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Sample records for advanced voloxidation process

  1. Shielding analysis of the advanced voloxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Je; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W.; Shin, J. M.; Park, G. I.; Song, K. C

    2008-09-15

    This report deals describes how much a shielding benefit can be obtained by the Advanced Voloxidation process. The calculation was performed with the MCNPX code and a simple problem was modeled with a spent fuel source which was surrounded by a concrete wall. The source terms were estimated with the ORIGEN-ARP code and the gamma spectrum and the neutron spectrum were also obtained. The thickness of the concrete wall was estimated before and after the voloxidation process. From the results, the gamma spectrum after the voloxidation process was estimated as a 67% reduction compared with that of before the voloxidation process due to the removal of several gamma emission elements such as cesium and rubidium. The MCNPX calculations provided that the thickness of the general concrete wall could be reduced by 12% after the voloxidation process. And the heavy concrete wall provided a 28% reduction in the shielding of the source term after the voloxidation process. This can be explained in that there lots of gamma emission isotopes still exist after the advanced voloxidation process such as Pu-241, Y-90, and Sr-90 which are independent of the voloxidation process.

  2. Development of Advanced Voloxidation Process for Treatment of Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Jin; Lee, J. W.; Park, G. I.

    2010-12-01

    Data for evaluation of the effects of advanced voloxidation on pyroprocessing of spent oxide fuel with a determination for a path forward such was produced as follows: effect of particle size and particle structure on oxide reduction, assessment of decladding options for pyroprocessing, effect of removal timing of fission products, analysis of radioactivity and decay heat of advanced voloxidation process, proliferation resistance of advanced voloxidation process, Effect of advanced voloxidation process on shielding. Also, performance objectives for advanced voloxidation with respective to the down stream effects was established. The technology on design and manufacture of voloxidation and off gas treatment equipment was established. The possibility of fabrication of porous granule as a feed material for electro-reduction process was confirmed using rotary voloxidizer and SIMFUEL. The operational conditions for advanced voloxidation process consisting of 4 steps heat treatment was drawn to vaporize fission products and fabricate UO 2 granule. The trapping test of Cs and Re(surrogate material of Tc) using newly developed filter were selectively separated at trapping efficiency of 99%, respectively. Data for oxidative decladding, vaporization rate of fission products, and particle size from experiment on voloxidation using spent fuel in ILN hot cell was acquisited including data of off gas trapping characteristics and verification of excellent performance of filter

  3. Development of Operational Parameters for Advanced Voloxidation Process at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Won; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Yun, Y. W.; Park, G. I.; Lee, J. W.

    2010-10-01

    KAERI has been developing a voloxidation process as a head-end process of pyroprocessing technology with INL (Idaho National Laboratory). The work scope of KAERI is to develop the operation parameters for advanced voloxidation process at KAERI using surrogate materials and SIMFUEL. In order to evaluate operation conditions of an advanced voloxidation process, oxidation and vaporization behavior of metals and Cs compounds was investigated in terms of thermal treatment atmosphere and temperature by using thermodynamic data. And also, the oxidation and vaporization behavior of semi-volatile fission products with process pressure and temperature was investigated using surrogate materials. Particle size control for U 3 O 8 powder was investigated using SIMFUEL and a rotary voloxidizer. According to analysis of KAERI works, the operation conditions for advanced voloxiation process may be consisted of the following four steps: 1) oxidation of UO 2 pellet into U 3 O 8 powder at 500 .deg. C in oxidative atmosphere, 2) additional oxidation of noble metal alloy and vaporization of high vapor pressure of fission products at 700 .deg. C in oxidative atmosphere, 3) granulation of U 3 O 8 powder and vaporization of Cs compounds at 1200 .deg. C in an atmosphere of argon, and 4) reduction of UO 2+x granules into UO 2 granules at 1000 .deg. C in an atmosphere of 4%H 2 -Ar. This report will be used as a useful means for determining the operation parameters for advanced voloxidation process

  4. Mathematical modeling of the voloxidation process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, T.G.

    1979-06-01

    A mathematical model of the voloxidation process, a head-end reprocessing step for the removal of volatile fission products from spent nuclear fuel, has been developed. Three types of voloxidizer operation have been considered; co-current operation in which the gas and solid streams flow in the same direction, countercurrent operation in which the gas and solid streams flow in opposite directions, and semi-batch operation in which the gas stream passes through the reactor while the solids remain in it and are processed batch wise. Because of the complexity of the physical ahd chemical processes which occur during the voloxidation process and the lack of currently available kinetic data, a global kinetic model has been adapted for this study. Test cases for each mode of operation have been simulated using representative values of the model parameters. To process 714 kgm/day of spent nuclear fuel, using an oxidizing atmosphere containing 20 mole percent oxygen, it was found that a reactor 0.7 m in diameter and 2.49 m in length would be required for both cocurrent and countercurrent modes of operation while for semibatch operation a 0.3 m 3 reactor and an 88200 sec batch processing time would be required

  5. Trapping technology for gaseous fission products from voloxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, G. H.; Yang, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review the different technologies for trapping the gaseous wastes containing Cs, Ru, Tc, 14 C, Kr, Xe, I and 3 H from a voloxidation process. Based on literature reviews and KAERI's experimental results on the gaseous fission products trapping, appropriate trapping method for each fission product has been selected considering process reliability, simplicity, decontamination factor, availability, and disposal. Specifically, the most promising trapping method for each fission product has been proposed for the development of the INL off-gas trapping system. A fly ash filter is proposed as a trapping media for a cesium trapping unit. In addition, a calcium filter is proposed as a trapping media for ruthenium, technetium, and 14 C trapping unit. In case of I trapping unit, AgX is proposed. For Kr and Xe, adsorption on solid is proposed. SDBC (Styrene Divinyl Benzene Copolymer) is also proposed as a conversion media to HTO for 3 H. This report will be used as a useful means for analyzing the known trapping technologies and help selecting the appropriate trapping methods for trapping volatile and semi-volatile fission products, long-lived fission products, and major heat sources generated from a voloxidation process. It can also be used to design an off-gas treatment system

  6. Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M. (and others)

    2007-08-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a process which provides a means to recover fuel from the cladding, and to simplify downstream processes by recovering volatile fission products. This work focuses on the process development in three areas ; the measurement and assessment of the release behavior for the volatile and semi-volatile fission products from the voloxidation process, the assessment of techniques to trap and recover gaseous fission products, and the development of process cycles to optimize fuel cladding separation and fuel particle size. High temperature adsorption method of KAERI was adopted in the co-design of OTS for hot experiment in INL. KAERI supplied 6 sets of filter for hot experiment. Three hot experiment in INL hot cell from the 25th of November for two weeks with attaching 4 KAERI staffs had been carried out. The results were promising. For example, trapping efficiency of Cs was 95% and that of I was 99%, etc.

  7. Hot Experiment on Fission Gas Release Behavior from Voloxidation Process using Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Park, J. J.; Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Cho, K. H.; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C.

    2007-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of the fission gas release characteristics during the voloxidation and OREOX processes of spent PWR fuel was carried out by spent PWR fuel in a hot-cell of the DFDF. The release characteristics of 85 Kr and 14 C fission gases during voloxidation process at 500 .deg. C is closely linked to the degree of conversion efficiency of UO 2 to U 3 O 8 powder, and it can be interpreted that the release from grain-boundary would be dominated during this step. Volatile fission gases of 14 C and 85 Kr were released to near completion during the OREOX process. Both the 14 C and 85 Kr have similar release characteristics under the voloxidation and OREOX process conditions. A higher burn-up spent fuel showed a higher release fraction than that of a low burn-up fuel during the voloxidation step at 500 .deg. C. It was also observed that the release fraction of semi-volatile Cs was about 16% during a reduction at 1,000 .deg. C of the oxidized powder, but over 90% during the voloxidation at 1,250 .deg. C

  8. Adequate Measuring Technology and System of Fission Gas release Behavior from Voloxidation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Park, J. J.; Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C.

    2006-09-01

    Based on the published literature and an understanding of available hot cell technologies, more accurate measuring methods for each volatile fission product released from voloxidation process were reviewed and selected. The conceptual design of an apparatus for measuring volatile and/or semi-volatile fission products released from spent fuel was prepared. It was identified that on-line measurement techniques can be applied for gamma-emitting fission products, and off-line measurement such as chemical/or neutron activation analysis can applied for analyzing beta-emitting fission gases. Collection methods using appropriate material or solutions were selected to measure the release fraction of beta-emitting gaseous fission products at IMEF M6 hot cell. Especially, the on-line gamma-ray counting system for monitoring of 85Kr and the off-line measuring system of 14C was established. On-line measuring system for obtaining removal ratios of the semi-volatile fission products, mainly gamma-emitting fission products such as Cs, Ru etc., was also developed at IMEF M6 hot cell which was based on by measuring fuel inventory before and after the voloxidation test through gamma measuring technique. The development of this measurement system may enable basic information to be obtained to support design of the off-gas treatment system for the voloxidation process at INL, USA

  9. Measurement of radioactive gaseous effluents from voloxidation and dissolution of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.A.; Johnson, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Laboratory-scale tests gave data on the release of tritium, /sup 14/C, /sup 85/Kr, and /sup 129/I as radioactive gases from spent nuclear fuels during voloxidation and dissolution. Voloxidation, a proposed reprocessing step, is intended to remove tritium from fuel by oxidation of UO/sub 2/ to U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ prior to dissolution of the fuel with nitric acid. /sup 14/C, /sup 85/Kr, and /sup 129/I may be evolved in both steps. Quantitative data from the tests may be used in designing off-gas treatment processes and equipment. The tests were performed in a shielded cell with a combination voloxidizer-dissolver. With a recirculating off-gas system, tritium and /sup 14/C were trapped on molecular sieves; /sup 129/I was trapped on silver-exchanged zeolite. /sup 85/Kr was measured by online gamma-ray counting. Zircaloy-clad UO/sub 2/ fuels from H. B. Robinson-2, Oconee-1, and Saxton reactors, with burnups from approximately 100 to approximately 28,000 MWD/MTHM, were tested. The results confirm that voloxidation released most of the tritium but only small fractions of the /sup 14/C, /sup 85/Kr, and /sup 129/I; the remainder of these radioactive gases evolved when the voloxidized fuels were dissolved. Voloxidation off-gases typically contained >99.8% of the tritium, 17 to 22% of the /sup 14/C, 7 to 17% of the /sup 85/Kr, and <8% of the /sup 129/I. Tritium evolved as HTO, with <0.1% as HT.

  10. Design report: An off gas trapping system for a voloxidizer in INL of US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Lee, H. H

    2006-09-15

    This reports on the 'Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel', and it is the second year since it has started from June 2004 as a tripartite cooperation project among KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), INL(Idaho National Laboratory) and ORNL(Oak Ridge National Laboratory). This report is described mainly for the Task B2 accomplished during the second project year. The Task B2 in proposal contains two sub-tasks. The first one is design of an off-gas treatment system for a voloxidizer to be used in HFEF of INL. For this, KAERI team developed the design of INL OTS (Off-gas Treatment System) for hot experiment in the HFEF. INL team modified and completed the design of the INL OTS. The second task is manufacturing and test operation of the INL OTS for a voloxidizer in the INL. Manufacturing of the OTS is accomplished by INL team with co-work of KAERI. KAERI provided four sets of trapping filters needed for conducting hot experiment in the INL HFEF.

  11. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Won; Shin, Y. J.; Cho, S. H.

    2004-03-01

    The research on spent fuel management focuses on the maximization of the disposal efficiency by a volume reduction, the improvement of the environmental friendliness by the partitioning and transmutation of the long lived nuclides, and the recycling of the spent fuel for an efficient utilization of the uranium source. In the second phase which started in 2001, the performance test of the advanced spent fuel management process consisting of voloxidation, reduction of spent fuel and the lithium recovery process has been completed successfully on a laboratory scale. The world-premier spent fuel reduction hot test of a 5 kgHM/batch has been performed successfully by joint research with Russia and the valuable data on the actinides and FPs material balance and the characteristics of the metal product were obtained with experience to help design an engineering scale reduction system. The electrolytic reduction technology which integrates uranium oxide reduction in a molten LiCl-Li 2 O system and Li 2 O electrolysis is developed and a unique reaction system is also devised. Design data such as the treatment capacity, current density and mass transfer behavior obtained from the performance test of a 5 kgU/batch electrolytic reduction system pave the way for the third phase of the hot cell demonstration of the advanced spent fuel management technology

  12. LWR fuel reprocessing and recycle program. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1976. [Shear; voloxidation; dissolution; Purex; off-gas adsorption; MOX fuel fabrication; environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondra, B.L.

    1976-11-01

    Two additional dissolutions were made using irradiated fuel for the H.B. Robinson II reactor; the solids are being characterized. An extension of time was given for bid proposals for a model /sup 1///sub 2/-ton/day voloxidizer. Preliminary heat transfer tests of a rotary kiln voloxidizer were completed. Residence times were measured in a 6-in. dia. tube; results were in agreement with those obtained in a previous test with a commercial kiln. The remaining fluorocarbon adsorption process pilot-plant tests scheduled under campaign 3 were completed; more than 99.99% of the carbon dioxide and xenon impurities were removed. Studies of stainless steel corrosion by R-12 solutions in presence of iodine and water are continuing. Methyl iodide was found to be miscible in R-12. An ORNL/SRL survey study was made of commercial and potential spent LWR fuel reprocessors to identify unresolved shearing and related head-end problems. Areas of difficulty were categorized as: (A) mechanical technology, (B) safety technology, (C) waste disposal, and (D) a pressing need for an LWR fuel Reference Information Center. A new hot-cell domestic shearing system must be developed, and remote operability and maintenance must be demonstrated at high throughputs. 22 tables, 10 fig. (DLC)

  13. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  14. Advanced information processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  15. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  16. Advances in Solidification Processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    FOREWORD. Solidification phenomena are the heart of most of the product manufacturing processes. ... casting etc. to the latest technologies like crystal growth, near-net shape processing, laser processing, and ... paper is on one of the recent technological innovations in the steel industry, the thin-slab casting machine, to ...

  17. Advances in Solidification Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt solidification is the shortest and most viable route to obtain components, starting from the design to the finished products. Hence, a sound knowledge of the solidification of metallic materials is essential for the development of advanced structural metallic components that drive modern technological societies. As a result, there have been innumerable efforts and full conferences dedicated to this important subject [1–6]. In addition, there are various scientific journals fully devoted to investigating the various aspects which give rise to various solidification microstructures [7–9]. [...

  18. Advances in Solidification Processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    S Mazumdar and S K Ray present a critical analysis of several operational and fundamental parameters which affect the solidification process during the continuous casting of steel. Detailed analyses are presented on the effect of mould friction/lubrication, mould oscillation and initial shell formation on caster productivity ...

  19. Beam processing of advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Copley, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    International Conference on Beam Processing of Advanced Materials was held at the Fall TMS/ASM Materials Week at Chicago, Illinois, November 2--5, 1992. The symposium was devoted to the recent advances in processing of materials by an energy source such as laser, electron, ion beams, etc. The symposium served as a forum on the science of beam-induced materials processing and implications of this science to practical implementation. An increased emphasis on obtaining an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of beam-induced surface processes was a major trend observed at this years symposium. This has resulted in the increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and modeling studies to determine the rate controlling steps in these processes. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  20. Pyro processing technology at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansoo; Kim, Eungho; Park, Seongwon

    2008-01-01

    KAERI has studied on the pyro processing as a spent fuel treatment method for more than decade. The process includes voloxidation, electroreduction, electrorefining with solid and liquid cathodes, and waste salt treatment. Each process has developed its own characteristics which are suitable for treating high mass flow. In the electroreduction process, a magnesia filter was used for integrated electrolytic reduction. More than 99% of reduction yield was achieved. Electrorefining process employs the continuous operation concept. Uranium deposits on the surface of graphite cathode and it is stripped off spontaneously to the bottom of the reactor, which allows continuous operation. Crystallization method was used for treating waste salt. Pure salt is recovered by Czochralski method or zone freezing method and subsequently recycled to the reactor. These advanced technologies ensure the operation of pyro processing in a larger scale

  1. Advances in natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  3. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  4. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  5. Advances in uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.; Slater, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

  6. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  7. Advancements in Big Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing volumes of scientific data present new challenges for Distributed Computing and Grid-technologies. The emerging Big Data revolution drives new discoveries in scientific fields including nanotechnology, astrophysics, high-energy physics, biology and medicine. New initiatives are transforming data-driven scientific fields by pushing Bid Data limits enabling massive data analysis in new ways. In petascale data processing scientists deal with datasets, not individual files. As a result, a task (comprised of many jobs) became a unit of petascale data processing on the Grid. Splitting of a large data processing task into jobs enabled fine-granularity checkpointing analogous to the splitting of a large file into smaller TCP/IP packets during data transfers. Transferring large data in small packets achieves reliability through automatic re-sending of the dropped TCP/IP packets. Similarly, transient job failures on the Grid can be recovered by automatic re-tries to achieve reliable Six Sigma produc...

  8. Solidification process control for advanced superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of understanding and controlling the basic solidification process in high temperature alloy technology as applied to gas turbine engine production is discussed. Resultant tailoring of the superalloy macro- and microstructure offers significant potential for continued advances in superalloy use temperatures in turbine engines. Atomized superalloy powders, rapidly solidified superalloys, microstructural control, and advanced superalloys are discussed.

  9. The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing - LAMP - is a clean-room research facility run and operated by Pr. Gary Rubloff's group. Research activities focus...

  10. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  11. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  12. Emerging materials by advanced processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaysser, W.A.; Weber-Bock, J.

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains 36 contributions with following subjects (selection): Densification of highly reactive aluminium titanate powders; influence of precursor history on carbon fiber characteristics; influence of water removal rate during calcination on the crystallization of ZrO2 from amorphous hydrous precipitates; tape casting of AlN; influence of processing on the properties of beta-SiC powders; corrosion of SiSiC by gases and basic slag at high temperature; influence of sintering and thermomechanical treatment on microstructure and properties of W-Ni-Fe alloys; mechanical alloying for development of sintered steels with high hard phase content (NbC); early stages of mechanical alloying in Ni-Ti and Ni-Al powder mixtures; growth and microstructural development of melt-oxidation derived Al2O3/Al-base composites; fabrication of RSBN composites; synthesis of high density coridierite bodies; comparative studies on post-HIP and sinter-HIP treatments on transformation thoughened ceramics; sinter HIP of SiC; precipitation mixing of Si3N4 with bimetallic oxides; temperature dependence of the interfacial energies in Al2O3-liquid metal systems; synthesis and microstructural examination of Synroc B; solid state investigation of ceramic-metal bonding; thermophysical properties of MgAl2O4; preparation, sintering and thermal expansion of MgAl2O4; microstructural studies on alumina-zirconia and metallized alumina ceramics; electrodeposition of metals (e.g. Ti, Mo, In) and metal oxides from molten salts; electrochemical deposition of Ti from nonaqueous media (DMSO, DMF); lithium as anode material in power sources (passivation); reduction of chromium(VI) when solar selective black chromium is deposited; thermodynamic optimization of phase diagrams (computer calculations); optimization of Na-Tl phase diagram; phase relations in the Y-Si-Al-O-N system: Controlled manufacturing of alpha/beta-SIALON composites. (MM)

  13. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  14. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  15. Advances in radiation processing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Sasak, T.; Vikis, A.C.; Singh, A.

    1993-12-01

    In this paper we review recent advances in industrial applications of electron-beam irradiation in the field of polymer processing at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) of JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), and the Whiteshell Laboratories of AECL Research, Canada. Irradiation of a substrate with ionizing radiation produces free radicals through ionization and excitation events. The subsequent chemistry of these radicals is used in radiation processing as a substitute for conventional processing techniques based on heating and/or the addition of chemicals. The advantages of radiation processing include the formation of novel products with desirable material properties, favourable overall process economics and, often, environmental benefits

  16. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  17. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  18. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  19. Advances in image processing and pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappellini, V.

    1986-01-01

    The conference papers reported provide an authorative and permanent record of the contributions. Some papers are more theoretical or of review nature, while others contain new implementations and applications. They are conveniently grouped into the following 7 fields (after a general overview): Acquisition and Presentation of 2-D and 3-D Images; Static and Dynamic Image Processing; Determination of Object's Position and Orientation; Objects and Characters Recognition; Semantic Models and Image Understanding; Robotics and Computer Vision in Manufacturing; Specialized Processing Techniques and Structures. In particular, new digital image processing and recognition methods, implementation architectures and special advanced applications (industrial automation, robotics, remote sensing, biomedicine, etc.) are presented. (Auth.)

  20. Advancing the Assessment of Dynamic Psychological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Most commonly used clinical assessment tools cannot fully capture the dynamic psychological processes often hypothesized as core mechanisms of psychopathology and psychotherapy. There is therefore a gap between our theories of problems and interventions for those problems and the tools we use to understand clients. The purpose of this special issue is to connect theory about clinical dynamics to practice by focusing on methods for collecting dynamic data, statistical models for analyzing dynamic data, and conceptual schemes for implementing dynamic data in applied settings. In this introductory article, we argue for the importance of assessing dynamic processes, highlight recent advances in assessment science that enable their measurement, review challenges in using these advances in applied practice, and adumbrate the articles in this issue.

  1. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  2. Recent advances in nonlinear speech processing

    CERN Document Server

    Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Esposito, Antonietta; Cordasco, Gennaro; Drugman, Thomas; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Morabito, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in nonlinear speech processing beyond nonlinear techniques. It shows that it exploits heuristic and psychological models of human interaction in order to succeed in the implementations of socially believable VUIs and applications for human health and psychological support. The book takes into account the multifunctional role of speech and what is “outside of the box” (see Björn Schuller’s foreword). To this aim, the book is organized in 6 sections, each collecting a small number of short chapters reporting advances “inside” and “outside” themes related to nonlinear speech research. The themes emphasize theoretical and practical issues for modelling socially believable speech interfaces, ranging from efforts to capture the nature of sound changes in linguistic contexts and the timing nature of speech; labors to identify and detect speech features that help in the diagnosis of psychological and neuronal disease, attempts to improve the effectiveness and performa...

  3. Advanced Signal Processing for Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is at present a worldwide effort to develop next-generation wireless communication systems. It is envisioned that many of the future wireless systems will incorporate considerable signal-processing intelligence in order to provide advanced services such as multimedia transmission. In general, wireless channels can be very hostile media through which to communicate, due to substantial physical impediments, primarily radio-frequency interference and time-arying nature of the channel. The need of providing universal wireless access at high data-rate (which is the aim of many merging wireless applications presents a major technical challenge, and meeting this challenge necessitates the development of advanced signal processing techniques for multiple-access communications in non-stationary interference-rich environments. In this paper, we present some key advanced signal processing methodologies that have been developed in recent years for interference suppression in wireless networks. We will focus primarily on the problem of jointly suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI, which are the limiting sources of interference for the high data-rate wireless systems being proposed for many emerging application areas, such as wireless multimedia. We first present a signal subspace approach to blind joint suppression of MAI and ISI. We then discuss a powerful iterative technique for joint interference suppression and decoding, so-called Turbo multiuser detection, that is especially useful for wireless multimedia packet communications. We also discuss space-time processing methods that employ multiple antennas for interference rejection and signal enhancement. Finally, we touch briefly on the problems of suppressing narrowband interference and impulsive ambient noise, two other sources of radio-frequency interference present in wireless multimedia networks.

  4. Advances in Packaging Methods, Processes and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The food processing and packaging industry is becoming a multi-trillion dollar global business. The reason is that the recent increase in incomes in traditionally less economically developed countries has led to a rise in standards of living that includes a significantly higher consumption of packaged foods. As a result, food safety guidelines have been more stringent than ever. At the same time, the number of research and educational institutions—that is, the number of potential researchers and stakeholders—has increased in the recent past. This paper reviews recent developments in food processing and packaging (FPP, keeping in view the aforementioned advancements and bearing in mind that FPP is an interdisciplinary area in that materials, safety, systems, regulation, and supply chains play vital roles. In particular, the review covers processing and packaging principles, standards, interfaces, techniques, methods, and state-of-the-art technologies that are currently in use or in development. Recent advances such as smart packaging, non-destructive inspection methods, printing techniques, application of robotics and machineries, automation architecture, software systems and interfaces are reviewed.

  5. Advanced monitoring with complex stream processing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Making sense of metrics and logs for service monitoring can be a complicated task. Valuable information is normally scattered across several streams of monitoring data, requiring aggregation, correlation and time-based analysis to promptly detect problems and failures. This presentations shows a solution which is used to support the advanced monitoring of the messaging services provided by the IT Department. It uses Esper, an open-source software product for Complex Event Processing (CEP), that analyses series of events for deriving conclusions from them.

  6. Processing and properties of advanced metallic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Alan Harold

    Since the development of the first aluminum foams in the middle of the 20th century [178], great advances have been made in the processing and fundamental understanding of metallic foams. As a result of these advances, metallic foams are now penetrating a number of applications where their unique suite of properties makes them superior to solid materials, such as lightweight structures, packaging and impact protection, and filtration and catalysis [3]. The purpose of this work is to extend the use of metallic foams in such applications by expanding their processing to include more sophisticated base alloys and architectures. The first four chapters discuss replacement of conventional crystalline metal foams with ones made from high-strength, low-melting amorphous metals, a substitution that offers potential for achieving mechanical properties superior to those of the best crystalline metal foams, without sacrificing the simplicity of processing methods made for low-melting crystalline alloys. Three different amorphous metal foams are developed in these chapters, and their structures and properties characterized. It is shown for the first time that amorphous metal foams, due to stabilization of shear bands during bending of their small strut-like features, are capable of compressive ductility comparable to that of ductile crystalline metal foams. A two-fold improvement in mechanical energy absorption relative to crystalline aluminum foams is shown experimentally to result from this stabilization. The last two chapters discuss modifications in foam processing that are designed to introduce controllable and continuous gradients in local foam density, which should improve mass efficiency by mimicking the optimized structures found in natural cellular materials [64], as well as facilitate the bonding and joining of foams with solid materials in higher-order structures. Two new processing methods are developed, one based on replication of nonuniformly-compressed polymer

  7. Development of advanced spent fuel management process. System analysis of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, S.G.; Kang, D.S.; Seo, C.S.; Lee, H.H.; Shin, Y.J.; Park, S.W.

    1999-03-01

    The system analysis of an advanced spent fuel management process to establish a non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management is performed by comparing the several dry processes, such as a salt transport process, a lithium process, the IFR process developed in America, and DDP developed in Russia. In our system analysis, the non-proliferation concept is focused on the separation factor between uranium and plutonium and decontamination factors of products in each process, and the non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management has finally been introduced. (Author). 29 refs., 17 tabs., 12 figs

  8. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Shin, Y. J.; Do, J. B.; You, G. S.; Seo, J. S.; Lee, H. G.

    1998-03-01

    This study is to develop an advanced spent fuel management process for countries which have not yet decided a back-end nuclear fuel cycle policy. The aims of this process development based on the pyroreduction technology of PWR spent fuels with molten lithium, are to reduce the storage volume by a quarter and to reduce the storage cooling load in half by the preferential removal of highly radioactive decay-heat elements such as Cs-137 and Sr-90 only. From the experimental results which confirm the feasibility of metallization technology, it is concluded that there are no problems in aspects of reaction kinetics and equilibrium. However, the operating performance test of each equipment on an engineering scale still remain and will be conducted in 1999. (author). 21 refs., 45 tabs., 119 figs

  9. Radiation Processing of Advanced Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Jeun, Joonpyo; Nho, Young Chang

    2008-01-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics, are being used widely for many applications. Carbon fiber/epoxies composites have attracted special attention from the aircraft, aerospace, marine engineering, sporting goods and transportation industries, because they have useful mechanical properties including high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, a corrosion resistant, impact and damage tolerance characteristics and wear properties. Thermal curing has been the dominant industrial process for advanced composites until now, however, a radiation curing process using UV, microwave x-ray, electron-beam(E-beam) and γ-ray has emerged as a better alternative in recent years. These processes are compatible with the manufacturing of composites using traditional fabrication methods including a filament/tape winding, pultrusion, resin transfer moulding and hand lay-up. In this study, E-beam curable carbon fiber/epoxy composites were manufactured, and their mechanical properties were investigated. Two epoxy resins (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F) containing photo-initiators (tri aryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate, tri aryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate) were used as a matrix and a 4H-satin carbon woven fabric was used as a reinforcement. And then an electron beam irradiated the composites up to 200 kGy in a vacuum and an inert atmosphere. The cure cycle was optimized and the properties of composites were evaluated and analyzed via a differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, sol-gel extractions, FT-NIR, universal test machine, and an impact tester. The gel content, glass transition temperature and mechanical strength of the irradiated composites were increased with an increasing radiation dose

  10. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  11. Drying apparatus located back and forth of a Voloxidizer for reprocessing of fast reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Keizo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit a continuous spent fuel drying operation during a thermal oxidation process (voroxidation) effected between a shearing step and dissolution step in fuel retreatment. Structure: The invention comprises a gas-tight cylindrical outer barrel, a rotative shaft hermetically supported in the outer barrel, a cylindrical inner barrel having at least three chambers secured to the rotative shaft, a fuel inlet nozzle provided at a position corresponding to the top of the outer barrel and one of the chambers of the inner barrel, a fuel outlet nozzle provided at the bottom of the outer barrel and at the bottom of one of the other chambers of the inner barrel, and a drying gas inlet nozzle and an off-gas outlet nozzle provided at positions corresponding to the side wall of the outer barrel and the side wall of one the other chambers of the inner barrel. The spent fuel is continuously dried by intermittently rotating the inner barrel. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us “purple with rage” or “green with envy” and cause us to “see red.” Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today’s complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today’s color imaging.

  13. Safeguardability of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. K. (Tien K.); Lee, S. Y. (Sang Yoon); Burr, Tom; Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.); Menlove, Howard O.; Kim, H. D.; Ko, W. I. (Won Il); Park, S. W.; Park, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) is an electro-metallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuel into a metallic form. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing this technology since 1977 for the purpose of spent fuel management and is planning to perform a lab-scale demonstration in 2006. By using of this technology, a significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected, which would lighten the burden of final disposal in terms of disposal size, safety and economics. In the framework of collaboration agreement to develop the safeguards system for the ACP, a joint study on the safeguardability of the ACP technology has been performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the KAERI since 2002. In this study, the safeguardability of the ACP technology was examined for the pilot-scale facility. The process and material flows were conceptually designed, and the uncertainties in material accounting were estimated with international target values.

  14. Proliferation resistance attributes of advanced plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    2009-01-01

    To obtain public acceptance for future use of Pu, new concepts must overcome the present concerns about environmental compliance as well as concerns about misusing plutonium of the civil nuclear fuel cycle for nuclear explosives e.g. by terrorists. In future the preferable remedy is the multi-recycling of all transuranium elements in fast neutron reactors. In such a partitioning and transmutation scheme, P T, Pu becomes proliferation resistant, when mixed with self-generated actinides. This strategy will also reduce the long-term radio-toxicity, the radiogenic heat production and the Pu content of the nuclear waste per G We produced in the geological repositories, which otherwise could be regarded as future Pu-mines. The development of advanced spent fuel reprocessing should aim at technologies with intrinsic barriers that under normal operation exclude the production of weapon usable fissile material at all stages of the process. Complementary institutional, extrinsic measures would then have to verify the declared operation and the absence of weapon usable material, instead of presently verifying the declared mass of weapon usable Pu.

  15. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Office Clean Water Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-03-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)’s Advanced Manufacturing Office partners with industry, small business, universities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging technologies with the potential to create high-quality domestic manufacturing jobs and enhance the global competitiveness of the United States.

  17. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-K. Holtmeier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming species respond in different ways to a changing climate. Forest advance upwards and northwards primarily depends on successful regeneration and survival of young growth rather than on increasing growth rates of mature trees. Every assessment of treeline response to future climate change must consider the effects of local site conditions and feedbacks of in-creasing tree population in modulating the climatically-driven change. Treeline-shift will influence regional and local climates, pedogenesis, plant communities, animal populations and biodiversity as well as having a considerable effect on economic changes in primary production. A better understanding of the functional relationships between the many treeline-relevant factors and treeline dynamics can be achieved only by extensive research at different scales within different climatic regions supported by as many as possible experimental studies in the field together with laboratory and remote sensing techniques.

  18. Recent Advances and Challenges in Process Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lee, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Process identification is undergoing tremendous developments as computational capabilities improve. Theories are rapidly catching up with the needs of practical applications but practical process identification experiences still reveal significant gaps between theory and practice. This review...... attempts to highlight the present gaps and challenges. With this objective, the review treats recent progress in process identification with data gathered in closed loop, and in the tailoring of an entire identification process to a given control objective....

  19. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  20. Advanced coking process control at Rautaruukki Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritamaki, O.; Luhtaniemi, H. [Rautaruukki Engineering (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest development of the Coking Process Management System (CPMS) at Raahe Steel. The latest third generation system is based on the previous system with the addition of fuzzy logic controllers. (The previous second generation system was based simultaneous feed forward and feedback control.) The system development has resulted in balanced coke oven battery heating, decreased variation in process regulation between shifts and increase of process information for operators. The economic results are very satisfactory. 7 figs.

  1. Advances in heuristic signal processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Amitava; Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and application of algorithms for both one-dimensional signal processing and multidimensional signal processing, namely image and video processing, with the recent focus changing from a step-by-step procedure of designing the algorithm first and following up with in-depth analysis and performance improvement to instead applying heuristic-based methods to solve signal-processing problems. In this book the contributing authors demonstrate both general-purpose algorithms and those aimed at solving specialized application problems, with a spec

  2. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-inspired, multi-agent-based method. The sustainability and performance assessment of process operating points is carried out using the U.S. E.P.A.’s GREENSCOPE assessment tool that provides scores for the selected economic, material management, environmental and energy indicators. The indicator results supply information on whether the implementation of the controller is moving the process towards a more sustainable operation. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study of a continuous bioethanol fermentation process whose dynamics are characterized by steady-state multiplicity and oscillatory behavior. This book chapter contribution demonstrates the application of novel process control strategies for sustainability by increasing material management, energy efficiency, and pollution prevention, as needed for SHC Sustainable Uses of Wastes and Materials Management.

  3. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  4. Advances in Nuclear Power Process Heat Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    Following an IAEA coordinated research project, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities related to practical nuclear process heat applications. An overview of current progress on high temperature gas cooled reactors coupling schemes for different process heat applications, such as hydrogen production and desalination is included. The associated safety aspects are also highlighted. The summary report documents the results and conclusions of the project.

  5. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Cho, S. H.; You, G. S.

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the economic advantage of any known approach to the back end fuel cycle of a nuclear power reactor has not been well established. Thus the long term storage of the spent fuel in a safe manner is one of the important issues to be resolved in countries where the nuclear power has a relatively heavy weight in power production of that country. At KAERI, as a solution to this particular issue midterm storage of the spent fuel, an alternative approach has been developed. This approach includes the decladding and pulverization process of the spent PWR fuel rod, the reducing process from the uranium oxide to a metallic uranium powder using Li metal in a LiCl salt, the continuous casting process of the reduced metal, and the recovery process of Li from mixed salts by the electrolysis. We conducted the laboratory scale tests of each processes for the technical feasibility and determination for the operational conditions for this approach. Also, we performed the theoretical safety analysis and conducted integral tests for the equipment integration through the Mock-up facility with non-radioactive samples. There were no major issues in the approach, however, material incompatibility of the alkaline metal and oxide in a salt at a high temperature and the reactor that contains the salt became a show stopper of the process. Also the difficulty of the clear separation of the salt with metals reduced from the oxide became a major issue

  6. Instrumentation for advanced processes for coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Managan, W.W.; Raptis, A.C.; O' Fallon, N.M.; Herzenberg, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Process control instrumentation for large-scale coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion systems is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Initial focus is on instrumentation to measure mass-flow rates and provide continuous in-stream analysis of solids in solids/fluids streams. These instruments and others are described.

  7. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  8. Advances in the Application of Image Processing Fruit Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Fang , Chengjun; Hua , Chunjian

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the perspective of actual production, the paper presents the advances in the application of image processing fruit grading from several aspects, such as processing precision and processing speed of image processing technology. Furthermore, the different algorithms about detecting size, shape, color and defects are combined effectively to reduce the complexity of each algorithm and achieve a balance between the processing precision and processing speed are keys to au...

  9. Transient processing and characterization of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Sherif Omar Hassan

    The current study involves investigating the transient reactive processing of Ni3Al from nickel (Ni) and aluminum (Al) elemental metal powder during reaction synthesis (RS). The effect of incorporating ternary elements (interstitial) was also examined to produce boron-doped nickel-rich Ni3A1 with boron additions up to 2.0 wt %. Two transient reactive processes were studied; Reaction Pressing (RP) and a new process called Reaction Extrusion (RE) by which a near fully dense Ni3Al was simultaneously formed and shaped. These are seen as low-energy alternative to the hot processing of Ni3Al. Materials characterization was conducted using X-ray and Neutron diffraction, SEM/EDS, WDS, Image analysis and Archimedes principle. In the reactive sintering of B-doped Ni3Al, boron was found to rapidly dissolve during the reaction (leaving no residual boron) and occupy the grain boundaries as well as the Ni3Al superlattice (at boron content up to 0.3 wt %), in addition to combining with Ni and Al to form a complex boride (Ni41Al5B12) matrix above 0.5wt% content. Grain boundary strengthening, solid solution hardening and the formation of boride phase contributed to the observed increase in Rockwell hardness of Ni3Al with boron additions. The application of consolidation/deformation pressure was found to be most beneficial after the compact had reached the maximum combustion temperature and is cooling down. In the RP study, different consolidation pressures (100, 200 and 300 MPa) were applied to the reacted compact during cooling at different temperatures. It was found that with increasing pressing temperature and pressure, the percentage total porosity decreased reaching its minimum value of ˜1% at 1200°C and 300 MPa respectively. The grain size was almost independent of both pressing temperature and pressure. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    regeneration based on HA, gold nanoparticles, and graphene. We devised a one- step method in which Au and hydroxyapatite were used as a catalytic system in a...detection of cancer cells/nanomaterials in circulation.  We showed that graphitic materials can increase the osteogenesis of bone cells.  We finished...GCNFs) were produced by a single- step reduction process and used for the growth and differentiation of human adult stem cells. The nanomaterials were

  11. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  12. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  13. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching.......Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  14. ADVANCED CONTROL OF A COMPLEX CHEMICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Both

    Full Text Available Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not suitable for use in controller design, a simple linear mathematical model of the process, which describes its most important properties, was determined. Both developed mathematical models were validated using plant data. The control strategies proposed in this paper are a multivariable Smith Predictor PID controller and multivariable Smith Predictor structure in which the primary controllers are derived based on Internal Model Control. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection tests are presented for both methods based on scenarios implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK.

  15. Structural health monitoring an advanced signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuefeng; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the latest advances and trends in advanced signal processing (such as wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, empirical mode decomposition, compressive sensing and sparse representation, and stochastic resonance) for structural health monitoring (SHM). Its primary focus is on the utilization of advanced signal processing techniques to help monitor the health status of critical structures and machines encountered in our daily lives: wind turbines, gas turbines, machine tools, etc. As such, it offers a key reference guide for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals who work in the field of SHM.

  16. Overview of advanced process control in welding within ERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The special kinds of demands placed on ERDA weapons and reactors require them to have very reliable welds. Process control is critical in achieving this reliability. ERDA has a number of advanced process control projects underway with much of the emphasis being on electron beam welding. These include projects on voltage measurement, beam-current control, beam focusing, beam spot tracking, spike suppression, and computer control. A general discussion of process control in welding is followed by specific examples of some of the advanced joining process control projects in ERDA

  17. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  18. Conceptual design study of an integrated pyro-process facility at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Gil-Sung; Choung, Won-Myung; Lee, Eun-Pyo; Cho, Il-Je; Kwon, Kie-Chan; Hong, Dong-Hee; Lee, Won-Kyung; Ku, Jeong-Hoe [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    KAERI has been developing pyro-process facilities for a dry processing research of spent fuel about ten years since 1997. A hot cell facility, named the ACPF-Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility, for the demonstration of a head-end part of pyro-process was developed at November 2005. An inactive demonstration facility for the integrated pyro-process, named PRIDE-pyro-process Integrated inactive Demonstration, has been developing since 2007. The PRIDE facility consists of two cells: one is an air environment cell and another one is an argon environment cell. This facility includes several pyro-process equipment, such as a decladding/voloxidation device, a powder mixing device, an electro-reduction equipment, an electro-refining equipment, an electro-winning equipment, a Cd distillation equipment, a waste salt regeneration and solidification equipment, a salt distillation equipment, etc. In the cell and on the wall, some cell equipment, such as one cell crane, one BTDSM (Bridge Transported Dual arm Servo Manipulator), two HMSM (Horizontally Moving dual arm Servo Manipulator) will be also installed. This facility will be utilized to obtain the basic requirements for an engineering scale pyro-process facility in which the spent fuels from power reactors can be treated. (authors)

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, Mohd Shafie; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  20. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  1. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  2. Spatial Analysis of Depots for Advanced Biomass Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Erin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez Gonzalez, Maria I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work was to perform a spatial analysis of the total feedstock cost at the conversion reactor for biomass supplied by a conventional system and an advanced system with depots to densify biomass into pellets. From these cost estimates, the conditions (feedstock cost and availability) for which advanced processing depots make it possible to achieve cost and volume targets can be identified.

  3. Advanced concepts under development in the United States Breeder-Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced concepts and techniques for the fuel reprocessing step are being developed. These concepts have been incorporated into the conceptual design of a Hot Experimental Facility (HEF), which is intended to demonstrate reprocessing of the first US breeder demonstration reactor. To achieve system reliability and reduce occupational doses, a concept of totally remote operation and maintenance (termed Remotex) has been conceived and is being developed. In this concept, maintenance and mechanical operations are accomplished with remotely operated bilateral force-reflecting electronic master/slave manipulators. Suitable transport systems, coupled with remote closed-circuit television viewing, are provided to extend man's capabilities into the hostile cell environment. New equipment concepts are being developed for the fuel dismantling and shearing step, a high-temperature dry process termed voloxidation to remove tritium, a continuous rotary dissolver, and for an improved centrifugal solvent contractor. Techniques have been developed, using engineering-scale equipment with active tracers for retention of 85 Kr, radioiodine, 14 C, and 3 H

  4. Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-12

    Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...310 Jesse Hall Columbia, MO 65211 -1230 654808 633606 ABSTRACT Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR Report...Aggregation Operator For Humanitarian Demining Using Hand- Held GPR , , (01 2008): . doi: D. Ho, P. Gader, J. Wilson, H. Frigui. Subspace Processing

  5. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  6. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  7. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  8. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; McDougall, T.E.; Chung, M.; Tateishi, Miyoko

    1996-01-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL's 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties. (Author)

  9. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  10. Recent Advances in Ultra-High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We review recent advances in the optical signal processing of ultra-high-speed serial data signals up to 1.28 Tbit/s, with focus on applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Experimental methods for the generation of symbol rates up to 1.28 Tbaud are also described....

  11. Adding Structure to the Transition Process to Advanced Mathematical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-01-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical…

  12. Transportation informatics : advanced image processing techniques automated pavement distress evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The current project, funded by MIOH-UTC for the period 1/1/2009- 4/30/2010, is concerned : with the development of the framework for a transportation facility inspection system using : advanced image processing techniques. The focus of this study is ...

  13. Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize the removal of natural organic matter in water (Case study: drinking water of Mashhad's ... and in addition to giving taste, color and odor to the water, they can intervene in the oxidization and removal of heavy metals such as arsenic, iron and manganese.

  14. Advanced multiresponse process optimisation an intelligent and integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Šibalija, Tatjana V

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an intelligent, integrated, problem-independent method for multiresponse process optimization. In contrast to traditional approaches, the idea of this method is to provide a unique model for the optimization of various processes, without imposition of assumptions relating to the type of process, the type and number of process parameters and responses, or interdependences among them. The presented method for experimental design of processes with multiple correlated responses is composed of three modules: an expert system that selects the experimental plan based on the orthogonal arrays; the factor effects approach, which performs processing of experimental data based on Taguchi’s quality loss function and multivariate statistical methods; and process modeling and optimization based on artificial neural networks and metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The implementation is demonstrated using four case studies relating to high-tech industries and advanced, non-conventional processes.

  15. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process...... cannot be achieved without violation of process constraints. A target calculation function can be used to calculate the optimal achievable target for the process. The use of hard and soft constraints for process input constraints in the MPC controllers, ensures feasible solutions. The computational load...... as function of controllers type, Model dimension and constraint type will be discussed. Finally the special requirements set by processes including a pure integration dynamics will be illustrated by a linearised CSTR process. The simulated results presented, will later on be implemented on and demonstrated...

  16. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slember, R.J.; Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  17. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  18. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  19. Degradation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid by advanced oxidation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. P. S. Zanta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs such as the UV/H2O2 and Fenton processes were investigated for the degradation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (2-HBA in lab-scale experiments. Different [H2O2]/[2-HBA] molar ratios and pH values were used in order to establish the most favorable experimental conditions for the Fenton process. For comparison purposes, degradation of 2-HBA was carried out by the UV/H2O2 process under Fenton experimental conditions. The study showed that the Fenton process (a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and Fe2+ ion was the most effective under acidic conditions, leading to the highest rate of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid degradation in a very short time interval. This same process led to a six-fold acceleration of the oxidation rate compared with the UV/H2O2 process. The degradation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid was found to follow first-order kinetics and to be influenced by the type of process and the experimental conditions. The experimental results showed that the most favorable conditions for 2-HBA degradation by the Fenton process are pH around 4-5, [Fe2+] = 0.6 mmol.L-1, and [H2O2]/[2-HBA] molar ratio = 7. The hydroxylation route is explained here for the two processes, and the results are discussed in the light of literature information.

  20. Raw materials for advanced ceramics: rare earths separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, D.R.; Nobre, J.S.M.; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of obtaining purified rare earths oxidesis related, mainly to the increasing use of these compounds as raw materials for advanced ceramics. Processes of rare earths separation and purification are almost always based on the solvent extraction, fractional precipitation and ion exchange chromatography techniques, whose association depends on the initial concentrate and on the desired purity. This paper describes some steps of fractionation of didymium carbonate by using the solvent extraction and fractional precipitation techniques. The experimental conditions presented here have enable the production of lantanium, neodimium - praseodimium, samarium - gadolinium and ytrium concentrates, which constitute the intermediate fractions of the overall process to obtain high purity rare earths. (author) [pt

  1. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  2. Advances and applications of optimised algorithms in image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Oliva, Diego

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a study of the use of optimization algorithms in complex image processing problems. The problems selected explore areas ranging from the theory of image segmentation to the detection of complex objects in medical images. Furthermore, the concepts of machine learning and optimization are analyzed to provide an overview of the application of these tools in image processing. The material has been compiled from a teaching perspective. Accordingly, the book is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Science, Engineering, and Computational Mathematics, and can be used for courses on Artificial Intelligence, Advanced Image Processing, Computational Intelligence, etc. Likewise, the material can be useful for research from the evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence and image processing co.

  3. Virus Reduction during Advanced Bardenpho and Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Kitajima, Masaaki; Campillo, Maria E; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2016-09-06

    The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region. The incidence of viruses in wastewater was assessed with respect to absolute abundance, occurrence, and reduction in monthly samples collected throughout a 12 month period in southern Arizona. Samples were concentrated via an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results suggest that Plant D, utilizing an advanced Bardenpho process as secondary treatment, effectively reduced pathogenic viruses better than facilities using conventional processes. However, the absence of cell-culture assays did not allow an accurate assessment of infective viruses. On the basis of these data, the Aichi virus is suggested as a conservative viral marker for adequate wastewater treatment, as it most often showed the best correlation coefficients to viral pathogens, was always detected at higher concentrations, and may overestimate the potential virus risk.

  4. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Selection of parameters for advanced machining processes using firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkamal Shukla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced machining processes (AMPs are widely utilized in industries for machining complex geometries and intricate profiles. In this paper, two significant processes such as electric discharge machining (EDM and abrasive water jet machining (AWJM are considered to get the optimum values of responses for the given range of process parameters. The firefly algorithm (FA is attempted to the considered processes to obtain optimized parameters and the results obtained are compared with the results given by previous researchers. The variation of process parameters with respect to the responses are plotted to confirm the optimum results obtained using FA. In EDM process, the performance parameter “MRR” is increased from 159.70 gm/min to 181.6723 gm/min, while “Ra” and “REWR” are decreased from 6.21 μm to 3.6767 μm and 6.21% to 6.324 × 10−5% respectively. In AWJM process, the value of the “kerf” and “Ra” are decreased from 0.858 mm to 0.3704 mm and 5.41 mm to 4.443 mm respectively. In both the processes, the obtained results show a significant improvement in the responses.

  6. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  7. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  8. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  9. Advanced automation for in-space vehicle processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Michael; Wegerif, D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this 3-year planned study is to assure that the fully evolved Space Station Freedom (SSF) can support automated processing of exploratory mission vehicles. Current study assessments show that required extravehicular activity (EVA) and to some extent intravehicular activity (IVA) manpower requirements for required processing tasks far exceeds the available manpower. Furthermore, many processing tasks are either hazardous operations or they exceed EVA capability. Thus, automation is essential for SSF transportation node functionality. Here, advanced automation represents the replacement of human performed tasks beyond the planned baseline automated tasks. Both physical tasks such as manipulation, assembly and actuation, and cognitive tasks such as visual inspection, monitoring and diagnosis, and task planning are considered. During this first year of activity both the Phobos/Gateway Mars Expedition and Lunar Evolution missions proposed by the Office of Exploration have been evaluated. A methodology for choosing optimal tasks to be automated has been developed. Processing tasks for both missions have been ranked on the basis of automation potential. The underlying concept in evaluating and describing processing tasks has been the use of a common set of 'Primitive' task descriptions. Primitive or standard tasks have been developed both for manual or crew processing and automated machine processing.

  10. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

  12. Sustaining high energy efficiency in existing processes with advanced process integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Smith, Robin; Bulatov, Igor; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Process integration with better modelling and more advanced solution methods. ► Operational changes for better environmental performance through optimisation. ► Identification of process integration technology for operational optimisation. ► Systematic implementation procedure of process integration technology. ► A case study with crude oil distillation to demonstrate the operational flexibility. -- Abstract: To reduce emissions in the process industry, much emphasis has been put on making step changes in emission reduction, by developing new process technology and making renewable energy more affordable. However, the energy saving potential of existing systems cannot be simply ignored. In recent years, there have been significant advances in process integration technology with better modelling techniques and more advanced solution methods. These methods have been applied to the new design and retrofit studies in the process industry. Here attempts are made to apply these technologies to improve the environmental performance of existing facilities with operational changes. An industrial project was carried out to demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of exploiting the operational flexibility for energy conservation. By applying advanced optimisation technique to integrate the operation of distillation and heat recovery in a crude oil distillation unit, the energy consumption was reduced by 8% without capital expenditure. It shows that with correctly identified technology and the proper execution procedure, significant energy savings and emission reduction can be achieved very quickly without major capital expenditure. This allows the industry to improve its economic and environment performance at the same time.

  13. Further assessment studies of the Advanced Cold Process Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.; Hoch, A.; Sharland, S.M.

    1990-08-01

    A preliminary assessment of the performance of the Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC) was carried out recently by Marsh. The aim of the study presented in this report is to re-examine the validity of some of the assumptions made, and re-evaluate the canister performance as appropriate. Two areas were highlighted in the preliminary study as requiring more detailed quantitative evaluation. 1) Assessment of the risk of internal stress-corrosion cracking induced by irradiation of moist air inside the canister if, under fault conditions, significant water was carried into the canister before sealing. 2) Evaluation of the corrosion behaviour subsequent to first breach of outer container. (author)

  14. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A. [Coal Technology Corporation, Bristol, VA (United States); Ferris, D.D. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  15. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal's heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation's coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel

  16. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  17. Advanced treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by Fenton reagent oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan YANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avermectin-salinomycin waster is hard to be further biodegraded after treated by anaerobic-aerobiotic process, so Fenton oxidation process is studied for its advanced treatment. Influencing factors of pH, reaction time, H2O2 dosage and H2O2/Fe2+ on COD removal are investigated, respectively. When pH value is 3.0, the dosage of H2O2 is 1.5 mL/L, and the mole ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ is 5∶1, the effluent COD mass concentrations decreases from 224 to 64.3 mg/L, namely the COD removal efficiency reaches 71.3%.

  18. Use of advanced oxidation processes for removal of micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    One of the big challenges of modern water treatment is the handling of micropollutants. These are compounds found in very low concentrations, often at ppt or ppb level, but are still capable of having a potent effect on the environment, and possibly humans as well. One of the emerging technologies...... for removal of micropollutants is the use of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). AOPs use highly reactive hydroxyl radicals to degrade the micropollutants, but the processes are very energy intensive, which may limit their applications. To investigate the feasibility of introducing AOPs in the Danish water...... to determine the effect of the modification of the UV system on its original purpose. The degradation experiments were carried out at pilot scale in the laboratory, and then compared to data collected at the WWTP. TiO2 was found to improve the rate of degradation of EE2 by 66 % compared to the photolytic...

  19. Advances in low-level color image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Smolka, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Color perception plays an important role in object recognition and scene understanding both for humans and intelligent vision systems. Recent advances in digital color imaging and computer hardware technology have led to an explosion in the use of color images in a variety of applications including medical imaging, content-based image retrieval, biometrics, watermarking, digital inpainting, remote sensing, visual quality inspection, among many others. As a result, automated processing and analysis of color images has become an active area of research, to which the large number of publications of the past two decades bears witness. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for single channel images are often not directly applicable to multichannel  ones. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the early stages of the color image processing pipeline.

  20. Near-field performance of the advanced cold process canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.

    1991-12-01

    A near-field performance evaluation of an advanced cold process canister for spent fuel disposal has been performed jointly by TVO, Finland and SKB, Sweden. The canister consists of a steel canister as a load bearing element, with an outer corrosion shield of copper. In the analysis, as well internal (ie corrosion processes from the inside of the canister) as external processes (mechanical and chemical) have been considered both prior to and after canister breach. The major conclusions for the evaluation are: Internal processes cannot cause the canister breach under foreseen conditions, ie local-iced corrosion for the steel or copper canisters can be dismissed as a failure mechanism; The evaluation of the effects of processed outside the canister indicate that there is no rapid mechanism to endanger the integrity of the canister. Consequently the service life of the canister will be several million years. For completeness also evaluation of post-failure behaviour was carried out. Analyses were focussed on low probability phenomena from faults in canisters. Some items were identified where further research is justified in order to increase knowledge of the phenomena and thus strengthen the confidence of safety margins. However, it can be concluded that the risks of these scenarios can be judged to be acceptable. This is due to the fact that firstly, the probability of occurrence of most of these scenarios can be controlled to a large extent through technical measures. Secondly, these analyses indicated that the consequences would not be severe

  1. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retreival And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated since it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans and methods. WRPS and the DOE are therefore developing, testing, and deploying technologies to ensure that they can meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  2. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retrieval And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Mendoza, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated, developed, and deployed by WRPS to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Transformational technologies are needed to complete Hanford tank waste retrieval and treatment by 12/31/2047. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated because it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans, and methods. WRPS and the DOE are developing, testing, and deploying technologies to meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) identifies the environmental management technology needs and the activities necessary to address them. The U.S. Congress then funds these activities through EM or the DOE field offices. Finally, an array of entities that include DOE site prime contractors and

  3. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hern, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Evans, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Miller, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Cooper, Marcia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetic Components Realization Center; Torczynski, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  4. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  6. Improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through advanced froth treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S.H. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies Laboratory; Humphries, A. [Albemarle Catalysts Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the dominant refinery conversion process for producing transportation fuels. Feed to the FCC unit is heavy gas oil (HGO). Its quality depends on the crude used and the processes involved. Bitumen-derived crude (BDC), including synthetic crude oil (SCO) is less superior to produce FCC feed than stocks from conventional sources. As a result, North American refiners have limited the use of BDC in their conventional FCC-based operations. This paper examined the improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through an advanced froth treatment process. This involved processing of the bitumen with paraffinic solvent in froth treatment with removal of some asphaltenes, CCR precursors, and metals. The paper discussed the experimental and subsequent results and discussion, including cracking characteristics; product quality; synergetic effect; and economic benefits. It was concluded that the poisoning effect by some deleterious components such as nitrogen compounds in feeds on the catalyst could be reduced or compensated for by higher C/O ratios (more catalyst per unit weight of feed). In addition, as conversion increased, sulfur in gasoline decreased slightly and linearly with more or less the same magnitude for the two bitumens. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specified conversion behavior is ARF's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. The program includes: (1) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (2) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (3) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a workstation'' environment.

  8. Applying advanced digital signal processing techniques in industrial radioisotopes applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, H.K.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes can be used to obtain signals or images in order to recognize the information inside the industrial systems. The main problems of using these techniques are the difficulty of identification of the obtained signals or images and the requirement of skilled experts for the interpretation process of the output data of these applications. Now, the interpretation of the output data from these applications is performed mainly manually, depending heavily on the skills and the experience of trained operators. This process is time consuming and the results typically suffer from inconsistency and errors. The objective of the thesis is to apply the advanced digital signal processing techniques for improving the treatment and the interpretation of the output data from the different Industrial Radioisotopes Applications (IRA). This thesis focuses on two IRA; the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) measurement and the defect inspection of welded pipes using a gamma source (gamma radiography). In RTD measurement application, this thesis presents methods for signal pre-processing and modeling of the RTD signals. Simulation results have been presented for two case studies. The first case study is a laboratory experiment for measuring the RTD in a water flow rig. The second case study is an experiment for measuring the RTD in a phosphate production unit. The thesis proposes an approach for RTD signal identification in the presence of noise. In this approach, after signal processing, the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and polynomial coefficients are extracted from the processed signal or from one of its transforms. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been tested and compared for efficient feature extraction. Neural networks have been used for matching of the extracted features. Furthermore, the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of the RTD signal has been also used instead of the discrete

  9. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  10. Advanced statistics to improve the physical interpretation of atomization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panão, Miguel R.O.; Radu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Finite pdf mixtures improves physical interpretation of sprays. ► Bayesian approach using MCMC algorithm is used to find the best finite mixture. ► Statistical method identifies multiple droplet clusters in a spray. ► Multiple drop clusters eventually associated with multiple atomization mechanisms. ► Spray described by drop size distribution and not only its moments. -- Abstract: This paper reports an analysis of the physics of atomization processes using advanced statistical tools. Namely, finite mixtures of probability density functions, which best fitting is found using a Bayesian approach based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. This approach takes into account eventual multimodality and heterogeneities in drop size distributions. Therefore, it provides information about the complete probability density function of multimodal drop size distributions and allows the identification of subgroups in the heterogeneous data. This allows improving the physical interpretation of atomization processes. Moreover, it also overcomes the limitations induced by analyzing the spray droplets characteristics through moments alone, particularly, the hindering of different natures of droplet formation. Finally, the method is applied to physically interpret a case-study based on multijet atomization processes

  11. Extra-terrestrial construction processes - Advancements, opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Prabhu, Vibha Levin; Anand, Mahesh; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2017-10-01

    Government space agencies, including NASA and ESA, are conducting preliminary studies on building alternative space-habitat systems for deep-space exploration. Such studies include development of advanced technologies for planetary surface exploration, including an in-depth understanding of the use of local resources. Currently, NASA plans to land humans on Mars in the 2030s. Similarly, other space agencies from Europe (ESA), Canada (CSA), Russia (Roscosmos), India (ISRO), Japan (JAXA) and China (CNSA) have already initiated or announced their plans for launching a series of lunar missions over the next decade, ranging from orbiters, landers and rovers for extended stays on the lunar surface. As the Space Odyssey is one of humanity's oldest dreams, there has been a series of research works for establishing temporary or permanent settlement on other planetary bodies, including the Moon and Mars. This paper reviews current projects developing extra-terrestrial construction, broadly categorised as: (i) ISRU-based construction materials; (ii) fabrication methods; and (iii) construction processes. It also discusses four categories of challenges to developing an appropriate construction process: (i) lunar simulants; (ii) material fabrication and curing; (iii) microwave-sintering based fabrication; and (iv) fully autonomous and scaled-up construction processes.

  12. Radwaste processing at the Advanced Test Reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, R.N.; Livingston, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250-MW (thermal) water-cooled reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The reactor is used primarily to test materials in a radiation environment for defense related programs. Operation of this facility includes processing of radioactive waste streams in solid, liquid, and gaseous forms. Since the materials tested in reactor experiment facilities are sometimes destructively tested, the radwaste process capabilities for experimental facilities must be capable of handling a relatively wide range of contamination levels in the waste streams. Modifications to the original plant (designed in 1967) have been concerned with reducing the volume and activity level of liquid waste. Included are modular filtration and ion-exchange units were developed to convert canal cleanup from an open loop flush to a closed loop recirculation system. Another plant improvement involved an ion-exchange treatment system that reduces the level of radiological contamination in the low-level waste water. A system to evaporate the water from high-level waste is presently in development, and is also discussed

  13. Acoustic monitoring of rotating machine by advanced signal processing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The acoustic data remotely measured by hand held type microphones are investigated for monitoring and diagnosing the rotational machine integrity in nuclear power plants. The plant operator's patrol monitoring is one of the important activities for condition monitoring. However, remotely measured sound has some difficulties to be considered for precise diagnosis or quantitative judgment of rotating machine anomaly, since the measurement sensitivity is different in each measurement, and also, the sensitivity deteriorates in comparison with an attached type sensor. Hence, in the present study, several advanced signal processing methods are examined and compared in order to find optimum anomaly monitoring technology from the viewpoints of both sensitivity and robustness of performance. The dimension of pre-processed signal feature patterns are reduced into two-dimensional space for the visualization by using the standard principal component analysis (PCA) or the kernel based PCA. Then, the normal state is classified by using probabilistic neural network (PNN) or support vector data description (SVDD). By using the mockup test facility of rotating machine, it is shown that the appropriate combination of the above algorithms gives sensitive and robust anomaly monitoring performance. (author)

  14. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; hide

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  15. Bim Automation: Advanced Modeling Generative Process for Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, F.; Fai, S.; Brumana, R.

    2017-08-01

    The new paradigm of the complexity of modern and historic structures, which are characterised by complex forms, morphological and typological variables, is one of the greatest challenges for building information modelling (BIM). Generation of complex parametric models needs new scientific knowledge concerning new digital technologies. These elements are helpful to store a vast quantity of information during the life cycle of buildings (LCB). The latest developments of parametric applications do not provide advanced tools, resulting in time-consuming work for the generation of models. This paper presents a method capable of processing and creating complex parametric Building Information Models (BIM) with Non-Uniform to NURBS) with multiple levels of details (Mixed and ReverseLoD) based on accurate 3D photogrammetric and laser scanning surveys. Complex 3D elements are converted into parametric BIM software and finite element applications (BIM to FEA) using specific exchange formats and new modelling tools. The proposed approach has been applied to different case studies: the BIM of modern structure for the courtyard of West Block on Parliament Hill in Ottawa (Ontario) and the BIM of Masegra Castel in Sondrio (Italy), encouraging the dissemination and interaction of scientific results without losing information during the generative process.

  16. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Catia; Sakata, Solange K.; Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2009-01-01

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H 2 O 2 / Fe +2 ) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H 2O 2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO 3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH) 2 and the CO 2 from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe +2 /H 2 O 2 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  17. Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhang, Pu [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2016-11-30

    For this Vehicle Technologies Incubator/Energy Storage R&D topic, Lambda Technologies teamed with Navitas Systems and proposed a new advanced drying process that promised a 5X reduction in electrode drying time and significant reduction in the cost of large format lithium batteries used in PEV's. The operating principle of the proposed process was to use penetrating radiant energy source Variable Frequency Microwaves (VFM), that are selectively absorbed by the polar water or solvent molecules instantly in the entire volume of the electrode. The solvent molecules are thus driven out of the electrode thickness making the process more efficient and much faster than convective drying method. To evaluate the Advanced Drying Process (ADP) a hybrid prototype system utilizing VFM and hot air flow was designed and fabricated. While VFM drives the solvent out of the electrode thickness, the hot air flow exhausts the solvent vapors out of the chamber. The drying results from this prototype were very encouraging. For water based anodes there is a 5X drying advantage (time & length of oven) in using ADP over standard drying system and for the NMP based cathodes the reduction in drying time has 3X benefit. For energy savings the power consumption measurements were performed to ADP prototype and compared with the convection standard drying oven. The data collected demonstrated over 40% saving in power consumption with ADP as compared to the convection drying systems. The energy savings are one of the operational cost benefits possible with ADP. To further speed up the drying process, the ADP prototype was explored as a booster module before the convection oven and for the electrode material being evaluated it was possible to increase the drying speed by a factor of 4, which could not be accomplished with the standard dryer without surface defects and cracks. The instantaneous penetration of microwave in the entire slurry thickness showed a major advantage in rapid drying of

  18. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  19. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  1. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Pupuk Urea Menggunakan Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair pabrik pupuk urea terdiri dari urea dan amonium yang masing-masing mempunyai konsentrasi berkisar antara 1500-10000 ppm dan 400-3000 ppm. Konsentrasi urea yang tinggi di dalam badan air dapat menyebabkan blooming algae dalam ekosistem tersebut yang dapat mengakibatkan kehidupan biota air lain terserang penyakit. Peristiwa ini terjadi karena kurangnya nutrisi bagi biota air dan sedikitnya sinar matahari yang dapat menembusi permukaan air. Disamping kedua hal tersebut di atas, algae juga dapat memproduksi senyawa beracun bagi biota air dan manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengolah urea menggunakan oksidasi konvensional (H2O2 dan Advanced Oxidation Processes (kombinasi H2O2-Fe2+ pada pH 5 dengan parameter yang digunakan adalah variasi konsen-trasi awal H2O2  dan konsentrasi Fe2+. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penurunan konsentrasi urea tertinggi diperoleh pada penggunaan reagen fenton (8000 ppm H2O2 dan 500 ppm Fe2+, yaitu dapat menurunkan urea dari konsentrasi awal urea 2566,145 ppm menjadi 0 ppm. Kinetika reaksi dekomposisi urea menjadi amonium dan amonium menjadi nitrit dan nitrat yang diuji mengikuti laju kinetika reaksi orde 1 (satu terhadap urea dan orde satu terhadap amonium dengan konstanta laju reaksi masing-masing k1 = 0,019 dan k2 = 0,022 min-1.

  2. Robustness of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing processes. Study on solvent extraction processes adjusted to advanced reprocessing process. Document on collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Enokida, Youichi; Kobayashi, Noboru; Takanashi, Mitsuhiro; Aoshima, Atsushi; Nomura, Kazunori; Shibata, Atsuhiro

    2002-05-01

    The advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing process with crystallization uranium recovery has been proposed to enhance economical incentive and to reduce amount of discharged waste. Because a solvent extraction process following the crystallization uranium recovery will be operated with new process parameters due to different parameters of loading of heavy metals, decontamination factors, flow rates etc, fundamental studies on chemical flowsheet of the process are required to verify robustness of the process and to understand influence of process variation upon process performance. In this study, theoretical and computational studies were performed from this kind of aspect. Firstly, separation characteristics with the chemical flowsheet were studied for the steady-state, and recovery yields of uranium and plutonium, decontamination factor, process waste amount were computated for the normal process condition. Secondary, transient behaviors were computated with some variations in flow rates, heavy metal loading and so on from the normal process condition. Finally, influence of small fluctuation of the process condition was analyzed and the robustness of the new solvent extraction process was verified. This work was performed by Nagoya University and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute under the JNC Cooperative Research Scheme on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. (author)

  3. Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry Advanced – WPPCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the “2nd Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry advanced (WPPCA)”, that was held from, April 4-8, 2016, at the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), Bucaramanga, Colombia. The proceedings consist of 17 contributions that were presented as plenary talks at the event. The abstracts of all participants contributions were published in the Abstract Book with ISSN 2500-8420. The scientific program of the 2nd WPPCA consisted of 12 Magisterial Conferences, 28 Poster Presentations and 2 Courses with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Spain, Unite States of America, Mexico and Chile. Moreover, the 2nd WPPCA allowed to establish a shared culture of the research and innovation that enriches the area of the processing physical-chemistry of the materials and the industrial applications. All papers in these Proceedings refer to one from the following topics: Semiconductors, Superconductivity, Nanostructure Materials and Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics. The editor hopes that those interested in the area of the science of materials can to enjoy this reading, that reflects a wide variety of current issues. On behalf of the organizing committee of the 2nd WPPCA, we are extremely thankful to all authors for providing their valuable contributions for these Proceedings as well as the reviewers for their constructive recommendations and criticism aiding to improve the presented articles. Besides, especially we appreciate the great support provided by the Sponsors and Partners. (paper)

  4. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells

  5. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  6. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States) Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  7. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  8. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop ''advanced'' glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na 2 O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl- in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will

  9. Advanced diagnostics in oxy-fuel combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, J.; Clausen, Soennik; Degn Jensen, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. CHEC Research Centre, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Boeg Toftegaard, M. (DONG Energy Power, Hvidovre (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    This report sums up the findings in PSO-project 010069, ''Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Processes''. Three areas of optic diagnostics are covered in this work: - FTIR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. The results obtained in the swirl burner have proved the FTIR method as a valuable technique for gas phase temperature measurements. When its efficacy is evaluated against traditional thermocouple measurements, two cases, with and without probe beam stop, must however be treated separately. When the FTIR probe is operated with the purpose of gas phase concentration measurements the probe needs to operate with a beam stop mounted in front of it. With this beam stop in place it was shown that the measured gas phase temperature was affected by cooling, induced by the cooled beam stop. Hence, for a more accurate determination of gas phase temperatures the probe needed to operate without the beam stop. When this was the case, the FTIR probe showed superior to traditional temperature measurements using a thermocouple as it could measure the fast temperature fluctuations. With the beam stop in place the efficacy of the FTIR probe for gas temperature determination was comparable to the use of a traditional thermocouple. The evaluation of the FTIR technique regarding estimation of gas phase concentrations of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CO showed that the method is reliable though it cannot be stated as particularly accurate. The accuracy of the method is dependent on the similarity of the reference emission spectra of the gases with those obtained in the experiments, as the transmittance intensity is not a linear function of concentration. The length of the optical path also affects the steadiness of the measurements. The length of the optical path is difficult to adjust on the small scales that are the focus of this work. However

  10. Advanced hybrid process with solvent extraction and pyro-chemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Reiko; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fuse, Kouki; Saso, Michitaka; Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Arie, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Toshiba has been proposing a new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR. The new fuel cycle concept has better economical process of the LWR spent fuel reprocessing than the present Purex Process and the proliferation resistance for FBR cycle of plutonium with minor actinides after 2040. Toshiba has been developing a new Advanced Hybrid Process with Solvent Extraction and Pyrochemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR. The Advanced Hybrid Process combines the solvent extraction process of the LWR spent fuel in nitric acid with the recovery of high pure uranium for LWR fuel and the pyro-chemical process in molten salts of impure plutonium recovery with minor actinides for metallic FBR fuel, which is the FBR spent fuel recycle system after FBR age based on the electrorefining process in molten salts since 1988. The new Advanced Hybrid Process enables the decrease of the high-level waste and the secondary waste from the spent fuel reprocessing plants. The R and D costs in the new Advanced Hybrid Process might be reduced because of the mutual Pyro-chemical process in molten salts. This paper describes the new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR and the feasibility of the new Advanced Hybrid Process by fundamental experiments. (author)

  11. Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes to Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Marco Paulo Gomes de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Química This research contributes to the study and development of advanced oxidation technologies applied to two different problematic wastewaters: textile and winery wastewaters. In this dissertation the factors that influence the oxidation of the model compound of textile wastewaters, the azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5), and of the winery wastewaters were investigated. The first part of the thesis experimental work is dedicated to the decolorization of RB5 solut...

  12. Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    /fullerene mixtures and evaporated metal electrodes in a flat multilayer geometry. It is likely that significant advances can be found by pursuing many of these novel ideas further and the purpose of this review is to highlight these reports and hopefully spark new interest in materials and methods that may...... be performing less than the current state-of-the-art in their present form but that may have the potential to outperform these pending a larger investment in effort....

  13. Advanced power electronics converters PWM converters processing AC voltages

    CERN Document Server

    dos Santos, Euzeli

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, which can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces a new method to present power electronics converters called Power Blocks Geometry. Applicable for courses focusing on power electronics, power electronics converters, and advanced power converters. Offers a comprehensive set of simulation results to help understand the circuits presented throughout the book

  14. Advanced Solid-State Joining Processes for 2219 Aluminum Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) advances the more conventional Friction Stir Welding (C-FSW) process by separating the primary process variables of metal stirring and...

  15. Tailoring advanced technologies for air traffic control : the importance of the development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a process that is currently being applied to the : development and assessment of an advanced air traffic control (ATC) system, the : Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). This process deviates from established : practices of AT...

  16. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    cannot be achieved without violation of process constraints. A target calculation function can be used to calculate the optimal achievable target for the process. The use of hard and soft constraints for process input constraints in the MPC controllers, ensures feasible solutions. The computational load...... as function of controllers type, Model dimension and constraint type will be discussed. Finally the special requirements set by processes including a pure integration dynamics will be illustrated by a linearised CSTR process. The simulated results presented, will later on be implemented on and demonstrated...

  17. Advances in chemical physics dynamical processes in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Myron W

    2009-01-01

    Transport Properties and Soliton Models for Polyacetylene (M. Andretta, et al.). Development and Application of the Theory of Brownian Motion (W. Coffey). The Fading of Memory During the Regression of Structural Fluctuations (L. Dissado, et al.). Cooperative Molecular Behavior and Field Effects on Liquids: Experimental Considerations (G. Evans). A Review and Computer Simulation of the Molecular Dynamics of a Series of Specific Molecular Liquids (M. Evans and G. Evans). Recent Advances in Molecular-Dynamics Computer Simulation (D. Fincham and D. Heyes). Nonadiabatic Scattering Probl

  18. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  19. Research advances in dry anaerobic digestion process of solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long retention time, poor startup performance, incomplete mixing and the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are considered as the main disadvantages for the solid-state fermentation process. In order to develop feasible dry anaerobic digestion processes, it is important to review the optimization techniques and ...

  20. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  1. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  2. Advanced laser processing for industrial solar cell manufacturing (ALPINISM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, N.B.; Fieret, J. [Exitech Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-04

    The study was aimed at improving methods for the manufacture of high efficiency solar cells and thereby increase production rates. The project focused on the laser grooved buried contact solar cell (LGBC) which is produced by high-speed laser machining. The specific objectives were (i) to optimise the laser technology for high speed processing; (ii) to optimise the solar cell process conditions for high speed processing; (iii) to produce a prototype tool and demonstrate high throughput; and (iv) to demonstrate increased cell efficiency using laser processing of rear contact. Essentially, all the objectives were met and Exitech have already sold six production tools and one research tool developed in this study. In addition, it was found that laser processing at the rear cell surface offers the prospect of LGBC solar cells with an efficiency of 20 per cent. BP Solar Limited carried out this work under contract to the DTI.

  3. Process optimization for advanced high conductivity - high strength materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantsyrnyi, V.; Shikov, A.; Nikulin, A.

    1998-09-01

    On the basis of investigations carried out earlier, two types of high strength-high conductivity Cu-Nb wires have been designed and appropriate manufacturing processes have been proposed and experimentally approved. Long length conductors with rectangular cross sections 4 x 6 mm 2 and 2 x 3 mm 2 have been fabricated by the in situ process and by the bundle and deform process, which eliminates the operation of melting, accordingly. Investigation on the microstructure of both types of the fabricated wires has been conducted. Mechanical properties and electrical conductivity parameters have been measured also

  4. Advancements on the simulation of the micro injection moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Process simulations are applied in micro injection molding with the same purpose as in conventional injection molding: aiming at optimization and support of the design of mold, inserts, plastic products, and the process itself. Available software packages are however not well suited for micro...... injection molding, because they are developed for macro plastic parts and they are therefore limited in the capability of modeling the polymer flow in micro cavities properly. However, new opportunities for improved accuracy have opened up due to current developments of the simulation technology. Hence, new...... strategies and aspects for comprehensive simulation models which provide more precise results for micro injection molding are discussed. Modeling and meshing recommendations are presented, leading to a multi-scale mesh of all relevant units in the injection molding process. The implementation of the process...

  5. Advanced optical signal processing of broadband parallel data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Hu, Hao; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration.......Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration....

  6. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  7. Near net shape processing: A necessity for advanced materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality discrete parts are the backbones for successful operation of equipment used in transportation, communication, construction, manufacturing, and appliances. Traditional shapemaking for discrete parts is carried out predominantly by machining, or removing unwanted material to produce the desired shape. As the cost and complexity of modern materials escalates, coupled with the expense and environmental hazards associated with handling of scrap, it is increasingly important to develop near net shape processes for these materials. Such processes involve casting of liquid materials, consolidation of powder materials, or deformation processing of simple solid shapes into the desired shape. Frequently, several of these operations may be used in sequence to produce a finished part. The processes for near net shape forming may be applied to any type of material, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and their composites. The ability to produce shapes is the key to implementation of laboratory developments in materials science into real world applications. This seminar presents an overview of near net shapemaking processes, some application examples, current developments, and future research opportunities.

  8. Treatment of petroleum refinery sourwater by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Alessandra; Castro, Antonio V.; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of several oxidation processes to remove organic pollutants from sourwater was investigated. Sourwater is a specific stream of petroleum refineries, which contains slowly biodegradable compounds and toxic substances that impair the industrial biological wastewater treatment system. Preliminary experiments were conducted, using the following processes: H 2 O 2 , H 2 O 2 /UV, UV, photocatalysis, ozonation, Fenton and photo-Fenton. All processes, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not lead to satisfactory results, reducing at most 35% of the sourwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, further experiments were performed with these two techniques to evaluate process conditions and organic matter removal kinetics. Batch experiments revealed that the Fenton reaction is very fast and reaches, in a few minutes, an ultimate DOC removal of 13-27%, due to the formation of iron complexes. Radiation for an additional period of 60 min can increase DOC removal up to 87%. Experiments were also conducted in a continuous mode, operating one 0.4 L Fenton stirred reactor and one 1.6 L photo-Fenton reactor in series. DOC removals above 75% were reached, when the reaction system was operated with hydraulic retention times (HRT) higher than 85 min. An empirical mathematical model was proposed to represent the DOC removal kinetics, allowing predicting process performance quite satisfactorily

  9. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  10. Advances in fntd technology: Instrumentation, image processing and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, James Andrew

    Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs), based on Al2O 3:C,Mg single crystal material, enable diffraction limited imaging of ionization patterns. This fast, luminescent material is thermally and optically stable. This work expands and assesses the capability of FNTD technology to measure radiation dose quickly and accurately, especially neutron radition. Developments in FNTD instrumentation, software, image reconstruction, image processing and data processing improved ease of use, productivity and reliability and brought the technology into commercial viability. Descriptions of these developments are presented. Additionally, these developments were assessed and were found to comply with ANSI and ISO standards for personnel neutron dosimetry. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Advanced Fabrication Processes for Superconducting Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Josephson junctions,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 104, no. 2, July 2008, Art. ID 023909. [9] S.K. Tolpygo and D. Amparo , “Fabrication-process-induced...J. Appl. Phys., vol. 107, No. 7, 073906, Apr. 2010. [11] S.K. Tolpygo, D. Amparo , R.T. Hunt, J.A. Vivalda, and D.T. Yohannes, “Diffusion stop...June 2011. [12] D. Amparo and S.K. Tolpygo, “Investigation of the role of H in fabrication-process-induced variations of Nb/Al/AlOx/Nb Josephson

  12. Advanced Control Synthesis for Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Bui Duc Hong; You, Sam-Sang; Choi, Hyeung-Six; Jeong, Seok-Kwon

    2017-11-01

      In this study, robust control synthesis has been applied to a reverse osmosis desalination plant whose product water flow and salinity are chosen as two controlled variables. The reverse osmosis process has been selected to study since it typically uses less energy than thermal distillation. The aim of the robust design is to overcome the limitation of classical controllers in dealing with large parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, sensor noises, and unmodeled process dynamics. The analyzed desalination process is modeled as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with varying parameters. The control system is decoupled using a feed forward decoupling method to reduce the interactions between control channels. Both nominal and perturbed reverse osmosis systems have been analyzed using structured singular values for their stabilities and performances. Simulation results show that the system responses meet all the control requirements against various uncertainties. Finally the reduced order controller provides excellent robust performance, with achieving decoupling, disturbance attenuation, and noise rejection. It can help to reduce the membrane cleanings, increase the robustness against uncertainties, and lower the energy consumption for process monitoring.

  13. Quality assessment of digested sludges produced by advanced stabilization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Coors, A; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Guillon, E; Kunkel, U; Mascolo, G; Richter, E; Ternes, T A; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The European Union (EU) Project Routes aimed to discover new routes in sludge stabilization treatments leading to high-quality digested sludge, suitable for land application. In order to investigate the impact of different enhanced sludge stabilization processes such as (a) thermophilic digestion integrated with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (TT), (b) sonication before mesophilic/thermophilic digestion (UMT), and (c) sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion (AA) on digested sludge quality, a broad class of conventional and emerging organic micropollutants as well as ecotoxicity was analyzed, extending the assessment beyond the parameters typically considered (i.e., stability index and heavy metals). The stability index was improved by adding aerobic posttreatment or by operating dual-stage process but not by pretreatment integration. Filterability was worsened by thermophilic digestion, either alone (TT) or coupled with mesophilic digestion (UMT). The concentrations of heavy metals, present in ranking order Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr ~ Ni > Cd > Hg, were always below the current legal requirements for use on land and were not removed during the processes. Removals of conventional and emerging organic pollutants were greatly enhanced by performing double-stage digestion (UMT and AA treatment) compared to a single-stage process as TT; the same trend was found as regards toxicity reduction. Overall, all the digested sludges exhibited toxicity to the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis at concentrations about factor 100 higher than the usual application rate of sludge to soil in Europe. For earthworms, a safety margin of factor 30 was generally achieved for all the digested samples.

  14. Research advances in dry anaerobic digestion process of solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry anaerobic digestion process is an innovative waste-recycling method to treat high-solidcontent bio-wastes. This can be done without dilution with water by microbial consortia in an oxygenfree environment to recover potential renewable energy and nutrient-rich fertilizer for sustainable solid waste management.

  15. Advancing e-commerce personalization : Process framework and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Maurits; Parvinen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Personalization is widely used in e-commerce, and as computational power increases, personalization is now within reach for many online vendors. We describe a process framework to structure our knowledge of online personalization —both from academia and from applied attempts. This framework is

  16. Advancing E-Commerce Personalization: Process Framework and Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Personalization is widely used in e-commerce, and as computational power increases, personalization is now within reach for many online vendors. We describe a process framework to structure our knowledge of online personalization both from academia and from applied attempts. This framework is

  17. Advanced Signal Processing for MIMO-OFDM Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchón, Carles Navarro

    -division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, with a particular emphasis on the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard as a study case. Signal processing in wireless receivers can be designed following different strategies. On the one hand, one can use intuitive argumentation to define...

  18. Advanced processing of CdTe pixel radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädda, A.; Winkler, A.; Ott, J.; Härkönen, J.; Karadzhinova-Ferrer, A.; Koponen, P.; Luukka, P.; Tikkanen, J.; Vähänen, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report a fabrication process of pixel detectors made of bulk cadmium telluride (CdTe) crystals. Prior to processing, the quality and defect density in CdTe material was characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The semiconductor detector and Flip-Chip (FC) interconnection processing was carried out in the clean room premises of Micronova Nanofabrication Centre in Espoo, Finland. The chip scale processes consist of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) low temperature thermal Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), titanium tungsten (TiW) metal sputtering depositions and an electroless Nickel growth. CdTe crystals with the size of 10×10×0.5 mm3 were patterned with several photo-lithography techniques. In this study, gold (Au) was chosen as the material for the wettable Under Bump Metalization (UBM) pads. Indium (In) based solder bumps were grown on PSI46dig read out chips (ROC) having 4160 pixels within an area of 1 cm2. CdTe sensor and ROC were hybridized using a low temperature flip-chip (FC) interconnection technique. The In-Au cold weld bonding connections were successfully connecting both elements. After the processing the detector packages were wire bonded into associated read out electronics. The pixel detectors were tested at the premises of Finnish Radiation Safety Authority (STUK). During the measurement campaign, the modules were tested by exposure to a 137Cs source of 1.5 TBq for 8 minutes. We detected at the room temperature a photopeak at 662 keV with about 2 % energy resolution.

  19. Advancing Microwave Technology for Dehydration Processing of Biologics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellemme, Stephanie L.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex® syringe filter holder (Millipore™, Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  20. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  1. Combined Noncyclic Scheduling and Advanced Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Petersen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel formulation for combined scheduling and control of multi-product, continuous chemical processes is introduced in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and noncyclic continuous-time scheduling are efficiently combined. A decomposition into nonlinear programming (NLP dynamic optimization problems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP problems, without iterative alternation, allows for computationally light solution. An iterative method is introduced to determine the number of production slots for a noncyclic schedule during a prediction horizon. A filter method is introduced to reduce the number of MILP problems required. The formulation’s closed-loop performance with both process disturbances and updated market conditions is demonstrated through multiple scenarios on a benchmark continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR application with fluctuations in market demand and price for multiple products. Economic performance surpasses cyclic scheduling in all scenarios presented. Computational performance is sufficiently light to enable online operation in a dual-loop feedback structure.

  2. Advanced processing of the Zerodur R glass ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Thomas A.

    1991-11-01

    The Zerodur glass ceramic is an extraordinary material possessing a very low thermal expansion over a broad temperature range. Depending on the size of the castings, a continuous or a discontinuous melting technology is used in the manufacture of Zerodur. Continuous melters are being operated regularly in Germany and recently in the United States. The latest generation of discontinuous melters started production of 8.2 m spincast telescope blanks in early 1991. Zerodur fusion is a special process to generate lightweighted mirror blanks and special components. It requires glassy material and generates bonds that are as strong as the bulk material. Further process development such as waterjet cutting and insertion technologies are underway and may generate components of unique shapes and performance.

  3. Advanced Material Intelligent Processing Center: Next Generation Scalable Lean Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    Additional Modules: UV cure, spray on bagging Figure 35: Various process modules that slide into the AMP chassis . Figure 36: Robotic reach and...tape. The ultrasonic transducer is mounted on a z-axis linear guide to allow the knife to retract while material is fed to the surface. The entire...is shown in Figure 41. All feedback and control data is fed to and from a PC workstation through a National Instruments PXI chassis . This chassis

  4. Advancements on Radar Polarization Information Acquisition and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Dahai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on radar polarization information acquisition and processing has currently been one important part of radar techniques. The development of the polarization theory is simply reviewed firstly. Subsequently, some key techniques which include polarization measurement, polarization anti-jamming, polarization recognition, imaging and parameters inversion using radar polarimetry are emphatically analyzed in this paper. The basic theories, the present states and the development trends of these key techniques are presented and some meaningful conclusions are derived.

  5. Power Processing for Advanced Power Distribution and Control

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Ryo; AZUMA, Shun-ichi; HASEGAWA, Mikio; ANDO, Hiroyasu; HIKIHARA, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    A power packet dispatching system is proposed to realize the function of power on demand. This system distributes electrical power in quantized form, which is called power processing. This system has extensibility and flexibility. Here, we propose to use the power packet dispatching system as the next generation power distribution system in self-established and closed system such as robots, cars, and aircrafts. This paper introduces the concept and the required researches to take the power pa...

  6. Contingency Analysis Post-Processing With Advanced Computing and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt; Fitzhenry, Erin

    2017-07-01

    Contingency analysis is a critical function widely used in energy management systems to assess the impact of power system component failures. Its outputs are important for power system operation for improved situational awareness, power system planning studies, and power market operations. With the increased complexity of power system modeling and simulation caused by increased energy production and demand, the penetration of renewable energy and fast deployment of smart grid devices, and the trend of operating grids closer to their capacity for better efficiency, more and more contingencies must be executed and analyzed quickly in order to ensure grid reliability and accuracy for the power market. Currently, many researchers have proposed different techniques to accelerate the computational speed of contingency analysis, but not much work has been published on how to post-process the large amount of contingency outputs quickly. This paper proposes a parallel post-processing function that can analyze contingency analysis outputs faster and display them in a web-based visualization tool to help power engineers improve their work efficiency by fast information digestion. Case studies using an ESCA-60 bus system and a WECC planning system are presented to demonstrate the functionality of the parallel post-processing technique and the web-based visualization tool.

  7. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti composition

  8. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F. [Ceramic and Metallurgy Technologies, General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (H{sub ci}) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (B{sub r}) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH){sub max} of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m{sup 2} were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary α{sub γ} phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one 〈001〉 crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic

  9. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  10. Advanced electrical and electronics materials processes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, K M

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and unique book is intended to cover the vast and fast-growing field of electrical and electronic materials and their engineering in accordance with modern developments.   Basic and pre-requisite information has been included for easy transition to more complex topics. Latest developments in various fields of materials and their sciences/engineering, processing and applications have been included. Latest topics like PLZT, vacuum as insulator, fiber-optics, high temperature superconductors, smart materials, ferromagnetic semiconductors etc. are covered. Illustrations and exa

  11. Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode Use in Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    widely researched for a number of different contaminants. Jung et al. (2012:160) degraded the β-lactam antibiotic amoxicillin with UV and hydrogen...PDS5022T, Zhangzhou, China) was used to verify the timing of the pulse frequency and to measure the voltage drop across a known 50 ohm resister to permit...Wan Gi Kim, Yeojoon Yoon, Joon-Wun Kang, Young Min Hong, and Hyun Wook Kim. “Removal of Amoxicillin by UV and UV/ H2O2 Processes,” Science of

  12. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  13. Advanced Image Processing Package for FPGA-Based Re-Programmable Miniature Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ovod, Vladimir I; Baxter, Christopher R; Massie, Mark A; McCarley, Paul L

    2005-01-01

    .... An advanced image-processing package has been designed at Nova Sensors to re-configure the FPGA-based co-processor board for numerous applications including motion detection, optical background...

  14. A standard data set for performance analysis of advanced IR image processing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, A.R.; Adomeit, U.; Chevalier, P.; Landeau, S.; Bijl, P.; Champagnat, F.; Dijk, J.; Göhler, B.; Landini, S.; Reynolds, J.P.; Smith, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Modern IR cameras are increasingly equipped with built-in advanced (often non-linear) image and signal processing algorithms (like fusion, super-resolution, dynamic range compression etc.) which can tremendously influence performance characteristics. Traditional approaches to range performance

  15. Investigation of combined coagulation and advanced oxidation process efficiency for the removal of Clarithromycin from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: In general the results of the performed tests indicated that combined coagulation and advanced oxidation process has high efficiency in removal of Claritromycin wastewater COD. But application this method in the industry should be surveyed.

  16. Advanced Optical Signal Processing using Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    An overview of recent progress on time lens based advanced optical signal processing is presented, with a special focus on all-optical ultrafast 640 Gbit/s all-channel serial-to-parallel conversion, and scalable WDM regeneration....

  17. Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tethers Unlimited, Inc. (TUI) proposes to develop the Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, a robotically managed metal press and...

  18. Advances in the electro-spark deposition coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.; Sheldon, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    Electro-spark deposition (ESD) is a pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an electrode material on a metallic substrate. It is one of the few methods available by which a fused, metallurgically bonded coating can be applied with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperatures. The short duration of the electrical pulse allows an extremely rapid solidification of the deposited material and results in an exceptionally fine-grained, homogenous coating that approaches (and with some materials, actually is) an amorphous structure. This structure is believed to contribute to the good tribological and corrosion performance observed for hardsurfacing materials used in the demanding environments of high temperatures, liquid metals, and neutron irradiation. A brief historical review of the process is provided, followed by descriptions of the present state-of-the-art and of the performance and applications of electro-spark deposition coatings in liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactors

  19. Advanced modeling of management processes in information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalczuk, Zdzislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the issues of modelling management processes of information technology and IT projects while its core is the model of information technology management and its component models (contextual, local) describing initial processing and the maturity capsule as well as a decision-making system represented by a multi-level sequential model of IT technology selection, which acquires a fuzzy rule-based implementation in this work. In terms of applicability, this work may also be useful for diagnosing applicability of IT standards in evaluation of IT organizations. The results of this diagnosis might prove valid for those preparing new standards so that – apart from their own visions – they could, to an even greater extent, take into account the capabilities and needs of the leaders of project and manufacturing teams. The book is intended for IT professionals using the ITIL, COBIT and TOGAF standards in their work. Students of computer science and management who are interested in the issue of IT...

  20. Production of advanced biofuels: co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.; de Miguel Mercader, F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end

  1. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  2. Machine Vision and Advanced Image Processing in Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    This paper describes the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) transformation which is based on the established canonical correlation analysis. It also proposes post-processing of the change detected by the MAD variates by means of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis. As opposed to most......, and to the application of radiometric and atmospheric correction schemes that are linear or affine in the gray numbers of each image band. Other multivariate change detection schemes described are principal component type analysis of simple difference images. A case study with Landsat TM data using simple linear...... stretching and masking of the change images shows the usefulness of the new MAD and MAF/MAD change detection schemes. A simple simulation of a no-change situation shows the power of the MAD and MAF/MAD transformations...

  3. Basic to Advanced InSAR Processing: GMTSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Xu, X.; Baker, S.; Hogrelius, A.; Mellors, R. J.; Tong, X.; Wei, M.; Wessel, P.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring crustal deformation using InSAR is becoming a standard technique for the science and application communities. Optimal use of the new data streams from Sentinel-1 and NISAR will require open software tools as well as education on the strengths and limitations of the InSAR methods. Over the past decade we have developed freely available, open-source software for processing InSAR data. The software relies on the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) for the back-end data analysis and display and is thus called GMTSAR. With startup funding from NSF, we accelerated the development of GMTSAR to include more satellite data sources and provide better integration and distribution with GMT. In addition, with support from UNAVCO we have offered 6 GMTSAR short courses to educate mostly novice InSAR users. Currently, the software is used by hundreds of scientists and engineers around the world to study deformation at more than 4300 different sites. The most challenging aspect of the recent software development was the transition from image alignment using the cross-correlation method to a completely new alignment algorithm that uses only the precise orbital information to geometrically align images to an accuracy of better than 7 cm. This development was needed to process a new data type that is being acquired by the Sentinel-1A/B satellites. This combination of software and open data is transforming radar interferometry from a research tool into a fully operational time series analysis tool. Over the next 5 years we are planning to continue to broaden the user base through: improved software delivery methods; code hardening; better integration with data archives; support for high level products being developed for NISAR; and continued education and outreach.

  4. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  5. Advances in process overlay: alignment solutions for future technology nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megens, Henry; van Haren, Richard; Musa, Sami; Doytcheva, Maya; Lalbahadoersing, Sanjay; van Kemenade, Marc; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Hinnen, Paul; van Bilsen, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Semiconductor industry has an increasing demand for improvement of the total lithographic overlay performance. To improve the level of on-product overlay control the number of alignment measurements increases. Since more mask levels will be integrated, more alignment marks need to be printed when using direct-alignment (also called layer-to-layer alignment). Accordingly, the alignment mark size needs to become smaller, to fit all marks into the scribelane. For an in-direct alignment scheme, e.g. a scheme that aligns to another layer than the layer to which overlay is being measured, the number of needed alignment marks can be reduced. Simultaneously there is a requirement to reduce the size of alignment mark sub-segmentations without compromising the alignment and overlay performance. Smaller features within alignment marks can prevent processing issues like erosion, dishing and contamination. However, when the sub-segmentation size within an alignment mark becomes comparable to the critical dimension, and thus smaller than the alignment-illuminating wavelength, polarization effects might start to occur. Polarization effects are a challenge for optical alignment systems to maintain mark detectability. Nevertheless, this paper shows how to actually utilize those effects in order to obtain enhanced alignment and overlay performance to support future technology nodes. Finally, another challenge to be met for new semiconductor product technologies is the ability to align through semi-opaque materials, like for instance new hard-mask materials. Enhancement of alignment signal strength can be reached by adapting to new alignment marks that generate a higher alignment signal. This paper provides a description of an integral alignment solution that meets with these emerging customer application requirements. Complying with these requirements will significantly enhance the flexibility in production strategies while maintaining or improving the alignment and overlay

  6. Analysis of transportation and handling system for advanced spent fuel management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dong Hee; Yoon, J. S.; Park, B. S.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Jung, J. H.; Jin, J. H.; Park, G. Y.; Song, T. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    In this report, several devices which are used to safely transport and handle nuclear materials without scattering have been derived by analyzing the Advanced Management Process, object nuclear material and modules of process equipment and performing graphical simulation of transportation/handling by computers for the demonstration of the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process. For verification, powder transportation vessel and handling device have been designed and manufactured. And several tests such as transporting, grappling, rotating the vessel have been performed. Also, the functional requirements of transportation/handling equipment have been analyzed based on test results and process studies. The developed functional requirements in this research will be used as the design data for the Advanced Management Process. 6 refs., 25 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  7. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  8. Advanced Bio-Based Nanocomposites and Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Stephen Matthew

    The aim of the PhD thesis concerns with the modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via esterification or a radical grafting "from" approach to achieve polymeric nanocomposites of exceptional properties (Chapters 1 to 4). In addition to CNCs modification, other green routes have been introduced in this thesis in order to environmentally friendly polyester-based materials, i.e. Chapters five and six. The second chapter focuses on expanding on a one-pot cellulose acid hydrolysis/Fischer esterification to produce highly compatible CNCs without any organic solvent. It consists of modifying CNCs with acetic- and lactic- acid and exploring how such surface chemistry has an effect of dispersion in the case of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposites. The degree of substitution for AA-CNCs and LA-CNCs, determined by FTIR, are 0.12 and 0.13, respectively. PLA-based materials represent the best bioplastics relating to its high stiffness and biodegradability, but suffer from its poor thermal performances, namely its Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT). To improve the HDT of PLA, nanocomposites have been therefore prepared with modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by melt blending. After blending at 5 wt-% loading of CNCs, LA-CNCs gives superior reinforcement below and above the glass temperature of PLA. An increase in PLA's heat deflection temperature by 10°C and 20°C is achieved by melt-blending PLA with 5 and 20 wt-% LA-CNCs, respectively. Chapter three concerns with expanding this process to a series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids yielding functional CNCs for electronic and biomedical applications. Hydrophilic acids include citric-, malonic- and malic acid. Modification with the abovementioned organic acids allows for the introduction of free acids onto the surface of CNCs. Modification with citric-, malonic- and malic- acid is verified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C solid state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The degree of

  9. Process control integration requirements for advanced life support systems applicable to manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Paul; Spurlock, Jack M.; Evanich, Peggy L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of recent developments in process-control technology which might have applications in future advanced life support systems for long-duration space operations is presented. Consideration is given to design criteria related to control system selection and optimization, and process-control interfacing methodology. Attention is also given to current life support system process control strategies, innovative sensors, instrumentation and control, and innovations in process supervision.

  10. Wafer level reliability monitoring strategy of an advanced multi-process CMOS foundry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpa, Andrea; Tao, Guoqiao; Kuper, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    In an advanced multi-process CMOS foundry it is strategically important to make use of an optimum reliability monitoring strategy, in order to be able to run well controlled processes. Philips Semiconductors Business Unit Foundries wafer fab MOS4YOU has developed an end-of-line ultra-fast

  11. Software Systems 2--Compiler and Operating Systems Lab--Advanced, Data Processing Technology: 8025.33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the student develop the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in the field of data processing. By learning the purpose and principles of compiler programs and operating systems, the student will become familiar with advanced data processing procedures that are representative of computer…

  12. 76 FR 81906 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding a Competitive Process for Leasing Public Lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ...-AE24 Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding a Competitive Process for Leasing Public Lands for... to establish a competitive process for leasing public lands for solar and wind energy development... access to leasing opportunities for renewable energy development. This rulemaking would establish...

  13. [Technology development as social process: prospects and frontiers of social scientific elucidation of technological advancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, M

    1990-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the new developments in social scientific technology research which have changed considerably as a result of public debate and reactions to the importance of advancements in technology. The shift in emphasis, away from the effects of technology to its shaping, is described and certain hypotheses and concepts of advancement in the study of the social conditions underlying technical development processes are presented.

  14. Advances in intelligent process-aware information systems concepts, methods, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oberhauser, Roy; Reichert, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a state-of-the-art perspective on intelligent process-aware information systems and presents chapters on specific facets and approaches applicable to such systems. Further, it highlights novel advances and developments in various aspects of intelligent process-aware information systems and business process management systems. Intelligence capabilities are increasingly being integrated into or created in many of today’s software products and services. Process-aware information systems provide critical computing infrastructure to support the various processes involved in the creation and delivery of business products and services. Yet the integration of intelligence capabilities into process-aware information systems is a non-trivial yet necessary evolution of these complex systems. The book’s individual chapters address adaptive process management, case management processes, autonomically-capable processes, process-oriented information logistics, process recommendations, reasoning over ...

  15. Developing maintenance technologies for FBR's heat exchanger units by advanced laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akihiko; Shimada, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    Laser processing technologies were developed for the purpose of maintenance of FBR's heat exchanger units. Ultrashort laser processing fabricated fiber Bragg grating sensor for seismic monitoring. Fiber laser welding with a newly developed robot system repair cracks on inner wall of heat exchanger tubes. Safety operation of the heat exchanger units will be improved by the advanced laser processing technologies. These technologies are expected to be applied to the maintenance for the next generation FBRs. (author)

  16. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  17. The DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials: Research briefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication is designed to inform present and potential customers and partners of the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials about significant advances resulting from Center-coordinated research. The format is an easy-to-read, not highly technical, concise presentation of the accomplishments. Selected accomplishments from each of the Center`s seven initial focused projects are presented. The seven projects are: (1) conventional and superplastic forming; (2) materials joining; (3) nanoscale materials for energy applications; (4) microstructural engineering with polymers; (5) tailored microstructures in hard magnets; (6) processing for surface hardness; and (7) mechanically reliable surface oxides for high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  18. Energy, Exergy and Advanced Exergy Analysis of a Milk Processing Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Jensen, Jonas Kjær

    2016-01-01

    Energy, exergy and advanced exergy methods are used in this study to analyse a milk processing facility which is one of the largest energy consumers within the food industry in Denmark. While a conventional energy analysis maps the energy flows of the system and suggests opportunities for process......, cream and milk powder. The results show the optimisation potential based on 1st and 2nd law analyses. An evaluation and comparison of the applicability of exergy methods, including advanced exergy methods, to the dairy industry is made. The comparison includes typical energy mappings conducted onsite...

  19. The Customized Automatic Processing Framework for HY-2A Satellite Marine Advanced Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available HY-2A, as the first Chinese ocean dynamic environment satellite, provides an effective and efficient way of observing ocean properties. However, in the operational stage, some inconveniences of the existing ground application system have appeared. Based on the review of users’ requirements for data services, the Customized Automatic Processing Framework (CAPF for HY-2A advanced products is proposed and has been developed. As an extension of the existing ground application system, the framework provides interfaces for adding customized algorithms, designing on-demand processing workflows, and scheduling the processing procedures. With the customized processing templates, the framework allows users to easily process the products according to their own expectations, which facilitates the usage of HY-2A satellite advanced products.

  20. Challenges and Opportunities in Reactive Processing and Applications of Advanced Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the research, development, and commercialization of innovative synthesis and processing technologies for advanced ceramics and composite materials. Reactive processing approaches have been actively considered due to their robustness, flexibility, and affordability. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based advanced ceramics and composites are currently being fabricated using the processing approaches involving reactive infiltration of liquid and gaseous species into engineered fibrous or microporous carbon performs. The microporous carbon performs have been fabricated using the temperature induced phase separation and pyrolysis of two phase organic (resin-pore former) mixtures and fiber reinforcement of carbon and ceramic particulate bodies. In addition, pyrolyzed native plant cellulose tissues also provide unique carbon templates for manufacturing of non-oxide and oxide ceramics. In spite of great interest in this technology due to their affordability and robustness, there is a lack of scientific basis for process understanding and many technical challenges still remain. The influence of perform properties and other parameters on the resulting microstructure and properties of final material is not well understood. In this presentation, mechanism of silicon-carbon reaction in various systems and the effect of perform microstructure on the mechanical properties of advanced silicon carbide based materials will be discussed. Various examples of applications of reactively processed advanced silicon carbide ceramics and composite materials will be presented.

  1. Economic-oriented stochastic optimization in advanced process control of chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process.

  2. Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect t...

  3. Preface to the Viewpoint Set: Nanostructured metals - Advances in processing, characterization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    Materialia 2004;51:751–841). Since then the field has retained its vigor and advances and new discoveries have been made, many of which form the basis of the present Viewpoint Set. An important part of the development has been the trend to produce traditional materials such as steel, aluminum and copper...... and materials scientists but also technologists and engineers. The present Viewpoint Set therefore covers metallic materials with a structural scale ranging from micrometer to nanometer in dimensions and focuses on processing techniques such as plastic deformation and phase transformations. As a result...... of the advances in processing techniques, research and development also now extends to applications of fine structured metals, especially in advanced components...

  4. An overview on the removal of synthetic dyes from water by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidheesh, P V; Zhou, Minghua; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater containing dyes are one of the major threats to our environment. Conventional methods are insufficient for the removal of these persistent organic pollutants. Recently much attention has been received for the oxidative removal of various organic pollutants by electrochemically generated hydroxyl radical. This review article aims to provide the recent trends in the field of various Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes (EAOPs) used for removing dyes from water medium. The characteristics, fundamentals and recent advances in each processes namely anodic oxidation, electro-Fenton, peroxicoagulation, fered Fenton, anodic Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, sonoelectro-Fenton, bioelectro-Fenton etc. have been examined in detail. These processes have great potential to destroy persistent organic pollutants in aqueous medium and most of the studies reported complete removal of dyes from water. The great capacity of these processes indicates that EAOPs constitute a promising technology for the treatment of the dye contaminated effluents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of GA thermochemical water-splitting process for the Mirror Advanced Reactor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.C.

    1983-04-01

    GA interfaced the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle to the Mirror Advanced Reactor System (MARS). The results of this effort follow as one section and part of a second section to be included in the MARS final report. This section describes the process and its interface to the reactor. The capital and operating costs for the hydrogen plant are described

  6. Design process and philosophy of TVA's latest advance control room complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, G.R.; Masters, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    TVA's latest nuclear power plant control room design includes a greater emphasis on human factors as compared to their earlier plant designs. This emphasis has resulted in changes in the overall design philosophy and design process. This paper discusses some of the prominent design features of both the control room and the surrounding control room complex. In addition, it also presents some of the important activities involved in the process of developing the advanced control room design

  7. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  8. Current advances and trends in electro-Fenton process using heterogeneous catalysts - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza-Nogueiras, Verónica; Rosales, Emilio; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2018-06-01

    Over the last decades, advanced oxidation processes have often been used alone, or combined with other techniques, for remediation of ground and surface water pollutants. The application of heterogeneous catalysis to electrochemical advanced oxidation processes is especially useful due to its efficiency and environmental safety. Among those processes, electro-Fenton stands out as the one in which heterogeneous catalysis has been broadly applied. Thus, this review has introduced an up-to-date collation of the current knowledge of the heterogeneous electro-Fenton process, highlighting recent advances in the use of different catalysts such as iron minerals (pyrite, magnetite or goethite), prepared catalysts by the load of metals in inorganic and organic materials, nanoparticles, and the inclusion of catalysts on the cathode. The effects of physical-chemical parameters as well as the mechanisms involved are critically assessed. Finally, although the utilization of this process to remediation of wastewater overwhelmingly outnumber other utilities, several applications have been described in the context of regeneration of adsorbent or the remediation of soils as clear examples of the feasibility of the electro-Fenton process to solve different environmental problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  10. Recent Advances in Computational Methods for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data Processing

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2013-01-11

    Although three-dimensional protein structure determination using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a computationally costly and tedious process that would benefit from advanced computational techniques, it has not garnered much research attention from specialists in bioinformatics and computational biology. In this paper, we review recent advances in computational methods for NMR protein structure determination. We summarize the advantages of and bottlenecks in the existing methods and outline some open problems in the field. We also discuss current trends in NMR technology development and suggest directions for research on future computational methods for NMR.

  11. Advanced instrumentation for the collection, retrieval, and processing of urban stormwater data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jerald B.; Bales, Jerad D.; Young, Wendi S.; ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, has developed a data-collection network that uses advanced instrumentation to automatically collect, retrieve, and process urban stormwater data. Precipitation measurement and water-quality networks provide data for (1) planned watershed simulation models, (2) early warning of possible flooding, (3) computation of material export, and (4) characterization of water quality in relation to basin conditions. Advantages of advanced instrumentation include remote access to real-time data, reduced demands on and more efficient use of limited human resources, and direct importation of data into a geographical information system for display and graphic analysis.

  12. Advanced materials and processing for drug delivery: the past and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W

    2013-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parametric design of ground data processing/support systems for advanced sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, C.; Johnson, E. M.; Davis, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric system design technique has been applied to ground data processing/support systems for advanced sensor applications. The system establishes a direct link between budget analysts and system planners. Three primary phases are identified: the definition of requirements, system design, and system costing. The system is evaluated for three cases: (1) a study of ground data handling systems for earth resource satellites, (2) a ground data mass storage and processing system for agricultural remote-sensing studies, and (3) a parametric study of shuttle era data processing support required for atmospheric and space physics.

  14. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liqun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe-C microelectrolysis-Fenton process is proposed to pretreat landfill leachate. • Operating variables are optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). • 3D-EEMs and MW distribution explain the mechanism of enhanced biodegradability. • Fixed-bed column experiments are performed at different flow rates. - Abstract: A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H 2 O 2 concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD 5 /COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72 g/L, H 2 O 2 concentration 12.32 mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate.

  15. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liqun, E-mail: 691127317@qq.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Qi, E-mail: yangqi@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Dongbo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmli121x@hotmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Fe-C microelectrolysis-Fenton process is proposed to pretreat landfill leachate. • Operating variables are optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). • 3D-EEMs and MW distribution explain the mechanism of enhanced biodegradability. • Fixed-bed column experiments are performed at different flow rates. - Abstract: A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD{sub 5}/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72 g/L, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration 12.32 mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate.

  16. Advances in statistical monitoring of complex multivariate processes with applications in industrial process control

    CERN Document Server

    Kruger, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of multivariate statistical techniques in process monitoring has gained substantial interest over the past two decades in academia and industry alike.  Initially developed for monitoring and fault diagnosis in complex systems, such techniques have been refined and applied in various engineering areas, for example mechanical and manufacturing, chemical, electrical and electronic, and power engineering.  The recipe for the tremendous interest in multivariate statistical techniques lies in its simplicity and adaptability for developing monitoring applica

  17. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin

    2016-11-15

    A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H2O2 concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD5/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72g/L, H2O2 concentration 12.32mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced process monitoring and feedback control to enhance cell culture process production and robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An; Tsang, Valerie Liu; Moore, Brandon; Shen, Vivian; Huang, Yao-Ming; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    It is a common practice in biotherapeutic manufacturing to define a fixed-volume feed strategy for nutrient feeds, based on historical cell demand. However, once the feed volumes are defined, they are inflexible to batch-to-batch variations in cell growth and physiology and can lead to inconsistent productivity and product quality. In an effort to control critical quality attributes and to apply process analytical technology (PAT), a fully automated cell culture feedback control system has been explored in three different applications. The first study illustrates that frequent monitoring and automatically controlling the complex feed based on a surrogate (glutamate) level improved protein production. More importantly, the resulting feed strategy was translated into a manufacturing-friendly manual feed strategy without impact on product quality. The second study demonstrates the improved process robustness of an automated feed strategy based on online bio-capacitance measurements for cell growth. In the third study, glucose and lactate concentrations were measured online and were used to automatically control the glucose feed, which in turn changed lactate metabolism. These studies suggest that the auto-feedback control system has the potential to significantly increase productivity and improve robustness in manufacturing, with the goal of ensuring process performance and product quality consistency. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  1. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  2. Surface processing to improve the fatigue resistance of advanced bar steels for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Matlock

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of new steels and processing techniques, there have been corresponding advances in the fatigue performance of automotive components. These advances have led to increased component life and smaller power transfer systems. New processing approaches to enhance the fatigue performance of steels are reviewed with an emphasis on carburizing and deep rolling. Selected examples are presented to illustrate the importance of the base steel properties on the final performance of surface modified materials. Results on carburized gear steels illustrate the dependence of the fatigue behavior on carburizing process control (gas and vacuum carburizing, alloy additions and microstructure. The importance of retained austenite content, case and core grain size as controlled by processing and microalloy additions, extent of intergranular oxidation, and the residual stress profile on fatigue performance is also illustrated. Specific recent results on the use of microalloying elements (e.g. Nb and process history control to limit austenite grain growth at the higher carburizing temperatures associated with vacuum carburizing are highlighted. For crankshaft applications, deep rolling is highlighted, a process to mechanically work fillet surfaces to improve fatigue resistance. The influence of the deformation behavior of the substrate, as characterized by standard tensile and compression tests, on the ability to create desired surface properties and residual stress profiles will be illustrated with data on several new steels of current and future interest for crankshaft applications.

  3. Improvements in iodine and ruthenium removal from advanced liquid processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibo, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-27

    SRNL has considerable experience in designing, engineering, and operating systems for removing iodine-129 (I-129) and ruthenium-106 (Ru-106) from waste streams that are directly analogous to the Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) waste streams. SRNL proposes to provide the technical background and design and engineering support for an improved I-129 and Ru-106 removal system for application to ALPS on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS).

  4. Advances in the Systems and Processes for the Production of Gamma Titanium Aluminide Bars and Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Robert E.

    2017-12-01

    A historical look at the melt processing of gamma titanium aluminides is presented first, followed by recent advances in melting equipment design by Retech to produce 50-mm and 100-mm-diameter ingots up to 1000 mm long. Equipment design for the economical production of gamma titanium aluminide powder is then discussed. The focus in industry has shifted away from basic research to cost-effective production of these titanium alloys for aerospace and automotive engine applications.

  5. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  6. Investigation of processing advanced waste forms in Cold Crucible Induction Melter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Jay A. [Nexergy Technical, LLC, Falls Church, Virginia (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology has been identified in several independent reviews and studies as a potential alternative or supplemental vitrification technology for specific U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high level radioactive waste (HLW) streams. These inventories have unique chemistries, such as high alumina, high iron, high chromium, etc., that are not amenable to efficient immobilization in conventional borosilicate glass (BSG) matrices. Advanced waste forms, such as iron phosphate glass (FePG), high crystalline BSG (HC-BSG), and alumino-silicate glass-ceramic (GC) have been shown to provide significantly improved immobilization matrices for these challenging waste streams, including dramatically improved waste loadings; however, they are difficult to efficiently process in the baseline joule-heated ceramic melters (JHCMs). The CCIM technology can effectively process these advanced waste forms at the desired high waste loadings. This paper describes the most recent collaborative activities between the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) and various Russian institutions in modeling, development and testing of advanced waste forms in CCIMs, including FePG and HC-BSG formulations. Additionally, past interactions with other international partners, including France and Korea, are described. Finally, recent enhancements to CCIM processing related to modeling, draining techniques and automated control, which were collaboratively developed, will be discussed. (authors)

  7. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  8. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  9. Experimental Study of Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater Using MBR-RO Combined Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hwang, Jiannyang; Leng, Ting; Xue, Gaifeng; Chang, Hongbing

    A membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) combined process was used for advanced treatment of coking wastewater from secondary biological treatment. MBR and RO units' treatment efficiency for the pollution removal were conducted, and effects of raw water conductivity and trans-membrane pressure on water yield and desalination rate in RO unit were investigated in detail. The experimental results proved that MBR-RO combined process ran steadily with good treatment effect, which could obtain stable effluent water quality and met the requirement of "Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment" (GB 50050-2007).

  10. Advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchanger tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhareva, T.P.; Tchizhik, A.A.; Chavchanidze, N.N. [Polzanov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchangers with rolled and welded tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants in Russia are presented. The special methodology of investigations with constant small strain rate have been used to study the effects of mixed corrosion and creep processes in condensers cooled by sea or synthetic sea waters. The results of corrosion creep tests and K1scc calculations are given. The Russian science activities concerning condensers manufactured from titanium show the possibilities for designing structures with very high level service reliability in different corrosion aggressive mediums with high total salt, Cl-ion and oxygen contents. (orig.)

  11. Implementation and benefits of advanced process control for lithography CD and overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavyalova, Lena; Fu, Chong-Cheng; Seligman, Gary S.; Tapp, Perry A.; Pol, Victor

    2003-05-01

    Due to the rapidly reduced imaging process windows and increasingly stingent device overlay requirements, sub-130 nm lithography processes are more severely impacted than ever by systamic fault. Limits on critical dimensions (CD) and overlay capability further challenge the operational effectiveness of a mix-and-match environment using multiple lithography tools, as such mode additionally consumes the available error budgets. Therefore, a focus on advanced process control (APC) methodologies is key to gaining control in the lithographic modules for critical device levels, which in turn translates to accelerated yield learning, achieving time-to-market lead, and ultimately a higher return on investment. This paper describes the implementation and unique challenges of a closed-loop CD and overlay control solution in high voume manufacturing of leading edge devices. A particular emphasis has been placed on developing a flexible APC application capable of managing a wide range of control aspects such as process and tool drifts, single and multiple lot excursions, referential overlay control, 'special lot' handling, advanced model hierarchy, and automatic model seeding. Specific integration cases, including the multiple-reticle complementary phase shift lithography process, are discussed. A continuous improvement in the overlay and CD Cpk performance as well as the rework rate has been observed through the implementation of this system, and the results are studied.

  12. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in a more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. The present article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents 4 recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA, adopting a stepwise process to employing predictive toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern, leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting transdisciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:915-925. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. The Process of Coagulation, Flocculation and Advanced Oxidation in Effluent Treatment of Second Refinery Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: One of the industries dependent on oil compounds that play an important role in economy, preserve resources and oil reserves, as well as environmental protection is the secondary refinery Oil industries. The efficiency of Coagulation, flocculation and advanced oxidation process in the Effluent treatment industry was studied.

     

    Methods: This study is a descriptive- quasi-experimental that effluent pollution quality measured with COD. Physicochemical processes of coagulation, flocculation, by using conventional coagulants and oxidation with ozone for the removal to access environmental discharge effluent standards were studied. Coagulants such as aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, sodium silicate, poly aluminum chloride were evaluated. Jartest was used to determine the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation. Samples were collected from Salafchegan industrial district in Qom. Examination methods were extracted from Standard methods for water and wastewater examination.

     

    Results: Initial experiments showed that BOD, indicating biological treatment wastewater, in comparison with COD, indicating chemical oxygen demand of wastewater is very low. Thus, the application of biological processes of effluent treatment without using chemical processes, not performance and not economic. The experiment showed that the amount of COD in raw effluent was varied from 38000 to 78000mg/l.

    Using advanced oxidation with O3 in pH=11.5 can reach 77.5% and in pH=9 in 57.2 and in pH=3.25 in 21.3 COD removal efficiency respectively.

     

    Conclusion: According to the results, advanced oxidation process prior to biological effluent treatment of the second refinery oil industries is effective in eliminating pollutants and toxic substances.

     

  14. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  15. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2006-12-01

    An advanced softening process called the ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) was initiated in this research. The UHLA process has the ability to remove sulfate, silica, and chloride from waters such as recycled cooling water and desalination brines. Furthermore, it can remove other scale-forming materials, such as calcium, magnesium, carbonate, and phosphate. The purpose of this paper is to study the interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica in the UHLA process. Results of equilibrium experiments indicated that sulfate is preferentially removed over chloride. Final chloride concentration increased with increasing initial sulfate concentration. However, initial chloride concentration was found to have negligible effect on final sulfate concentration. Silica was found to have only a small effect on chloride removal.

  16. Application of processes of advanced oxidation as phenol treatment in industrial residual waters of refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Jorge Enrique; Ortiz, Olga Patricia; Rios, Fabian

    2005-01-01

    Although more efficient and economical processes for the treatment of sewage have been developed in recent years, the challenge they are facing-due to the greater knowledge of the effect that pollutants have on the environment, the greater consumption of water because of the development of human and industrial activity and the reduction of fresh water sources indicate that we are far from attaining the final solution. This affirmation specially applies to the pollutants, which are resistant to biological treatment processes, such as most of the aromatic compounds found in sewage of the petrochemical industries. In this document, the processes known as advanced oxidation will be explored. Theses have been reported as having the greatest potential in the treatment of these pollutants. Likewise the results of the application of these technologies with waters typical of the petroleum industry will be reported. These have previously been evaluated with processes of typical ozonization

  17. DYNAMIC MODELLING AND ADVANCED PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A CONTINUOUS PROCESS OF ENZYME PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechechi E.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic mathematical model, simulation and computer control of a Continuous Affinity Recycle Extraction (CARE process, a protein purification technique based on protein adsorption on solid-phase adsorbents is described in this work. This process, consisting of three reactors, is a multivariable process with considerable time delay in the on-line analyses of the controlled variable. An advanced predictive control configuration, specifically the Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC, was applied. The DMC algorithm was applied in process schemes where the aim was to maintain constant the enzyme concentration in the outlet of the third reactor. The performance of the DMC controller was analyzed in the feed-flow disturbances and the results are presented.

  18. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass...... cultivation data, such as the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Prediction models for the biomass concentrations were estimated on the basis of the individual sensors and on combinations of the sensors. The results showed that the more advanced sensors based on MWF...... and scanning DE spectroscopy did not offer any advantages over the simpler sensors based on dual frequency DE spectroscopy, turbidity, and CER measurements for prediction of biomass concentration. By combining CER, DE spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements, the prediction error was reduced to 1.5 g...

  19. Process modeling of an advanced NH₃ abatement and recycling technology in the ammonia-based CO₂ capture process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Tade, Moses; Feron, Paul; Yu, Jingwen; Wang, Shujuan

    2014-06-17

    An advanced NH3 abatement and recycling process that makes great use of the waste heat in flue gas was proposed to solve the problems of ammonia slip, NH3 makeup, and flue gas cooling in the ammonia-based CO2 capture process. The rigorous rate-based model, RateFrac in Aspen Plus, was thermodynamically and kinetically validated by experimental data from open literature and CSIRO pilot trials at Munmorah Power Station, Australia, respectively. After a thorough sensitivity analysis and process improvement, the NH3 recycling efficiency reached as high as 99.87%, and the NH3 exhaust concentration was only 15.4 ppmv. Most importantly, the energy consumption of the NH3 abatement and recycling system was only 59.34 kJ/kg CO2 of electricity. The evaluation of mass balance and temperature steady shows that this NH3 recovery process was technically effective and feasible. This process therefore is a promising prospect toward industrial application.

  20. Acute toxicity and chemical evaluation of coking wastewater under biological and advanced physicochemical treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehua, Ma; Cong, Liu; Xiaobiao, Zhu; Rui, Liu; Lujun, Chen

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the changes of toxic compounds in coking wastewater with biological treatment (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic-membrane bioreactor, A1/A2/O-MBR) and advanced physicochemical treatment (Fenton oxidation and activated carbon adsorption) stages. As the biological treatment stages preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the luminescence of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. Q67 decreased. Toxic units (TU) of coking wastewater were removed by A1/A2/O-MBR treatment process, however approximately 30 % TU remained in the biologically treated effluent. There is a tendency that fewer and fewer residual organic compounds could exert equal acute toxicity during the biological treatment stages. Activated carbon adsorption further removed toxic pollutants of biologically treated effluent but the Fenton effluent increased acute toxicity. The composition of coking wastewater during the treatment was evaluated using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic compounds with high polarity were the main cause of acute toxicity in the coking wastewater. Aromatic protein-like matters in the coking wastewater with low biodegradability and high toxicity contributed mostly to the remaining acute toxicity of the biologically treated effluents. Chlorine generated from the oxidation process was responsible for the acute toxicity increase after Fenton oxidation. Therefore, the incorporation of appropriate advanced physicochemical treatment process, e.g., activated carbon adsorption, should be implemented following biological treatment processes to meet the stricter discharge standards and be safer to the environment.

  1. Diagnostic techniques for temperature and species determination in advanced materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, J.C. [Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, MA (United States); Roman, W.C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Plasma techniques continue to emerge as one of the more novel approaches for processing advanced materials. The technology transfer, including optimization and scale-up, of both thermal and non-equilibrium plasma reactor systems is, however, hindered by a lack of understanding of the basic mechanisms that govern the material deposition processes. Understanding the chemical reactions and rate kinetics that occur in these reactors depends on the ability to determine accurately the gas temperature and species concentration distributions. Concentration gradient measurements, in turn, yield information on the homogeneous/heterogeneous nature of the reactions, chemical kinetic constants, and mass transport coefficients. Precise knowledge of the temperature and reaction rates is also essential to the success of any detailed modeling effort. Laser/optical diagnostic techniques have the ability to provide much of this crucial information. Many of these optical techniques are nonintrusive and species-specific, and yield excellent spatial and temporal resolution. Optical in situ measurements, in contrast to measurements using conventional sampling probe techniques, provide valuable information on the presence of excited species (e.g., hydrogen atom concentration in diamond deposition processes) as well as the deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium in the case of high-temperature gas flows generated by plasma sources. This article includes discussion of both laser/optical techniques and representative conventional probe techniques. Approximate temperature limitations, and advantages and disadvantages of temperature and species measurement techniques are summarized. Examples of the complementary use of laser diagnostic techniques in reactors for advanced material processing are presented.

  2. Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment.

  3. CAPE-OPEN Integration for Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This paper highlights the use of the CAPE-OPEN (CO) standard interfaces in the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The APECS system uses the CO unit operation, thermodynamic, and reaction interfaces to provide its plug-and-play co-simulation capabilities, including the integration of process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. APECS also relies heavily on the use of a CO COM/CORBA bridge for running process/CFD co-simulations on multiple operating systems. For process optimization in the face of multiple and some time conflicting objectives, APECS offers stochastic modeling and multi-objective optimization capabilities developed to comply with the CO software standard. At NETL, system analysts are applying APECS to a wide variety of advanced power generation systems, ranging from small fuel cell systems to commercial-scale power plants including the coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant.

  4. Effect of channel aspect ratio on chemical recuperation process in advanced aeroengines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Silong; Cui, Naigang; Xiong, Yuefei; Feng, Yu; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The working process of an advanced aeroengine such as scramjet with endothermic hydrocarbon fuel cooling is a chemical recuperative cycle. The design of cooling channel in terms of engine real working conditions is very important for the chemical recuperation process. To study the effects of channel aspect ratio (AR) on chemical recuperation process of advanced aeroengines, three dimensional model of pyrolysis coolant flow inside asymmetrical rectangular cooling channels with fins is introduced and validated through experiments. Cases when AR varies from 1 to 8 are carried out. In the pyrolysis zone of the cooling channel, decreasing the channel aspect ratio can reduce the temperature difference and non-uniformity of fuel conversion in the channel cross section, and it can also increase the final conversion and corresponding chemical heat absorption. A small channel aspect ratio is beneficial for the chemical recuperation process and can guarantee the engine cooling performance in the pyrolysis zone of the cooling channel. - Highlights: • Large non-uniformity of conversion is bad for the chemical recuperation. • Small channel aspect ratio is beneficial for improving the chemical recuperation effectiveness. • Small channel aspect ratio is also beneficial for reducing the engine wall temperature.

  5. C2A2 Project - CO2 Capture by Advances Amines process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thybaud, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    This publication presents the operation principles and the obtained results for a research demonstrator developed in Le Havre by EDF and Alstom for CO 2 capture by post-combustion. The implemented technology, developed by Alstom and DOX Chemical is named Advanced Amines Processes (AAP). This process comprises the use of solvent and a specific process scheme (the Advanced Flow Scheme or AFS). The smoke treatment chain of the installation is described, and the valorisation of combustion by-products and of smoke processing operations is indicated. The capacities of the installation are given. Systems aimed at increasing the solvent lifetime are described, and some operational parameters are indicated. Various aspects related to the demonstrator design, construction and operation are discussed. Results obtained during tests between October 2013 and March 2014 are given and discussed in terms of quantity of captured CO 2 , of energy performance, of solvent management and consumption, of emissions, of corrosion, of exploitation organisation, and of instrumentation verification and data quality

  6. MCWASP XIV: International Conference on Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, H

    2015-01-01

    The current volume represents contributed papers of the proceedings of the 14th international conference on ''Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes (MCWASP XIV)'', Yumebutai International Conference Center, Awaji island, Hyogo, Japan on 21 – 26 June, 2016. The first conference of the series 'Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes (MCWASP)' was started up in 1980, and this is the 14th conference. The participants are more than 100 scientists from industry and academia, coming from 19 countries. In the conference, we have 5 invited, 70 oral and 31 poster presentations on different aspects of the modeling. The conference deals with various casting processes (Ingot / shape casting, continuous casting, direct chill casting and welding), fundamental phenomena (nucleation and growth, dendritic growth, eutectic growth, micro-, meso- and macrostructure formation and defect formation), coupling problems (electromagnetic interactions, application of ultrasonic wave), development of experimental / computational methods and so on. This volume presents the cutting-edge research in the modeling of casting, welding and solidification processes. I would like to thank MAGMA Giessereitechnologie GmbH, Germany and SCSK Corporation, Japan for supporting the publication of contributed papers. Hideyuki Yasuda Conference Chairman Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University Japan (preface)

  7. ADVANCING THE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES OF THE DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlachenko Oleg Vasil’evich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the contemporary stage on the development and advancement of processing technologies of machine and equipment details it is necessary to find a complex solution to the problem of their performance characteristics. This solution supposes the development of specific methods providing and advancing some specific index of performance efficiency (often regardless of real coupling state and the creation and implementation of the technologies having complex physical and technical impacts on the contact combination. The novelty of processing methods is determined by all the components of the technological system, each of which has its own novelty or creates the novelty of the system as a whole due to definite non-traditional combination of the known components. The system of improving the existing and creating new methods and technological processes of manufacturing the products is considered. The mechanical, physical and chemical effects on the work surface in case of specific kinematics of tool path and the workpieces during operation, and also the wear of engine cylinders are analyzed. The authors offer a technology of obtaining nonporous hot-stamped powder alloys with higher strength properties of the outer surface and high plastic properties of core. The unity of the processes of power, temperature and other effects on the working surface of details during their manufacture and operation is established.

  8. Advanced Polymeric and Organic–Inorganic Membranes for Pressure-Driven Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-02-13

    The state-of-the-art of membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and gas separation is shortly reviewed, taking in account the most representative examples currently in application. Emphasis is also done on recent developments of advanced polymeric and organic–inorganic materials for pressure-driven processes. Many of the more recent membranes are not only polymeric but also contain an inorganic phase. Tailoring innovative materials with organic and inorganic phases coexisting in a nanoscale with multifunctionalization is an appealing approach to control at the same time diffusivity and gas solubility. Other advanced materials that are now being considered for membrane development are organic or organic–inorganic self-assemblies, metal-organic frameworks, and different forms of carbon fillers.

  9. Advances in Gammalloy Materials-Processes-Application Technology: Successes, Dilemmas, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Won; Kim, Sang-Lan

    2018-04-01

    For the last several years, gamma titanium aluminide ( γ-TiAl)-based alloys, called "gammalloys," in specific alloy-microstructure forms began to be implemented in civil aero-engines as cast or wrought low-pressure turbine (LPT) blades and in select ground vehicle engines as cast turbocharger rotors and wrought exhaust valves. Their operation temperatures are approximately up to 750°C for LPT blades and around 1000°C for turbocharger rotors. This article critically assesses current engineering gammalloys and their limitations and introduces eight strengthening pathways that can be adopted immediately for the development of advanced, higher temperature gammalloys. Intelligent integration of the pathways into the emerging application-specific research and development processes is emphasized as the key to the advancement of the gammalloy technology to the next higher engineering performance levels.

  10. Advances in Gammalloy Materials-Processes-Application Technology: Successes, Dilemmas, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Won; Kim, Sang-Lan

    2018-02-01

    For the last several years, gamma titanium aluminide (γ-TiAl)-based alloys, called "gammalloys," in specific alloy-microstructure forms began to be implemented in civil aero-engines as cast or wrought low-pressure turbine (LPT) blades and in select ground vehicle engines as cast turbocharger rotors and wrought exhaust valves. Their operation temperatures are approximately up to 750°C for LPT blades and around 1000°C for turbocharger rotors. This article critically assesses current engineering gammalloys and their limitations and introduces eight strengthening pathways that can be adopted immediately for the development of advanced, higher temperature gammalloys. Intelligent integration of the pathways into the emerging application-specific research and development processes is emphasized as the key to the advancement of the gammalloy technology to the next higher engineering performance levels.

  11. Advanced LIGO constraints on neutron star mergers and r-process sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Côté, Benoit; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris L.; Ritter, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The role of compact binary mergers as the main production site of r-process elements is investigated by combining stellar abundances of Eu observed in the Milky Way, galactic chemical evolution (GCE) simulations, and binary population synthesis models, and gravitational wave measurements from Advanced LIGO. We compiled and reviewed seven recent GCE studies to extract the frequency of neutron star–neutron star (NS–NS) mergers that is needed in order to reproduce the observed [Eu/Fe] versus [Fe/H] relationship. We used our simple chemical evolution code to explore the impact of different analytical delay-time distribution functions for NS–NS mergers. We then combined our metallicity-dependent population synthesis models with our chemical evolution code to bring their predictions, for both NS–NS mergers and black hole–neutron star mergers, into a GCE context. Finally, we convolved our results with the cosmic star formation history to provide a direct comparison with current and upcoming Advanced LIGO measurements. When assuming that NS–NS mergers are the exclusive r-process sites, and that the ejected r-process mass per merger event is 0.01 M ⊙ , the number of NS–NS mergers needed in GCE studies is about 10 times larger than what is predicted by standard population synthesis models. Here, these two distinct fields can only be consistent with each other when assuming optimistic rates, massive NS–NS merger ejecta, and low Fe yields for massive stars. For now, population synthesis models and GCE simulations are in agreement with the current upper limit (O1) established by Advanced LIGO during their first run of observations. Upcoming measurements will provide an important constraint on the actual local NS–NS merger rate, will provide valuable insights on the plausibility of the GCE requirement, and will help to define whether or not compact binary mergers can be the dominant source of r-process elements in the universe.

  12. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  13. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research

  14. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research.

  15. Advanced Practice Nursing Committee on Process Improvement in Trauma: An Innovative Application of the Strong Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to summarize the successes and future implications for a nurse practitioner-driven committee on process improvement in trauma. The trauma nurse practitioner is uniquely positioned to recognize the need for clinical process improvement and enact change within the clinical setting. Application of the Strong Model of Advanced Practice proves to actively engage the trauma nurse practitioner in process improvement initiatives. Through enhancing nurse practitioner professional engagement, the committee aims to improve health care delivery to the traumatically injured patient. A retrospective review of the committee's first year reveals trauma nurse practitioner success in the domains of direct comprehensive care, support of systems, education, and leadership. The need for increased trauma nurse practitioner involvement has been identified for the domains of research and publication.

  16. Advanced Signal Processing and Command Synthesis for Memory-Limited Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Toma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents advanced signal processing methods and command synthesis for memory-limited complex systems. For accurate measurements performed on limited time interval, some specific methods should be added. For signal processing, a robust filtering and sampling procedure performed on a specific working interval is required, so as the influence of low-amplitude and high-frequency fluctuations to be diminished. This study shows that such a signal processing method for the case of memory-limited complex systems requires the use of certain differentiation/integration procedures performed by oscillating systems, so as robust results suitable for efficient command synthesis to be available. A brief comparison with uncertainty aspects in modern physics (where quantum aspects can be considered as features of complex systems is also presented.

  17. Destruction of microcystins by conventional and advanced oxidation processes: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Virender K.; Triantis, Theodoros M.; Antoniou, Maria G.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria blooms pose an environmental hazard because of the release of water soluble toxic compounds, called cyanotoxins. Microcystins (MCs), hepatotoxic cyclic peptide toxins, are the most widespread cyanotoxins with microcystin-LR (MC-LR) the most common and toxic variant. Health effects...... and further processing is required. On the other hand, chemical oxidation processes are a promising alternative treatment option due to the potential of complete destruction of the MCs, transformation to less toxic by-products, and even complete mineralization. MCs reactivity towards different conventional...... treatment facilities. In this review, recent literature concerning treatment of MCs in water by conventional and advanced oxidation processes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the degree of degradation, reaction kinetics, identity and toxicity of oxidation by-products and possible degradation pathways....

  18. Proceedings of the international conference on sol-gel processes for advanced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, V.N.; Kumar, N.

    2009-01-01

    Sol-gel science and technology plays an important role in the synthesis of a wide range of materials. viz., fine ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerogels, nanomaterials of controlled composition and shape. speciality products such as nuclear fuels and industrial catalysts and so on. The products are homogeneous, and the synthesis and fabrication processes occur at significantly lower temperatures when compared to the conventional solid state reactions. The objective of the present International Conference on Sol-Gel Processes for Advanced Ceramics (SGPAC-2009) is to consolidate the knowledge on the wide spectrum applications of the sol-gel processes in materials synthesis and fabrication with special emphasis on ceramics. The aim is to bring together specialists from research groups across the globe to discuss the state of the art, and facilitate exchange of ideas. The articles relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Advanced process modeling at the BCL smelter: Improving economic and environmental performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nagendra; Peek, Edgar; Stroud, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Since 1973 Bamangwato Concessions Limited (BCL) has operated a nickel-copper smelter in Selebi-Phikwe, Botswana. The smelter treats concentrates from local mines and various custom feed concentrates. The nickel throughput capacity of this smelter is constrained by a low nickel feed grade in its primary BCL concentrate. BCL contracted Xstrata Process Support (XPS) to assist in identifying key economic drivers to maximize revenue-generating opportunities. After the disclosure of essential BCL plant performance data XPS developed and utilized advanced metallurgical modeling techniques to identify production bottlenecks, calculate Ni, Cu, and Co recoveries, manage the slag volumes, increase the custom feed capacity, and perform various feasibility analyses for key unit process operations in the BCL smelter. The methodology for developing the process model and its application in contributing to the economic bottom line are outlined in this paper.

  20. Experimental Application of an Advanced Separation Process for NOM Removal from Surface Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Callegari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural organic matter (NOM in drinking water supplies significantly impacts on water supply quality and treatment, due to observed reactivity with many dissolved and particulate species. Several technologies are used nowadays to remove NOM from the water supply. The evolution of water-related directives, and progressively more restrictive standards for drinking water, however, call for the investigation of advanced, more efficient, and cost-effective water treatment processes. This paper contains a brief overview on the state-of-the-art methods for NOM removal from supply waters, and describes the experimental application of an advanced technology, tested and validated at the pilot scale on the water supply source of a town in Poland. The process allowed significant removal of natural organic matter (about 50% as Dissolved Organic Carbon and turbidity (from 50% to 90%, however, these results requested significant additions of powdered activated carbon. The key to success of this type of process is a correct setup with the identification of optimal types and dosages of reagents. Based on the results of the tests conducted it is foreseeable that this technology could be used onsite, not only for removal of NOM, but also of other hard-to-tackle pollutants potentially contained in the freshwater supply and not presently considered.

  1. [Occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Chao; Luo, Qian; Chen, Hu; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zi-Jian; Xu, Ke-Wen

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes of 3 water treatment plants in Lianyungang City. Results showed that 30 compounds of 3 classes were detected from 67 kinds of VOCs in all the samples collected. The concentrations of carbonyl compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons and benzenes detected were in the ranges of 0.04-61.27, 0.02-35.61 and 0.07-2.33 microg x L(-1) respectively. Comparing the changes of different VOCs in three drinking water treatment plants, conventional chlorination process could effectively remove benzenes but meanwhile produced trihalomethanes (THMs). Additional advanced treatment ozonation-biological activated carbon process could decrease the formation of THMs during pre-chlorination but produced new risky contaminants like carbonyl compounds. The changes of VOCs in tap water were also investigated. It was found that carbonyl compounds produced by ozonation could be further transformed to THMs with residual chlorine. However, the health risks of all detected compounds in tap water were at a low level, except that the carcinogenic risk of crotonaldehydes (9.3 x 10(-5)-2.2 x 10(-4)) was slightly higher than the US EPA threshold (10(-6)-10(-4)).

  2. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes used in remediation of industrial wastewater laden with recalcitrant pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Rawindran, H.; Sinnathambi, C. M.; Lim, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Due to the scarcity of water, it has become a necessity to improve the quality of wastewater that is discharged into the environment. Conventional wastewater treatment can be either a physical, chemical, and/or biological processes, or in some cases a combination of these operations. The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to eliminate nutrients, solids, and organic compounds from effluents. Current wastewater treatment technologies are deemed ineffective in the complete removal of pollutants, particularly organic matter. In many cases, these organic compounds are resistant to conventional treatment methods, thus creating the necessity for tertiary treatment. Advanced oxidation process (AOP), constitutes as a promising treatment technology for the management of wastewater. AOPs are characterised by a common chemical feature, where they utilize the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals for achieving complete mineralization of the organic pollutants into carbon dioxide and water. This paper delineates advanced oxidation processes currently used for the remediation of water and wastewater. It also provides the cost estimation of installing and running an AOP system. The costs are separated into three categories: capital, operational, and operating & maintenance.

  3. New understanding of rhizosphere processes enabled by advances in molecular and spatially resolved techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the role played by microorganisms within soil systems is challenged by the unique intersection of physics, chemistry, mineralogy and biology in fostering habitat for soil microbial communities. To address these challenges will require observations across multiple spatial and temporal scales to capture the dynamics and emergent behavior from complex and interdependent processes. The heterogeneity and complexity of the rhizosphere require advanced techniques that press the simultaneous frontiers of spatial resolution, analyte sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, large dynamic range, and high throughput. Fortunately many exciting technical advancements are now available to inform and guide the development of new hypotheses. The aim of this Special issue is to provide a holistic view of the rhizosphere in the perspective of modern molecular biology methodologies that enabled a highly-focused, detailed view on the processes in the rhizosphere, including numerous, strong and complex interactions between plant roots, soil constituents and microorganisms. We discuss the current rhizosphere research challenges and knowledge gaps, as well as perspectives and approaches using newly available state-of-the-art toolboxes. These new approaches and methodologies allow the study of rhizosphere processes and properties, and rhizosphere as a central component of ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.

  4. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  5. Advanced on FPA and near FPA image processing for infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, J. T.; Ovod, V. I.; Coussa, R. A.; Baxter, C. R.; Massie, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    Cyan Systems has developed algorithms and architectures capable of performing temporal and spatial filtering near or on the FPA. Cyan is performing research into more advanced techniques to allow functional target detection near/on the FPA. The goals of this work is to perform image processing near or on the FPA to improve the size and power requirements for existing IR sensor systems which require larger board sets and hardware enclosures. We use representations of the biological vision system as models for the algorithm development. We report measured data on the near/on FPA target detection performance.

  6. How gamma radiation processing systems are benefiting from the latest advances in information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Wayne H.; Levesque, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses how gamma irradiation plants are putting the latest advances in computer and information technology to use for better process control, cost savings, and strategic advantages. Some irradiator operations are gaining significant benefits by integrating computer technology and robotics with real-time information processing, multi-user databases, and communication networks. The paper reports on several irradiation facilities that are making good use of client/server LANs, user-friendly graphics interfaces, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed I/O with real-time sensor devices, trending analysis, real-time product tracking, dynamic product scheduling, and automated dosimetry reading. These plants are lowering costs by fast and reliable reconciliation of dosimetry data, easier validation to GMP requirements, optimizing production flow, and faster release of sterilized products to market. There is a trend in the manufacturing sector towards total automation using "predictive process control". Real-time verification of process parameters "on-the-run" allows control parameters to be adjusted appropriately, before the process strays out of limits. Applying this technology to the gamma radiation process, control will be based on monitoring the key parameters such as time, and making adjustments during the process to optimize quality and throughput. Dosimetry results will be used as a quality control measurement rather than as a final monitor for the release of the product. Results are correlated with the irradiation process data to quickly and confidently reconcile variations. Ultimately, a parametric process control system utilizing responsive control, feedback and verification will not only increase productivity and process efficiency, but can also result in operating within tighter dose control set points.

  7. Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas D. Briselden

    2007-10-31

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: “Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer”. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled “Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future” met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EERE’s primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this

  8. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-08-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process.

  9. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes as decentralized water treatment technologies to remediate domestic washing machine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexsandro Jhones; Costa, Emily Cintia Tossi de Araújo; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major concerns worldwide. In order to secure this appreciated natural resource, management and development of water treatment technologies are mandatory. One feasible alternative is the consideration of water recycling/reuse at the household scale. Here, the treatment of actual washing machine effluent by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes was considered. Electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies can be applied as decentralized small-scale water treatment devices. Therefore, efficient decolorization and total organic abatement have been followed. The results demonstrate the promising performance of solar photoelectro-Fenton process, where complete color and organic removal was attained after 240 min of treatment under optimum conditions by applying a current density of 66.6 mA cm -2 . Thus, electrochemical technologies emerge as promising water-sustainable approaches.

  10. The Witch Navigator - A Low Cost GNSS Software Receiver for Advanced Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jakubov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The developement of advanced GNSS signal processing algorithms such as multi-constellation, multi-frequency and multi-antenna navigation requires an easily reprogrammable software defined radio solution. Various receiver architectures for this purpose have been introduced. RF front-end with FPGA universal correlators on ExpressCard connected directly to PC was selected and manufactured. Such a~unique hardware combination provides the GNSS researchers and engineers with a~great convenience of writing the signal processing algorithms including tracking, acquisition and positioning in the Linux application programming interface and enables them to reconfigure the RF front-end easily by the PC program. With more of these ExpressCards connected to the PC, the number of the RF channels, correlators or antennas can be increased to further boost the computational power. This paper reveals the implementation aspects of the receiver, named the Witch Navigator, and~gives the key test results.

  11. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...

  12. Advances in Reasoning-Based Image Processing Intelligent Systems Conventional and Intelligent Paradigms

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The book puts special stress on the contemporary techniques for reasoning-based image processing and analysis: learning based image representation and advanced video coding; intelligent image processing and analysis in medical vision systems; similarity learning models for image reconstruction; visual perception for mobile robot motion control, simulation of human brain activity in the analysis of video sequences; shape-based invariant features extraction; essential of paraconsistent neural networks, creativity and intelligent representation in computational systems. The book comprises 14 chapters. Each chapter is a small monograph, representing resent investigations of authors in the area. The topics of the chapters cover wide scientific and application areas and complement each-other very well. The chapters’ content is based on fundamental theoretical presentations, followed by experimental results and comparison with similar techniques. The size of the chapters is well-ballanced which permits a thorough ...

  13. A highly reliable, autonomous data communication subsystem for an advanced information processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Masotto, Thomas; Alger, Linda

    1990-01-01

    The need to meet the stringent performance and reliability requirements of advanced avionics systems has frequently led to implementations which are tailored to a specific application and are therefore difficult to modify or extend. Furthermore, many integrated flight critical systems are input/output intensive. By using a design methodology which customizes the input/output mechanism for each new application, the cost of implementing new systems becomes prohibitively expensive. One solution to this dilemma is to design computer systems and input/output subsystems which are general purpose, but which can be easily configured to support the needs of a specific application. The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS), currently under development has these characteristics. The design and implementation of the prototype I/O communication system for AIPS is described. AIPS addresses reliability issues related to data communications by the use of reconfigurable I/O networks. When a fault or damage event occurs, communication is restored to functioning parts of the network and the failed or damage components are isolated. Performance issues are addressed by using a parallelized computer architecture which decouples Input/Output (I/O) redundancy management and I/O processing from the computational stream of an application. The autonomous nature of the system derives from the highly automated and independent manner in which I/O transactions are conducted for the application as well as from the fact that the hardware redundancy management is entirely transparent to the application.

  14. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Current status on advanced aqueous reprocessing process (next) in FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washiya, Tadahiro; Myochin, Munetaka; Koyama, Tomozo

    2009-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) launched the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project in cooperation with the Japanese electric utilities in 2006. An integration of the advanced aqueous reprocessing concept and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication was selected as the most promising fuel cycle system. In order to accomplish the integration, R and D tasks were launched as FaCT Project in 2006 by Japanese joint team. The New Extraction System for TRU Recovery (NEXT) system is an advanced aqueous reprocessing concept which was based on the well established aqueous reprocessing for LWR spent fuel and newly applied processes such as uranium crystallization and extraction chromatography for MAs recovery. Main task of the NEXT process is to develop the TRU recovery process and equipments with high reliability, criticality safety, high durability and remote maintainability. In the FaCT project, all innovative technologies are planned to be developed within the next decade focusing on the future commercialization of FBR cycle systems. The judgment of the adoption of each innovative technology will be made by 2010 based on the results of R and Ds. The development of each technology is to be completed by around 2015. By the same time, it is scheduled to present the conceptual design of commercial and demonstrative fast reactor cycle facilities. The six items (Disassembling and shearing, Fuel dissolution, Uranium Crystallization, Single cycle co-extraction of U, Pu and Np, MA recovery by extraction chromatography and Waste treatment) have been identified as the issues to be developed corresponding to each process step. Current R and D status and prospects of this system until around 2015 is reported. (author)

  16. An investigation to adopt zero liquid discharge in textile dyeing using advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmd, F.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel idea of using ozone oxidation at the end of reactive dyeing process was explored in order to achieve zero discharge dyeing. An advanced oxidative treatment was given during the dyeing process to remove unfixed and hydrolyzed reactive dyes from cotton substrate. Three different shades were dyed using vinylsulphone reactive class of dyes. At the end of fixation step, washing of fabrics was carried out using appropriate quantities of ozone in the process. Ozone oxidation continued until the liquor was decolorized around 95-100% and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) was reduced about 80-90%, thus achieving zero liquid discharge dyeing process. The decolouration efficiency of wastewater was regarded as an indicative of removal of dyes from the textile materials because fabric was being washed continuously in the same liquor. Fabric samples dyed with conventional and new methods were compared in terms of change in shade, colourfastness properties, colour stripping, and fabric appearance. Overall results showed that the use of ozone during reactive dyeing can result in less water consumption, reduced process time, and zero discharge of coloured effluents from textile dyeing factories. (author)

  17. Advanced Precursor Reaction Processing for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafarman, William N. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-10-12

    This project “Advanced Precursor Reaction Processing for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Solar Cells”, completed by the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) at the University of Delaware in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Florida, developed the fundamental understanding and technology to increase module efficiency and improve the manufacturability of Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 films using the precursor reaction approach currently being developed by a number of companies. Key results included: (1) development of a three-step H2Se/Ar/H2S reaction process to control Ga distribution through the film and minimizes back contact MoSe2 formation; (2) Ag-alloying to improve precursor homogeneity by avoiding In phase agglomeration, faster reaction and improved adhesion to allow wider reaction process window; (3) addition of Sb, Bi, and Te interlayers at the Mo/precursor junction to produce more uniform precursor morphology and improve adhesion with reduced void formation in reacted films; (4) a precursor structure containing Se and a reaction process to reduce processing time to 5 minutes and eliminate H2Se usage, thereby increasing throughput and reducing costs. All these results were supported by detailed characterization of the film growth, reaction pathways, thermodynamic assessment and device behavior.

  18. Development of Advanced Coatings for Laser Modifications Through Process and Materials Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martukanitz, R. P.; Babu, S. S.

    2004-06-01

    A simulation-based system is currently being constructed to aid in the development of advanced coating systems for laser cladding and surface alloying. The system employs loosely coupled material and process models that allow rapid determination of material compatibility over a wide range of processing conditions. The primary emphasis is on the development and identification of composite coatings for improved wear and corrosion resistance. The material model utilizes computational thermodynamics and kinetic analysis to establish phase stability and extent of diffusional reactions that may result from the thermal response of the material during virtual processing. The process model is used to develop accurate thermal histories associated with the laser surface modification process and provides critical input for the non-isothermal materials simulations. These techniques were utilized to design a laser surface modification experiment that utilized the addition of stainless steel alloy 431 and TiC produced using argon and argon and nitrogen shielding. The deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced in argon resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles and an increase in hardness when compared to deposits produced using only the 431 powder. Laser deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen shielding gas resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles, as well as fine precipitates of Ti(CN) formed during cooling and a further increase in hardness of the deposit.

  19. Development of advanced coatings for laser modifications through process and materials simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martukanitz, R.P.; Babu, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    A simulation-based system is currently being constructed to aid in the development of advanced coating systems for laser cladding and surface alloying. The system employs loosely coupled material and process models that allow rapid determination of material compatibility over a wide range of processing conditions. The primary emphasis is on the development and identification of composite coatings for improved wear and corrosion resistance. The material model utilizes computational thermodynamics and kinetic analysis to establish phase stability and extent of diffusional reactions that may result from the thermal response of the material during virtual processing. The process model is used to develop accurate thermal histories associated with the laser surface modification process and provides critical input for the non-isothermal materials simulations. These techniques were utilized to design a laser surface modification experiment that utilized the addition of stainless steel alloy 431 and TiC produced using argon and argon and nitrogen shielding. The deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced in argon resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles and an increase in hardness when compared to deposits produced using only the 431 powder. Laser deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen shielding gas resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles, as well as fine precipitates of Ti(CN) formed during cooling and a further increase in hardness of the deposit

  20. Development of the advanced coolside sorbent injection process for SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withum, J.A.; Maskew, J.T.; Rosenhoover, W.A. [Consol, Inc., Library, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a low-capital-cost process capable of over 90% SO{sub 2} removal as an economically attractive option for compliance with the Clean Air Act. The Advanced Coolside Process uses a contactor to simultaneously remove fly ash and saturate the flue gas with water, followed by sorbent injection into the highly humid flue gas and collection of the sorbent by the existing particulate collector High sorbent utilization is achieved by sorbent recycle. The original performance targets of 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization were exceeded in 1000 acfm pilot plant operations using commercial hydrated lime as the only sorbent. Process optimization simplified the process equipment, resulting in significant cost reduction. Recent accomplishments include completion of equipment testing and sorbent optimization, a waste management study, and a long-term performance test. An economic evaluation for the optimized process projects capital costs 55% to 60 % less than those of limestone forced oxidation wet FGD. The projected levelized control cost is 15% to 35% lower than wet FGD (25% lower for a 260 MWe plant burning a 2.5% sulfur coal), depending on plant size and coal sulfur content.

  1. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Emory D; Delcul, Guillermo D; Hunt, Rodney D; Johnson, Jared A; Spencer, Barry B

    2013-11-05

    A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

  2. Recent surface modification based on advanced energy processes; Ko energy process ni yoru zairyo no hyomen kaishitsu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Joining and Welding Research Institute

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces nitrides with metastable phase created by advanced energy processes using ion and plasma as new surface modification methods of materials. Since carbon nitride is a highly hard material harder than diamond which was suggested by Cohen, synthesis of {beta}-C3N4 crystal has been tried by means of the magnetron spattering, plasma CVD, ion beam assisted deposition, and laser abrasion processes. Obtained CN film with high hardness should be based on the sp{sup 3} hybrid bonding. However, the whole atomic configuration has not been clarified yet. Synthesis of cubic system BN (c-BN) is being succeeded for these non-equilibrium metastable phases. The c-BN has a high temperature and high pressure equilibrium phase, and provides properties equivalent to diamond. For the AlN metastable phase, creation of abrasion resistance films superior to haploid TiN has been tried through the synthesis of quasi-2D nitrides by adding AlN to TiN. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  4. Low-Cost Innovative Hi-Temp Fiber Coating Process for Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MATECH GSM (MG) proposes 1) to demonstrate a low-cost innovative Hi-Temp Si-doped in-situ BN fiber coating process for advanced ceramic matrix composites in order to...

  5. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  6. Evaluation of the biodegradability and toxicity of landfill leachates after pretreatment using advanced oxidative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fabio Moraes; Daflon, Sarah Dario Alves; Bila, Daniele Maia; da Fonseca, Fabiana Valeria; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2018-02-19

    Leachate from urban solid waste landfills is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic substances that cause damage to the environment, due to the high concentration of recalcitrant organic matter and toxicity. The objective of this study was to apply advanced oxidation processes (AOP), namely the dark Fenton and solar photo-Fenton processes, to young and old landfill leachates prior to biological treatment. The leachates were obtained from the Seropedica and Gramacho landfill sites, respectively, located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. For the two Fenton processes, different conditions of pH (1.5, 3.0 and 5.0) and Fe 2+ : H 2 O 2 ratio (1:2, 1:5 and 1:10) were evaluated. Biodegradability was evaluated using the Zahn-Wellens methodology and Aliivibrio fischeri acute toxicity tests were conducted in order to predict the toxicity in the activated sludge. The best conditions for both Fenton processes were pH of 3.0 and Fe 2+ : H 2 O 2 and COD RAW :H 2 O 2 mass ratios of 1:5 and 1:1, respectively. The solar photo-Fenton process was more effective at improving the quality for both leachates, reaching COD, TOC and abs 254 nm reductions of 82%, 85% and 96.3%, respectively, for the Seropedica landfill leachate. In the case of the Gramacho landfill leachate, the corresponding reductions were 78.2, 80.7% and 91.1%, respectively. The biodegradability results for the untreated leachates from the Seropedica and Gramacho sites were 65% and 30% respectively. The biodegradability of both leachates was improved by the Fenton processes, especially the solar photo-Fenton process, which increased the leachate biodegradability to 89% (Seropedica) and 69% (Gramacho). For both leachates, a greater reduction in the acute toxicity was achieved with the solar photo-Fenton compared to the dark-Fenton process. The Seropedica landfill leachate showed high toxicity (EC50 = 33%, 15 min), after the dark Fenton and solar photo Fenton processes, with EC50 values of 81 and 91

  7. Time lens based optical fourier transformation for advanced processing of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....

  8. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.

  9. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  10. Processes of code status transitions in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jawahri, Areej; Lau-Min, Kelsey; Nipp, Ryan D; Greer, Joseph A; Traeger, Lara N; Moran, Samantha M; D'Arpino, Sara M; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Jackson, Vicki A; Cashavelly, Barbara J; Martinson, Holly S; Ryan, David P; Temel, Jennifer S

    2017-12-15

    Although hospitalized patients with advanced cancer have a low chance of surviving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the processes by which they change their code status from full code to do not resuscitate (DNR) are unknown. We conducted a mixed-methods study on a prospective cohort of hospitalized patients with advanced cancer. Two physicians used a consensus-driven medical record review to characterize processes that led to code status order transitions from full code to DNR. In total, 1047 hospitalizations were reviewed among 728 patients. Admitting clinicians did not address code status in 53% of hospitalizations, resulting in code status orders of "presumed full." In total, 275 patients (26.3%) transitioned from full code to DNR, and 48.7% (134 of 275 patients) of those had an order of "presumed full" at admission; however, upon further clarification, the patients expressed that they had wished to be DNR before the hospitalization. We identified 3 additional processes leading to order transition from full code to DNR acute clinical deterioration (15.3%), discontinuation of cancer-directed therapy (17.1%), and education about the potential harms/futility of CPR (15.3%). Compared with discontinuing therapy and education, transitions because of acute clinical deterioration were associated with less patient involvement (P = .002), a shorter time to death (P cancer were because of full code orders in patients who had a preference for DNR before hospitalization. Transitions due of acute clinical deterioration were associated with less patient engagement and a higher likelihood of inpatient death. Cancer 2017;123:4895-902. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Advances in biomedical signal and image processing – A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rajeswari

    Full Text Available Biomedical signal and image processing establish a dynamic area of specialization in both academic as well as research aspects of biomedical engineering. The concepts of signal and image processing have been widely used for extracting the physiological information in implementing many clinical procedures for sophisticated medical practices and applications. In this paper, the relationship between electrophysiological signals, i.e., electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyogram (EMG, electroencephalogram (EEG and functional image processing and their derived interactions have been discussed. Examples have been investigated in various case studies such as neurosciences, functional imaging, and cardiovascular system, by using different algorithms and methods. The interaction between the extracted information obtained from multiple signals and modalities seems to be very promising. The advanced algorithms and methods in the area of information retrieval based on time-frequency representation have been investigated. Finally, some examples of algorithms have been discussed in which the electrophysiological signals and functional images have been properly extracted and have a significant impact on various biomedical applications. Keywords: Biomedical signals and images, Processing, Analysis

  12. Unexpected toxicity to aquatic organisms of some aqueous bisphenol A samples treated by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišler, Tatjana; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Şenilă, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic and catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) processes were used to examine removal efficiency of bisphenol A from aqueous samples over several titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Unexpected toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) samples treated by means of the CWAO process to some tested species was determined. In addition, the CWAO effluent was recycled five- or 10-fold in order to increase the number of interactions between the liquid phase and catalyst. Consequently, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated higher concentrations of some toxic metals like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in the recycled samples in comparison to both the single-pass sample and the photocatalytically treated solution. The highest toxicity of five- and 10-fold recycled solutions in the CWAO process was observed in water fleas, which could be correlated to high concentrations of chromium, nickel, and silver detected in tested samples. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that aqueous samples treated by means of advanced oxidation processes should always be analyzed using (i) chemical analyses to assess removal of BPA and total organic carbon from treated aqueous samples, as well as (ii) a battery of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic groups to determine possible toxicity.

  13. Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kune Woo; Choi, W. K.; Lee, J. W.; Jung, G. H.

    2002-01-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes'. 1. Surface modification technique of microfiltration membrane. Microporous hydrophobic polypropylene(PP) membrane were modified by radiation-induced grafting using hydrophilic monomers such as arylic acid(AAc), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA) and styrenesulfonic acid(SSS). The effect of grafting conditions was investigated. Also, copolymeric condition of AAc and EGDMA for nylon membrane was studied. The structure of grafted PP membrane was examined by using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, SEM and contact angle. The grafted membrane was characterized by measureing the water flux, the ion exchange capacity or the binding capacity of the metal ions. A study on the permeation behavior of simulated waste water containing oil emulsion and characterization of membrane fouling was carried out in the crossflow membrane filtration process using capillary type PP microfiltration membrane modified by radiation induced grafting of HEMA. The effects of various operating parameters were investigated. 2. Electrofiltration Technology. In this section, the process conditions for fouling prevention of membrane by evaluating the effects of operational parameters such as external electric field strength, crossflow velocity, transmembrane pressure, etc. on the permeate flux in electrofiltration were established and the process applicability for oil emulsion wastes containing surfactant using parallel plate type electrofiltration module was evaluated

  14. A 100-Year Review: A century of dairy processing advancements-Pasteurization, cleaning and sanitation, and sanitary equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S A; Bradley, R L; Miller, G; Mildenhall, K B

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century, advancements within the mainstream dairy foods processing industry have acted in complement with other dairy-affiliated industries to produce a human food that has few rivals with regard to safety, nutrition, and sustainability. These advancements, such as milk pasteurization, may appear commonplace in the context of a modern dairy processing plant, but some consideration of how these advancements came into being serve as a basis for considering what advancements will come to bear on the next century of processing advancements. In the year 1917, depending on where one resided, most milk was presented to the consumer through privately owned dairy animals, small local or regional dairy farms, or small urban commercial dairies with minimal, or at best nascent, processing capabilities. In 1917, much of the retail milk in the United States was packaged and sold in returnable quart-sized clear glass bottles fitted with caps of various design and composition. Some reports suggest that the cost of that quart of milk was approximately 9 cents-an estimated $2.00 in 2017 US dollars. Comparing that 1917 quart of milk to a quart of milk in 2017 suggests several differences in microbiological, compositional, and nutritional value as well as flavor characteristics. Although a more comprehensive timeline of significant processing advancements is noted in the AppendixTable A1 to this paper, we have selected 3 advancements to highlight; namely, the development of milk pasteurization, cleaning and sanitizing technologies, and sanitary specifications for processing equipment. Finally, we provide some insights into the future of milk processing and suggest areas where technological advancements may need continued or strengthened attention and development as a means of securing milk as a food of high safety and value for the next century to come. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Primary care nurses' difficulties in advance care planning processes: A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Moya, Nani; Frías-Osuna, Antonio; Barrio-Cantalejo, Inés M; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús

    2016-12-01

    To know the primary care nurses' difficulties to promote advance care planning process with patients in the end of life. Phenomenological qualitative methodology. Health Management Area North of Jaén. Primary care nurses. Purposive sampling. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted until the speeches saturation. Content analysis in four steps: transcription, coding, obtaining results and conclusions verification. Supported whit the software Nvivo 8. Triangulation of results between researchers. Professionals' difficulties: Lack of knowledge about the topic, lack of communication skills, lack of experience and presence of negative emotions. In the health institution lack of time and interference with other professionals is a barrier. Also the patient's attitude and the family are identified as an obstacle because few people speak about the end of life. Finally, our society prevents open discussion about issues related to death. Professional learning about advanced care planning, training in communication skills and emotional education are necessary. Health managers should consider the fact that early interventions for planning health decisions require training, time and continued attention. If a cultural change does not happen, an evasive way to face the end of life will persist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of azo dye destruction in advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojnarovits, L.; Palfi, T.; Takacs, E.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of dye destruction in advanced oxidation processes is discussed on the example of Apollofix Red (Ar-28) radiolysis in aqueous solution. When the reactive intermediate reacts with the color bearing part of the molecule causing with nearly 100% efficiency destruction of the conjugation, the dose dependence, or time dependence of color disappearance is linear. In this case, spectrophotometry can be used to follow-up dye decomposition. Linear dependence was observed when hydrated electrons or hydrogen atoms reacted with the dye. In hydroxyl radical reactions some colored products form with spectra similar to those of the starting dye molecules. For that reason, spectrophotometry gives false result about the intact dye molecule concentration. Analysis by the HPLC reveals logarithmic time dependence in agreement with a theoretical model developed

  18. Advances in systems for interactive processing and display of meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in systems for interactive processing and display of meteorological data are reviewed, with particular attention given to developments in hardware and software, meteorological data base, analysis and display, and systems availability. These developments include inexpensive minicomputers which give the user almost instantaneous results for many types of jobs; image terminals with the capability to enhance, quantify, animate, and compare image and graphical data; accessibility of a large meteorological data base and the capability of merging different types of data; and sophisticated analysis and multidimensional display techniques. Critical problems still to be solved include getting quick access to historical and real time data bases from any system and making it easy to transport software from one system to another.

  19. Induction skull melting facility: an advanced system for electromagnetic processing of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugilal, G.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Induction Skull Melting (ISM) is an advanced technology for processing highly refractory and extremely reactive metals and their alloys to produce ultra-high purity products. In ISM, the metallic charge is melted in a water-cooled, copper crucible. The crucible is segmented so that the magnetic field can penetrate into the metallic charge to be melted. By virtue of the strong electromagnetic stirring, the ISM technology can also be used to homogenize alloys of metals, which are difficult to be combined uniformly in composition due to large difference in specific gravity. In view of various important applications in frontier areas of material research, development and production, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre developed the ISM technology indigenously

  20. Advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment using a plasma/ozone combination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nozomi; Kamiya, Yu; Saeki, Ryo; Tachibana, Kosuke; Yasuoka, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Advanced oxidation process (AOP) using OH radicals is a promising method for the decomposition of persistent organic compounds in wastewater. Although many types of plasma reactors have been developed for the AOP, they are unsuitable for the complete decomposition of highly concentrated organic compounds. The reason for the incomplete decomposition is that OH radicals, particularly at a high density, recombine among themselves to form hydrogen peroxide. We have developed a combination plasma reactor in which ozone gas is fed, so that the generated hydrogen peroxide is re-converted to OH radicals. Pulsed plasmas generated within oxygen bubbles supply not only OH radicals but also hydrogen peroxide into wastewater. The total organic carbon (TOC) of the wastewater was more than 1 gTOC/L. The TOC values decreased linearly with time, and the persistent compounds which could not be decomposed by ozone were completely mineralized within 8 h of operation.

  1. 3D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levander, Alan Richard [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Earth Science Department; Zelt, Colin A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Earth Science Department

    2015-03-17

    The work plan for this project was to develop and apply advanced seismic reflection and wide-angle processing and inversion techniques to high resolution seismic data for the shallow subsurface to seismically characterize the shallow subsurface at hazardous waste sites as an aid to containment and cleanup activities. We proposed to continue work on seismic data that we had already acquired under a previous DoE grant, as well as to acquire additional new datasets for analysis. The project successfully developed and/or implemented the use of 3D reflection seismology algorithms, waveform tomography and finite-frequency tomography using compressional and shear waves for high resolution characterization of the shallow subsurface at two waste sites. These two sites have markedly different near-surface structures, groundwater flow patterns, and hazardous waste problems. This is documented in the list of refereed documents, conference proceedings, and Rice graduate theses, listed below.

  2. Advanced gamma spectrum processing technique applied to the analysis of scattering spectra for determining material thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Duc Tam; VNUHCM-University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City; Huynh Dinh Chuong; Tran Thien Thanh; Vo Hoang Nguyen; Hoang Thi Kieu Trang; Chau Van Tao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an advanced gamma spectrum processing technique is applied to analyze experimental scattering spectra for determining the thickness of C45 heat-resistant steel plates. The single scattering peak of scattering spectra is taken as an advantage to measure the intensity of single scattering photons. Based on these results, the thickness of steel plates is determined with a maximum deviation of real thickness and measured thickness of about 4 %. Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP5 code is also performed to cross check the results, which yields a maximum deviation of 2 %. These results strongly confirm the capability of this technique in analyzing gamma scattering spectra, which is a simple, effective and convenient method for determining material thickness. (author)

  3. A Study of Advanced Image Processing Techniques on Experimental SWIFT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Accurately tracking the position of explosive-induced shock waves is a critical method for characterizing high explosive (HE) performance. The application of the shock wave image framing technique (SWIFT) has proven to be a successful diagnostic tool that utilizes ultra-high-speed imaging to capture time series images of explosively-driven shock waves propagating through transparent media. The use of common edge-detection algorithms, including Sobel, Canny, and Prewitt, tend to be susceptible to background noise and require noise reduction preprocessing that can alter the position of edge boundaries. In this paper, results produced by the implementation of advanced image-processing techniques on experimental SWIFT data show that shock wave position can accurately be detected and tracked, while also maintaining robustness to background image noise.

  4. Efficient removal of insecticide "imidacloprid" from water by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabik, Meral; Oturan, Nihal; Gözmen, Belgin; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of imidacloprid (ICP) has been carried out by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), anodic oxidation, and electro-Fenton, in which hydroxyl radicals are generated electrocatalytically. Carbon-felt cathode and platinum or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes were used in electrolysis cell. To determine optimum operating conditions, the effects of applied current and catalyst concentration were investigated. The decay of ICP during the oxidative degradation was well fitted to pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics and absolute rate constant of the oxidation of ICP by hydroxyl radicals was found to be k abs(ICP) = 1.23 × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1). The results showed that both anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton process with BDD anode exhibited high mineralization efficiency reaching 91 and 94% total organic carbon (TOC) removal at 2 h, respectively. For Pt-EF process, mineralization efficiency was also obtained as 71%. The degradation products of ICP were identified and a plausible general oxidation mechanism was proposed. Some of the main reaction intermediates such as 6-chloronicotinic acid, 6-chloronicotinaldehyde, and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid were determined by GC-MS analysis. Before complete mineralization, formic, acetic, oxalic, and glyoxylic acids were identified as end-products. The initial chlorine and organic nitrogen present in ICP were found to be converted to inorganic anions Cl(-), NO₃(-), and NH₄(+).

  5. Advanced Signal Processing for High Temperatures Health Monitoring of Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    An advanced signal processing methodology is being developed to monitor the height of condensed water thru the wall of a steel pipe while operating at temperatures as high as 250deg. Using existing techniques, previous study indicated that, when the water height is low or there is disturbance in the environment, the predicted water height may not be accurate. In recent years, the use of the autocorrelation and envelope techniques in the signal processing has been demonstrated to be a very useful tool for practical applications. In this paper, various signal processing techniques including the auto correlation, Hilbert transform, and the Shannon Energy Envelope methods were studied and implemented to determine the water height in the steam pipe. The results have shown that the developed method provides a good capability for monitoring the height in the regular conditions. An alternative solution for shallow water or no water conditions based on a developed hybrid method based on Hilbert transform (HT) with a high pass filter and using the optimized windowing technique is suggested. Further development of the reported methods would provide a powerful tool for the identification of the disturbances of water height inside the pipe.

  6. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, I.; Malato, S.; Sanchez-Perez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  7. Characterization of aquatic humic substances to DBPs formation in advanced treatment processes for conventionally treated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yu, Myong-Jin

    2007-05-08

    An advanced water treatment demonstration plant consisted of ozone/granular activated carbon processes was operated to study feasibility of the processes. Natural organic matter (NOM) from raw and process waters at the demonstration plant was isolated into humic and non-humic fractions by physicochemical fractionation method to investigate characteristics of humic fraction (i.e., humic substances, HS) as a predominant haloform reactant. Ozone did not significantly oxidize the carboxylic fraction (from 39.1 to 35.9%), while GAC removed some of the carboxylic fraction (from 35.9 to 29.1%). Formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) as compared to haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) was highly influenced by HS. Higher yields of THMs resulted from chlorination of HS with a higher phenolic content and phenolic fraction in the HS gradually decreased from 60.5% to 15.8% through the water treatment. The structural and functional changes of HS were identified by elemental, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) analyses, and these results were mutually consistent. The functional distribution data obtained by using A-21 resin could be used to support the interpretation of data obtained from the spectroscopic analyses. Decreases in ratio of UV absorbance at 253 nm and 203 nm (A(253)/A(203)) and DBPFPs/DOC showed consistent trends, therefore, A(253)/A(203) ratio may be a good indicator for the disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBPFPs).

  8. Application of several advanced oxidation processes for the destruction of terephthalic acid (TPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiruvenkatachari, Ramesh [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok Dong, Suncheon 540-742, Chonnam (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae Ouk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok Dong, Suncheon 540-742, Chonnam (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jung Chul [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok Dong, Suncheon 540-742, Chonnam (Korea, Republic of); Balaji, Subramanian [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok Dong, Suncheon 540-742, Chonnam (Korea, Republic of); Matheswaran, Manickam [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok Dong, Suncheon 540-742, Chonnam (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Il Shik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok Dong, Suncheon 540-742, Chonnam (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ismoon@sunchon.ac.kr

    2007-04-02

    Terephthalic acid (TPA) is widely applied as a raw material in making polyester fiber, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, polyester films, etc. TPA is toxic and is known to act as endocrine disruptor. TPA wastewater is traditionally treated by biological process and this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of several advanced oxidation processes on TPA removal. The oxidation processes studied were: UV-TiO{sub 2}, UV-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-Fe, O{sub 3}, O{sub 3}/Fe, O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}, UV-O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-Fe and UV-O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-Fe-TiO{sub 2}. The results indicate that the time required for the complete destruction of 50 ppm of TPA can be minimized from 10 h using UV-TiO{sub 2} system, to less than 10 min by UV-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-Fe-O{sub 3} system. Some of the likely organic intermediates identified during TPA destruction include, benzoquinone, benzene, maleic acid and oxalic acid. Possible destruction pathway of TPA has been proposed. TPA degradation by various systems was also analyzed based on the reaction kinetics and operating costs.

  9. PREFACE: Third International Conference on Advances in Solidification Processes (ICASP - 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Gerhard; Ratke, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Advances in Solidification Processes was held in the Rolduc Abbey in the Netherlands a few kilometres away from Aachen. Around 200 scientists from 24 countries come in for the four day meeting. They found a stimulating but also relaxing environment and atmosphere, with beautiful weather and the medieval abbey inviting for walks, discussions, sitting outside and drinking a beer or wine. The contributions given at the conference reflected recent advances in various topics of solidification processes, ranging from fundamental aspects to applied casting technologies. In 20 oral sessions and a large poster session innovative results of segregation phenomena, microstructure evolution, nucleation and growth, phase formation, polyphase solidification, rapid solidification and welding, casting technology, thermophysics of molten alloys, solidification with forced melt flow and growth of single crystals and superalloys together with innovative diagnostic techniques were presented. Thereby, findings from experiments as well as from numerical modeling on different lengths scales were jointly discussed and contribute to new insight in solidification behaviour. The papers presented in this open access proceedings cover about half the oral and poster presentations given. They were carefully reviewed as in classical peer reviewed journals by two independent referees and most of them were revised and thus improved according to the reviewers comments. We think that this collection of papers presented at ICASP-3 gives an impression of the excellent contributions made. The papers embrace both the basic and applied aspects of solidification. We especially wish to express our appreciation for the team around Georg Schmitz and Margret Nienhaus organising this event and giving us their valued advice and support at every stage in preparing the conference. We also thank Lokasenna Lektorat for taking the task of checking all language-associated issues and

  10. Can activated sludge treatments and advanced oxidation processes remove organophosphorus flame retardants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristale, Joyce; Ramos, Dayana D.; Dantas, Renato F.; Machulek Junior, Amilcar; Lacorte, Silvia; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the occurrence of 10 OPFRs (including chlorinated, nonchlorinated alkyl and aryl compounds) in influent, effluent wastewaters and partitioning into sludge of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Catalonia (Spain). All target OPFRs were detected in the WWTPs influents, and the total concentration ranged from 3.67 µg L −1 to 150 µg L −1 . During activated sludge treatment, most OPFRs were accumulated in the sludge at concentrations from 35.3 to 9980 ng g −1 dw. Chlorinated compounds tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) were not removed by the conventional activated sludge treatment and they were released by the effluents at approximately the same inlet concentration. On the contrary, aryl compounds tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP) together with alkyl tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were not detected in any of the effluents. Advanced oxidation processes (UV/H 2 O 2 and O 3 ) were applied to investigate the degradability of recalcitrant OPFRs in WWTP effluents. Those detected in the effluent sample (TCEP, TCIPP, TDCPP, tributyl phosphate (TNBP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)) had very low direct UV-C photolysis rates. TBOEP, TNBP and TIBP were degraded by UV/H 2 O 2 and O 3 . Chlorinated compounds TCEP, TDCPP and TCIPP were the most recalcitrant OPFR to the advanced oxidation processes applied. The study provides information on the partitioning and degradability pathways of OPFR within conventional activated sludge WWTPs. - Highlights: • OPFRs were detected in wastewater and sludge of all studied WWTPs. • Alkyl and chloroalkyl phosphates were present in secondary treatment effluents. • TBOEP, TNBP and TIBP were degraded by UV/H 2 O 2 and O 3 treatment. • TCEP, TCIPP and TDCPP were resistant to both secondary and tertiary treatment.

  11. Can activated sludge treatments and advanced oxidation processes remove organophosphorus flame retardants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristale, Joyce; Ramos, Dayana D; Dantas, Renato F; Machulek Junior, Amilcar; Lacorte, Silvia; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the occurrence of 10 OPFRs (including chlorinated, nonchlorinated alkyl and aryl compounds) in influent, effluent wastewaters and partitioning into sludge of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Catalonia (Spain). All target OPFRs were detected in the WWTPs influents, and the total concentration ranged from 3.67 µg L(-1) to 150 µg L(-1). During activated sludge treatment, most OPFRs were accumulated in the sludge at concentrations from 35.3 to 9980 ng g(-1) dw. Chlorinated compounds tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) were not removed by the conventional activated sludge treatment and they were released by the effluents at approximately the same inlet concentration. On the contrary, aryl compounds tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP) together with alkyl tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were not detected in any of the effluents. Advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2 and O3) were applied to investigate the degradability of recalcitrant OPFRs in WWTP effluents. Those detected in the effluent sample (TCEP, TCIPP, TDCPP, tributyl phosphate (TNBP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)) had very low direct UV-C photolysis rates. TBOEP, TNBP and TIBP were degraded by UV/H2O2 and O3. Chlorinated compounds TCEP, TDCPP and TCIPP were the most recalcitrant OPFR to the advanced oxidation processes applied. The study provides information on the partitioning and degradability pathways of OPFR within conventional activated sludge WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of statin compounds by advanced oxidation processes: Kinetic considerations and destruction mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Behnaz, E-mail: brazavi@uci.ed [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Song Weihua, E-mail: wsong@uci.ed [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Santoke, Hanoz, E-mail: hsantoke@uci.ed [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Cooper, William J., E-mail: wcooper@uci.ed [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    This study examined the use of advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/RPs) for the destruction of cholesterol lowering statin pharmaceuticals. AO/RPs which utilize the oxidizing hydroxyl radical ({sup {center_dot}O}H) and reducing aqueous electron (e{sup -}{sub aq}), to degrade chemical contaminants are alternatives to traditional water treatment methods, and are alternatives as water reuse becomes more generally implemented. Four major statin pharmaceuticals, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin, were studied, and the absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants with {sup {center_dot}O}H determined, (6.96{+-}0.16)x10{sup 9}, (2.92{+-}0.06)x10{sup 9}, (4.16{+-}0.13)x10{sup 9}, and (3.13{+-}0.15)x10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and for e{sup -}{sub aq} (2.31{+-}0.06)x10{sup 9}, (0.45{+-}0.01)x10{sup 9}, (1.26{+-}0.01)x10{sup 9}, and (0.69{+-}0.02)x10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. To provide additional information on the radicals formed upon oxidation, transient spectra were measured and the overall reaction efficiency determined. Radical-based destruction mechanisms for destruction of the statins are proposed based on the LC-MS determination of the stable reaction by-products formed using {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-irradiation of statin solutions. Knowing the reaction rates, reaction efficiencies and destruction mechanisms of these compounds is essential for the consideration of the use of advanced oxidation/reduction processes for the destruction of statins in aqueous systems.

  13. Treatment of statin compounds by advanced oxidation processes: Kinetic considerations and destruction mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Behnaz; Song, Weihua; Santoke, Hanoz; Cooper, William J.

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the use of advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/RPs) for the destruction of cholesterol lowering statin pharmaceuticals. AO/RPs which utilize the oxidizing hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) and reducing aqueous electron (e -aq), to degrade chemical contaminants are alternatives to traditional water treatment methods, and are alternatives as water reuse becomes more generally implemented. Four major statin pharmaceuticals, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin, were studied, and the absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants with rad OH determined, (6.96±0.16)×10 9, (2.92±0.06)×10 9, (4.16±0.13)×10 9, and (3.13±0.15)×10 9 M -1 s -1, and for e -aq (2.31±0.06)×10 9, (0.45±0.01)×10 9, (1.26±0.01)×10 9, and (0.69±0.02)×10 9 M -1 s -1, respectively. To provide additional information on the radicals formed upon oxidation, transient spectra were measured and the overall reaction efficiency determined. Radical-based destruction mechanisms for destruction of the statins are proposed based on the LC-MS determination of the stable reaction by-products formed using 137Cs γ-irradiation of statin solutions. Knowing the reaction rates, reaction efficiencies and destruction mechanisms of these compounds is essential for the consideration of the use of advanced oxidation/reduction processes for the destruction of statins in aqueous systems.

  14. Investigations on the performance of ultrasonic drilling process with special reference to precision machining of advanced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adithan, M.; Laroiya, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced ceramics are assuming an important role in modern industrial technology. The applications and advantages of using advanced ceramics are many. There are several reasons why we should go in for machining of advanced ceramics after their compacting and sintering. These are discussed in this paper. However, precision machining of advanced ceramics must be economical. Critical technological issues to be addressed in cost effective machining of ceramics include design of machine tools, tooling arrangements, improved yield and precision, relationship of part dimensions and finish specifications to functional performance, and on-line inspection. Considering the above ultrasonic drilling is an important process used for the precision machining of advanced ceramics. Extensive studies on tool wear occurring in the ultrasonic machining of advanced ceramics have been carried out. In addition, production accuracy of holes drilled, surface finish obtained and surface integrity aspects in the machining of advanced ceramics have also been investigated. Some specific findings with reference to surface integrity are: a) there were no cracks or micro-cracks developed during or after ultrasonic machining of advanced ceramics, b) while machining Hexoloy alpha silicon carbide a recast layer is formed as a result of ultrasonic machining. This is attributed to the viscous heating resulting from high energy impacts during ultrasonic machining. While machining all other types of ceramics no such formation of recast layer was observed, and , c) there is no change in the microstructure of the advanced ceramics as a result of ultrasonic machining

  15. I. Advances in NMR Signal Processing. II. Spin Dynamics in Quantum Dissipative Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yung-Ya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Part I. Advances in IVMR Signal Processing. Improvements of sensitivity and resolution are two major objects in the development of NMR/MRI. A signal enhancement method is first presented which recovers signal from noise by a judicious combination of a priordmowledge to define the desired feasible solutions and a set theoretic estimation for restoring signal properties that have been lost due to noise contamination. The effect of noise can be significantly mitigated through the process of iteratively modifying the noisy data set to the smallest degree necessary so that it possesses a collection of prescribed properties and also lies closest to the original data set. A novel detection-estimation scheme is then introduced to analyze noisy and/or strongly damped or truncated FIDs. Based on exponential modeling, the number of signals is detected based on information estimated using the matrix pencil method. theory and the spectral parameters are Part II. Spin Dynamics in body dipole-coupled systems Quantum Dissipative Systems. Spin dynamics in manyconstitutes one of the most fundamental problems in magnetic resonance and condensed-matter physics. Its many-spin nature precludes any rigorous treatment. ‘Therefore, the spin-boson model is adopted to describe in the rotating frame the influence of the dipolar local fields on a tagged spin. Based on the polaronic transform and a perturbation treatment, an analytical solution is derived, suggesting the existence of self-trapped states in the. strong coupling limit, i.e., when transverse local field >> longitudinal local field. Such nonlinear phenomena originate from the joint action of the lattice fluctuations and the reaction field. Under semiclassical approximation, it is found that the main effect of the reaction field is the renormalization of the Hamiltonian of interest. Its direct consequence is the two-step relaxation process: the spin is initially localized in a quasiequilibrium state, which is later detrapped by

  16. Comparison of Five Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degradation of Pesticide in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Chioma Affam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the technical efficiency and economic cost of five advanced oxidation processes (Fenton, UV photo-Fenton, solar photo-Fenton, UV/TiO2/H2O2 and FeGAC/H2O2 for degradation of the pesticides chlorpyrifos cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution. The highest degradation in terms of COD and TOC removals and improvement of the biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio index (BI were observed to be (i Fenton - 69.03% (COD, 55.61% (TOC, and 0.35 (BI; (ii UV photo-Fenton -78.56% (COD, 63.76% (TOC and 0.38 (BI;  (iii solar photo-Fenton - 74.19% (COD, 58.32% (TOC and 0.36 (BI; (iv UV/TiO2/H2O2 - 53.62% (COD, 21.54% (TOC, and 0.26 (BI; and  (v the most technical efficient and cost effective process was FeGAC/H2O2. At an optimum condition (FeGAC 5 g/L, H2O2 100 mg/L, and reaction time of 60 min at pH 3, the COD and TOC removal efficiency were 96.19 and 85.60%, respectively, and the biodegradation index was 0.40. The degradation rate constant and cost were 0.0246 min-1 and $0.74/kg TOC, respectively. The FeGAC/H2O2 process is the most technically efficient and cost effective for pretreatment of the pesticide wastewater before biological treatment. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 26th July 2017; Revised: 26nd September 2017; Accepted: 27th September 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Affam, A.C., Chaudhuri, M., Kutty, S.R.M. (2018. Comparison of Five Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degradation of Pesticide in Aqueous Solution. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 179-186 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1394.179-186

  17. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 ) and UV/H 2 O 2 process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H 2 O 2 process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H 2 O 2 method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H 2 O 2 concentration of 0.01 mol L −1 with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H 2 O 2 process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H 2 O 2 concentration of 0.01 mol L −1 accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H 2 O 2 process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 molar ratios, H 2 O 2 concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H 2 O 2 process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H 2 O 2 process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  18. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molar ratios, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  19. Integrated Multi-Team Decision Making Processes and Effectiveness and the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, John

    2004-01-01

    .... This program established a three part implementation path: First, the Advanced Technology Center will focus on key issues in propulsion and advanced power systems as well as take a leadership role in Next Generation Manufacturing technology...

  20. Advance care planning in stroke: influence of time on engagement in the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Theresa Green1, Shreyas Gandhi2, Tessa Kleissen1, Jessica Simon1,3, Shelley Raffin-Bouchal1, Karla Ryckborst41Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 4Calgary Stroke Program, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, CanadaPurpose: Individuals who experience stroke have a higher likelihood of subsequent stroke events, making it imperative to plan for future medical care. In the event of a further serious health event, engaging in the process of advanced care planning (ACP can help family members and health care professionals (HCPs make medical decisions for individuals who have lost the capacity to do so. Few studies have explored the views and experiences of patients with stroke about discussing their wishes and preferences for future medical events, and the extent to which stroke HCPs engage in conversations around planning for such events. In this study, we sought to understand how the process of ACP unfolded between HCPs and patients post-stroke.Patients and methods: Using grounded theory (GT methodology, we engaged in direct observation of HCP and patient interactions on an acute stroke unit and two stroke rehabilitation units. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 patients and four HCPs were interviewed directly about the ACP process.Results: We found that open and continual ACP conversations were not taking place, patients experienced an apparent lack of urgency to engage in ACP, and HCPs were uncomfortable initiating ACP conversations due to the sensitive nature of the topic.Conclusion: In this study, we identified lack of engagement in ACP post-stroke, attributable to patient and HCP factors. This encourages us to look further into the process of ACP in order to develop open communication between the patient with stroke, their families, and stroke HCPs.Keywords: qualitative, engagement

  1. Coupled Inverse Fluidized Bed Bioreactor with Advanced Oxidation Processes for Treatment of Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla E. Campos Díaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse is the wastewater generated from ethanol distillation; it is characterized by high levels of organic and inorganic matter, high exit temperature, dissolved salts and low pH. In this work the treatment of undiluted vinasse was achieved using sequentially-coupled biological and advanced oxidation processes. The initial characterization of vinasse showed a high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, 32 kg m-3, high Total Organic Carbon (TOC, 24.5 kg m-3 and low pH (2.5. The first stage of the biological treatment of the vinasse was carried out in an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with a microbial consortium using polypropylene as support material. The fluidized bed bioreactor was kept at a constant temperature (37 ± 1ºC and pH (6.0 ± 0.5 for 90 days. After the biological process, the vinasse was continuously fed to the photoreactor using a peristaltic pump 2.8 × 10-3 kg of FeSO4•7H2O were added to the vinasse and allowed to dissolve in the dark for five minutes; after this time, 15.3 m3 of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 (30% w/w were added, and subsequently, the UV radiation was allowed to reach the photoreactor to treat the effluent for 3600 s at pH = 3. Results showed that the maximum organic matter removed using the biological process, measured as COD, was 80% after 90 days. Additionally, 88% of COD removal was achieved using the photo-assisted Fenton oxidation. The overall COD removal after the sequentially-coupled processes reached a value as low as 0.194 kg m-3, achieving over 99% of COD removal as well as complete TOC removal.

  2. ACSEPT a European project for a new step in the future demonstration of advanced fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C. [CEA, DRCP - Bat 181, CEA Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France); Caravaca, C.; Espartero, A. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22 - 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rhodes, C.; Taylor, R.; Harrison, M. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); EKBERG, C. [Chalmers tekniska hoegskola, Institutionen foer kemi- och bioteknik, Aemnesomraadets namn, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); GEIST, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik, P.O.B. 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich - FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Cassayre, L. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); Malmbeck, R. [JRC-ITU, Karlsruhe (Germany); De Angelis, G. [ENEA, Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Bouvet, S. [Rio Tinto Alcan, Centre de Recherche de Voreppe, Voreppe (France); Klaassen, F. [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    For more than fifteen years, a European scientific community has joined its effort to develop and optimise processes for the partitioning of actinides from fission products. In an international context of 'nuclear renaissance', the upcoming of a new generation of nuclear reactor (Gen IV) will require the development of associated advanced closed fuel cycles which answer the needs of a sustainable nuclear energy: the minimization of the production of long lived radioactive waste but also the optimization of the use of natural resources with an increased resistance to proliferation. Actually, Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T), associated to a multi-recycling of all transuranics (TRUs), should play a key role in the development of this sustainable nuclear energy. By joining together 34 Partners coming from European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial players in a multidisciplinary consortium, the FP7 EURATOM-Fission Collaborative Project ACSEPT (Actinide recycling by Separation and Transmutation), started in 2008 for four year duration, provides the sound basis and fundamental improvements for future demonstrations of fuel treatment in strong connection with fuel fabrication techniques. Consistently with potentially viable recycling strategies, ACSEPT therefore provides a structured R and D framework to develop chemical separation processes compatible with fuel fabrication techniques, with a view to their future demonstration at the pilot level. ACSEPT is organized into three technical domains: (i) Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimize and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning or to group actinide separation. (ii) Concerning high temperature pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT focuses on the enhancement of the two reference cores of process selected within previous projects. R and D efforts are now devoted to key scientific and technical

  3. ACSEPT a European project for a new step in the future demonstration of advanced fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C.; Caravaca, C.; Espartero, A.; Rhodes, C.; Taylor, R.; Harrison, M.; EKBERG, C.; GEIST, A.; Modolo, G.; Cassayre, L.; Malmbeck, R.; De Angelis, G.; Bouvet, S.; Klaassen, F.

    2010-01-01

    For more than fifteen years, a European scientific community has joined its effort to develop and optimise processes for the partitioning of actinides from fission products. In an international context of 'nuclear renaissance', the upcoming of a new generation of nuclear reactor (Gen IV) will require the development of associated advanced closed fuel cycles which answer the needs of a sustainable nuclear energy: the minimization of the production of long lived radioactive waste but also the optimization of the use of natural resources with an increased resistance to proliferation. Actually, Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T), associated to a multi-recycling of all transuranics (TRUs), should play a key role in the development of this sustainable nuclear energy. By joining together 34 Partners coming from European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial players in a multidisciplinary consortium, the FP7 EURATOM-Fission Collaborative Project ACSEPT (Actinide recycling by Separation and Transmutation), started in 2008 for four year duration, provides the sound basis and fundamental improvements for future demonstrations of fuel treatment in strong connection with fuel fabrication techniques. Consistently with potentially viable recycling strategies, ACSEPT therefore provides a structured R and D framework to develop chemical separation processes compatible with fuel fabrication techniques, with a view to their future demonstration at the pilot level. ACSEPT is organized into three technical domains: (i) Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimize and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning or to group actinide separation. (ii) Concerning high temperature pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT focuses on the enhancement of the two reference cores of process selected within previous projects. R and D efforts are now devoted to key scientific and technical points

  4. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatmen : A laboratory batch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; van Halem, D.; Liu, G.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on

  5. Preliminary assessment of safeguardability on the concepture design of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ha, Jang Ho; Ko, Won Il; Song, Dae Yong; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-04-01

    In this report, a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) was conducted with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The proposed ACP concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuels into metal forms, which can achieve significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel to be stored and disposed of. For the safeguardability analysis of the ACP facility, sub-processes and their KMPs (Key Measurement Points) were defined first, and then their material flows were analyzed. Finally, the standard deviation of the Inventory Difference (ID) value of the facility was estimated with assumption by assuming international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods and their uncertainty. From the preliminary calculation, we concluded that if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility, the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met. In the second phase of this study, further study on sensitivity analyses considering various factors such as measurement errors, facility capacities, MBA periods etc. may be needed

  6. Environmental assessment of different advanced oxidation processes applied to a bleaching Kraft mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Iván; Rieradevall, Joan; Torrades, Francesc; Peral, José; Domènech, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been applied to remove the organic carbon content of a paper mill effluent originating from the Kraft pulp bleaching process. The considered AOPs were: TiO(2)-mediated heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO(2)-mediated heterogeneous photocatalysis assisted with H(2)O(2), TiO(2)-mediated heterogeneous photocatalysis coupled with Fenton, photo-Fenton, ozonation and ozonation with UV-A light irradiation. The application of the selected AOPs all resulted in a considerable decrease in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content with variable treatment efficiencies depending upon the nature/type of the applied AOP. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study was used as a tool to compare the different AOPs in terms of their environmental impact. Heterogeneous photocatalysis coupled with the Fenton's reagent proved to have the lowest environmental impact accompanied with a moderate-to-high DOC removal rate. On the other hand, heterogeneous photocatalysis appeared to be the worst AOP both in terms of DOC abatement rate and environmental impact. For the studied AOPs, LCA has indicated that the environmental impact was attributable to the high electrical energy (power) consumption necessary to run a UV-A lamp or to produce ozone.

  7. Image processing for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Miller-Kamm, Victoria; Orth, Charles; Roberts, Randy; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2016-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short-pulse kilo-Joule laser pulses with controllable delays that generate X-rays to provide backlighting for high-density internal confinement fusion (ICF) capsule targets. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. ARC is designed to employ up to eight backlighters with tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution, to record the dynamics and produce an X-ray "motion picture" of the compression and ignition of cryogenic deuterium-tritium targets. ARC will generate tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of ICF shots. Additionally, ARC supports a variety of other high energy density experiments including fast ignition studies on NIF. The automated alignment image analysis algorithms use digital camera sensor images to direct ARC beams onto the tens-of-microns scale metal wires. This paper describes the ARC automatic alignment sequence throughout the laser chain from pulse initiation to target with an emphasis on the image processing algorithms that generate the crucial alignment positions for ARC. The image processing descriptions and flow diagrams detail the alignment control loops throughout the ARC laser chain beginning in the ARC high-contrast front end (HCAFE), on into the ARC main laser area, and ending in the ARC target area.

  8. Toxicity Reduction of Reactive Red Dye-238 Using Advanced Oxidation Process by Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyad Al-Anbari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Decolorization of red azo dye (Cibacron Red FN-R from synthetic wastewater has been investigated as a function of solar advanced oxidation process. The photocatalytic activity using ZnO as a photocatalysis has been estimated. Different parameters affected the removal efficiency, including pH of the solution, initial dye concentration and H2O2 concentration were evaluated to find out the optimum value of these parameters. The results proved that the optimal pH value was 8 and the most efficient H2O2 concentration was 100mg/L. Toxicity reduction percent for effluent solution was also monitored to assess the degradation process. This treatment method was able to strongly reduce the color and toxicity of reactive red dye-238 to about (99 and 80 % respectively. It can be concluded, from these experiments, that the using of ZnO as a photocatalysis was exhibited as economical and efficient treatment method to remove reactive red dye-238 from aqueous solution.

  9. From Photons to Pixels: Processing Data from the Advanced Baseline Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Kalluri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI is the primary Earth observing sensor on the new generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R series, and provides significant spectral, spatial and temporal observational enhancements compared to the legacy GOES satellites. ABI also provides enhanced capabilities for operational sensor calibration and image navigation and registration (INR to enable observations of the Earth with high spectral fidelity as well as creating images that are accurately mapped and co-registered over time. Unlike earlier GOES Imagers, ABI has onboard calibration capability for all sixteen bands in the reflective and emissive bands. The calibration process includes periodic and routine views of the internal reflective and blackbody targets as well as views of space and the moon. Improvements in INR are made possible by having a Global Positioning System (GPS on board the spacecraft and routine measurements of stars through the sensor’s boresight for orbit and attitude determination through a Kalman filter. This paper describes how the sensor data are processed into calibrated and geolocated radiances that enable the generation of imagery and higher level products for both meteorological and non-meteorological Earth science applications. Some examples of ABI images and calibration are presented to demonstrate the capabilities and applications of the sensor.

  10. Color, TOC and AOX removals from pulp mill effluent by advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalkaya, Ebru Cokay; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-01-01

    Pulp mill effluent containing toxic chemicals was treated by different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) consisting of treatments by hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent (H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), UV, UV/H 2 O 2 , photo-Fenton (UV/H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), ozonation and peroxone (ozone/H 2 O 2 ) in laboratory-scale reactors for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) removals from the pulp mill effluent. Effects of some operating parameters such as the initial pH, oxidant and catalyst concentrations on TOC, color, AOX removals were investigated. Almost every method used resulted in some degree of color removal from the pulp mill effluent. However, the Fenton's reagent utilizing H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ resulted in the highest color, TOC and AOX removals under acidic conditions when compared with the other AOPs tested. Approximately, 88% TOC, 85% color and 89% AOX removals were obtained by the Fenton's reagent at pH 5 within 30 min. Photo-Fenton process yielded comparable TOC (85%), color (82%) and AOX (93%) removals within 5 min due to oxidations by UV light in addition to the Fenton's reagent. Fast oxidation reactions by the photo-Fenton treatment makes this approach more favorable as compared to the others used

  11. Advanced Analog Signal Processing for Fuzing Final Report CRADA No. TC-1306-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spencer, D. [Raymond Engineering, Middletown, CT (United States)

    2018-01-24

    The purpose of this CRADA between LLNL and Kaman Aerospace/Raymond Engineering Operations (Raymond) was to demonstrate the feasibility of using Analog/Digital Neural Network (ANN) Technology for advanced signal processing, fuzing, and other applications. This cooperation sought to Ieverage the expertise and capabilities of both parties--Raymond to develop the signature recognition hardware system, using Raymond’s extensive experience in the area of system development plus Raymond’s knowledge of military applications, and LLNL to apply ANN and related technologies to an area of significant interest to the United States government. This CRADA effort was anticipated to be a three-year project consisting of three phases: Phase I, Proof-of-Principle Demonstration; Phase II, Proof-of-Design, involving the development of a form-factored integrated sensor and ANN technology processo~ and Phase III, Final Design and Release of the integrated sensor and ANN fabrication process: Under Phase I, to be conducted during calendar year 1996, Raymond was to deliver to LLNL an architecture (design) for an ANN chip. LLNL was to translate the design into a stepper mask and to produce and test a prototype chip from the Raymond design.

  12. Treatment of waste salt from the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (II) : optimum immobilization condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2004-01-01

    Since zeolite is known to be stable at a high temperature, it has been reported as a promising immobilization matrix for waste salt. The crystal structure of dehydrated zeolite A breaks down above 1060 K, resulting in the formation of an amorphous solid and re-crystallization to beta-Cristobalite. This structural degradation depends on the existence of chlorides. When contacted to HCl, zeolite 4A is not stable even at 473 K. The optimum consolidation condition for LiCl salt waste from the oxide fuel reduction process based on the electrochemical method (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) has been studied using zeolite A since 2001. Actually the constituents of waste salt are water-soluble. And, alkali halides are known to be readily radiolyzed to yield interstitial halogens and metal colloids. For disposal in a geological repository, the waste salt must meet the acceptance criteria. For a waste form containing chloride salt, two of the more important criteria are leach resistance and waste form durability. In this work, we prepared some samples with different mixing ratios of LiCl salt to zeolite A, and then compared some characteristics such as thermal stability, salt occlusion, free chloride content, leach resistance, mixing effect, etc

  13. Natural circulation analysis for the advanced neutron source reactor refueling process 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, R.F.; Dasardhi, S.; Elkassabgi, Y. [Texas A& M Univ., Kingsville, TX (United States); Yoder, G.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    During the refueling process of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR), the spent fuel elements must be moved from the primary coolant loop (containing D{sub 2}O), through a heavy water pool, and finally into a light water spent fuel storage area. The present refueling scheme utilizes remote refueling equipment to move the spent fuel elements through a D{sub 2}O filled stack and tunnel into a temporary storage canal. A transfer lock is used to move the spent fuel elements from the D{sub 2}O-filled interim storage canal to a light water pool. Each spent fuel element must be cooled during this process, using either natural circulation or forced convection. This paper presents a summary of the numerical techniques used to analyze natural circulation cooling of the ANSR fuel elements as well as selected results of the calculations. Details of the analysis indicate that coolant velocities below 10 cm/s exist in the coolant channels under single phase natural circulation conditions. Also, boiling does not occur within the channels if power levels are below a few hundred kW when the core transitions to natural circulation conditions.

  14. The Utility of Free Software for Gravity and Magnetic Advanced Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandis, Hendra; Dahrin, Darharta

    2017-04-01

    The lack of computational tools, i.e. software, often hinders the proper teaching and application of geophysical data processing in academic institutions in Indonesia. Although there are academic licensing options for commercial software, such options are still way beyond the financial capability of some academic institutions. Academic community members (both lecturers and students) are supposed to be creative and resourceful to overcome such situation. Therefore, capability for writing computer programs or codes is a necessity. However, there are also many computer programs and even software that are freely available on the internet. Generally, the utility of the freely distributed software is limited for demonstration only or for visualizing and exchanging data. The paper discusses the utility of Geosoft’s Oasis Montaj Viewer along with USGS GX programs that are available for free. Useful gravity and magnetic advanced data processing (i.e. gradient calculation, spectral analysis etc.) can be performed “correctly” without any approximation that sometimes leads to dubious results and interpretation.

  15. Advanced fuel cycle on the basis of pyroelectrochemical process for irradiated fuel reprocessing and vibropacking technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorshin, A.A.; Skiba, O.V.; Tsykanov, V.A.; Golovanov, V.N.; Bychkov, A.V.; Kisly, V.A.; Bobrov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    For advanced nuclear fuel cycle in SSC RIAR there is developed the pyroelectrochemical process to reprocess irradiated fuel and produce granulated oxide fuel UO 2 , PuO 2 or (U,Pu)O 2 from chloride melts. The basic technological stage is the extraction of oxides as a crystal product with the methods either of the electrolysis (UO 2 and UO 2 -PuO 2 ) or of the precipitating crystalIization (PuO 2 ). After treating the granulated fuel is ready for direct use to manufacture vibropacking fuel pins. Electrochemical model for (U,Pu)O 2 coprecipitation is described. There are new processes being developed: electroprecipitation of mixed oxides - (U,Np)O 2 , (U,Pu,Np)O 2 , (U,Am)O 2 and (U,Pu,Am)O 2 . Pyroelectrochemical production of mixed actinide oxides is used both for reprocessing spent fuel and for producing actinide fuel. Both the efficiency of pyroelectrochemical methods application for reprocessing nuclear fuel and of vibropac technology for plutonium recovery are estimated. (author)

  16. Advanced optical sensing and processing technologies for the distributed control of large flexible spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. M.; Fraser, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to examine state-of-the-art optical sensing and processing technology applied to control the motion of flexible spacecraft. Proposed large flexible space systems, such an optical telescopes and antennas, will require control over vast surfaces. Most likely distributed control will be necessary involving many sensors to accurately measure the surface. A similarly large number of actuators must act upon the system. The used technical approach included reviewing proposed NASA missions to assess system needs and requirements. A candidate mission was chosen as a baseline study spacecraft for comparison of conventional and optical control components. Control system requirements of the baseline system were used for designing both a control system containing current off-the-shelf components and a system utilizing electro-optical devices for sensing and processing. State-of-the-art surveys of conventional sensor, actuator, and processor technologies were performed. A technology development plan is presented that presents a logical, effective way to develop and integrate advancing technologies.

  17. Advancing Nursing Research in the Visual Era: Reenvisioning the Photovoice Process Across Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, and Critical Theory Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Boutain, Doris M; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    Photovoice is a powerful research method that employs participant photography for advancing voice, knowledge, and transformative change among groups historically or currently marginalized. Paradoxically, this research method risks exploitation of participant voice because of weak methodology to method congruence. The purposes of this retrospective article are to revisit current interdisciplinary research using photovoice and to suggest how to advance photovoice by improving methodology-method congruence. Novel templates are provided for improving the photovoice process across phenomenological, grounded theory, and critical theory methodologies.

  18. Processing of Advanced Cast Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffery A.; Cowen, Christopher J.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2012-02-01

    The high-temperature components within conventional supercritical coal-fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. To reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased to as high a temperature and pressure as feasible. The proposed steam temperature in the DOE/NETL Advanced Ultra Supercritical power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work for the majority of high-temperature components in the turbine or for pipes and tubes in the boiler due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Thus, Ni-based superalloys are being considered for many of these components. Off-the-shelf forged nickel alloys have shown good promise at these temperatures, but further improvements can be made through experimentation within the nominal chemistry range as well as through thermomechanical processing and subsequent heat treatment. However, cast nickel-based superalloys, which possess high strength, creep resistance, and weldability, are typically not available, particularly those with good ductility and toughness that are weldable in thick sections. To address those issues related to thick casting for turbine casings, for example, cast analogs of selected wrought nickel-based superalloys such as alloy 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105 have been produced. Alloy design criteria, melt processing experiences, and heat treatment are discussed with respect to the as-processed and heat-treated microstructures and selected mechanical properties. The discussion concludes with the prospects for full-scale development of a thick section casting for a steam turbine valve chest or rotor casing.

  19. Processing of Advanced Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, P. D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Hawk, Jeffrey A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Cowen, Christopher J. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The high-temperature components within conventional supercritical coal-fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. To reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased to as high a temperature and pressure as feasible. The proposed steam temperature in the DOE/NETL Advanced Ultra Supercritical power plant is high enough (760 C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work for the majority of high-temperature components in the turbine or for pipes and tubes in the boiler due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Thus, Ni-based superalloys are being considered for many of these components. Off-the-shelf forged nickel alloys have shown good promise at these temperatures, but further improvements can be made through experimentation within the nominal chemistry range as well as through thermomechanical processing and subsequent heat treatment. However, cast nickel-based superalloys, which possess high strength, creep resistance, and weldability, are typically not available, particularly those with good ductility and toughness that are weldable in thick sections. To address those issues related to thick casting for turbine casings, for example, cast analogs of selected wrought nickel-based superalloys such as alloy 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105 have been produced. Alloy design criteria, melt processing experiences, and heat treatment are discussed with respect to the as-processed and heat-treated microstructures and selected mechanical properties. The discussion concludes with the prospects for full-scale development of a thick section casting for a steam turbine valve chest or rotor casing.

  20. Advanced Modeling of Cold Crucible Induction Melting for Process Control and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Roach; D. B. Lopukh; A. P. Martynov; B. S. Polevodov; S. I. Chepluk

    2008-02-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI” (ETU) have collaborated on development and validation of an advanced numerical model of the cold crucible induction melting (CCIM) process. This work was conducted in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management Technology and Engineering (EM-20) International Program. The model predicts quasi-steady state temperature distributions, convection cell configurations, and flow field velocities for a fully established melt of low conductivity non-magnetic materials at high frequency operations. The INL/ETU ANSYS© finite element model is unique in that it has been developed specifically for processing borosilicate glass (BSG) and other glass melts. Specifically, it accounts for the temperature dependency of key material properties, some of which change by orders of magnitude within the temperature ranges experienced (temperature differences of 500oC are common) in CCIM processing of glass, including density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and electrical resistivity. These values, and their responses to temperature changes, are keys to understanding the melt characteristics. Because the model has been validated, it provides the capability to conduct parametric studies to understand operational sensitivities and geometry effects. Additionally, the model can be used to indirectly determine difficult to measure material properties at higher temperatures such as resistivity, thermal conductivity and emissivity. The model can also be used to optimize system design and to predict operational behavior for specific materials and system configurations, allowing automated feedback control. This becomes particularly important when designing melter systems for full-scale industrial applications.

  1. Optimization of a Gas Switching Combustion process through advanced heat management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloete, Schalk; Zaabout, Abdelghafour; Romano, Matteo C.; Chiesa, Paolo; Lozza, Giovanni; Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, Martin van; Amini, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GSC is a promising new reactor concept for power production with cost effective CO 2 capture. • The standalone fluidized bed reactors employed will allow for easy process scale-up. • The GSC simple configuration achieves higher efficiencies than conventional solutions. • Further increases in efficiency can be achieved via advanced heat management. • The 41.9% maximum efficiency is in line with other CLC–IGCC configurations. - Abstract: Gas Switching Combustion (GSC) is a promising new process concept for energy efficient power production with integrated CO 2 capture. In comparison to conventional Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) carried out in interconnected fluidized beds, the GSC concept will be substantially easier to design and scale up, especially for pressurized conditions. One potential drawback of the GSC concept is the gradual temperature variation over the transient process cycle, which leads to a drop in electric efficiency of the plant. This article investigates heat management strategies to mitigate this issue both through simulations and experiments. Simulation studies of the GSC concept integrated into an IGCC power plant show that heat management using a nitrogen recycle stream can increase plant efficiency by 3 percentage points to 41.6% while maintaining CO 2 capture ratios close to 90%. Reactive multiphase flow simulations of the GSC reactor also showed that heat management can eliminate fuel slip problems. In addition, the GSC concept offers the potential to remove the need for a nitrogen recycle stream by implementing a concentrated air injection that extracts heat while only a small percentage of oxygen reacts. Experiments have shown that, similar to nitrogen recycle, this strategy reduces transient temperature variations across the cycle and therefore merits further investigation.

  2. Advances in optical information processing V; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21-24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Dennis R.

    Consideration is given to the following topics: transition of optical processing into systems (TOPS), optical signal processing, optical signal processing devices, optical image processing, Russian optical information processing, optical interconnects, and optical computing. Particular papers are presented on an acoustooptic range-Doppler processor design for radar insertion, an optical SAR processor and target recognition system, an advanced magnetooptic spatial light modulator device development update, an algorithm for controlling speckle-noise parameters, optical image processing in Russia, a massively parallel optical interconnect for long data stream convolution, and a reprogrammable digital optical coprocessor. (For individual items see A93-27718 to A93-27723)

  3. Oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and chemical agents used in a textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B R; Hu, H Y; Ahn, K H; Fujie, K

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative treatment characteristics of biotreated textile-dyeing wastewater and typical chemicals such as desizing, scouring, dispersing and swelling agents used in the textile-dyeing process by advanced oxidation process were experimentally studied. The refractory organic matters remained in the effluent of biological treatment process without degradation may be suitable for the improvement of biodegradability and mineralized to CO2 by combined ozonation with and without hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, the refractory chemicals contained in the scouring agent A and swelling agent may not be mineralized and their biodegradability may not be improved by ozonation. However, the BOD/DOC ratio of scouring agent B increased from 0.3 to 0.45 after ozonation. Based on the results described above, advanced treatment process involving the ozonation without and with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, followed by biological treatment was proposed for the treatment of refractory wastewater discharged from the textile-dyeing process.

  4. Advanced Composites Manufacturing: Process Modeling/Analysis of Complex Engineering Structures Manufactured by Resin Transfer Molding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanapady, R

    1999-01-01

    .... The work includes finite element computational schemes, data structures and interprocessor communication strategies for the implementation of large scale practical advanced manufacturing simulations...

  5. A RELAP5/NPA graphic process control room simulator for the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtt, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The INEL Engineering Simulation Center was established in 1988, to provide a modern, flexible state-of- the-art simulation facility. This paper reports that one of the projects being pursued at the Center is the development of a graphics-based simulator for the Process Control Room at the Advanced Test Reactor. The key technologies used in the development of this simulator are the CRAY X-MP/24 supercomputer and the new 32 bit workstations, the RELAP5 reactor systems simulation computer code and the Nuclear Plant Analyzer. The simulator resides on a computer and the information for trainer and trainee is shown on a computer screen through a series of detailed graphic displays. The simulator is able to run in replay mode, displaying the results of previous calculations, or interactive mode, displaying a calculation while both trainer and trainee interact with the model. The objective of the simulator is to provide a training tool flexible enough to simulate everything from operational transients to severe accident sequences

  6. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  7. Alkaline electrochemical advanced oxidation process for chromium oxidation at graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yudong; Zheng, Shili; Sun, Zhi; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Alkaline electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for chromium oxidation and Cr-contaminated waste disposal were reported in this study. The highly graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes g-MWCNTs modified electrode was prepared for the in-situ electrochemical generation of HO 2 - . RRDE test results illustrated that g-MWCNTs exhibited much higher two-electron oxygen reduction activity than other nanocarbon materials with peak current density of 1.24 mA cm -2 , %HO 2 - of 77.0% and onset potential of -0.15 V (vs. Hg/HgO). It was originated from the highly graphitized structure and good electrical conductivity as illustrated from the Raman, XRD and EIS characterizations, respectively. Large amount of reactive oxygen species (HO 2 - and ·OH) were in-situ electro-generated from the two-electron oxygen reduction and chromium-induced alkaline electro-Fenton-like reaction. The oxidation of Cr(III) was efficiently achieved within 90 min and the conversion ratio maintained more than 95% of the original value after stability test, offering an efficient and green approach for the utilization of Cr-containing wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  9. Degradation of acrylamide by the UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ze-Chen; Lin, Yi-Li; Xu, Bin; Pan, Yang; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Chen, Ming

    2017-11-01

    The degradation of acrylamide (AA) during UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated in this study. The degradation of AA was negligible during UV irradiation alone. However, AA could be effectively degraded and mineralized during UV/chlorination due to the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH). The degradation kinetics of AA during UV/chlorination fitted the pseudo-first order kinetics with the rate constant between AA and OH radicals being determined as 2.11 × 10 9  M -1  s -1 . The degradation rate and mineralization of AA during UV/chlorination were significantly promoted at acidic conditions as well as increasing chlorine dosage. The volatile degradation products of AA during UV/chlorination were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the degradation pathways were then proposed accordingly. The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in Milli-Q water and tap water during UV/chlorination of AA was also investigated. The DBPs included chloroform, dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, 2,2-dichloroacetamide and 2,2,2-trichloroacetamide. Furthermore, the variations of AA degradation during UV/chlorination in different real water samples were evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An advanced user interface for processing and displaying interferometric and spectral data: SpectroPlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, G. B.; Horlick, G.

    1992-02-01

    A powerful graphically-based software shell for processing, displaying and manipulating interferometric and spectral data is described. This program (SpectroPlot) wad developed to support an ultraviolet-visible Fourier transform spectrometer and tuns on Macintosh computen. It allows men to handle multiple data sets in independent windowi and permits extensive direct user interaction with the data through an advanced user interface. In the first instance, a wide range of data viewing options (i.e zoom and selection operations) are available for data display and study. Also with the program the user can implement a wide range of mathematical operations and statistical calculations on individual data sets and between multiple data sets. The mathematical operations range from basic arithmetical calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, integration, and differentiation) to more complex procedures such as fast Fourier transforms, digital filtering, spectral interpolation, peak searching, and apodization. Finally, a range of options is provided for the transfer of data sets to and from external application programs. Although developed for a Fourier transform spectrometer, SpectroPlot is a powerful and generic program for the graphical manipulation and analysis of spectrochemical data for Macintosh computers. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta B (SAB). The hardcopy text is accompanied by disks containing the program SpectroPlot, some useful external routines, sample data sets, and a manual.

  11. Evaluation of copper slag to catalyze advanced oxidation processes for the removal of phenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huanosta-Gutiérrez, T.; Dantas, Renato F.; Ramírez-Zamora, R.M.; Esplugas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate the use of an industrial residue (copper slag) as catalyst in water treatment. ► The copper slag was effective to remove organic pollutants (phenol) from water. ► During experimentation, Cu and Fe leaching were not higher than the acceptable levels. ► Slag/H 2 O 2 /UV and slag/H 2 O 2 treatments promoted biodegradability increment of the contaminated water. ► The control of the reaction time would minimize the environmental impact of the produced effluents in terms of acute toxicity. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of copper slag to catalyze phenol degradation in water by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Copper slag was tested in combination with H 2 O 2 (slag/H 2 O 2 ) and H 2 O 2 /UV (slag/H 2 O 2 /UV). The studied methods promoted the complete photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Besides, they were able to reduce about 50% the TOC content in the samples. Slag/H 2 O 2 /UV and slag/H 2 O 2 treatments have favored biodegradability increment along the reaction time. Nevertheless, the irradiated method achieved higher values of the biodegradability indicator (BOD 5 /TOC). The toxicity assessment indicated the formation of more toxic compounds in both treatments. However, the control of the reaction time would minimize the environmental impact of the effluents.

  12. Pilot-scale treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by physicochemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, M Yalili; Yonar, T; Kestioğlu, K

    2013-01-01

    The pilot-scale treatability of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) by physicochemical methods, ultrafiltration and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. Physicochemical methods (acid cracking, oil separation and coagulation-flocculation) showed high efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (85%), oil and grease (O&G) (> 97%), suspended solids (SS) (> 99%) and phenol (92%) removal from the OOMW. Ultrafiltration followed by physicochemical methods is effective in reducing the SS, O&G. The final permeate quality is found to be excellent with over 90% improvements in the COD and phenol parameters. AOPs (ozonation at a high pH, O3/UV, H2O2/UV, and O3/H2O2/UV) increased the removal efficiency and the O3/H2O2/UV combination among other AOPs studied in this paper was found to give the best results (> 99% removal for COD, > 99% removal for phenol and > 99% removal for total organic carbon). Pilot-scale treatment plant has been continuously operated on site for three years (3 months olive oil production campaign period of each year). The capital and operating costs of the applied treatment alternatives were also determined at the end of these seasons. The results obtained in this study have been patented for 7 years by the Turkish Patent Institute.

  13. Integration of advanced oxidation processes at mild conditions in wet scrubbers for odourous sulphur compounds treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Esther; Martin, Maria J; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of different advanced oxidation processes on the treatment of a multicomponent aqueous solution containing ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide (0.5 mg L(-1) of each sulphur compound) was investigated with the objective to assess which one is the most suitable treatment to be coupled in wet scrubbers used in odour treatment facilities. UV/H2O2, Fenton, photo-Fenton and ozone treatments were tested at mild conditions and the oxidation efficiency obtained was compared. The oxidation tests were carried out in magnetically stirred cylindrical quartz reactors using the same molar concentration of oxidants (hydrogen peroxide or ozone). The results show that ozone and photo-Fenton are the most efficient treatments, achieving up to 95% of sulphur compounds oxidation and a mineralisation degree around 70% in 10 min. Furthermore, the total costs of the treatments taking into account the capital and operational costs were also estimated for a comparative purpose. The economic analysis revealed that the Fenton treatment is the most economical option to be integrated in a wet scrubber to remove volatile organic sulphur compounds, as long as there are no space constraints to install the required reactor volume. In the case of reactor volume limitation or retrofitting complexities, the ozone and photo-Fenton treatments should be considered as viable alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Point process modeling and estimation: Advances in the analysis of dynamic neural spiking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyi

    2016-08-01

    A common interest of scientists in many fields is to understand the relationship between the dynamics of a physical system and the occurrences of discrete events within such physical system. Seismologists study the connection between mechanical vibrations of the Earth and the occurrences of earthquakes so that future earthquakes can be better predicted. Astrophysicists study the association between the oscillating energy of celestial regions and the emission of photons to learn the Universe's various objects and their interactions. Neuroscientists study the link between behavior and the millisecond-timescale spike patterns of neurons to understand higher brain functions. Such relationships can often be formulated within the framework of state-space models with point process observations. The basic idea is that the dynamics of the physical systems are driven by the dynamics of some stochastic state variables and the discrete events we observe in an interval are noisy observations with distributions determined by the state variables. This thesis proposes several new methodological developments that advance the framework of state-space models with point process observations at the intersection of statistics and neuroscience. In particular, we develop new methods 1) to characterize the rhythmic spiking activity using history-dependent structure, 2) to model population spike activity using marked point process models, 3) to allow for real-time decision making, and 4) to take into account the need for dimensionality reduction for high-dimensional state and observation processes. We applied these methods to a novel problem of tracking rhythmic dynamics in the spiking of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's patients with the goal of optimizing placement of deep brain stimulation electrodes. We developed a decoding algorithm that can make decision in real-time (for example, to stimulate the neurons or not) based on various sources of information present in

  15. Advanced biorefinery in lower termite-effect of combined pretreatment during the chewing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Jing

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the major barrier in biomass utilization is the lack of an effective pretreatment of plant cell wall so that the carbohydrates can subsequently be hydrolyzed into sugars for fermentation into fuel or chemical molecules. Termites are highly effective in degrading lignocellulosics and thus can be used as model biological systems for studying plant cell wall degradation. Results We discovered a combination of specific structural and compositional modification of the lignin framework and partial degradation of carbohydrates that occurs in softwood with physical chewing by the termite, Coptotermes formosanus, which are critical for efficient cell wall digestion. Comparative studies on the termite-chewed and native (control softwood tissues at the same size were conducted with the aid of advanced analytical techniques such as pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The results strongly suggest a significant increase in the softwood cellulose enzymatic digestibility after termite chewing, accompanied with utilization of holocellulosic counterparts and an increase in the hydrolysable capacity of lignin collectively. In other words, the termite mechanical chewing process combines with specific biological pretreatment on the lignin counterpart in the plant cell wall, resulting in increased enzymatic cellulose digestibility in vitro. The specific lignin unlocking mechanism at this chewing stage comprises mainly of the cleavage of specific bonds from the lignin network and the modification and redistribution of functional groups in the resulting chewed plant tissue, which better expose the carbohydrate within the plant cell wall. Moreover, cleavage of the bond between the holocellulosic network and lignin molecule during the chewing process results in much better exposure of the biomass carbohydrate. Conclusion Collectively, these

  16. Experimental study of deceleration process of traveling wave direct energy converter for advanced fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeno, Hormasa; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Takada, Kousuke; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Advanced fusion is attractive in the view point of utilization of high efficiency direct energy conversion from fusion produced ions. Deuterium-helium-3 reaction is the most possible, however, the energy of created fast proton is so enormous that conventional electro-static converters cannot be applied. Use of a traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC), the principle of which was inverse process of a linear accelerator, was proposed for recovering energy of the fast protons. In order to realize the TWDEC, the authors are continuing experimental study by employing a small-scale simulator. A TWDEC consists of a modulator and a decelerator. Fast proton beam extracted from a reactor is introduced in the modulator where radio frequency (RF) electrostatic field modulate the beam velocity, and hence, the protons are bunched and density-modulated in the downstream. The density-modulated protons flow into the decelerator where a number of electrodes connected to a transmission circuit are axially aligned. The flowing protons induce RF current which creates RF traveling voltage on the electrodes. The RF traveling field between aligned electrodes decelerates the protons, thus their energy is recovered into RF power. In this paper, deceleration process of TWDEC is experimentally examined. In our experimental simulator, because of the small beam current, the induced potential, i.e. the deceleration field is so weak that the beam cannot be decelerated. Thus, we examined the process by dividing into two: one was induction of the deceleration field by the modulated beam, which was called as passive decelerator. The other was energy recovery through interaction between the deceleration field and the modulated beam. In this latter experiment, the deceleration field was supplied externally, and we called this as active decelerator. As for the active decelerator mode, we performed higher beam energy experiment than previous one. As the beam energy increases, the divergence of

  17. Mineralization and biodegradability enhancement of Methyl Orange dye by an effective advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Guin, Jhimli; Bhardwaj, Y.K.; Varshney, Lalit

    2017-01-01

    An effective process for the oxidation of Methyl Orange dye (MO) was determined by comparing the mineralization efficiency between two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) viz., ozonolysis and gamma radiolysis in presence and absence of an added inorganic salt potassium persulfate (K 2 S 2 O 8 ). The effects of various operating parameters such as ozone flow rate and reaction temperature were optimized to achieve the best possible mineralization extent of MO by ozonolysis. The mineralization efficiency of MO was significantly enhanced during gamma radiolysis in presence of K 2 S 2 O 8 (γ+K 2 S 2 O 8 ) compared to in absence of K 2 S 2 O 8 . The presence of methyl group at the amine of phenyl ring assisted the mineralization of dye during γ+K 2 S 2 O 8 . The oxygen-equivalent chemical-oxidation capacities (OCC) of ozonolysis and γ+K 2 S 2 O 8 for 75% mineralization of the dye solution were calculated as 7.008 and 0.0336 kg equiv. O 2 m −3 , respectively which signifies that γ+K 2 S 2 O 8 can be explored as an effective AOP. The non-biodegradable MO dye solution became biodegradable even after the dose of 0.5 kGy during γ+K 2 S 2 O 8 compared to 1 kGy in absence of K 2 S 2 O 8 . The study concludes that a lower dose γ+K 2 S 2 O 8 could be one of the efficient pretreatment steps before undergoing biological degradation of dye solution. - Highlights: • Systematic investigation was performed for the treatment of Methyl Orange dye solution. • AOPs investigated were ozonolysis and gamma radiolysis. • The OCC and % mineralizations of the AOPs were compared. • Gamma radiolysis in presence of K 2 S 2 O 8 was found as most effective AOP.

  18. Site Effect Assessment of Earthquake Ground Motion Based on Advanced Data Processing of Microtremor Array Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; He, K.; Mehl, R.; Wang, W.; Chen, Q.

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution near-surface geologic information is essential for earthquake ground motion prediction. The near-surface geology forms the critical constituent to influence seismic wave propagation, which is known as the local site effects. We have collected microtremor data over 1000 sites in Beijing area for extracting the much needed earthquake engineering parameters (primarily sediment thickness, with the shear wave velocity profiling at a few important control points) in this heavily populated urban area. Advanced data processing algorithms are employed in various stages in assessing the local site effect on earthquake ground motion. First, we used the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), also known as the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), to enhance the microtremor data analysis by excluding the local transients and continuous monochromic industrial noises. With this enhancement we have significantly increased the number of data points to be useful in delineating sediment thickness in this area. Second, we have used the cross-correlation of microtremor data acquired for the pairs of two adjacent sites to generate a 'pseudo-reflection' record, which can be treated as the Green function of the 1D layered earth model at the site. The sediment thickness information obtained this way is also consistent with the results obtained by the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method (HVSR). For most sites in this area, we can achieve 'self consistent' results among different processing skechems regarding to the sediment thickness - the fundamental information to be used in assessing the local site effect. Finally, the pseudo-spectral time domain method was used to simulate the seismic wave propagation caused by a scenario earthquake in this area - the 1679 M8 Sanhe-pinggu earthquake. The characteristics of the simulated earthquake ground motion have found a general correlation with the thickness of the sediments in this area. And more importantly, it is also in agreement

  19. Virtual Welded-Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Babu, S.; Olson, G.; DebRoy, T.

    2005-04-15

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the fatigue life of a welded-joint by 10 times and to reduce energy use by 25% through product performance and productivity improvements using an integrated modeling approach. The fatigue strength of a welded-joint is currently the bottleneck to design high performance and lightweight welded structures using advanced materials such as high strength steels. In order to achieve high fatigue strength in a welded-joint it is necessary to manage the weld bead shape for lower stress concentration, produce preferable residual stress distribution, and obtain the desired microstructure for improved material toughness and strength. This is a systems challenge that requires the optimization of the welding process, the welding consumable, the base material, as well as the structure design. The concept of virtual welded-joint design has been proposed and established in this project. The goal of virtual welded-joint design is to develop a thorough procedure to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, property, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatigue strength by a systematic modeling approach. The systematic approach combines five sub-models: weld thermal-fluid model, weld microstructure model, weld material property model, weld residual stress model, and weld fatigue model. The systematic approach is thus based on interdisciplinary applied sciences including heat transfer, computational fluid dynamics, materials science, engineering mechanics, and material fracture mechanics. The sub-models are based on existing models with further development. The results from modeling have been validated with critical experiments. The systematic modeling approach has been used to design high fatigue resistant welds considering the combined effects of weld bead geometry, residual stress, microstructure, and material property. In particular, a special welding wire has been developed in this project to introduce

  20. Transformation of polyfluorinated compounds in natural waters by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumol, Tarun; Dagnino, Sonia; Vandervort, Darcy R; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-02-01

    The presence of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in source and finished drinking waters is a concern with studies showing bioaccumulation and adverse toxicological effects in wildlife and potentially humans. Per/Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as fluorotelomer alcohols have been identified as precursors for PFCAs in biological pathways. In this study, we investigated the fate of 6:2 and 8:2 homologues of the fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) during advanced oxidation process (AOPs). Results showed 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA transformed into 6-C PFCA (PFHxA) and 8-C PFCA (PFOA) respectively with very little other PFCA formation for all AOPs. The degradation of 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA was greater in the GW compared to SW for the ozone processes but similar for UV/H2O2. The formation of n-C PFCA followed O3>O3/H2O2 at same dose and UV/H2O2 had much lower formation at the doses tested. Non-targeted analysis with the LC-MS-qTOF indicated the production of other PFCAs which contribute to the total mass balance, although no intermediate product was discovered indicating a rapid and direct transformation from the FTUCAs to the PFCAs and/or significant volatilization of intermediates. With the use of AOPs essential to water reuse treatment schemes, this work raises concerns over the risk of potential formation of PFCAs in the treatment and their adverse health effects in finished drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O 3 -biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  2. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  3. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total dissolved polyphenols content of 0.35 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) was found. Respirometry tests revealed low biodegradability enhancement along the SPEF process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes based on hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinea, Elena; Garrido, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Cabot, Pere-Lluis; Arias, Conchita; Centellas, Francesc [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.ed [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Solutions of the veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin in 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} of pH 3.0 have been comparatively degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), electro-Fenton (EF), photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) at constant current density. The study has been performed using an undivided stirred tank reactor of 100 ml and a batch recirculation flow plant of 2.5 l with an undivided filter-press cell coupled to a solar photoreactor, both equipped with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-polytetrafluoroethylene gas diffusion cathode to generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from O{sub 2} reduction. In EF, PEF and SPEF, hydroxyl radical (centre dotOH) is formed from Fenton's reaction between added catalytic Fe{sup 2+} and generated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Almost total decontamination of enrofloxacin solutions is achieved in the stirred tank reactor by SPEF with BDD. The use of the batch recirculation flow plant showed that this process is the most efficient and can be viable for industrial application, becoming more economic and yielding higher mineralization degree with raising antibiotic content. This is feasible because organics are quickly oxidized with centre dotOH formed from Fenton's reaction and at BDD from water oxidation, combined with the fast photolysis of complexes of Fe(III) with generated carboxylic acids under solar irradiation. The lower intensity of UVA irradiation used in PEF with BDD causes a slower degradation. EF with BDD is less efficient since centre dotOH cannot destroy the most persistent Fe(III)-oxalate and Fe(III)-oxamate complexes. AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with BDD yields the poorest mineralization because pollutants are only removed with centre dotOH generated at BDD. All procedures are less potent using Pt as anode due to the lower production of centre dotOH at its surface. Enrofloxacin

  5. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  6. Purpose, processes, partnerships, and products: four Ps to advance participatory socio-environmental modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Steven; Voinov, Alexey; Paolisso, Michael; Jordan, Rebecca; BenDor, Todd; Bommel, Pierre; Glynn, Pierre; Hedelin, Beatrice; Hubacek, Klaus; Introne, Josh; Kolagani, Nagesh; Laursen, Bethany; Prell, Christina; Schmitt Olabisi, Laura; Singer, Alison; Sterling, Eleanor; Zellner, Moira

    2018-01-01

    Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding ecological change. This is because stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study. We suggest a four-dimensional framework (4P) that includes reporting on dimensions of (1) the Purpose for selecting a PM approach (the why); (2) the Process by which the public was involved in model building or evaluation (the how); (3) the Partnerships formed (the who); and (4) the Products that resulted from these efforts (the what). We highlight four case studies that use common PM software-based approaches (fuzzy cognitive mapping, agent-based modeling, system dynamics, and participatory geospatial modeling) to understand human-environment interactions and the consequences of ecological changes, including bushmeat hunting in Tanzania and Cameroon, agricultural production and deforestation in Zambia, and groundwater management in India. We demonstrate how standardizing communication about PM case studies can lead to innovation and new insights about model-based reasoning in support of ecological policy development. We suggest that our 4P framework and reporting approach provides a way for new hypotheses to be identified and tested in the growing field of PM. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Purpose, Processes, Partnerships, and Products: 4Ps to advance Participatory Socio-Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S. G.; Voinov, A. A.; Jordan, R.; Paolisso, M.

    2016-12-01

    Model-based reasoning is a basic part of human understanding, decision-making, and communication. Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding environmental change since stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and since collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study. We suggest a four dimensional framework that includes reporting on dimensions of: (1) the Purpose for selecting a PM approach (the why); (2) the Process by which the public was involved in model building or evaluation (the how); (3) the Partnerships formed (the who); and (4) the Products that resulted from these efforts (the what). We highlight four case studies that use common PM software-based approaches (fuzzy cognitive mapping, agent-based modeling, system dynamics, and participatory geospatial modeling) to understand human-environment interactions and the consequences of environmental changes, including bushmeat hunting in Tanzania and Cameroon, agricultural production and deforestation in Zambia, and groundwater management in India. We demonstrate how standardizing communication about PM case studies can lead to innovation and new insights about model-based reasoning in support of environmental policy development. We suggest that our 4P framework and reporting approach provides a way for new hypotheses to be identified and tested in the growing field of PM.

  8. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

  9. Purpose, processes, partnerships, and products: four Ps to advance participatory socio-environmental modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Steven; Voinov, Alexey; Paolisso, Michael; Jordan, Rebecca; BenDor, Todd; Bommel, Pierre; Glynn, Pierre D.; Hedelin, Beatrice; Hubacek, Klaus; Introne, Josh; Kolagani, Nagesh; Laursen, Bethany; Prell, Christina; Schmitt-Olabisi, Laura; Singer, Alison; Sterling, Eleanor J.; Zellner, Moira

    2018-01-01

    Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding ecological change. This is because stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study. We suggest a four-dimensional framework (4P) that includes reporting on dimensions of (1) the Purpose for selecting a PM approach (the why); (2) the Process by which the public was involved in model building or evaluation (the how); (3) the Partnerships formed (the who); and (4) the Products that resulted from these efforts (the what). We highlight four case studies that use common PM software-based approaches (fuzzy cognitive mapping, agent-based modeling, system dynamics, and participatory geospatial modeling) to understand human–environment interactions and the consequences of ecological changes, including bushmeat hunting in Tanzania and Cameroon, agricultural production and deforestation in Zambia, and groundwater management in India. We demonstrate how standardizing communication about PM case studies can lead to innovation and new insights about model-based reasoning in support of ecological policy development. We suggest that our 4P framework and reporting approach provides a way for new hypotheses to be identified and tested in the growing field of PM.

  10. Thresholds of Knowledge Development in Complex Problem Solving: A Multiple-Case Study of Advanced Learners' Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Treavor; Liu, Min; Chiang, Yueh-hui Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-case study examined how advanced learners solved a complex problem, focusing on how their frequency and application of cognitive processes contributed to differences in performance outcomes, and developing a mental model of a problem. Fifteen graduate students with backgrounds related to the problem context participated in the study.…

  11. Recent advances and state-of-the-art strategies in strain and process engineering for biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuang; Zhao, Jingbo; Chen, Lijie; Yang, Shang-Tian; Bai, Fengwu

    Butanol as an advanced biofuel has gained great attention due to its environmental benefits and superior properties compared to ethanol. However, the cost of biobutanol production via conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum is not economically competitive, which has hampered its industrial application. The strain performance and downstream process greatly impact the economics of biobutanol production. Although various engineered strains with carefully orchestrated metabolic and sporulation-specific pathways have been developed, none of them is ideal for industrial biobutanol production. For further strain improvement, it is necessary to develop advanced genome editing tools and a deep understanding of cellular functioning of genes in metabolic and regulatory pathways. Processes with integrated product recovery can increase fermentation productivity by continuously removing inhibitory products while generating butanol (ABE) in a concentrated solution. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in C. acetobutylicum strain engineering and process development focusing on in situ product recovery. With deep understanding of systematic cellular bioinformatics, the exploration of state-of-the-art genome editing tools such as CRISPR-Cas for targeted gene knock-out and knock-in would play a vital role in Clostridium cell engineering for biobutanol production. Developing advanced hybrid separation processes for in situ butanol recovery, which will be discussed with a detailed comparison of advantages and disadvantages of various recovery techniques, is also imperative to the economical development of biobutanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination of process analytical technology with soft sensors for online process data and advanced process information; Kombination von Prozessanalysentechnik und Softsensoren zur Online-Berechnung erweiterter Prozesskenngroessen und -informationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, Tobias [BASF Antwerpen N.V., Antwerpen (Belgium). Global Technology Center Propylene Oxide; Schladt, Markus [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany). Verbund Site Management Europe; Muehlbeyer, Sandra; Schocker, Alexander [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany). Kompetenzzentrum Engineering and Maintenance

    2011-07-01

    Soft sensors are a suitable tool to calculate critical process parameters and advanced process information online from values of conventional measurements (pressure, temperature, and flow). Combined with physico-chemical information provided by process analytical technology, the soft sensor approach can initialize more sophisticated solutions. Two soft sensors in industrial applications at BASF are presented: the online calculation of a catalyst's activity and of a coking level. Further use of soft sensors is driven by recent advances in process analytical technology, which is addressed by discussing the revised version of the technology roadmap ''Process Sensors 2015+''. (orig.)

  13. Degradation of benzalkonium chloride coupling photochemical advanced oxidation technologies with biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichtry, J; Lamponi, A; Gautier, E; Acosta, T; Fiol, P; Curutchet, G; Candal, R; Litter, M

    2005-01-01

    The combination of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) and biological processes can be visualized as a very successful technological option for treatment of effluents, because it combines high oxidizing technologies with a conventional, low-cost and well-established treatment technology.Photochemical AOTs, like UV-C with or without H 2 O 2 , photo-Fenton (PF, UV/H 2 O 2 /Fe(II-III)) and UV/TiO 2 heterogeneous photo catalysis involve the generation and use of powerful oxidizing species, mainly the hydroxyl radical.In almost all AOTs, it is possible to use sunlight. Benzalkonium chloride (dodecyldimetylbencylammonium chloride, BKC) is a widely used surfactant, which has many industrial applications.Due to its antibacterial effect, it cannot be eliminated from effluents by a biological treatment, and the complexity of its chemical structure makes necessary the use of drastic oxidizing treatments to achieve complete mineralization and to avoid the formation of byproducts even more toxic than the initial compound.In this study, different alternatives for BKC treatment using photochemical AOTs followed by bio catalytic techniques are presented.Three AOTs were tested: a) UV-C (254 nm, germicide lamp) with and without H 2 O 2 , b) PF (366 nm), c) UV/TiO 2 (254 and 366 nm). PF at a 15:1:1 H 2 O 2 total/BKC 0 /Fe 0 molar ratio at 55 degree C was the most efficient treatment in order to decrease the tensioactivity and the total organic carbon of the solution . The biocatalysis was studied in a reactor fitted with a biofilm of microorganisms coming from a sludge-water treatment plant. To evaluate the maximal BKC concentration that could be allowed to ingress to the biological reactor after the AOT treatment, the toxicity of solutions of different BKC concentrations was analyzed. The study of the relevant parameters of both processes and their combination allowed to establish the preliminary conditions for optimizing the pollutant degradation

  14. Degradation of a commercial textile biocide with advanced oxidation processes and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of significant amounts of biocidal finishing agents in the environment as a consequence of intensive textile finishing activities has become a subject of major public health concern and scientific interest only recently. In the present study, the treatment efficiency of selected, well-known advanced oxidation processes (Fenton, Photo-Fenton, TiO(2)/UV-A, TiO(2)/UV-A/H(2)O(2)) and ozone was compared for the degradation and detoxification of a commercial textile biocide formulation containing a 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether as the active ingredient. The aqueous biocide solution was prepared to mimic typical effluent originating from the antimicrobial finishing operation (BOD(5,o) Daphnia magna)=8% v/v). Ozonation experiments were conducted at different ozone doses (500-900 mg/h) and initial pH (7-12) to assess the effect of ozonation on degradation (COD, DOC removal), dearomatization (UV(280) and UV(254) abatement), dechlorination (AOX removal) and detoxification (changes in LC(50)). For the Fenton experiments, the effect of varying ferrous iron catalyst concentrations and UV-A light irradiation (the Photo-Fenton process) was examined. In the heterogenous photocatalytic experiments, Degussa P25-type TiO(2) was used as the catalyst and the effect of reaction pH (3, 7 and 12) and H(2)O(2) addition on the photocatalytic treatment efficiency was examined. Although in the photochemical (i.e. Photo-Fenton, TiO(2)/UV-A and TiO(2)/UV-A/H(2)O(2)) experiments appreciably higher COD and DOC removal efficiencies were obtained, ozonation appeared to be equally effective to achieve dearomatization (UV(280) abatement) at all studied reaction pH. During ozonation of the textile biocide effluent, AOX abatement proceeded significantly faster than dearomatization and was complete after 20 min ozonation (267 mg O(3)). On the other hand, for complete detoxification, ozonation had to be continued for at least 30 min (corresponding to 400mg O(3)). Effective AOX

  15. Mechanistic modeling of vacuum UV advanced oxidation process in an annular photoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapulli, F; Santoro, D; Sasges, M R; Ray, A K

    2014-11-01

    A novel mechanistic model that describes the vacuum UV advanced oxidation process in an annular photoreactor initiated by 172 nm and 185 nm (in combination with 253.7 nm, with and without exogenous H2O2) is presented in this paper. The model was developed from first principles by incorporating the vacuum UV-AOP kinetics into the theoretical framework of in-series continuous flow stirred tank reactors. After conducting a sensitivity analysis, model predictions were compared against experiments conducted under a variety of conditions: (a) photo-induced formation of hydrogen peroxide by water photolysis at 172 nm (for both air- and oxygen-saturated conditions); (b) photo-induced formation of hydrogen peroxide by water photolysis at 185 + 253.7 nm (in the presence of formic acid, with and without the initial addition of hydrogen peroxide); (c) direct photolysis of hydrogen peroxide by 253.7 nm; (d) degradation of formic acid by 185 + 253.7 nm (with and without initial addition of hydrogen peroxide); and (e) degradation of formic acid by 253.7 nm (with the addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide). In all cases, the model was able to accurately predict the time-dependent profiles of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid concentrations. Two newly recognized aspects associated with water photolysis were identified through the use of the validated model. Firstly, unlike the 185 nm and 253.7 nm cases, water photolysis by the 172 nm wavelength revealed a depth of photoactive water layer an order of magnitude greater (∼230-390 μm, depending on the specific operating conditions) than the 1-log photon penetration layer (∼18 μm). To further investigate this potentially very important finding, a computational fluid dynamics model was set up to assess the role of transport mechanisms and species distributions within the photoreactor annulus. The model confirmed that short-lived hydroxyl radicals were present at a radial distance far beyond the ∼18 μm photon

  16. Advanced low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio wastewater treatment by electrochemical and biological coupling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Xing, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen pollution in ground and surface water significantly affects the environment and its organisms, thereby leading to an increasingly serious environmental problem. Such pollution is difficult to degrade because of the lack of carbon sources. Therefore, an electrochemical and biological coupling process (EBCP) was developed with a composite catalytic biological carrier (CCBC) and applied in a pilot-scale cylindrical reactor to treat wastewater with a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 2. The startup process, coupling principle, and dynamic feature of the EBCP were examined along with the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO), and initial pH on nitrogen removal. A stable coupling system was obtained after 51 days when plenty of biofilms were cultivated on the CCBC without inoculation sludge. Autotrophic denitrification, with [Fe(2+)] and [H] produced by iron-carbon galvanic cells in CCBC as electron donors, was confirmed by equity calculation of CODCr and nitrogen removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency was significantly influenced by HRT, DO, and initial pH with optimal values of 3.5 h, 3.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1), and 7.5 ± 0.1, respectively. The ammonia, nitrate, and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90.1 to 95.3 %, 90.5 to 99.0 %, and 90.3 to 96.5 % were maintained with corresponding initial concentrations of 40 ± 2 mg L(-1) (NH3-N load of 0.27 ± 0.01 kg NH3-N m(-3) d(-1)), 20 ± 1 mg L(-1), and 60 ± 2 mg L(-1) (TN load of 0.41 ± 0.02 kg TN m(-3) d(-1)). Based on the Eckenfelder model, the kinetics equation of the nitrogen transformation along the reactor was N e  = N 0 exp (-0.04368 h/L(1.8438)). Hence, EBCP is a viable method for advanced low C/N ratio wastewater treatment.

  17. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)]|[Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  18. Framework for advanced nursing, midwifery and allied health professional practice in Wales: the implementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryley, Nicola; Middleton, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    To discuss the implementation of the Welsh Government's Advanced Practice Framework into a Welsh University Health Board. A plethora of advanced practice roles have evolved across all health-care areas in response to the European Working Time Directive and workforce shortage drivers, leading to confusion and lack of structure. A literature review was undertaken and a staged plan implemented. Data presented as descriptive statistics and graphs include staff numbers, grade, educational qualifications job plans and funding streams. Advanced practice should be viewed as a level of practice and not as a role. It must be underpinned by robust Governance arrangements and included in workforce planning. Audit of practice demonstrates the impact of advanced practice roles in the delivery of high quality safe patient care. The Advanced Practice Framework will ensure consistency in clinical practice skills and theoretical knowledge of practitioners holding the protected title. It will support organisations to deliver high quality responsive services. Health-care delivery continues to evolve rapidly with advanced practice forming part of the future delivery model of flexible and affordable services, whilst ensuring safe, high quality patient care. It also provides a clear career development structure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reduction of organic trace compounds and fresh water consumption by recovery of advanced oxidation processes treated industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, S; Öller, H-J; Kersten, A; Klemenčič, A Krivograd

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)) has been used successfully in advanced wastewater treatment in paper mills, other sectors and municipalities. To solve the water problems of regions lacking fresh water, wastewater treated by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can substitute fresh water in highly water-consuming industries. Results of this study have shown that paper strength properties are not impaired and whiteness is slightly impaired only when reusing paper mill wastewater. Furthermore, organic trace compounds are becoming an issue in the German paper industry. The results of this study have shown that AOPs are capable of improving wastewater quality by reducing organic load, colour and organic trace compounds.

  20. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Industrial waste water treatment by advanced oxidation processes; Tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales mediante procesos de oxidacion avanzada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasso, S.; Baldasano, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Advanced Oxidation Technologies have been defined as processes which involve the generation of highly reactive oxy radicals. These systems show promise for the destruction of non biodegradable and hazardous organic substances in industrial wastewater. Two types of advanced oxidation processes are considered in this paper: (1) systems that use high energy oxidants (O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, etc) at ambient temperature to initiate the oxidation reaction, and (2) processes that use molecular oxygen and high temperature and pressure to initiate the reaction (wet oxidation at subcritical and supercritical conditions). The fundamental aspects of these oxidation technologies are discussed, the application framework is defined and the technology development is indicated. (Author) 33 refs.

  2. Trend and current practices of palm oil mill effluent polishing: Application of advanced oxidation processes and their future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mustapha Mohammed; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil processing is a multi-stage operation which generates large amount of effluent. On average, palm oil mill effluent (POME) may contain up to 51, 000 mg/L COD, 25,000 mg/L BOD, 40,000 TS and 6000 mg/L oil and grease. Due to its potential to cause environmental pollution, palm oil mills are required to treat the effluent prior to discharge. Biological treatments using open ponding system are widely used for POME treatment. Although these processes are capable of reducing the pollutant concentrations, they require long hydraulic retention time and large space, with the effluent frequently failing to satisfy the discharge regulation. Due to more stringent environmental regulations, research interest has recently shifted to the development of polishing technologies for the biologically-treated POME. Various technologies such as advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation have been investigated. Among these, advanced oxidation processes have shown potentials as polishing technologies for POME. This paper offers an overview on the POME polishing technologies, with particularly emphasis on advanced oxidation processes and their prospects for large scale applications. Although there are some challenges in large scale applications of these technologies, this review offers some perspectives that could help in overcoming these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal design of advanced distillation configuration for enhanced energy efficiency of waste solvent recovery process in semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniago, Yus Donald; Minh, Le Quang; Khan, Mohd Shariq; Koo, Kee-Kahb; Bahadori, Alireza; Lee, Moonyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermally coupled distillation process is proposed for waste solvent recovery. • A systematic optimization procedure is used to optimize distillation columns. • Response surface methodology is applied to optimal design of distillation column. • Proposed advanced distillation allows energy efficient waste solvent recovery. - Abstract: The semiconductor industry is one of the largest industries in the world. On the other hand, the huge amount of solvent used in the industry results in high production cost and potential environmental damage because most of the valuable chemicals discharged from the process are incinerated at high temperatures. A distillation process is used to recover waste solvent, reduce the production-related costs and protect the environment from the semiconductor industrial waste. Therefore, in this study, a distillation process was used to recover the valuable chemicals from semiconductor industry discharge, which otherwise would have been lost to the environment. The conventional sequence of distillation columns, which was optimized using the Box and sequential quadratic programming method for minimum energy objectives, was used. The energy demands of a distillation problem may have a substantial influence on the profitability of a process. A thermally coupled distillation and heat pump-assisted distillation sequence was implemented to further improve the distillation performance. Finally, a comparison was made between the conventional and advanced distillation sequences, and the optimal conditions for enhancing recovery were determined. The proposed advanced distillation configuration achieved a significant energy saving of 40.5% compared to the conventional column sequence

  4. Slaughterhouse wastewater characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry: A review on trends and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2015-09-15

    A thorough review of advancement in slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry is presented. This study also provides a general review of the environmental impacts, health effects, and regulatory frameworks relevant to the SWW management. A significant progress in high-rate anaerobic treatment, nutrient removal, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), and the combination of biological treatment and AOPs for SWW treatment is highlighted. The treatment processes are described and few examples of their applications are given. Conversely, few advances are accounted in terms of waste minimization and water use reduction, reuse, and recycle in slaughterhouses, which may offer new alternatives for cost-effective waste management. An overview of the most frequently applied technologies and combined processes for organic and nutrient removal during the last decade is also summarized. Several types of individual and combined processes have been used for the SWW treatment. Nevertheless, the selection of a particular technology depends on the characteristics of the wastewater, the available technology, and the compliance with regulations. This review facilitates a better understanding of current difficulties that can be found during production and management of the SWW, including treatment and characteristics of the final effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Observing hydrological processes: recent advancements in surface flow monitoring through image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Recently, several efforts have been devoted to the design and development of innovative, and often unintended, approaches for the acquisition of hydrological data. Among such pioneering techniques, this presentation reports recent advancements towards the establishment of a novel noninvasive and potentially continuous methodology based on the acquisition and analysis of images for spatially distributed observations of the kinematics of surface waters. The approach aims at enabling rapid, affordable, and accurate surface flow monitoring of natural streams. Flow monitoring is an integral part of hydrological sciences and is essential for disaster risk reduction and the comprehension of natural phenomena. However, water processes are inherently complex to observe: they are characterized by multiscale and highly heterogeneous phenomena which have traditionally demanded sophisticated and costly measurement techniques. Challenges in the implementation of such techniques have also resulted in lack of hydrological data during extreme events, in difficult-to-access environments, and at high temporal resolution. By combining low-cost yet high-resolution images and several velocimetry algorithms, noninvasive flow monitoring has been successfully conducted at highly heterogeneous scales, spanning from rills to highly turbulent streams, and medium-scale rivers, with minimal supervision by external users. Noninvasive image data acquisition has also afforded observations in high flow conditions. Latest novelties towards continuous flow monitoring at the catchment scale have entailed the development of a remote gauge-cam station on the Tiber River and integration of flow monitoring through image analysis with unmanned aerial systems (UASs) technology. The gauge-cam station and the UAS platform both afford noninvasive image acquisition and calibration through an innovative laser-based setup. Compared to traditional point-based instrumentation, images allow for generating surface

  6. Micropollutants removal by full-scale UV-C/sulfate radical based Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chueca, J; Laski, E; García-Cañibano, C; Martín de Vidales, M J; Encinas, Á; Kuch, B; Marugán, J

    2018-03-02

    The high chemical stability and the low biodegradability of a vast number of micropollutants (MPs) impede their correct treatment in urban wastewater treatment plants. In most cases, the chemical oxidation is the only way to abate them. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been experimentally proved as efficient in the removal of different micropollutants at lab-scale. However, there is not enough information about their application at full-scale. This manuscript reports the application of three different AOPs based on the addition of homogeneous oxidants [hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and persulfate anions (PS)], in the UV-C tertiary treatment of Estiviel wastewater treatment plant (Toledo, Spain) previously designed and installed in the facility for disinfection. AOPs based on the photolytic decomposition of oxidants have been demonstrated as more efficient than UV-C radiation alone on the removal of 25 different MPs using low dosages (0.05-0.5 mM) and very low UV-C contact time (4-18 s). Photolysis of PMS and H 2 O 2 reached similar average MPs removal in all the range of oxidant dosages, obtaining the highest efficiency with 0.5 mM and 18 s of contact time (48 and 55% respectively). Nevertheless, PMS/UV-C reached slightly higher removal than H 2 O 2 /UV-C at low dosages. So, these treatments are selective to degrade the target compounds, obtaining different removal efficiencies for each compound regarding the oxidizing agent, dosages and UV-C contact time. In all the cases, H 2 O 2 /UV-C is more efficient than PMS/UV-C, comparing the ratio cost:efficiency (€/m 3 ·order). Even H 2 O 2 /UV-C treatments are more efficient than UV-C alone. Thus, the addition of 0.5 mM of H 2 O 2 compensates the increased of UV-C contact time and therefore the increase of electrical consumption, that it should be need to increase the removal of MPs by UV-C treatments alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative treatment of a waste water stream from a molasses processing using ozone and advanced oxidation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Szinovatz, W.; Eschweiler, H.; Haberl, R.

    1994-08-01

    The discoloration of a biologically pretreated waste water stream from a molasses processing by ozonation and two advanced oxidation processes (O 3 /H 2 O 2 and O 3 /γ-irradiation, respectively) was studied. Colour removal occurred with all three processes with almost the same efficiency. The main difference of the methods applied was reflected by the BOD increase during the discoloration period. By ozonation it was much higher than by AOPs but it also appeared with AOPs. AOPs were, therefore, not apt for an effective BOD control during discoloration. (authors)

  8. Development and validation process of the advanced main control board for next Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, M.; Ito, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Imase, M.; Okamoto, H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of main control room improvement is to reduce operator workload and potential human errors by offering a better working environment where operators can maximize their abilities. Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) utilities and Mitsubishi group have developed a touch -screen-based main control console (i.e. advanced main control room) the next generation PWRs to further improve the plant operability using a state of the art electronics technology. The advanced main control room consists of an operator console, a supervisor console and large display panels. The functional specifications were evaluated by utility operators using a prototype main control console connected to a plant simulator. (author)

  9. An evolving-requirements technology assessment process for advanced propulsion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin Kathleen

    The following dissertation investigates the development of a methodology suitable for the evaluation of advanced propulsion concepts. At early stages of development, both the future performance of these concepts and their requirements are highly uncertain, making it difficult to forecast their future value. Developing advanced propulsion concepts requires a huge investment of resources. The methodology was developed to enhance the decision-makers understanding of the concepts, so that they could mitigate the risks associated with developing such concepts. A systematic methodology to identify potential advanced propulsion concepts and assess their robustness is necessary to reduce the risk of developing advanced propulsion concepts. Existing advanced design methodologies have evaluated the robustness of technologies or concepts to variations in requirements, but they are not suitable to evaluate a large number of dissimilar concepts. Variations in requirements have been shown to impact the development of advanced propulsion concepts, and any method designed to evaluate these concepts must incorporate the possible variations of the requirements into the assessment. In order to do so, a methodology was formulated to be capable of accounting for two aspects of the problem. First, it had to systemically identify a probabilistic distribution for the future requirements. Such a distribution would allow decision-makers to quantify the uncertainty introduced by variations in requirements. Second, the methodology must be able to assess the robustness of the propulsion concepts as a function of that distribution. This dissertation describes in depth these enabling elements and proceeds to synthesize them into a new method, the Evolving Requirements Technology Assessment (ERTA). As a proof of concept, the ERTA method was used to evaluate and compare advanced propulsion systems that will be capable of powering a hurricane tracking, High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned

  10. Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Tool Advance Speed via Monte-Carlo Simulation of the Friction Stir Welding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kirk A; St-Georges, Lyne; Kiss, Laszlo I

    2014-04-30

    Recognition of the friction stir welding process is growing in the aeronautical and aero-space industries. To make the process more available to the structural fabrication industry (buildings and bridges), being able to model the process to determine the highest speed of advance possible that will not cause unwanted welding defects is desirable. A numerical solution to the transient two-dimensional heat diffusion equation for the friction stir welding process is presented. A non-linear heat generation term based on an arbitrary piecewise linear model of friction as a function of temperature is used. The solution is used to solve for the temperature distribution in the Al 6061-T6 work pieces. The finite difference solution of the non-linear problem is used to perform a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS). A polynomial response surface (maximum welding temperature as a function of advancing and rotational speed) is constructed from the MCS results. The response surface is used to determine the optimum tool speed of advance and rotational speed. The exterior penalty method is used to find the highest speed of advance and the associated rotational speed of the tool for the FSW process considered. We show that good agreement with experimental optimization work is possible with this simplified model. Using our approach an optimal weld pitch of 0.52 mm/rev is obtained for 3.18 mm thick AA6061-T6 plate. Our method provides an estimate of the optimal welding parameters in less than 30 min of calculation time.

  11. Advancing Management Innovation: Synthesizing Processes, Levels of Analysis, and Change Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volberda, H.W.; van den Bosch, F.; Mihalache, R.O.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the mounting evidence that innovation in management can fuel competitive advantage, we still know relatively little about how firms introduce new ways of managing. The goal of this introductory essay—and the Themed Section it introduces—is to advance this knowledge. To this end, we first

  12. Grid synchronization for advanced power processing and FACTS in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, A.; Rocabert, J.; Vazquez, G.

    2010-01-01

    The high penetration of wind power systems in the electrical network has introduced new issues in the stability and transient operation of the grid. By means of providing advanced functionalities to the existing power converters of such power plants it is possible to enhance their performance and...

  13. System and method to control h2o2 level in advanced oxidation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bio-electrochemical system (BES) and a method of in-situ production and removal of H2O2 using such a bio-electrochemical system (BES). Further, the invention relates to a method for in-situ control of H2O2 content in an aqueous system of advanced oxidation...

  14. Energy and advanced exergy analysis of an existing hydrocarbon recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Lazemzade, Roozbeh; Sadaghiani, Mirhadi S.; Parishani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is performed for propane refrigerant system. • Avoidable/unavoidable & endogenous/exogenous irreversibilities were calculated. • Advanced exergetic analysis identifies the potentials for improving the system. - Abstract: An advanced exergy analysis of the Ethane recovery plant in the South Pars gas field is presented. An industrial refrigeration cycle with propane refrigerant is investigated by the exergy analysis method. The equations of exergy destruction and exergetic efficiency for the main cycle units such as evaporators, condensers, compressors, and expansion valves are developed. Exergetic efficiency of the refrigeration cycle is determined to be 33.9% indicating a high potential for improvements. The simulation results reveal that the exergy loss and exergetic efficiencies of the air cooler and expansion sections respectively are the lowest among the compartments of the cycle. The coefficient of performance (COP) is obtained as 2.05. Four parts of irreversibility (avoidable/unavoidable) and (endogenous/exogenous) are calculated for the units with highest inefficiencies. The advanced exergy analysis reveals that the exergy destruction has two major contributors: (1) 59.61% of the exergy is lost in the unavoidable form in all units and (2) compressors contribute to 25.47% of the exergy destruction. So there is a high potential for improvement for these units, since 63.38% of this portion is avoidable.

  15. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis of a gas engine heat pump (GEHP) for food drying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Aysegul; Tsatsaronis, George; Gunerhan, Huseyin; Hepbasli, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between conventional and advanced exergoconomic analyses for food drying. • 74% of the total energy destruction can be avoided. • The condenser has the highest improvement potential. • Inefficiencies and options for improvement are identified for each component. - Abstract: Exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are often used to evaluate the performance of energy systems from the thermodynamic and economic points of view. While a conventional exergetic analysis can be used to recognize the sources of inefficiencies, the so-called advanced exergy-based analysis is convenient for identifying the real potential for thermodynamic improvements and the system component interactions by splitting the exergy destruction and the total operating cost within each component into endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable parts. In this study for the first time an advanced exergoeconomic analysis is applied to a gas-engine-driven heat pump (GEHP) drying system used in food drying for evaluating its performance along with each component. The advanced exergoeconomic analysis shows that the unavoidable part of the exergy destruction cost rate within the components of the system is lower than the avoidable part. The most important components based on the total avoidable costs are drying ducts, the condenser and the expansion valve. The inefficiencies within the condenser could particularly be improved by structural improvements of the whole system and the remaining system components. Finally, it can be concluded that the internal design changes play a more essential role in determining the cost of each component

  16. CFD Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-31

    estimated cost of carbon v capture is in the range of $31-$44/ton, suggesting that a regenerative MgO-Based process can be a viable option for pre-combustion carbon dioxide capture in advanced gasification based power systems.

  17. Advanced treatment of oilfield production wastewater by an integration of coagulation/flotation, catalytic ozonation and biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    In this study, advanced treatment of heavily polluted oilfield production wastewater (OPW) was investigated employing the combination of coagulation/dissolved air flotation, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes. Two SBR reactors were separately set up before and after the ozonation unit. The results show that microbubble flotation was more efficient than macrobubble flotation in pollutant removal. Catalytic ozonation with the prepared Fe/activated carbon catalyst significantly enhanced pollutant removal in the second SBR by improving wastewater biodegradability and reducing wastewater microtoxicity. The treatment technique decreased oil, chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N by about 97%, 88% and 91%, respectively, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real OPW.

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  19. 2-Chlorophenol Removal of Aqueous Solution Using Advanced Oxidation Processes Resulting from Iron/ Persulfate and Ultra Violet/ Persulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokufeh Astereki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced oxidation processes are used to remove toxic aromatic compounds with low biodegradability, such as 2-chlorophenol. This study investigated the use of sulfate (SO4- and persulfate (S2O82- radicals, as one of the advanced oxidation methods, to remove 2- chlorophenol from aquatic solutions. Methods: This experimental and pilot-scale study was carried out using two chemical batch reactors; one of the reactors equipped with UV lamps and the other was on the hot plate. In iron/ persulfate (Fe/S2O82- and ultra violet/ persulfate (UV/S2O82- processes different parameters were investigated. Results: Iron, UV, the initial pH of the solution, persulfate concentration have considerable effects on the elimination of 2-chlorophenol in both processes. In both processes, the maximum elimination occurred in acidic conditions. The elimination efficiency was increased by increasing the concentration of 2-chlorophenol and UV intensity, and also by decreasing the concentration of persulfate and iron. Accordingly, in iron/ persulfate and ultra violet/ persulfate processes 2-chlorophenol was eliminated with 99.96% and 99.58% efficiencies, respectively. Conclusion: Sulfate radicals produced from activated persulfate ions with hot-Fe ion and UV radiation have significant impact on the removal of 2-chlorophenol. Therefore, the processes of Fe/S2O82- and UV/S2O82- can be regarded as good choices for industrial wastewater treatment plants operators in the future.

  20. Liquid‐to‐solid ratio control as an advanced process control solution for continuous twin‐screw wet granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaï, Niels; Leersnyder, Fien De; Copot, Dana

    2018-01-01

    for the dynamic behavior of the granule liquid‐to‐solid ratio (w) at the end of the granulation unit of a commercial ConsiGmaTM‐25 production line. Near‐infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the granule composition in‐line. The outcome for both the tracking and regulator problem using either conventional......, and the limited flexibility of the automation software. Applying the proposed advanced process control solution offers an answer to upstream material flow rate deviations....

  1. Process Analytical Technology for Advanced Process Control in Biologics Manufacturing with the Aid of Macroscopic Kinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornecki, Martin; Strube, Jochen

    2018-03-16

    Productivity improvements of mammalian cell culture in the production of recombinant proteins have been made by optimizing cell lines, media, and process operation. This led to enhanced titers and process robustness without increasing the cost of the upstream processing (USP); however, a downstream bottleneck remains. In terms of process control improvement, the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative, initiated by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA), aims to measure, analyze, monitor, and ultimately control all important attributes of a bioprocess. Especially, spectroscopic methods such as Raman or near-infrared spectroscopy enable one to meet these analytical requirements, preferably in-situ. In combination with chemometric techniques like partial least square (PLS) or principal component analysis (PCA), it is possible to generate soft sensors, which estimate process variables based on process and measurement models for the enhanced control of bioprocesses. Macroscopic kinetic models can be used to simulate cell metabolism. These models are able to enhance the process understanding by predicting the dynamic of cells during cultivation. In this article, in-situ turbidity (transmission, 880 nm) and ex-situ Raman spectroscopy (785 nm) measurements are combined with an offline macroscopic Monod kinetic model in order to predict substrate concentrations. Experimental data of Chinese hamster ovary cultivations in bioreactors show a sufficiently linear correlation (R² ≥ 0.97) between turbidity and total cell concentration. PLS regression of Raman spectra generates a prediction model, which was validated via offline viable cell concentration measurement (RMSE ≤ 13.82, R² ≥ 0.92). Based on these measurements, the macroscopic Monod model can be used to determine different process attributes, e.g., glucose concentration. In consequence, it is possible to approximately calculate (R² ≥ 0.96) glucose concentration based on online cell

  2. Review of photochemical reaction constants of organic micropollutants required for UV advanced oxidation processes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wols, B A; Hofman-Caris, C H M

    2012-06-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, pesticides, hormones, surfactants, fire retardants, fuel additives etc.) are increasingly found in water sources and therefore need to be controlled by water treatment technology. UV advanced oxidation technologies are often used as an effective barrier against organic contaminants. The combined operation of direct photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radicals ensures good results for a wide range of contaminants. In this review, an overview is provided of the photochemical reaction parameters (quantum yield, molar absorption, OH radical reaction rate constant) of more than 100 organic micropollutants. These parameters allow for a prediction of organic contaminant removal by UV advanced oxidation systems. An example of contaminant degradation is elaborated for a simplified UV/H(2)O(2) system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementation and Initial Testing of Advanced Processing and Analysis Algorithms for Correlated Neutron Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and capabilities of neutron multiplicity counting, additional quantifiable information is needed in order to address the assumptions that are present in the point model. Extracting and utilizing higher order moments (Quads and Pents) from the neutron pulse train represents the most direct way of extracting additional information from the measurement data to allow for an improved determination of the physical properties of the item of interest. The extraction of higher order moments from a neutron pulse train required the development of advanced dead time correction algorithms which could correct for dead time effects in all of the measurement moments in a self-consistent manner. In addition, advanced analysis algorithms have been developed to address specific assumptions that are made within the current analysis model, namely that all neutrons are created at a single point within the item of interest, and that all neutrons that are produced within an item are created with the same energy distribution. This report will discuss the current status of implementation and initial testing of the advanced dead time correction and analysis algorithms that have been developed in an attempt to utilize higher order moments to improve the capabilities of correlated neutron measurement techniques.

  4. The Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Dixon, David A.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Johnson, Mark A.; Jonah, Charles D.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Miller, John H.; Rescigno, Tom; Rossky, Peter J.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Colson, Steve D.; Laufer, Allan H.; Ray, Douglas; Barbara, Paul F.; Bartels, David M.; Becker, Kurt H.; Bowen, Kit H.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Carmichael, Ian; Coe, James V.; Corrales, L. Rene; Cowin, James P.; Dupuis, Michel; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Franz, James A.; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Jordan, Kenneth D.; Kay, Bruce D.; LaVerne, Jay A.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Madey, Theodore E.; Mccurdy, C W.; Meisel, D.; Mukamel, Shaul; Nilsson, Anders R.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Rustad, James R.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Singer, Sherwin J.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Wang, Lai S.; Wittig, Curt; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and the subsequent radical chemistry these processes induce is significant in such diverse fields as waste remediation and environmental cleanup, radiation processing, nuclear reactions, and medical diagnosis and therapy. We review the state of the art in the physical chemistry and chemical physics of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and raise critical research issues and fundamental questions that remain unanswered

  5. Monitoring of the threshing process quality by using advanced vibro-acoustic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorati, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    This PhD thesis concerns the vibro-acoustic monitoring of the threshing process in an axial flow harvesting machine. This research is a step towards the development of online control systems finalized to maximize the process efficiency and the product quality. By using different signal processing tools it is possible to analyse the link between sound/vibration and material distribution in the threshing unit. In more details, the threshing process is mainly given by two principa...

  6. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section 713.4..., processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. (a) Declaration requirements for additionally planned activities. (1) You must declare additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2...

  7. Proceedings of the national symposium on materials and processing: functional glass/glass-ceramics, advanced ceramics and high temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Sahu, A.K.; Viswanadham, C.S.; Ramanathan, S.; Hubli, R.C.; Kothiyal, G.P.

    2012-10-01

    With the development of materials science it is becoming increasingly important to process some novel materials in the area of glass, advanced ceramics and high temperature metals/alloys, which play an important role in the realization of many new technologies. Such applications demand materials with tailored specifications. Glasses and glass-ceramics find exotic applications in areas like radioactive waste storage, optical communication, zero thermal expansion coefficient telescopic mirrors, human safety gadgets (radiation resistance windows, bullet proof apparels, heat resistance components etc), biomedical (implants, hyperthermia treatment, bone cement, bone grafting etc). Advanced ceramic materials have been beneficial in biomedical applications due to their strength, biocompatibility and wear resistance. Non-oxide ceramics such as carbides, borides, silicides, their composites, refractory metals and alloys are useful as structural and control rod components in high temperature fission/ fusion reactors. Over the years a number of novel processing techniques like selective laser melting, microwave heating, nano-ceramic processing etc have emerged. A detailed understanding of the various aspects of synthesis, processing and characterization of these materials provides the base for development of novel technologies for different applications. Keeping this in mind and realizing the need for taking stock of such developments a National Symposium on Materials and Processing -2012 (MAP-2012) was planned. The topics covered in the symposium are ceramics, glass/glass-ceramics and metals and materials. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Measurement of human advanced brain function in calculation processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashida, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Syuichi; Wu, Jing-Long

    2001-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the activated areas of the human brain related with calculation processing as an advanced function of the human brain. Furthermore, we investigated differences in activation between visual and auditory calculation processing. The eight subjects (all healthy men) were examined on a clinical MR unit (1.5 tesla) with a gradient echo-type EPI sequence. SPM99 software was used for data processing. Arithmetic problems were used for the visual stimulus (visual image) as well as for the auditory stimulus (audible voice). The stimuli were presented to the subjects as follows: no stimulation, presentation of random figures, and presentation of arithmetic problems. Activated areas of the human brain related with calculation processing were the inferior parietal lobule, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. Comparing the arithmetic problems with the presentation of random figures, we found that the activated areas of the human brain were not differently affected by visual and auditory systems. The areas activated in the visual and auditory experiments were observed at nearly the same place in the brain. It is possible to study advanced functions of the human brain such as calculation processing in a general clinical hospital when adequate tasks and methods of presentation are used. (author)

  9. Implementation of advanced process control on the four tank pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll-Fleischer, Eskild; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    measurements and actuator set points. The process equipment is described along with the setup of the PLC and the OPC server in order to be able to access process variables on a dimensional scale. A process emulator in which a process simulator is embedded in an OPC interface has been developed in Python. Using...... the detailed information of sensor and actuator calibration as well as PLC functionality, the emulator appears identical to the actual process and may be used to perform virtual tests of controllers prior to commissioning. Examples of how to interact with OPC servers are presented for both Matlab and Python...

  10. Seeing the unseen of Chinese herbal medicine processing (Paozhi): advances in new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Wang, Shengpeng; Lu, Junrong; Jing, Yong; Li, Mingxing; Cao, Jiliang; Bian, Baolin; Hu, Changjiang

    2018-01-01

    Processing ( Paozhi ) represents a unique Chinese pharmaceutic technique to facilitate the use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for a specific clinical need in the guidance of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. Traditionally, most CHMs require a proper processing to meet the needs of specific clinical syndromes before being prescribed by TCM practitioners. During processing, significant changes in chemical profiles occur, which inevitably influence the associated pharmacological properties of a CHM. However, although processing is formed in a long-term practice, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear for most CHMs. The deepening understanding of the mechanism of processing would provide scientific basis for standardization of processing. This review introduced the role of processing in TCM and several typical methods of processing. We also summarized the up-to-date efforts on the mechanistic study of CHM processing. The processing mechanisms mainly include the following aspects: (i) directly reducing contents of toxic constituents; (ii) structural transformation of constituents; (iii) improving solubility of constituents; (iv) physically changing the existing form of constituents; (v) and influence by excipients. These progress may give new insights into future researches.

  11. The effects of advanced digital signal processing concepts on VLSIC/VHSIC design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, C.

    Implementations of sophisticated mathematical techniques in advanced digital signal processors can significantly improve performance. Future VLSI and VHSI circuit designs must include the practical realization of these algorithms. A structured design approach is described and illustrated with examples from a RNS FIR filter processor development project. The CAE hardware and software required to support tasks of this complexity are also discussed. An EWS is recommended for controlling essential functions such as logic optimization, simulation and verification. The total IC design system is illustrated with the implementation of a new high performance algorithm for computing complex magnitude.

  12. The process system analysis for advanced spent fuel management technology (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Lee, J. R.; Kang, D. S.; Seo, C. S.; Shin, Y. J.; Park, S. W.

    1997-12-01

    Various pyrochemical processes were evaluated, and viable options were selected in consideration of the proliferation safety, technological feasibility and compatibility to the domestic nuclear power system. Detailed technical analysis were followed on the selected options such as unit process flowsheet including physico-chemical characteristics of the process systems, preliminary concept development, process design criteria and materials for equipment. Supplementary analysis were also carried out on the support technologies including sampling and transport technologies of molten salt, design criteria and equipment for glove box systems, and remote operation technologies. (author). 40 refs., 49 tabs., 37 figs.

  13. Study of a low-dose capsule filling process by dynamic and static tests for advanced process understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, S; Faulhammer, E; Scheibelhofer, O; Calzolari, V; Biserni, S; Paudel, A; Khinast, J G

    2018-04-05

    Precise filling of capsules with doses in the mg-range requires a good understanding of the filling process. Therefore, we investigated the various process steps of the filling process by dynamic and static mode tests. Dynamic tests refer to filling of capsules in a regular laboratory dosator filling machine. Static tests were conducted using a novel filling system developed by us. Three grades of lactose excipients were filled into size 3 capsules with different dosing chamber lengths, nozzle diameters and powder bed heights, and, in the dynamic mode, with two filling speeds (500, 3000 caps/h). The influence of the gap at the bottom of the powder container on the fill weight and variability was assessed. Different gaps resulted in a change in fill weight in all materials, although in different ways. In all cases, the fill weight of highly cohesive Lactohale 220 increased when decreasing the gap. Furthermore, experiments with the stand-alone static test tool indicated that this very challenging powder could successfully be filled without any pre-compression in the range of 5 mg-20 mg with acceptable RSDs. This finding is of great importance since for very fine lactose powders high compression ratios (dosing-chamber-length-to-powder-bed height compression ratios) may result in jamming of the piston. Moreover, it shows that the static mode setup is suitable for studying fill weight and variability. Since cohesive powders, such as Lactohale 220, are hard to fill, we investigated the impact of vibration on the process. Interestingly, we found no correlation between the reported fill weight changes in dynamic mode at 3000 cph and static mode using similar vibration. However, we could show that vibrations during sampling in the static mode dramatically reduced fill weight variability. Overall, our results indicate that by fine-tuning instrumental settings even very challenging powders can be filled with a low-dose dosator capsule filling machine. This study is a

  14. Advanced biomaterials and microengineering technologies to recapitulate the stepwise process of cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peela, Nitish; Truong, Danh; Saini, Harpinder; Chu, Hunghao; Mashaghi, Samaneh; Ham, Stephanie L; Singh, Sunil; Tavana, Hossein; Mosadegh, Bobak; Nikkhah, Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally according to the World Health Organization. Although improved treatments and early diagnoses have reduced cancer related mortalities, metastatic disease remains a major clinical challenge. The local tumor microenvironment plays a significant role in cancer metastasis, where tumor cells respond and adapt to a plethora of biochemical and biophysical signals from stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Due to these complexities, there is a critical need to understand molecular mechanisms underlying cancer metastasis to facilitate the discovery of more effective therapies. In the past few years, the integration of advanced biomaterials and microengineering approaches has initiated the development of innovative platform technologies for cancer research. These technologies enable the creation of biomimetic in vitro models with physiologically relevant (i.e. in vivo-like) characteristics to conduct studies ranging from fundamental cancer biology to high-throughput drug screening. In this review article, we discuss the biological significance of each step of the metastatic cascade and provide a broad overview on recent progress to recapitulate these stages using advanced biomaterials and microengineered technologies. In each section, we will highlight the advantages and shortcomings of each approach and provide our perspectives on future directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for the production of butyric acid by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Yang, Rongling; Zhao, Yuping; Wang, Zhaoyu; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Mengyu; Zeng, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target. Recently, several advanced strategies have been developed for enhanced butyric acid production, including bioprocess techniques and metabolic engineering methods. This review provides an overview of advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for butyric acid production by microbial fermentation. Additionally, future perspectives on improvement of butyric acid production are also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The advances and characteristics of high-power diode laser materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents a review of the direct applications of high-power diode lasers for materials processing including soldering, surface modification (hardening, cladding, glazing and wetting modifications), welding, scribing, sheet metal bending, marking, engraving, paint stripping, powder sintering, synthesis, brazing and machining. The specific advantages and disadvantages of diode laser materials processing are compared with CO 2, Nd:YAG and excimer lasers. An effort is made to identify the fundamental differences in their beam/material interaction characteristics and materials behaviour. Also an appraisal of the future prospects of the high-power diode lasers for materials processing is given.

  17. Steam Reforming Solidification of Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia L. Tripp; T. G. Garn; R. D. Boardman; J. D. Law

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program is conducting research on aqueous separations processes for the nuclear fuel cycle. This research includes development of solvent extraction processes for the separation of cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions to reduce the short-term decay heat load. The cesium/strontium strip solution from candidate separation processes will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. Steam reforming is currently being investigated for stabilization of these streams because it can potentially destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous, nitrate-bearing solutions, while converting the cesium and strontium into leach-resistant aluminosilicate minerals, such as pollucite. These ongoing experimental studies are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of steam reforming for this application.

  18. Pyritization processes and greigite formation in the advancing sulfidization front in the Upper Pleistocene sediments of the Black Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neretin, LN; Bottcher, ME; Jørgensen, BB

    2004-01-01

    Pyritization in late Pleistocene sediments of the Black Sea is driven by sulfide formed during anaerobic methane oxidation. A sulfidization front is formed by the opposing gradients of sulfide and dissolved iron. The sulfidization processes are controlled by the diffusion flux of sulfide from above...... and by the solid reactive iron content. Two processes of diffusion-limited pyrite formation were identified. The first process includes pyrite precipitation with the accumulation of iron sulfide precursors with the average chemical composition of FeSn (n = 1.10-1.29), including greigite. Elemental sulfur...... reduction at depth causes a progressive formation of pyrite with a delta(34)S of up to + 15.0parts per thousand. The S-isotopic composition of FeS2 evolves due to contributions of different sulfur pools formed at different times. Steady-state model calculations for the advancement of the sulfidization front...

  19. Materials processing strategies for colloidal quantum dot solar cells: advances, present-day limitations, and pathways to improvement

    KAUST Repository

    Carey, Graham H.

    2013-05-13

    Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices have improved from initial, sub-1% solar power conversion efficiency to current record performance of over 7%. Rapid advances in materials processing and device physics have driven this impressive performance progress. The highest-efficiency approaches rely on a fabrication process that starts with nanocrystals in solution, initially capped with long organic molecules. This solution is deposited and the resultant film is treated using a solution containing a second, shorter capping ligand, leading to a cross-linked, non-redispersible, and dense layer. This procedure is repeated, leading to the widely employed layer-by-layer solid-state ligand exchange. We will review the properties and features of this process, and will also discuss innovative pathways to creating even higher-performing films and photovoltaic devices.

  20. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of the dissolved phosphorus uptake kinetics for the effluents from advanced nutrient removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Brett, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Given the importance of the watershed protection plans, direct determination of phosphorus (P) mineralization rates in advanced wastewater treatment facility effluents is crucial for developing the most protective strategies minimiz eutrophication in receiving surface waters. In this study, algal bioassays were used to determine the uptake rate of dissolved P in effluents from a broad range of advanced nutrient removal technologies (e.g., membrane biological reactor, traditional biological, tertiary membrane, Blue PRO™, etc.). Dissolved P uptake kinetics were fit to a gamma model and three first-order decay models. A traditional one-pool model correlated poorly with the experimental data (i.e., r(2) = 0.73 ± 0.09), whereas two-pool model and three-pool models performed much better (i.e., r(2) > 0.9). These models also provided strong evidence for the existence of recalcitrant P in the effluents from these tertiary facilities. The Gamma model showed the mineralization of organic P followed a reactive continuum and further suggested the partitioning of P loads with different bioavailability levels should be accounted for the future modeling practices. From a modeling perspective, the Gamma model should be considered to be the theoretically best model as it gave the most parsimonious fit to the data using the fewest terms. Our study suggested that the current Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) model could be easily modified with the updated mineralization kinetics, which should lead to both ecological and economic benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Super-Resolution Processing and Fusion of Multisensor Data for Advanced Target Surveillance and Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sundareshan, Malur

    2000-01-01

    .... This project was primarily aimed at the super-resolution processing of imagery data to improve the resolution in acquired images so that any problems arising from the disparity in resolution levels...

  3. Thin film silicon solar cells: advanced processing and characterization - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, Ch.

    2008-04-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project carried out at the photovoltaics laboratory at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The project aimed to demonstrate the production of high-efficiency thin-film silicon devices on flexible substrates using low cost processes. New ways of improving processing and characterisation are examined. The process and manufacturing know-how necessary to provide support for industrial partners within the framework of further projects is discussed. The authors state that the efficiency of most devices was significantly improved, both on glass substrates and on flexible plastic foils. The process reproducibility was also improved and the interactions between the different layers in the device are now said to be better understood. The report presents the results obtained and discusses substrate materials, transparent conductors, defect analyses and new characterisation tools. Finally, the laboratory infrastructure is described.

  4. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): High Temperature Boost Power Processing Unit (PPU) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task is to investigate the technology path to develop a 10kW modular Silicon Carbide (SiC) based power processing unit (PPU). The PPU utilizes the high...

  5. Accelerating Project and Process Improvement using Advanced Software Simulation Technology: From the Office to the Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    Date Latest Completion Date Static vs. Dynamic Value Stream Maps Static Future State VSM “That’s fine, but…” Unable to check basic validity of ideas...whether current or future state). The need to accurately depict these processes and ensure valid decision making has increased. Thi t ti...models that behave like the actual system and processes represented by the system (e g . ., both current or future state) Exploit the

  6. Advanced computational workflow for the multi-scale modeling of the bone metabolic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Tien Tuan

    2017-06-01

    Multi-scale modeling of the musculoskeletal system plays an essential role in the deep understanding of complex mechanisms underlying the biological phenomena and processes such as bone metabolic processes. Current multi-scale models suffer from the isolation of sub-models at each anatomical scale. The objective of this present work was to develop a new fully integrated computational workflow for simulating bone metabolic processes at multi-scale levels. Organ-level model employs multi-body dynamics to estimate body boundary and loading conditions from body kinematics. Tissue-level model uses finite element method to estimate the tissue deformation and mechanical loading under body loading conditions. Finally, cell-level model includes bone remodeling mechanism through an agent-based simulation under tissue loading. A case study on the bone remodeling process located on the human jaw was performed and presented. The developed multi-scale model of the human jaw was validated using the literature-based data at each anatomical level. Simulation outcomes fall within the literature-based ranges of values for estimated muscle force, tissue loading and cell dynamics during bone remodeling process. This study opens perspectives for accurately simulating bone metabolic processes using a fully integrated computational workflow leading to a better understanding of the musculoskeletal system function from multiple length scales as well as to provide new informative data for clinical decision support and industrial applications.

  7. Verification and Validation Process for Progressive Damage and Failure Analysis Methods in the NASA Advanced Composites Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanthal, Steven; Schaefer, Joseph; Justusson, Brian; Hyder, Imran; Engelstad, Stephen; Rose, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Composites Consortium is a US Government/Industry partnership supporting technologies to enable timeline and cost reduction in the development of certified composite aerospace structures. A key component of the consortium's approach is the development and validation of improved progressive damage and failure analysis methods for composite structures. These methods will enable increased use of simulations in design trade studies and detailed design development, and thereby enable more targeted physical test programs to validate designs. To accomplish this goal with confidence, a rigorous verification and validation process was developed. The process was used to evaluate analysis methods and associated implementation requirements to ensure calculation accuracy and to gage predictability for composite failure modes of interest. This paper introduces the verification and validation process developed by the consortium during the Phase I effort of the Advanced Composites Project. Specific structural failure modes of interest are first identified, and a subset of standard composite test articles are proposed to interrogate a progressive damage analysis method's ability to predict each failure mode of interest. Test articles are designed to capture the underlying composite material constitutive response as well as the interaction of failure modes representing typical failure patterns observed in aerospace structures.

  8. Integrated Evaluation Concept to Assess the Efficacy of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes for the Elimination of Micropollutants and Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Thomas A; Prasse, Carsten; Eversloh, Christian Lütke; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Schwartz, Thomas; Alexander, Johannes; Seitz, Wolfram; Coors, Anja; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-03

    A multidisciplinary concept has been developed to compare advanced wastewater treatment processes for their efficacy of eliminating micropollutants and pathogens. The concept is based on (i) the removal/formation of selected indicator substances and their transformation products (TPs), (ii) the assessment of ecotoxicity via in vitro tests, and (iii) the removal of pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria. It includes substances passing biological wastewater treatment plants regulated or proposed to be regulated in the European Water Framework Directive, TPs formed in biological processes or during ozonation, agonistic/antagonistic endocrine activities, mutagenic/genotoxic activities, cytotoxic activities, further activities like neurotoxicity as well as antibiotics resistance genes, and taxonomic gene markers for pathogens. At a pilot plant, ozonation of conventionally treated wastewater resulted in the removal of micropollutants and pathogens and the reduction of estrogenic effects, whereas the in vitro mutagenicity increased. Subsequent post-treatment of the ozonated water by granular activated carbon (GAC) significantly reduced the mutagenic effects as well as the concentrations of remaining micropollutants, whereas this was not the case for biofiltration. The results demonstrate the suitability of the evaluation concept to assess processes of advanced wastewater treatment including ozonation and GAC by considering chemical, ecotoxicological, and microbiological parameters.

  9. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A water loop maintenance device and process to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been undergoing a performance evaluation. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the water recirculation maintenance device and process is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance process further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware. This

  10. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  11. Evaluation of the cryogenic helium recovery process from natural gas based on flash separation by advanced exergy cost method - Linde modified process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarinasab, Hojat; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Parivazh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, exergy cost analysis method is used to evaluate a new cryogenic Helium recovery process from natural gas based on flash separation. Also advanced exergoeconomic analysis was made to determine the amount of avoidable exergy destruction cost of the process component. This proposed process can extract Helium from a feed gas stream with better efficiency than other existing processes. The results indicate that according to the avoidable endogenous exergy destruction cost C-4 (287.2/hr), C-5 (257.3/hr) and C-6 (181.6/hr) compressors should be modified first, respectively. According to the endogenous investment and exergy destruction cost, the interactions between the process components are not strong. In compressors, a high proportion of the cost of exergy destruction is avoidable while in these components, investment costs are unavoidable. In heat exchangers and air coolers, a high proportion of the exergy destruction cost is unavoidable while in these components, investment costs are avoidable. Finally, three different strategies are suggested to improve performance of each component, and the sensitivity of exergoeconomic factor and cost of exergy destruction to operating variables of the process are studied.

  12. Effects of the endpoint adjudication process on the results of a randomised controlled trial: the ADVANCE trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hata

    Full Text Available Endpoint adjudication committees (EPAC are widely used in clinical trials. The aim of the present analysis is to assess the effects of the endpoint adjudication process on the main findings of the ADVANCE trial (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00145925.The ADVANCE trial was a multicentre, 2 × 2 factorial randomised controlled trial of blood pressure lowering and intensive blood glucose control in 11140 patients with type 2 diabetes. Primary outcomes were major macrovascular (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke and cardiovascular death and microvascular (new or worsening nephropathy and retinopathy events. Suspected primary outcomes were initially reported by the investigators at the 215 sites with subsequent adjudication by the EPAC. The EPAC also adjudicated upon potential events identified directly by ongoing screening of all reported events. Over a median follow-up of 5 years, the site investigators reported one or more primary outcomes among 2443 participants. After adjudication these events were confirmed for 2077 (85% with 48 further events added through the EPAC-led database screening process. The estimated relative risk reductions (95% confidence intervals in the primary outcome for the blood pressure lowering comparison were 8% (-1 to 15% based on the investigator-reported events and 9% (0 to 17% based on the EPAC-based events (P for homogeneity = 0.70. The corresponding findings for the glucose comparison were 8% (1 to 15% and 10% (2% to 18% (P for homogeneity = 0.60. The effect estimates were also highly comparable when studied separately for macrovascular events and microvascular events for both comparisons (all P for homogeneity>0.6.The endpoint adjudication process had no discernible impact on the main findings in ADVANCE. These data highlight the need for careful consideration of the likely impact of an EPAC on the findings and conclusions of clinical trials prior to their establishment.

  13. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  14. 2015 Advanced Site Investigation and Monitoring Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management (LM); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducted initial groundwater characterization of the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site in the 1990s. The characterization culminated in a Site Observational Work Plan in 1998 that recommended a natural flushing compliance strategy. Results of verification monitoring indicated that natural flushing was generally progressing as expected until June 2010, when significant increases in contaminant concentrations were measured in several monitoring wells downgradient of the site after the area flooded. In response to the unexpected results following the flood, an enhanced characterization of the surficial aquifer was conducted in 2012, which included installation of 103 boreholes along nine transects with a Geoprobe, collection of 103 water samples and 65 soil samples, laboratory tests on the soil samples, and additional groundwater modeling. This advanced site investigation report summarizes additional investigation in 2015 through the use of backhoe trenching, sonic drilling, multilevel monitoring wells, direct-push drilling, and temporary well points to collect soil and groundwater samples. Additional surface water measurements were made included the installation of a stilling well and the measurement of stream elevation along the Wind River to approximate upgradient groundwater heads. Groundwater sampling included the addition of geochemical constituents and isotopes that have not been sampled in the past to better understand post-flood conditions and the possibility of additional or ongoing contaminant sources. This sampling was performed to (1) better define the contaminant plumes, (2) verify the occurrence of persistent secondary contaminant sources, (3) better understand the reason for the contaminant spikes after a 2010 flood, and (4) assess contaminant plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. This report provides data analyses and interpretations for the 2015 site investigation that addresses these issues and provides

  15. Modelling of nitric acid production in the Advanced Cold Process Canister due to irradiation of moist air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarises the work performed for SKB of Sweden on the modelling of nitric acid production in the gaseous environment of the Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC). The model solves the simultaneous chemical rate equations describing the radiation chemistry of He/Ar/N 2 /O 2 /H 2 O gas mixture, involving over 200 chemical reactions. The amount of nitric acid produced as a function of time for typical ACPC conditions has been calculated using the model and the results reported. 11 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  16. Photochemical methodologies for organic waste treatment: advanced oxidation process using uranyl ion with H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, D.B.; Sarkar, S.K.; Mukherjee, T.

    2009-01-01

    Excited uranyl ion is able to degrade dyes such as thionine and methylene blue on irradiation with 254 nm/300 nm light. By adding H 2 O 2 along with uranyl ion, photodegradation takes place with visible light and also with enhanced rate. The hydroxyl radicals generated in the reoxidation of U(IV)/UO 2 + to UO 2 2+ are responsible for this enhanced degradation. The above advanced oxidation process (AOP) was applied to study the oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone. (author)

  17. Application of coupled symbolic and numeric processing to an advanced scheduling system for plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takamoto, Masanori; Nonaka, Hisanori; Yamada, Naoyuki

    1994-01-01

    A scheduling system has been developed by integrating symbolic processing functions for constraint handling and modification guidance, with numeric processing functions for schedule optimization and evaluation. The system is composed of an automatic schedule generation module, interactive schedule revision module and schedule evaluation module. The goal of the problem solving is the flattening of the daily resources requirement throughout the scheduling period. The automatic schedule generation module optimizes the initial schedule according to the formulatable portion of requirement description specified in a predicate-like language. A planning engineer refines the near-goal schedule through a knowledge-based interactive optimization process to obtain the goal schedule which fully covers the requirement description, with the interactive schedule revision module and schedule evaluation module. A scheduling system has been implemented on the basis of the proposed problem solving framework and experimentally applied to real-world sized scheduling problems for plant construction. With a result of the overall plant construction scheduling, a section schedule optimization process is described with the emphasis on the symbolic processing functions. (author)

  18. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  19. Advances in industrial biopharmaceutical batch process monitoring: Machine-learning methods for small data problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsyan, Aditya; Garvin, Christopher; Ündey, Cenk

    2018-04-06

    Biopharmaceutical manufacturing comprises of multiple distinct processing steps that require effective and efficient monitoring of many variables simultaneously in real-time. The state-of-the-art real-time multivariate statistical batch process monitoring (BPM) platforms have been in use in recent years to ensure comprehensive monitoring is in place as a complementary tool for continued process verification to detect weak signals. This article addresses a longstanding, industry-wide problem in BPM, referred to as the "Low-N" problem, wherein a product has a limited production history. The current best industrial practice to address the Low-N problem is to switch from a multivariate to a univariate BPM, until sufficient product history is available to build and deploy a multivariate BPM platform. Every batch run without a robust multivariate BPM platform poses risk of not detecting potential weak signals developing in the process that might have an impact on process and product performance. In this article, we propose an approach to solve the Low-N problem by generating an arbitrarily large number of in silico batches through a combination of hardware exploitation and machine-learning methods. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first article to provide a solution to the Low-N problem in biopharmaceutical manufacturing using machine-learning methods. Several industrial case studies from bulk drug substance manufacturing are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach for BPM under various Low-N scenarios. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ionizing radiation processing and its potential in advancing biorefining and nanocellulose composite materials manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Poster, Dianne L.; Vládar, András E.; Driscoll, Mark S.; LaVerne, Jay A.; Tsinas, Zois; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad I.

    2018-02-01

    Nanocellulose is a high value material that has gained increasing attention because of its high strength, stiffness, unique photonic and piezoelectric properties, high stability and uniform structure. Through utilization of a biorefinery concept, nanocellulose can be produced in large volumes from wood at relatively low cost via ionizing radiation processing. Ionizing radiation causes significant break down of the polysaccharide and leads to the production of potentially useful gaseous products such as H2 and CO. The application of radiation processing to the production of nanocellulose from woody and non-wood sources, such as field grasses, bio-refining by-products, industrial pulp waste, and agricultural surplus materials remains an open field, ripe for innovation and application. Elucidating the mechanisms of the radiolytic decomposition of cellulose and the mass generation of nanocellulose by radiation processing is key to tapping into this source of nanocelluose for the growth of nanocellulostic-product development. More importantly, understanding the structural break-up of the cell walls as a function of radiation exposure is a key goal and only through careful, detailed characterization and dimensional metrology can this be achieved at the level of detail that is needed to further the growth of large scale radiation processing of plant materials. This work is resulting from strong collaborations between NIST and its academic partners who are pursuing the unique demonstration of applied ionizing radiation processing to plant materials as well as the development of manufacturing metrology for novel nanomaterials.

  1. Advanced APCVD-processes for high-temperature grown crystalline silicon thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Marion; Merkel, Benjamin; Reber, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Crystalline silicon thin film (cSiTF) solar cells based on the epitaxial wafer-equivalent (EpiWE) concept combine advantages of wafer-based and thin film silicon solar cells. In this paper two processes beyond the standard process sequence for cSiTF cell fabrication are described. The first provides an alternative to wet chemical saw damage removal by chemical vapor etching (CVE) with hydrogen chloride in-situ prior to epitaxial deposition. This application decreases the number of process and handling steps. Solar cells fabricated with different etching processes achieved efficiencies up to 14.7%. 1300 degrees C etching temperature led to better cell results than 1200 degrees C. The second investigated process aims for an improvement of cell efficiency by implementation of a reflecting interlayer between substrate and active solar cell. Some characteristics of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of a patterned silicon dioxide film in a lab-type reactor constructed at Fraunhofer ISE are described and first solar cell results are presented.

  2. Advanced oxidation of hypophosphite and phosphite using a UV/H2O2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Liang, Xingang; Xu, Jianhui; Lu, Gang; Ji, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of hypophosphite and phosphite in an aqueous solution by an ultraviolet (UV)/H2O2 process was studied in this work. The reactions were performed in a lab-scale batch photoreactor. The effect of different parameters such as H2O2 dosage, H2O2 feeding mode and the initial pH of the solution on the oxidation efficiency of the process was investigated. The results indicated that the UV/H2O2 process could effectively oxidize hypophosphite and phosphite in both synthesized and real wastewater. However, neither H2O2 nor UV alone was able to appreciably oxidize the hypophosphite or phosphite. The best way of feeding H2O2 was found to be 'continuous feeding', which maximized the reaction rate. It was also found that the process presented a wide range of applicable initial pH (5-11). When treating real rinse-wastewater, which was obtained from the electroless nickel plating industry, both hypophosphite and phosphite were completely oxidized within 60 min, and by extending by another 30 min, over 90% of the chemical oxygen demand removal was obtained. Without any additional catalyst, the UV/H2O2 process can oxidize hypophosphite and phosphite to easily removable phosphate. It is really a powerful and environmentally friendly treatment method for the wastewater containing hypophosphite and phosphite.

  3. Development of advanced coal cleaning process; Kodo sekitan kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, S. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, A.; Yamashita, T. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a clean coal production process which excellently removes environmental pollutant, is low-costed, and need no particular systems for distribution of products. The result of the development was described paying attention to column flotation which is a technology to high-efficiently select particulate regions, particulate heavy media cyclone, magnetic separation, and the basic design of the process into which those above were integrated. The two-stage selection process, which is an integration of column flotation and particulate heavy media cyclone into the conventional coal preparation equipment, can produce low-ash clean coal at high separation efficiency and also suppress the rise in processing cost. This process was also effective for removal of sulfur content and trace metal elements. The use of clean coal at power plant can be effective for not only the reduction in ash treatment amount, but the aspect of boiler operation characteristics such as heat transfer efficiency of boiler furnace wall, ash related troubles, loads of electrostatic precipitator, loads of flue gas desulfurization facilities. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Removal of Humic Substances from Water by Advanced Oxidation Process Using UV/TiO2 Photo Catalytic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khorsandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances have been known as precursors to disinfection by-products. Because conventional treatment processes cannot meet disinfection by-product standards, novel methods have been increasingly applied for the removal of disinfection by-products precursors. The UV/TiO2 process is one of the advanced oxidation processes using the photocatalytic technology. The most important advantages of this process are its stability and high efficiency removal. The present study aims to investigate the effect of UV/TiO2 photo-catalytic technology on removal of humic substances. The study was conducted in a lab-scale batch photo-catalytic reactor using the interval experimental method. The UV irradiation source was a low pressure mercury vapor lamp 55w that was axially centered and was immersed in a humic acids solution within a stainless steel tubular 2.8 L reaction volume. Each of the samples taken from the UV/TiO2 process and other processes studied were analyzed for their dissolved organic carbon, UV absorbance at 254nm, and specific UV254 absorbance. The results indicated the high efficiency of the UV/TiO2 photo-catalytic process (TiO2=0.1 g/L and pH=5, compared to other processes, for humic substances removal from water sources. The process was also found to be capable of decreasing the initial dissolved organic carbon from 5 to 0.394 mg/L. The Specific UV254 Absorbance of 2.79 L/mg.m was attained after 1.5 hr. under photo-catalytic first order reaction (k= 0.0267 min-1. It may be concluded that the UV/TiO2 process can provide desirable drinking water quality in terms of humic substance content.

  5. Use of solar advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment: Follow-up on degradation products, acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, M; Mahdi Ahmed, M; Escande, A; Plantard, G; Scrano, L; Chiron, S; Bufo, S A; Goetz, V

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater tertiary treatment by advanced oxidation processes is thought to produce a treated effluent with lower toxicity than the initial influent. Here we performed tertiary treatment of a secondary effluent collected from a Waste Water Treatment Plant via homogeneous (solar/HSO5(-)/Fe(2+)) and heterogeneous (solar/TiO2) solar advanced oxidation aiming at the assessment of their effectiveness in terms of contaminants' and toxicity abatement in a plain solar reactor. A total of 53 organic contaminants were qualitatively identified by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction. Solar advanced oxidation totally or partially removed the major part of contaminants detected within 4.5 h. Standard toxicity tests were performed using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Brachionus calyciflorus organisms to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity in the secondary or tertiary effluents, and the EC50% was calculated. Estrogenic and genotoxic tests were carried out in an attempt to obtain an even sharper evaluation of potential hazardous effects due to micropollutants or their degradation by-products in wastewater. Genotoxic effects were not detected in effluent before or after treatment. However, we observed relevant estrogenic activity due to the high sensitivity of the HELN ERα cell line. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances of radioisotope for design, intensification and optimization of processes and operations in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In chemical industries different processes and operations involve a variety of multiphase contacting schemes for optimal production schedule in terms of ease of handling, time and money. A number of parameters will have to be optimized for this purpose. Further more, during the operation of a process plant, a number of problems such as reduction in process efficiency, deterioration in product quality etc. are encountered due to malfunctioning of one or more components. The successful operation of an industry depends on the early detection of the problems for appropriate remedial action. These are conveniently carried out by the application of radioisotopes either directly or in sealed condition depending upon the problem to be addressed. In this talk both types of radiotracer applications are discussed by taking specific examples

  7. Development of the advanced nuclear materials -A study on the polymer catalyst process technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Il Hyun; Jung, Heung Suk; Lee, Han Soo; An, Doh Heui; Kang, Heui Suk; Baek, Seung Woo; Lee, Sung Hoh; Sung, Kee Woong; Kim, Kwang Lak; Kim, Jong Hoh; Koo, Je Hyoo; Park, Tae Keun; Kim, Sang Hwan; Yoo, Ryong; Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Choi, Jung Kil; Lee, Jae Choon; Jung, Moon Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in pressurized heavy water power plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new four pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water make-up for these plants would be 22 Mg/a from the year 2006. Reformed hydrogen processes is considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchange was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m3 HD/m3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. 66 figs, 62 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  8. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of advanced signal processing and source imaging methods for superparamagnetic relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Anderson, Bill; Huang, Charles W; Kunde, Gerd J; Vreeland, Erika C; Huang, Jeffrey W; Matlashov, Andrei N; Karaulanov, Todor; Nettles, Christopher P; Gomez, Andrew; Minser, Kayla; Weldon, Caroline; Paciotti, Giulio; Harsh, Michael; Lee, Roland R; Flynn, Edward R

    2017-02-07

    Superparamagnetic relaxometry (SPMR) is a highly sensitive technique for the in vivo detection of tumor cells and may improve early stage detection of cancers. SPMR employs superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). After a brief magnetizing pulse is used to align the SPION, SPMR measures the time decay of SPION using super-conducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors. Substantial research has been carried out in developing the SQUID hardware and in improving the properties of the SPION. However, little research has been done in the pre-processing of sensor signals and post-processing source modeling in SPMR. In the present study, we illustrate new pre-processing tools that were developed to: (1) remove trials contaminated with artifacts, (2) evaluate and ensure that a single decay process associated with bounded SPION exists in the data, (3) automatically detect and correct flux jumps, and (4) accurately fit the sensor signals with different decay models. Furthermore, we developed an automated approach based on multi-start dipole imaging technique to obtain the locations and magnitudes of multiple magnetic sources, without initial guesses from the users. A regularization process was implemented to solve the ambiguity issue related to the SPMR source variables. A procedure based on reduced chi-square cost-function was introduced to objectively obtain the adequate number of dipoles that describe the data. The new pre-processing tools and multi-start source imaging approach have been successfully evaluated using phantom data. In conclusion, these tools and multi-start source modeling approach substantially enhance the accuracy and sensitivity in detecting and localizing sources from the SPMR signals. Furthermore, multi-start approach with regularization provided robust and accurate solutions for a poor SNR condition similar to the SPMR detection sensitivity in the order of 1000 cells. We believe such algorithms will help establishing the industrial

  10. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This volume presents the Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the WRAP (Waste Receiving and Processing) 2A facility. The TEC is $81.9 million, including an overall project contingency of 25% and escalation of 13%, based on a 1997 construction midpoint. (The mission of WRAP 2A is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage, and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford site from about 20 DOE sites.)

  11. An example of regulating process for an advanced reactor: Creys-Malville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cravero, M.

    1978-01-01

    The general philosophy for the regulatory control of the Super-Phenix fast breeder reactor was the same as for other types of nuclear power plants. The licensing process for both conventional and nuclear aspects was also identical to that for other nuclear units. On the other hand, safety recommendations were especially prepared by the CEA's appropriate services on the basis of acquired experience. The paper analyses the development of the licensing process for the reactor and knowledge to be gained for future units of this type. (NEA) [fr

  12. Advances in interpretation of subsurface processes with time-lapse electrical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kaminit; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Tim B.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical geophysical methods, including electrical resistivity, time-domain induced polarization, and complex resistivity, have become commonly used to image the near subsurface. Here, we outline their utility for time-lapse imaging of hydrological, geochemical, and biogeochemical processes, focusing on new instrumentation, processing, and analysis techniques specific to monitoring. We review data collection procedures, parameters measured, and petrophysical relationships and then outline the state of the science with respect to inversion methodologies, including coupled inversion. We conclude by highlighting recent research focused on innovative applications of time-lapse imaging in hydrology, biology, ecology, and geochemistry, among other areas of interest.

  13. Innovative fabrication processing of advanced composite materials concepts for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Dinicola, Al J.; Chou, Jack C.

    1992-01-01

    The autoclave based THERM-X(sub R) process was evaluated by cocuring complex curved panels with frames and stiffeners. The process was shown to result in composite parts of high quality with good compaction at sharp radius regions and corners of intersecting parts. The structural properties of the postbuckled panels fabricated were found to be equivalent to those of conventionally tooled hand laid-up parts. Significant savings in bagging time over conventional tooling were documented. Structural details such as cocured shear ties and embedded stiffener flanges in the skin were found to suppress failure modes such as failure at corners of intersecting members and skin stiffeners separation.

  14. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H 2 O 2 under UV irradiation (H 2 O 2 /UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H 2 O 2 /Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H 2 O 2 /UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H 2 O 2 /Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  15. Engineered crumpled graphene oxide nanocomposite membrane assemblies for advanced water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Wang, Wei-Ning; Liu, Di; Nie, Yao; Li, Wenlu; Wu, Jiewei; Zhang, Fuzhong; Biswas, Pratim; Fortner, John D

    2015-06-02

    In this work, we describe multifunctional, crumpled graphene oxide (CGO) porous nanocomposites that are assembled as advanced, reactive water treatment membranes. Crumpled 3D graphene oxide based materials fundamentally differ from 2D flat graphene oxide analogues in that they are highly aggregation and compression-resistant (i.e., π-π stacking resistant) and allow for the incorporation (wrapping) of other, multifunctional particles inside the 3D, composite structure. Here, assemblies of nanoscale, monomeric CGO with encapsulated (as a quasi core-shell structure) TiO2 (GOTI) and Ag (GOAg) nanoparticles, not only allow high water flux via vertically tortuous nanochannels (achieving water flux of 246 ± 11 L/(m(2)·h·bar) with 5.4 μm thick assembly, 7.4 g/m(2)), outperforming comparable commercial ultrafiltration membranes, but also demonstrate excellent separation efficiencies for model organic and biological foulants. Further, multifunctionality is demonstrated through the in situ photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO), as a model organic, under fast flow conditions (tres properties, evaluated with GOAg, are observed for both biofilm (contact) and suspended growth scenarios (>3 log effective removal, Escherichia coli). This is the first demonstration of 3D, crumpled graphene oxide based nanocomposite structures applied specifically as (re)active membrane assemblies and highlights the material's platform potential for a truly tailored approach for next generation water treatment and separation technologies.

  16. Advancement of Solidification Processing Technology Through Real Time X-Ray Transmission Microscopy: Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Curreri, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of samples were prepared for the real time X-ray transmission microscopy (XTM) characterization. In the first series directional solidification experiments were carried out to evaluate the critical velocity of engulfment of zirconia particles in the Al and Al-Ni eutectic matrix under ground (l-g) conditions. The particle distribution in the samples was recorded on video before and after the samples were directionally solidified. In the second series samples of the above two type of composites were prepared for directional solidification runs to be carried out on the Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) aboard the space shuttle during the LMS mission in June 1996. X-ray microscopy proved to be an invaluable tool for characterizing the particle distribution in the metal matrix samples. This kind of analysis helped in determining accurately the critical velocity of engulfment of ceramic particles by the melt interface in the opaque metal matrix composites. The quality of the cast samples with respect to porosity and instrumented thermocouple sheath breakage or shift could be easily viewed and thus helped in selecting samples for the space shuttle experiments. Summarizing the merits of this technique it can be stated that this technique enabled the use of cast metal matrix composite samples since the particle location was known prior to the experiment.

  17. Chemical and physical analysis of core materials for advanced high temperature reactors with process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1985-08-01

    Various chemical and physical methods for the analysis of structural materials have been developed in the research programmes for advanced high temperature reactors. These methods are discussed using as examples the structural materials of the reactor core - the fuel elements consisting of coated particles in a graphite matrix and the structural graphite. Emphasis is given to the methods of chemical analysis. The composition of fuel kernels is investigated using chemical analysis methods to determine the heavy metals content (uranium, plutonium, thorium and metallic impurity elements) and the amount of non-metallic constituents. The properties of the pyrocarbon and silicon carbide coatings of fuel elements are investigated using specially developed physiochemical methods. Regarding the irradiation behaviour of coated particles and fuel elements, methods have been developed for examining specimens in hot cells following exposures under reactor operating conditions, to supplement the measurements of in-reactor performance. For the structural graphite, the determination of impurities is important because certain impurities may cause pitting corrosion during irradiation. The localized analysis of very low impurity concentrations is carried out using spectrochemical d.c. arc excitation, local laser and inductively coupled plasma methods. (orig.)

  18. Advanced Biocatalytic Processing of Heterogeneous Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to a Platform Chemical Intermediate (Lactic acid Ester)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sharon Shoemaker

    2004-09-03

    The development of commercial boi-based processes and products derived from agricultural waste biomass has the potential for significant impact on the economy and security of our nation. Adding value, rather than disposing of the waste of agriculture, can solve an environmental problem and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of fossil fuel for production of chemicals, materials and fuels.

  19. Advances in structure formation of anisotropic protein-rich foods through novel processing concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manski, J.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Development of protein-rich food products is currently limited by lack of scientific insights in structuring processes. The application of well-defined flow appears to be a good tool to create novel anisotropic food structures, on one hand, and to improve understanding of the behavior of

  20. Advanced signal processing theory and implementation for sonar, radar, and non-invasive medical diagnostic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stergiopoulos, Stergios

    2009-01-01

    Integrates topics of signal processing from sonar, radar, and medical system technologies by identifying their concept similarities. This book covers non-invasive medical diagnostic system applications, including intracranial ultrasound, a technology that attempts to address non-invasive detection on brain injuries and stroke.

  1. Advanced information management for grid process control; Modernes Informationsmanagement zur Netzbetriebsfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze Eissing, Heinrich [Stadtwerke Muenster GmbH, Muenster (Germany); Fontein, Reinhard [Kisters AG, Oldenburg (Germany); Teschner, Hans-Georg

    2008-11-15

    A new grid control system for the control and monitoring of natural gas distribution systems, water distribution systems and long-distance heating distribution systems supports the public utilities Muenster (Federal Republic of Germany) during the optimization of the operation of its supply processes. Beside this, it provides more transparency and security with the flow charts.

  2. Recent advances in techniques for flavor recovery in liquid food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saffarionpour, S.; Ottens, M.

    2017-01-01

    Recovery of volatile flavor-active aroma compounds which are key components of processed liquid food streams is of utmost concern to food industry, as these compounds contribute to the quality of the final product. This review paper highlights the recently published research on different

  3. Advanced signal processing techniques for acoustic detection of sodium/water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yughay, V.S.; Gribok, A.V.; Volov, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper results of development of a neural network technique for processing of acoustic background noise and injection noise of various media (argon, water steam, hydrogen) at test rigs and industrial steam generator are presented. (author). 3 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Roles of Woody Root-Associated Fungi in Forest Ecosystem Processes: Recent Advances in Fungal Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Jonalea R. Tonn; Geral I. McDonald; Paul J. Zambino; Jack D. Rogers; Tobin L. Peever; Lori M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    Interactions between fungi and woody roots may be critical factors that influence diverse forest ecosystems processes, such as wood decay (nutrient recycling); root diseases and their biological control; and endophytic, epiphytic, and mycorrhizal symbioses. However, few studies have characterized the diversity and the spatial and temporal distribution of woody root-...

  5. Characterization of suspended bacteria from processing units in an advanced drinking water treatment plant of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Weiying; Zhang, Junpeng; Qi, Wanqi; Zhou, Yanyan; Xiang, Yuan; Shi, Nuo

    2017-05-01

    For the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), the organic pollutant removal was the primary focus, while the suspended bacterial was always neglected. In this study, the suspended bacteria from each processing unit in a DWTP employing an ozone-biological activated carbon process was mainly characterized by using heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs), a flow cytometer, and 454-pyrosequencing methods. The results showed that an adverse changing tendency of HPC and total cell counts was observed in the sand filtration tank (SFT), where the cultivability of suspended bacteria increased to 34%. However, the cultivability level of other units stayed below 3% except for ozone contact tank (OCT, 13.5%) and activated carbon filtration tank (ACFT, 34.39%). It meant that filtration processes promoted the increase in cultivability of suspended bacteria remarkably, which indicated biodegrading capability. In the unit of OCT, microbial diversity indexes declined drastically, and the dominant bacteria were affiliated to Proteobacteria phylum (99.9%) and Betaproteobacteria class (86.3%), which were also the dominant bacteria in the effluent of other units. Besides, the primary genus was Limnohabitans in the effluents of SFT (17.4%) as well as ACFT (25.6%), which was inferred to be the crucial contributors for the biodegradable function in the filtration units. Overall, this paper provided an overview of community composition of each processing units in a DWTP as well as reference for better developing microbial function for drinking water treatment in the future.

  6. Commentary: Advances in Research on Sourcing-Source Credibility and Reliable Processes for Producing Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Clark A.; Rinehart, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    In our commentary on this excellent set of articles on "Sourcing in the Reading Process," we endeavor to synthesize the findings from the seven articles and discuss future research. We discuss significant contributions related to source memory, source evaluation, use of sources in action and belief, integration of information from…

  7. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of…

  8. Advancing e-commerce personalization : Process framework and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Maurits; Parvinen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Personalization is widely used in e-commerce, and as computational power increases, personalization is now within reach for many online vendors. We describe a process framework to structure our knowledge of online personalization —both from academia and from applied attempts. This framework is

  9. Advancing E-Commerce Personalization: Process Framework and Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Personalization is widely used in e-commerce, and as computational power increases, personalization is now within reach for many online vendors. We describe a process framework to structure our knowledge of online personalization both from academia and from applied attempts. This framework is

  10. Advanced Processing Technology semiannual report, March--December 1991. Volume 1, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Kline-Simon, K. [eds.

    1991-12-31

    This first issue of the APT Semiannual Report focuses on APT`s defense-related technologies. These technologies are a continuation of the research, development, and engineering work performed by LLNLs Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Program. SIS was the first large-scale DOE venture that had environmentally conscious manufacturing processes and facilities as its deliverables. The objectives were to create a facility where the only outputs were either usable products or disposable wastes, and to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to safeguards, security, health and safety. To meet these objectives, revolutionary changes were needed in plutonium processing operations, chemistry, and equipment. New processes had to be developed that enhanced worker safety, minimized operator radiation dose, minimized waste at the point of generation, and provided for built-in recycling of residues. The SIS Program developed and demonstrated the technology (both chemistry and physics) necessary to provide plutonium with individual isotopic tailoring. This process made it possible to transform fuel-grade plutonium into weapon-grade material. However, due to the changing world political climate, the country`s need for plutonium to make new weapons has decreased dramatically. As a result, the planned SIS plutonium-separation plant will not be built. After the SIS Program was canceled in 199 1, Congress directed that the plutonium processing technologies under development for the SIS Program be redirected to the weapons program. APT took over the development of the innovative SIS technologies and is applying them to the development of a new, reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex -- Complex 21. ``Close Out of the SIS Program`` describes the completion of the SIS research and development work, and the transfer of key technologies to support this reconfiguration effort.

  11. Landfill Leachate Treatment Using Coupled, Sequential Coagulation-flocculation and Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Álvarez Cruz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of Fenton (Fe/H2O2 and photo-assisted Fenton (Fe2+/H2O2/UV reactions combined with coagulation-flocculation (C-F processes to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD in a landfill leachate from Mexico at a laboratory scale. The C-F experiments were carried out in jar test equipment using different FeSO4 concentrations (0.0, 0.6, 1.0, 3, and 6 mM at pH = 3.0. The effluent from the C-F processes were then treated using the Fenton reaction. The experiments were carried out in a 500 mL glass reactor fillet with 250 mL of landfill leachate. Different molar ratio concentrations (Fe/H2O2 were tested (e.g., 1.6, 3.3, 30, 40 and 75, and the reaction was followed until COD analysis showed no significant further variation in concentration or until 90 min of reaction time were completed. The photo-assisted Fenton reaction was carried out using a UV lamp (365 nm, 5 mW with the same Fe/H2O2 molar ratio values described above. The results suggested that the photo-assisted Fenton process is the most efficient oxidation method for removing organic matter and color in the leachate. The photo-assisted Fenton process removed 68% of the COD and 90% of the color at pH = 3 over 30 minutes of reaction time using a H2O2/Fe molar ratio equal to 75 only using a third of the reaction time of the previous process.

  12. Effects of advanced process approaches on electromigration degradation of Cu on-chip interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.

    2007-07-12

    This thesis provides a methodology for the investigation of electromigration (EM) in Cu-based interconnects. An experimental framework based on in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations was developed for that purpose. It is capable to visualize the EM-induced void formation and evolution in multi-level test structures in real time. Different types of interconnects were investigated. Furthermore, stressed and unstressed samples were studied applying advanced physical analysis techniques in order to obtain additional information about the microstructure of the interconnects as well as interfaces and grain boundaries. These data were correlated to the observed degradation phenomena. Correlations of the experimental results to recently established theoretical models were highlighted. Three types of Cu-based interconnects were studied. Pure Cu interconnects were compared to Al-alloyed (CuAl) and CoWP-coated interconnects. The latter two represent potential approaches that address EM-related reliability concerns. It was found that in such interconnects the dominant diffusion path is no longer the Cu/capping layer interface for interconnects as in pure Cu interconnects. Instead, void nucleation occurs at the bottom Cu/barrier interface with significant effects from grain boundaries. Moreover, the in-situ investigations revealed that the initial void nucleation does not occur at the cathode end of the lines but several micrometers away from it. The mean times-to-failure of CuAl and CoWP-coated interconnects were increased by at least one order of magnitude compared to Cu interconnects. The improvements were attributed to the presence of foreign metal atoms at the Cu/capping layer interface. Post-mortem EBSD investigations were used to reveal the microstructure of the tested samples. The data were correlated to the in-situ observations. (orig.)

  13. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  14. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Interfacial Strengthening in Creep Deformation and Radiation Damage Processes of Advanced Structural Materials for Nuclear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang

    2018-02-01

    The mechanisms for microstructural strengthening in creep deformation and radiation damage processes of advanced structural materials for nuclear applications are compared. During creep and irradiation, various defects are generated and move in the microstructure. Any microstructural features that can retard such defect movement may improve both creep and radiation damage resistance. Interfaces in the microstructure are important barriers for preventing defect motion. To achieve ultrahigh strength and enhanced radiation damage resistance, an extremely high density of interfaces has been designed in recently developed nanostructured materials. However, interface-mediated processes may govern the deformation of these materials, decreasing their creep properties. Methods for improving the creep resistance of nanostructured materials are reviewed and discussed.

  16. Water and Wastewater Disinfection with Peracetic Acid and UV Radiation and Using Advanced Oxidative Process PAA/UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Beber de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual methods of disinfection peracetic acid (PAA and UV radiation and combined process PAA/UV in water (synthetic and sanitary wastewater were employed to verify the individual and combined action of these advanced oxidative processes on the effectiveness of inactivation of microorganisms indicators of fecal contamination E. coli, total coliforms (in the case of sanitary wastewater, and coliphages (such as virus indicators. Under the experimental conditions investigated, doses of 2, 3, and 4 mg/L of PAA and contact time of 10 minutes and 60 and 90 s exposure to UV radiation, the results indicated that the combined method PAA/UV provided superior efficacy when compared to individual methods of disinfection.

  17. Evaluation methodology for advance heat exchanger concepts using analytical hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung Soo; Patterson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how the major alternatives and criteria being developed for the heat exchangers for next generation nuclear reactors are evaluated using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). This evaluation was conducted as an aid in developing and selecting heat exchangers for integrating power production and process heat applications with next generation nuclear reactors. The basic setup for selecting the most appropriate heat exchanger option was established with evaluation goals, alternatives, and criteria. The two potential candidates explored in this study were shell-and-tube (helical coiled) and printed circuit heat exchangers. Based on study results, the shell-and-tube (helical coiled) heat exchanger is recommended for a demonstration reactor in the near term, mainly because of its reliability.

  18. Degradation of phthalate in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation process, photo-fenton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, S.; Bellakhal, N.; Oturan, N.; Oturan, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    A photochemical method for degradation of persistent organic pollutants present in liquid effluents from the plastic industry and in the leaching described. This method, called P hoto-Fenton i nvolves the generation of radicals hydroxyl coupling between the Fenton reaction and photochemistry, OH radicals. Thus formed react with very high speeds, organic substances pollutants leading to their oxidation to total mineralization. In this study, we applied the process photo-Fenton treatment Plasticizers, Phthalates. For this, optimization of experimental parameters (namely the relationship between the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and iron concentration catalyst) was performed. Under optimal conditions and determined the kinetics mineralization of phthalic anhydride by OH was studied. The overall results confirm the effectiveness of photo-Fenton process for the decontamination of liquid effluents responsible for persistent organic pollutants (Pop's).

  19. Optimization of solid-state synthesis process of advanced ceramics materials: influence of mixing conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakri Adel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of mixing process on solid state reaction of solid oxide material mixture was studied. Lead piezoelectric ceramic specimens 0.5 Pb(Zn1/3,Sb2/3O3-0.5 Pb0.98La0.02(Zr0.48,Ti0.52O3 prepared by different mixing procedures, were conducted under different conditions such as order, combination and mixing time. The phase formation, composition nature, structural properties of powder mixture was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The obtained results for different mixing processes make the solid state reaction method more selective, taking into consideration the attraction forces between the reactants and the electronegativity of oxide reactants.

  20. Advances in process technology for eco-friendly phosphates by separation of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Mukherjee, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Phosphates are used in the industry for fertilizers, industrial chemicals (detergents, water-treatment chemicals) and food-additives. The source of phosphates for the industry is rock-phosphate. Over 90% of phosphate rocks of the world are associated with uranium and its radioactive daughter products. Processing and use of phosphates is accompanied by radiation hazards. The concentration of radionuclides is low, but in view of large number of persons exposed to the hazards, the cumulative societal pollution load is high, and a matter of concern for international organisations. Chemical engineering techniques have been developed for the reduction of societal radiation hazard from the phosphates. In this paper, brief details of the process and developmental efforts in India are described. (author)