass resulting from crosses with single vs. multiple pollen donors. Siring success differed among males when competing for fertilization, but average seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. Furthermore, paternal identity explained only 3.8% of the variance in seed mass, and siring success was not correlated with the mass of the seeds produced. Finally, within-infructescence variance in seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. These results suggest that neither differential allocation nor sibling rivalry has any effect on the average mass of seeds in multiply sired fruits in D. scandens. Overall, the limited paternal effects observed in most studies and the possibility of diversification bet hedging among flowers (but not within flowers), suggest that multiple paternity within fruits or infructescence is unlikely to affect seed mass in a large number of angiosperm species. PMID:26174371

  20. DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity in laboratory rat sperm competition experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, G A; Sofronidis, G; Bowden, D K; Temple-Smith, P D

    1995-09-01

    Prior to this study a significant amount of research had been undertaken in the field of sperm competition in mammals. However, males of different strains have been required in each of these studies to enable paternity assignment through gene expression, which has consequently resulted in problems with differential fertilising capacity being encountered. In this study paternity assignment of progeny from sperm competition experiments with Sprague Dawley rats was achieved by multilocus DNA fingerprinting using band locus matching of individual specific banding patterns between progeny and parents. Trials with 4 restriction enzymes and 5 digoxygenin labelled probes (4 oligonucleotide and 1 cloned) achieved the highest levels of DNA fingerprint heterozygosity using AluI(CAC)5 and HinfI(CAC)5 combinations; however, paternity could not be determined in all offspring, due to a higher than expected degree of inbreeding within the rat population used in this study. This was demonstrated in subsequent comparisons of genetic diversity of three laboratory rat breeding populations from two different animal breeding facilities. Data from the rat mating study showed that, under conditions of direct sperm competition, second males given access to a mated oestrus female either 0.5 or 6.0 h after the first mating consistently required less time than the first to ejaculate: 7.6 min vs. 19.5 min (0.5 h delay ); 7.8 min vs. 19.5 min (6.0 h delay). A second males siring advantage was identified using DNA fingerprinting in both delay groups for those offspring on which paternity could be determined: 0.5 h delay, 1st = 39%, 2nd = 61%; 6 h delay, 1st = 34%, 2nd = 66%. PMID:8582346