WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced reactivity measurement facility-1

  1. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel

  2. First OH reactivity measurements in Harvard Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdlinger-Blatt, I. S.; Martin, S. T.; Hansel, A.; McKinney, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    The OH reactivity provides critical insight into the HOx budget under actual atmospheric conditions, and has implications for the production of ozone and the formation of secondary organic material. Previous studies have indicated that the OH reactivity measured at field sites often exceeds model estimations, but current experiments remain inconclusive about the origin of the discrepancy between the modeled and measured OH reactivity (Lou et al., 2010). As of now there are only a limited number of atmospheric studies of total OH reactivity available, so to improve understanding of the OH reactivity more studies are needed. The first OH reactivity measurements in the northeastern United States are being performed during the summer of 2013 at Harvard Forest. Harvard forest, is located about 100 km west of the Boston metropolitan area, is one of the most intensively studied forests in North America. The main biogenic VOC emitted from Harvard Forest is isoprene followed by monoterpenes and methanol. Sampling for the OH reactivity measurements will be conducted from a 30m tall meteorological tower at the Harvard Forest site. The air is drawn into a reaction cell where the OH reactivity is determined using the Comparative Reactivity Method (Sinha et al., 2008) employing a High-Sensitivity Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (Lindinger et al., 1998, Hansel et al., 1998). In addition to the OH reactivity measurements, the most abundant compounds present in the air sample will be quantified using PTR-MS. The quantification of these compounds is needed to compare the theoretical calculated OH reactivity with the measured OH reactivity data. The measurements will be used to evaluate our understanding of the OH budget at Harvard Forest. References: A. Hansel, A. Jordan, C. Warneke, R. Holzinger, and W. Lindinger.: Improved Detection Limit of the Proton-transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer: On-line Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds at Mixing Ratios of a Few PPTV

  3. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  4. Advanced oxidation of acid and reactive dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslan-Alaton, I.; Gursoy, B.H.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    M) for 10:hsp sp="0.25" min Fenton treatment at pH 3, resulting in reduced chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal efficiencies; only acetate was detected as a stable dye oxidation end product. During anaerobic digestion, 100, 29% and no inhibition in methane production was observed...... for the untreated blue, red and orange dyes, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the blue reactive dye on methane production was ∼21% after Fenton treatment. Neither untreated nor treated dyes exhibited an inhibitory effect on denitrification. Aerobic glucose degradation was inhibited by 23-29% by untreated dyes......The effect of untreated and Fenton-treated acid dyes (C.I. Acid Red 183 and C.I. Acid Orange 51) and a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 4) on aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic processes was investigated. The optimum Fe2+:H2O2 molar ratio was selected as 1:5 (4:hsp sp="0.25" mM:20:hsp sp="0.25"m...

  5. Statistical error analysis of reactivity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thammaluckan, Sithisak; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    After statistical analysis, it was confirmed that each group were sampled from same population. It is observed in Table 7 that the mean error decreases as core size increases. Application of bias factor obtained from this research reduces mean error further. The point kinetic model had been used to measure control rod worth without 3D spatial information of neutron flux or power distribution, which causes inaccurate result. Dynamic Control rod Reactivity Measurement (DCRM) was employed to take into account of 3D spatial information of flux in the point kinetics model. The measured bank worth probably contains some uncertainty such as methodology uncertainty and measurement uncertainty. Those uncertainties may varies with size of core and magnitude of reactivity. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of core size and magnitude of control rod worth on the error of reactivity measurement using statistics.

  6. On reactive oxygen species measurement in living systems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Studies devoted to the detection and measurement of free radicals in biological systems generally generated accepted methods of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level analysis. When out of control, ROS induces tissue damage, chronic inflammatory processes and cellular functional disturbances. Aerobic organisms have adapted to defense against ROS aggression by developing potent antioxidant mechanisms. Recent advances in ROS measurement methodology allow the study of ROS biology at a previously un...

  7. Reactivity Measurement and Analysis System (RMAS-7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper tries to describe the Reactivity Measurement and Analysis System 7 (RMAS-7), which is an Areva’s hardware and software solution capable of accomplishing the physic startup tests in a work shift. RMAS-7 is a modular solution designed to be a powerful, convenient data collection and analysis system based on Ethernet communication network. This last feature allows RMAS-7 to have a distributed architecture. (Author)

  8. Advancing the measurement of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Bogner, Jennifer A; Heinemann, Allen W

    2011-04-01

    The authors of 3 articles in this issue have collaborated in an effort to advance the conceptualization and measurement of participation. These articles offer (1) a new tool for measuring participation, the Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (PART-O), which combines items from widely used instruments in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation research; (2) 2 methods of scoring 17 items of PART-O, assessing relatively objective social role performance and yielding 3 subscale scores, as well as 2 alternative total scores (including 1 incorporating the concept of balance among types of participation), and (3) 19 enfranchisement items assessing the degree to which people with disability perceive they have the freedom to engage in social roles of their choosing while being accepted and valued by others.

  9. Measuring Memory Reactivation With Functional MRI: Implications for Psychological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Benjamin J; Wagner, Anthony D

    2013-01-01

    Environmental cues often remind us of earlier experiences by triggering the reactivation of memories of events past. Recent evidence suggests that memory reactivation can be observed using functional MRI and that distributed pattern analyses can even provide evidence of reactivation on individual trials. The ability to measure memory reactivation offers unique and powerful leverage on theoretical issues of long-standing interest in cognitive psychology, providing a means to address questions that have proven difficult to answer with behavioral data alone. In this article, we consider three instances. First, reactivation measures can indicate whether memory-based inferences (i.e., generalization) arise through the encoding of integrated cross-event representations or through the flexible expression of separable event memories. Second, online measures of memory reactivation may inform theories of forgetting by providing information about when competing memories are reactivated during competitive retrieval situations. Finally, neural reactivation may provide a window onto the role of replay in memory consolidation. The ability to track memory reactivation, including at the individual trial level, provides unique leverage that is not afforded by behavioral measures and thus promises to shed light on such varied topics as generalization, integration, forgetting, and consolidation.

  10. The role of advanced reactive surface area characterization in improving predictions of mineral reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, L. E.; Zhang, S.; Mitnick, E.; Cole, D. R.; Yang, L.; Anovitz, L. M.; Sheets, J.; Swift, A.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Landrot, G.; Mito, S.; Xue, Z.; Steefel, C. I.; DePaolo, D. J.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 in deep sedimentary formations is a promising means of mitigating carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants but the long-term fate of injected CO2 is challenging to predict. Reactive transport models are used to gain insight over long times but rely on laboratory determined mineral reaction rates that have been difficult to extrapolate to field systems. This, in part, is due to a lack of understanding of mineral reactive surface area. Many models use an arbitrary approximation of reactive surface area, applying orders of magnitude scaling factors to measured BET or geometric surface areas. Recently, a few more sophisticated approaches have used 2D and 3D image analyses to determine mineral-specific reactive surface areas that account for the accessibility of minerals. However, the ability of these advanced surface area estimates to improve predictions of mineral reaction rates has yet to be determined. In this study, we fuse X-ray microCT, SEM QEMSCAN, XRD, SANS, and SEM-FIB analysis to determine mineral-specific accessible reactive surface areas for a core sample from the Nagaoka pilot CO2 injection site (Japan). This sample is primarily quartz, plagioclase, smectite, K-feldspar, and pyroxene. SEM imaging shows abundant smectite cement and grain coatings that decrease the fluid accessibility of other minerals. However, analysis of FIB-SEM images reveals that smectite nano-pores are well connected such that access to underlying minerals is not occluded by smectite coatings. Mineral-specific accessible surfaces are determined, accounting for the connectivity of the pore space with and without connected smectite nano-pores. The large-scale impact of variations in accessibility and dissolution rates are then determined through continuum scale modeling using grid-cell specific information on accessible surface areas. This approach will be compared with a traditional continuum scale model using mineral abundances and common surface area

  11. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  12. Measurements of reactive gaseous rocket injector admittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Bell, W. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study of the quantitative determination of the capabilities of the combustion processes associated with coaxial gaseous propellant rocket injectors to drive combustor pressure oscillations. The data, obtained by employing the modified impedance tube technique with compressed air as the oxidizer and acetylene gas as the fuel, describe the frequency dependence of the admittance of the combined injector-combustion process. The measured data are compared with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann analytical model utilizing different values for the characteristic combustion time tau sub b. The values of tau sub b which result in a best fit between the measured and predicted data are indicated for different equivalence ratios. It is shown that for the coaxial injector investigated in this study the tau sub b varies between 0.7 and 1.2 msec for equivalence ratios in the range of 0.57 to 1.31. In addition, the experimental data indicate that the tested injector system could drive combustion instabilities over a frequency range that is in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann model.

  13. SEG Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert; Laughlin, Darren; Brune, Bob

    2016-10-17

    Significant advancements in the development of sensors to enable rotational seismic measurements have been achieved. Prototypes are available now to support experiments that help validate the utility of rotational seismic measurements.

  14. Reactive immunization suppresses advanced glycation and mitigates diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglova, Tatiana; Makker, Sudesh; Tramontano, Alfonso

    2009-05-01

    Agents that inhibit glycation end products by reducing the carbonyl load from glycation and glycoxidation are an emerging pharmacologic approach to treat complications of diabetes. We previously demonstrated that antibodies generated to the glycoprotein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) can cross-link with reactive carbonyl residues on protein conjugates. Here, we immunized streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with KLH to assess the capacity of the elicited antibodies to intercept carbonyl residues on glycated proteins and to mitigate glycation-related pathology. Compared with diabetic rats immunized with adjuvant alone, KLH-immunized diabetic rats had decreased levels of glycated peptides in sera and demonstrated a reduction in albuminuria, proteinuria, deposition of glycation end products in the kidney, and histologic damage. In vitro, low molecular weight glycated peptides from rat serum reacted with anti-KLH antibodies at a faster rate than normal IgG and selectively modified the lambda chains. The reaction products contained peptide sequences from type I collagen alpha chain, albumin, and LDL receptor-related protein. These adduction reactions were inhibited by free KLH and by reduction of glycated peptides with borohydride. In summary, these results suggest that inherent reactivity of Ig light chains provides a natural mechanism for the removal of cytotoxic glycation products. This reactivity can be augmented by glycoprotein-specific reactive immunization, a potential biopharmaceutical approach to glycation-related pathology.

  15. Advanced in-flight measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Nicholas; Jentink, Henk; Kompenhans, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The book presents a synopsis of the main results achieved during the 3 year EU-project "Advanced Inflight Measurement Techniques (AIM)" which applied advanced image based measurement techniques to industrial flight testing. The book is intended to be not only an overview on the AIM activities but also a guide on the application of advanced optical measurement techniques for future flight testing. Furthermore it is a useful guide for engineers in the field of experimental methods and flight testing who face the challenge of a future requirement for the development of highly accurate non-intrusive in-flight measurement techniques.

  16. The Comparative Reactivity Method ─ a new tool to measure total OH Reactivity in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl (OH radicals play a vital role in maintaining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. To understand variations in OH radicals both source and sink terms must be understood. Currently the overall sink term, or the total atmospheric reactivity to OH, is poorly constrained. Here, we present a new on-line method to directly measure the total OH reactivity (i.e.~total loss rate of OH radicals in a sampled air mass. In this method, a reactive molecule (X, not normally present in air, is passed through a glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced in the glass reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing VOCs and other OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the ambient air allows the air reactivity to be determined. In our existing set up, X is pyrrole and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. The present dynamic range for ambient air reactivity is about 6 to 300 s−1, with an overall maximum uncertainty of 25% above 8 s−1 and up to 50% between 6–8 s−1. The system has been tested and calibrated with different single and mixed hydrocarbon standards showing excellent linearity and accountability with the reactivity of the standards. Potential interferences such as high NO in ambient air, varying relative humidity and photolysis of pyrrole within the setup have also been investigated. While interferences due changing humidity and photolysis of pyrrole are easily overcome by ensuring that humidity in the set up does not change drastically and the photolytic loss of pyrrole is measured and taken into account, respectively, NO>10 ppb in ambient air remains a significant interference for the current configuration of the instrument. Field tests in the tropical rainforest of Suriname (~53 s and the urban atmosphere of Mainz

  17. Fluxes of chemically reactive species inferred from mean concentration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galmarini, S.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of the fluxes of chemically reactive species on the basis of routine measurements of meteorological variables and chemical species. The method takes explicity into account the influence of chemical reactions on the fluxes of the species. As a demonstration o

  18. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, L. [FRx Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Siegrist, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vesper, S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months.

  19. Measuring and monitoring KIPT Neutron Source Facility Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhong, Zhaopeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on developing and constructing a neutron source facility at Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven subcritical system. The accelerator has a 100 kW electron beam using 100 MeV electrons. The subcritical assembly has keff less than 0.98. To ensure the safe operation of this neutron source facility, the reactivity of the subcritical core has to be accurately determined and continuously monitored. A technique which combines the area-ratio method and the flux-to-current ratio method is purposed to determine the reactivity of the KIPT subcritical assembly at various conditions. In particular, the area-ratio method can determine the absolute reactivity of the subcritical assembly in units of dollars by performing pulsed-neutron experiments. It provides reference reactivities for the flux-to-current ratio method to track and monitor the reactivity deviations from the reference state while the facility is at other operation modes. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to simulate both methods using the numerical model of the KIPT subcritical assembly. It is found that the reactivities obtained from both the area-ratio method and the flux-to-current ratio method are spatially dependent on the neutron detector locations and types. Numerical simulations also suggest optimal neutron detector locations to minimize the spatial effects in the flux-to-current ratio method. The spatial correction factors are calculated using Monte Carlo methods for both measuring methods at the selected neutron detector locations. Monte Carlo simulations are also performed to verify the accuracy of the flux-to-current ratio method in monitoring the reactivity swing during a fuel burnup cycle.

  20. Advanced Diagnostics and Instrumentation for Chemically Reactive Flow Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    AO-Aill 912 STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF MECHANICAL ENINEERING F/S 20/5 ADVANCED IAGNOSTICS AN ZNSYR%0TATON FOR CHMICALLY R9[ACT!VY-fTCU) SP 1 R K HANSON...fused silica fiber optics. 2. development of hardware and software to modulate the dye laser wave- length, transfer detector signals to a dedicated...color display monitor, the high speed Versatec graphics printer and the CAMAC 4 M~z A/D system. We have installed the com- puter software system and

  1. Advances in Measurement Technology at NIST's Physical Measurement Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmer, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The NIST mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology. The Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML) has responsibility for maintaining national standards for two dozen physical quantities needed for international trade; and, importantly, it carries out advanced research at the frontiers of measurement science to enable extending innovation into new realms and new markets. This talk will highlight advances being made across several sectors of technology; and it will describe how PML interacts with its many collaborators and clients in industry, government, and academe.

  2. Reactivity worth measurements with Caliban and Silene experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Reactivity worth measurements of material samples put in the central cavities of nuclear reactors allow to test cross section nuclear databases or to extract information about the critical masses of fissile elements. Such experiments have already been completed on the CALIBAN and SILENE experimental reactors operated by the Criticality and Neutronics Research Laboratory of Valduc (Cea, France), using the perturbation measurement technique. Feasibility studies have been performed to prepare future experiments on new materials (beryllium, copper, tantalum, {sup 237}Np) and results show that the obtained values for most materials are clearly above the measurement limits and then the perturbation technique can be used even with smaller size samples.

  3. The Global Atmosphere Watch reactive gases measurement network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G. Schultz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long-term observations of reactive gases in the troposphere are important for understanding trace gas cycles and the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, assessing impacts of emission changes, verifying numerical model simulations, and quantifying the interactions between short-lived compounds and climate change. The World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW program coordinates a global network of surface stations some of which have measured reactive gases for more than 40 years. Gas species included under this umbrella are ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. There are many challenges involved in setting-up and maintaining such a network over many decades and to ensure that data are of high quality, regularly updated and made easily accessible to users. This overview describes the GAW surface station network of reactive gases, its unique quality management framework, and discusses the data that are available from the central archive. Highlights of data use from the published literature are reviewed, and a brief outlook into the future of GAW is given. This manuscript constitutes the overview of a special feature on GAW reactive gases observations with individual papers reporting on research and data analysis of particular substances being covered by the program.

  4. Oxetanes: Recent Advances in Synthesis, Reactivity, and Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James A; Croft, Rosemary A; Davis, Owen A; Doran, Robert; Morgan, Kate F

    2016-10-12

    The four-membered oxetane ring has been increasingly exploited for its contrasting behaviors: its influence on physicochemical properties as a stable motif in medicinal chemistry and its propensity to undergo ring-opening reactions as a synthetic intermediate. These applications have driven numerous studies into the synthesis of new oxetane derivatives. This review takes an overview of the literature for the synthesis of oxetane derivatives, concentrating on advances in the last five years up to the end of 2015. These methods are clustered by strategies for preparation of the ring and further derivatization of preformed oxetane-containing building blocks. Examples of the use of oxetanes in medicinal chemistry are reported, including a collation of oxetane derivatives appearing in recent patents for medicinal chemistry applications. Finally, examples of oxetane derivatives in ring-opening and ring-expansion reactions are described.

  5. Measurements and models of reactive transport in geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Brian; Dror, Ishai; Hansen, Scott K.; Scher, Harvey

    2016-12-01

    Reactive chemical transport plays a key role in geological media across scales, from pore scale to aquifer scale. Systems can be altered by changes in solution chemistry and a wide variety of chemical transformations, including precipitation/dissolution reactions that cause feedbacks that directly affect the flow and transport regime. The combination of these processes with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport in heterogeneous media leads to a rich spectrum of complex dynamics. The principal challenge in modeling reactive transport is to account for the subtle effects of fluctuations in the flow field and species concentrations; spatial or temporal averaging generally suppresses these effects. Moreover, it is critical to ground model conceptualizations and test model outputs against laboratory experiments and field measurements. This review emphasizes the integration of these aspects, considering carefully designed and controlled experiments at both laboratory and field scales, in the context of development and solution of reactive transport models based on continuum-scale and particle tracking approaches. We first discuss laboratory experiments and field measurements that define the scope of the phenomena and provide data for model comparison. We continue by surveying models involving advection-dispersion-reaction equation and continuous time random walk formulations. The integration of measurements and models is then examined, considering a series of case studies in different frameworks. We delineate the underlying assumptions, and strengths and weaknesses, of these analyses, and the role of probabilistic effects. We also show the key importance of quantifying the spreading and mixing of reactive species, recognizing the role of small-scale physical and chemical fluctuations that control the initiation of reactions.

  6. Development and Investigation of Reactivity Measurement Methods in Subcritical Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Johanna

    2005-05-01

    Subcriticality measurements during core loading and in future accelerator driven systems have a clear safety relevance. In this thesis two subcriticality methods are treated: the Feynman-alpha and the source modulation method. The Feynman-alpha method is a technique to determine the reactivity from the relative variance of the detector counts during a measurement period. The period length is varied to get the full time dependence of the variance-to-mean. The corresponding theoretical formula was known only with stationary sources. In this thesis, due to its relevance for novel reactivity measurement methods, the Feynman-alpha formulae for pulsed sources for both the stochastic and the deterministic cases are treated. Formulae neglecting as well as including the delayed neutrons are derived. The formulae neglecting delayed neutrons are experimentally verified with quite good agreement. The second reactivity measurement technique investigated in this thesis is the so-called source modulation technique. The theory of the method was elaborated on the assumption of point kinetics, but in practice the method will be applied by using the signal from a single local neutron detector. Applicability of the method therefore assumes point kinetic behaviour of the core. Hence, first the conditions of the point kinetic behaviour of subcritical cores was investigated. After that the performance of the source modulation technique in the general case as well as and in the limit of exact point kinetic behaviour was examined. We obtained the unexpected result that the method has a finite, non-negligible error even in the limit of point kinetic behaviour, and a substantial error in the operation range of future accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADS). In practice therefore the method needs to be calibrated by some other method for on-line applications.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities in Reactive Processing and Applications of Advanced Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the research, development, and commercialization of innovative synthesis and processing technologies for advanced ceramics and composite materials. Reactive processing approaches have been actively considered due to their robustness, flexibility, and affordability. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based advanced ceramics and composites are currently being fabricated using the processing approaches involving reactive infiltration of liquid and gaseous species into engineered fibrous or microporous carbon performs. The microporous carbon performs have been fabricated using the temperature induced phase separation and pyrolysis of two phase organic (resin-pore former) mixtures and fiber reinforcement of carbon and ceramic particulate bodies. In addition, pyrolyzed native plant cellulose tissues also provide unique carbon templates for manufacturing of non-oxide and oxide ceramics. In spite of great interest in this technology due to their affordability and robustness, there is a lack of scientific basis for process understanding and many technical challenges still remain. The influence of perform properties and other parameters on the resulting microstructure and properties of final material is not well understood. In this presentation, mechanism of silicon-carbon reaction in various systems and the effect of perform microstructure on the mechanical properties of advanced silicon carbide based materials will be discussed. Various examples of applications of reactively processed advanced silicon carbide ceramics and composite materials will be presented.

  8. Measuring Combustion Advance in Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    Set of gauges on solid-propellant rocket motor with electrically insulating case measures advance of combustion front and local erosion rates of propellant and insulation. Data furnished by gauges aid in motor design, failure analysis, and performance prediction. Technique useful in determining propellant uniformity and electrical properties of exhaust plum. Gauges used both in flight and on ground. Foilgauge technique also useful in basic research on pulsed plasmas or combustion of solids.

  9. Advances in near-infrared measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Patonay, Gabor

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Near-Infrared Measurements, Volume 1 provides an overview of near-infrared spectroscopy. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of near-infrared measurement. Chapter 1 discusses remote monitoring techniques in near-infrared spectroscopy with an emphasis on fiber optics. Chapter 2 covers the applications of fibers using Raman techniques, and Chapter 3 tackles the difficulties associated with near-infrared data analysis. The subsequent chapters present examples of the capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy from various research groups. The text wi

  10. Measurement and Research of Equivalent Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity for CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jian-long; LV; Zheng; HUA; Xiao; XIAO; Shi-gang; LIU; Tian-cai; RAN; Huai-chang

    2012-01-01

    <正>The reactor with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity has inner stability, which is a important symbol of inherent reactor safety. During the reactor start-up Commissioning Stage C for CARR, the measurement of equivalent temperature coefficient of reactivity is a important experiment by the way of measuring the reactivity change resulting of the equivalent temperature variation in the reactor core.

  11. Levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and neopterin in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bipath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the value of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP and neopterin as indicators of immune deficiency, co-infection, efficacy of treatment, and disease progression, in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection. Design. Cross-sectional, investigating baseline blood measurements and clinical observations in 82 HIV-positive patients divided into an antiretroviral treatment (ART group and an ART-naïve group. Setting. Secondary general hospital in Pretoria. Results. Procalcitonin and CRP levels showed no significant differences between the ART and ART-naïve groups, and no correlations with CD4 counts or viral loads. CRP levels were significantly higher with TB co-infection (p<0.05. Neopterin levels were raised above normal in 92% of the ART-naïve group and in 75% of the ART group. The levels were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the ART- naïve group. Negative correlations were found between neopterin and CD4 counts for the total patient group (r=-0.482; p<0.001. Neopterin was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the HIV/TB co-infection group than in those without TB. Higher neopterin levels at baseline were associated with a decline in CD4 counts over the ensuing 6-month period, and patients with higher baseline neopterin levels developed more complications over the 6-month period. Conclusions. Compared with procalcitonin and CRP, neopterin appears to be associated with the degree of immunodeficiency and of co-infection with TB. Neopterin levels may be investigated further as a measure of disease progression or treatment response. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:78-82.

  12. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C;

    2006-01-01

    test (SPT) positivity in Danish children has changed from 1986 to 2001. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional studies of two different random population samples of children aged 7 to 17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark, were performed 15 years apart. The first cohort was investigated in 1986...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...... to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  13. Advanced Ceramics Property and Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael; Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the what, how, how not, and why for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committees inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of all of the standards in one volume.

  14. Differentiating challenge reactivity from psychomotor activity in studies of children's psychophysiology: considerations for theory and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nicole R; Alkon, Abbey; Obradović, Jelena; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Current methods of assessing children's physiological "stress reactivity" may be confounded by psychomotor activity, biasing estimates of the relation between reactivity and health. We examined the joint and independent contributions of psychomotor activity and challenge reactivity during a protocol for 5- and 6-year-old children (N = 338). Measures of parasympathetic reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and sympathetic reactivity (preejection period [PEP]) were calculated for social, cognitive, sensory, and emotional challenge tasks. Reactivity was calculated relative to both resting and a paired comparison task that accounted for psychomotor activity effects during each challenge. Results indicated that comparison tasks themselves elicited RSA and PEP responses, and reactivity adjusted for psychomotor activity was incongruent with reactivity calculated using rest. Findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for confounding psychomotor activity effects on physiological reactivity.

  15. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and cardfiac resynchronization therapy in patients with advanced heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi CAI; Wei HUA; Li-Gang DING; Jing WANG; Ke-Ping CHEN; Xin-Wei YANG; Zhi-Min LIU; Shu ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Background The data on the prognostic values of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in patients with advanced symp-tomatic heart failure (HF) receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are scarce. The aim of present study was to investigate the association of serum hsCRP levels with left ventricle reverse remodeling after six months of CRT as well as long-term outcome. Methods A total of 232 CRT patients were included. The assessment of hsCRP values, clinical status and echocardiographic data were performed at baseline and after six months of CRT. Long-term follow-up included all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for HF. Results During the mean follow-up periods of 31.3 ± 31.5 months, elevated hsCRP (>3 mg/L) prior to CRT was associated with a significant 2.39-fold increase (P=0.006) in the risk of death or HF hospitalizations. At 6-month follow-up, patients who responded to CRT showed significant reductions or maintained low in hsCRP levels (–0.5 ± 4.1 mg/L reduction) compared with non-responders (1.7 ± 6.1 mg/L increase, P=0.018). Com-pared with patients in whom 6-month hsCRP levels were reduced or remained low, patients in whom 6-month hsCRP levels were increased or maintained high experienced a significantly higher risk of subsequent death or HF hospitalizations (Log-rank P<0.001). The echocardio-graphic improvement was also better among patients in whom 6-month hsCRP levels were reduced or remained low compared to those in whom 6-month hsCRP levels were raised or maintained high. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that measurement of baseline and follow-up hsCRP levels may be useful as prognostic markers for timely potential risk stratification and subsequent appropriate treatment strategies in patients with advanced HF undergoing CRT.

  16. The Mechanical Response of Advanced Claddings during Proposed Reactivity Initiated Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N [ORNL; Brown, Nicholas R [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Lowden, Rick R [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the failure mechanisms of advanced nuclear fuel cladding of FeCrAl at high-strain rates, similar to design basis reactivity initiated accidents (RIA). During RIA, the nuclear fuel cladding was subjected to the plane-strain to equibiaxial tension strain states. To achieve those accident conditions, the samples were deformed by the expansion of high strength Inconel alloy tube under pre-specified pressure pulses as occurring RIA. The mechanical response of the advanced claddings was compared to that of hydrided zirconium-based nuclear fuel cladding alloy. The hoop strain evolution during pressure pulses were collected in situ; the permanent diametral strains of both accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings and the current nuclear fuel alloys were determined after rupture.

  17. Summertime total OH reactivity measurements from boreal forest during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nölscher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient total OH reactivity was measured at the Finnish boreal forest station SMEAR II in Hyytiälä (Latitude 61°51' N; Longitude 24°17' E in July and August 2010 using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM. The CRM – total OH reactivity method – is a direct, in-situ determination of the total loss rate of hydroxyl radicals (OH caused by all reactive species in air. During the intensive field campaign HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 (Hyytiälä United Measurements of Photochemistry and Particles in Air – Comprehensive Organic Precursor Emission and Concentration study the total OH reactivity was monitored both inside (18 m and directly above the forest canopy (24 m for the first time. The comparison between these two total OH reactivity measurements, absolute values and the temporal variation have been analyzed here. Stable boundary layer conditions during night and turbulent mixing in the daytime induced low and high short-term variability, respectively. The impact on total OH reactivity from biogenic emissions and associated photochemical products was measured under "normal" and "stressed" (i.e. prolonged high temperature conditions. The advection of biomass burning emissions to the site caused a marked change in the total OH reactivity vertical profile. By comparing the OH reactivity contribution from individually measured compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity, the size of any unaccounted for or "missing" sink can be deduced for various atmospheric influences. For "normal" boreal conditions a missing OH reactivity of 58%, whereas for "stressed" boreal conditions a missing OH reactivity of 89% was determined. Various sources of not quantified OH reactive species are proposed as possible explanation for the high missing OH reactivity.

  18. Measurement and Analysis of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE) is one of the important parameters in the design and safety analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactors. In some serious accident conditions, for example the total instantaneous blockage (TIB) accident,

  19. Total OH reactivity measurements in Paris during the 2010 MEGAPOLI winter campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dolgorouky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals play a central role in the troposphere as they control the lifetime of many trace gases. Measurement of OH reactivity (OH loss rate is important to better constrain the OH budget and also to evaluate the completeness of measured VOC budget. Total atmospheric OH reactivity was measured for the first time in an European Megacity: Paris and its surrounding areas with 12 million inhabitants, during the MEGAPOLI winter campaign 2010. The method deployed was the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM. The measured dataset contains both measured and calculated OH reactivity from CO, NOx and VOCs measured via PTR-MS, GC-FID and GC-MS instruments. The reactivities observed in Paris covered a range from 10 s−1 to 130 s−1, indicating a large loading of chemical reactants. The present study showed that, when clean marine air masses influenced Paris, the purely local OH reactivity (20 s−1 is well explained by the measured species. Nevertheless, when there is a continental import of air masses, high levels of OH reactivity were obtained (120–130 s−1 and the missing OH reactivity measured in this case jumped to 75%. Using covariations of the missing OH reactivity to secondary inorganic species in fine aerosols, we suggest that the missing OH reactants were most likely highly oxidized compounds issued from photochemically processed air masses of anthropogenic origin.

  20. Total OH reactivity measurements in Paris during the 2010 MEGAPOLI winter campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dolgorouky

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals play a central role in the troposphere as they control the lifetime of many trace gases. Measurement of OH reactivity (OH loss rate is important to better constrain the OH budget and also to evaluate the completeness of measured VOC budget. Total atmospheric OH reactivity was measured for the first time in an European Megacity: Paris and its surrounding areas with 12 million inhabitants, during the MEGAPOLI winter campaign 2010. The method deployed was the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM. The measured dataset contains both measured and calculated OH reactivity from CO, NOx and VOCs measured via PTR-MS, GC-FID and GC-MS instruments. The reactivities observed in Paris covered a range from 10 s−1 to 130 s−1, indicating a large loading of chemical reactants. The present study showed that, when clean marine air masses influenced Paris, the purely local OH reactivity (20 s−1 is well explained by the measured species. Nevertheless, when there is a continental import of air masses, high levels of OH reactivity were obtained (120–130 s−1 and the missing OH reactivity measured in this case jumped to 75%. Using covariations of the missing OH reactivity to secondary inorganic species in fine aerosols, we suggest that the missing OH reactants were most likely highly oxidized compounds issued from photochemically processed air masses of anthropogenic origin.

  1. Measurement of OH reactivity by laser flash photolysis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Daniel; Whalley, Lisa K.; Ingham, Trevor; Edwards, Peter M.; Cryer, Danny R.; Brumby, Charlotte A.; Seakins, Paul W.; Heard, Dwayne E.

    2016-07-01

    OH reactivity (k'OH) is the total pseudo-first-order loss rate coefficient describing the removal of OH radicals to all sinks in the atmosphere, and is the inverse of the chemical lifetime of OH. Measurements of ambient OH reactivity can be used to discover the extent to which measured OH sinks contribute to the total OH loss rate. Thus, OH reactivity measurements enable determination of the comprehensiveness of measurements used in models to predict air quality and ozone production, and, in conjunction with measurements of OH radical concentrations, to assess our understanding of OH production rates. In this work, we describe the design and characterisation of an instrument to measure OH reactivity using laser flash photolysis coupled to laser-induced fluorescence (LFP-LIF) spectroscopy. The LFP-LIF technique produces OH radicals in isolation, and thus minimises potential interferences in OH reactivity measurements owing to the reaction of HO2 with NO which can occur if HO2 is co-produced with OH in the instrument. Capabilities of the instrument for ambient OH reactivity measurements are illustrated by data collected during field campaigns in London, UK, and York, UK. The instrumental limit of detection for k'OH was determined to be 1.0 s-1 for the campaign in London and 0.4 s-1 for the campaign in York. The precision, determined by laboratory experiment, is typically < 1 s-1 for most ambient measurements of OH reactivity. Total uncertainty in ambient measurements of OH reactivity is ˜ 6 %. We also present the coupling and characterisation of the LFP-LIF instrument to an atmospheric chamber for measurements of OH reactivity during simulated experiments, and provide suggestions for future improvements to OH reactivity LFP-LIF instruments.

  2. Advances in the MQDT approach of electron/molecular cation reactive collisions: High precision extensive calculations for applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motapon O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the stepwise multichannel quantum defect theory approach of electron/molecular cation reactive collisions have been applied to perform computations of cross sections and rate coefficients for dissociative recombination and electron-impact ro-vibrational transitions of H2+, BeH+ and their deuterated isotopomers. At very low energy, rovibronic interactions play a significant role in the dynamics, whereas at high energy, the dissociative excitation strongly competes with all other reactive processes.

  3. Pomegranate phenolics inhibit formation of advanced glycation endproducts by scavenging reactive carbonyl species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixi; Ma, Hang; Frost, Leslie; Yuan, Tao; Dain, Joel A; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of molecules produced from non-enzymatic glycation. Accumulation of AGEs in vivo plays an important role in the pathology of chronic human diseases including type-2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Natural AGEs inhibitors such as the pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit show great potential for the management of these diseases. Herein, we investigated the in vitro anti-glycation effects of a pomegranate fruit extract (PE), its phenolic constituents [punicalagin (PA), ellagic acid (EA) and gallic acid (GA)], and their in vivo derived colonic metabolites [urolithin A (UA) and urolithin B (UB)]. All of the samples showed anti-glycation activities and PE, PA, and EA were more potent inhibitors than the positive control, aminoguanidine. PE and the purified phenolics also exhibited carbonyl scavenger reactivity. Our study suggests that pomegranate may offer an attractive dietary strategy for the prevention and treatment of AGE-related diseases such as type-2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Retinol up-regulates the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) by increasing intracellular reactive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2008-08-01

    Retinol (vitamin A) and other retinoids have been suggested to exert an important antioxidant function in biological systems, besides their more established role as regulators of cell growth and differentiation. On the other hand, many authors have recently observed pro-oxidant activities of vitamin A and other retinoids in vitro and in vivo, resulting in cell death and/or transformation associated to increased oxidative damage. However, the mechanisms by which retinol causes oxidative stress are still not fully understood. Receptors for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) have been recently implied as promoters and/or amplifiers of oxidant-mediated cell death induced by diverse agents, and increased RAGE expression is observed in conditions related to unbalanced production of reactive species, such as in atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. In the present work, we observed that retinol supplementation increases RAGE protein expression in cultured Sertoli cells, and antioxidant co-treatment reversed this effect. Retinol-increased RAGE expression was observed only at concentrations that induce intracellular reactive species production, as assessed by the DCFH assay. These results indicate that retinol is able to increase RAGE expression by an oxidant-dependent mechanism, and suggest that RAGE signaling may be involved in some of the deleterious effects observed in some retinol-supplementation therapies.

  5. OH radical reactivity in an Indiana Forest: Measurements and model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, P. S. R.; Bottorff, B.; Lew, M.; Stevens, P. S.; Leonardis, T.; Locoge, N.; Sklaveniti, S.; Dusanter, S.; Kundu, S.; Wood, E. C. D.; Gentner, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) radicals plays an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. OH radical reactions initiate the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which can lead to the production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere. In addition, reactions of OH radicals controls the lifetime of methane and other greenhouse gases that affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Previous measurements of total hydroxyl radical reactivity in forest environments have found discrepancies between measured values and those calculated from collocated measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) concentrations. Additional measurements of total OH reactivity together with measurements of BVOCs are needed to understand the source of this missing reactivity and to further constrain atmospheric chemistry models. Total hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity was measured using a turbulent flow reactor were made during summer 2015 as part of the Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison (IRRONIC). This campaign took place in a forested area at the Indiana Research and Teaching Preserve (IURTP) near the Bloomington campus characterized by high mixing ratios of isoprene and low mixing ratios of NOx. Measurements of a suite of VOCs and oxygenated VOCs was also conducted at the site, allowing a comparison of the observed reactivity with the expected OH reactivity from these measurements.

  6. Measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species, Reactive Nitrogen Species, and Redox-Dependent Signaling in the Cardiovascular System: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griendling, Kathy K; Touyz, Rhian M; Zweier, Jay L; Dikalov, Sergey; Chilian, William; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Harrison, David G; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2016-08-19

    Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are biological molecules that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and contribute to disease initiation, progression, and severity. Because of their ephemeral nature and rapid reactivity, these species are difficult to measure directly with high accuracy and precision. In this statement, we review current methods for measuring these species and the secondary products they generate and suggest approaches for measuring redox status, oxidative stress, and the production of individual reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We discuss the strengths and limitations of different methods and the relative specificity and suitability of these methods for measuring the concentrations of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in cells, tissues, and biological fluids. We provide specific guidelines, through expert opinion, for choosing reliable and reproducible assays for different experimental and clinical situations. These guidelines are intended to help investigators and clinical researchers avoid experimental error and ensure high-quality measurements of these important biological species.

  7. Detailed characterization of a Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) instrument for ambient OH reactivity measurements: experiments vs. modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Vincent; Locoge, Nadine; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    The Hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main daytime oxidant in the troposphere, leading to the oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the formation of harmful pollutants such as ozone (O3) and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). While OH plays a key role in tropospheric chemistry, recent studies have highlighted that there are still uncertainties associated with the OH budget, i.e the identification of sources and sinks and the quantification of production and loss rates of this radical. It has been demonstrated that ambient measurements of the total OH loss rate (also called total OH reactivity) can be used to identify and reduce these uncertainties. In this context, the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM), developed by Sinha et al. (ACP, 2008), is a promising technique to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air and has already been used during several field campaigns. This technique relies on monitoring competitive reactions of OH with ambient trace gases and a reference compound (pyrrole) in a sampling reactor to derive ambient OH reactivity. However, this technique requires a complex data processing chain that has yet to be carefully investigated in the laboratory. In this study, we present a detailed characterization of a CRM instrument developed at Mines Douai, France. Experiments have been performed to investigate the dependence of the CRM response on humidity, ambient NOx levels, and the pyrrole-to-OH ratio inside the sampling reactor. Box modelling of the chemistry occurring in the reactor has also been performed to assess our theoretical understanding of the CRM measurement. This work shows that the CRM response is sensitive to both humidity and NOx, which can be accounted for during data processing using parameterizations depending on the pyrrole-to-OH ratio. The agreement observed between laboratory studies and model results suggests a good understanding of the chemistry occurring in the sampling reactor and gives confidence in the CRM

  8. Measure for Measure: Advancement's Role in Assessments of Institutional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Annie; Pollack, Rachel H.

    2002-01-01

    Explores how accreditation, bond ratings, and magazine rankings--including advancement's role in these assessments--continue to be incomplete and controversial indicators of educational quality. Asserts that advancement officers should work to demonstrate the importance of their efforts, such as increasing endowments and alumni support, within the…

  9. pH effect on decolorization of raw textile wastewater polluted with reactive dyes by advanced oxidation with uv/h2o2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Rimeika, M.; Bruning, H.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of the advanced oxidation process (UV/H2O2) in decolorizing real textile wastewater polluted with commercial reactive dyes - Reactive Yellow 84 and Reactive Red 141 was investigated. All the experiments were performed in a lab-scale reactor with the original high pH of the wastewat

  10. Cerebrovascular reactivity in migraineurs as measured by transcranial Doppler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T.D.; Harpold, G.J. (Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (USA). School of Medicine); Troost, B.T. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasound is a relatively new diagnostic modality which allows the non-invasive assessment of intracranial circulation. A total of 10 migraine patients were studied and compared to healthy controls without headaches. Migraineurs during the headache-free interval demonstrated excessive cerebrovascular reactivity to CO{sub 2}, evidenced by an increase in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity of 47% {plus minus} 15% compared to 28% {plus minus} 14% in controls. Differences between the two study groups revealed no significant decrease in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity with hypocapnia. However, the differences between middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during hyperventilation and CO{sub 2} inhalation were significantly different comparing migraineurs and controls. Instability of the baseline blood flow velocities was also noted in migraineurs during the interictal period. Characteristics which may allow differentiation of migraineurs from other headache populations could possibly be obtained from transcranial Doppler ultrasound flow studies. 24 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Advanced Chemical Reduction of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Its Photocatalytic Activity in Degrading Reactive Black 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Pau Ping Wong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Textile industries consume large volumes of water for dye processing, leading to undesirable toxic dyes in water bodies. Dyestuffs are harmful to human health and aquatic life, and such illnesses as cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A, and hinder the photosynthetic activity of aquatic plants. To overcome this environmental problem, the advanced oxidation process is a promising technique to mineralize a wide range of dyes in water systems. In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO was prepared via an advanced chemical reduction route, and its photocatalytic activity was tested by photodegrading Reactive Black 5 (RB5 dye in aqueous solution. rGO was synthesized by dispersing the graphite oxide into the water to form a graphene oxide (GO solution followed by the addition of hydrazine. Graphite oxide was prepared using a modified Hummers’ method by using potassium permanganate and concentrated sulphuric acid. The resulted rGO nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Raman, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM to further investigate their chemical properties. A characteristic peak of rGO-48 h (275 cm−1 was observed in the UV spectrum. Further, the appearance of a broad peak (002, centred at 2θ = 24.1°, in XRD showing that graphene oxide was reduced to rGO. Based on our results, it was found that the resulted rGO-48 h nanoparticles achieved 49% photodecolorization of RB5 under UV irradiation at pH 3 in 60 min. This was attributed to the high and efficient electron transport behaviors of rGO between aromatic regions of rGO and RB5 molecules.

  12. Hot gas flow cell for optical measurements on reactive gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff

    2013-01-01

    was validated for high resolution measurements at temperatures of up to 800 K (527 degrees C) in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) regions (190-20 000 nm). Verification of the gas temperature in the cell is provided by a thermocouple and emission/transmission measurements in the IR and UV regions. High......-resolution measurements are presented for the absorption cross-section of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the UV range up to 773 K (500 degrees C)...

  13. Reactivity Initiated Accident Simulation to Inform Transient Testing of Candidate Advanced Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R [ORNL; Wysocki, Aaron J [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Advanced cladding materials with potentially enhanced accident tolerance will yield different light water reactor performance and safety characteristics than the present zirconium-based cladding alloys. These differences are due to different cladding material properties and responses to the transient, and to some extent, reactor physics, thermal, and hydraulic characteristics. Some of the differences in reactors physics characteristics will be driven by the fundamental properties (e.g., absorption in iron for an iron-based cladding) and others will be driven by design modifications necessitated by the candidate cladding materials (e.g., a larger fuel pellet to compensate for parasitic absorption). Potential changes in thermal hydraulic limits after transition from the current zirconium-based cladding to the advanced materials will also affect the transient response of the integral fuel. This paper leverages three-dimensional reactor core simulation capabilities to inform on appropriate experimental test conditions for candidate advanced cladding materials in a control rod ejection event. These test conditions are using three-dimensional nodal kinetics simulations of a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) in a representative state-of-the-art pressurized water reactor with both nuclear-grade iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) and silicon carbide based (SiC-SiC) cladding materials. The effort yields boundary conditions for experimental mechanical tests, specifically peak cladding strain during the power pulse following the rod ejection. The impact of candidate cladding materials on the reactor kinetics behavior of RIA progression versus reference zirconium cladding is predominantly due to differences in: (1) fuel mass/volume/specific power density, (2) spectral effects due to parasitic neutron absorption, (3) control rod worth due to hardened (or softened) spectrum, and (4) initial conditions due to power peaking and neutron transport cross sections in the

  14. Reactive Agility Performance in Handball; Development and Evaluation of a Sport-Specific Measurement Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Miodrag; Krolo, Ante; Zenic, Natasa; Delextrat, Anne; Sekulic, Damir

    2015-09-01

    There is no current study that examined sport-specific tests of reactive-agility and change-of-direction-speed (CODS) to replicate real-sport environment in handball (team-handball). This investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of two novel tests designed to assess reactive-agility and CODS of handball players. Participants were female (25.14 ± 3.71 years of age; 1.77 ± 0.09 m and 74.1 ± 6.1 kg) and male handball players (26.9 ± 4.1 years of age; 1.90 ± 0.09 m and 93.90±4.6 kg). Variables included body height, body mass, body mass index, broad jump, 5-m sprint, CODS and reactive-agility tests. Results showed satisfactory reliability for reactive-agility-test and CODS-test (ICC of 0.85-0.93, and CV of 2.4-4.8%). The reactive-agility and CODS shared less than 20% of the common variance. The calculated index of perceptual and reactive capacity (P&RC; ratio between reactive-agility- and CODS-performance) is found to be valid measure in defining true-game reactive-agility performance in handball in both genders. Therefore, the handball athletes' P&RC should be used in the evaluation of real-game reactive-agility performance. Future studies should explore other sport-specific reactive-agility tests and factors associated to such performance in sports involving agile maneuvers. Key pointsReactive agility and change-of-direction-speed should be observed as independent qualities, even when tested over the same course and similar movement templateThe reactive-agility-performance of the handball athletes involved in defensive duties is closer to their non-reactive-agility-score than in their peers who are not involved in defensive dutiesThe handball specific "true-game" reactive-agility-performance should be evaluated as the ratio between reactive-agility and corresponding CODS performance.

  15. Advanced adhesion and friction measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-03-01

    An advanced micro-force tester for investigating the micromechanical behavior of various patterned surfaces in dry and wet conditions is presented in this paper. The parallel slice-beam configuration of the tester not only eliminates the large load-dependent slope and tangential displacement at the free end that is found in a single beam system, but also performs a trans-scale deflection with high sensitivity and linearity for force sensing. Meanwhile, the simple structure is characterized by low cost, high efficiency, and ease of fabrication. An integrated nano- and micro-stage comprise the mobile table to produce a large stroke with high resolution, which is specifically required in wet adhesion testing because of the formation of a long liquid bridge. Preliminary experiments of adhesion and friction conducted using PDMS pillars with a plano-convex lens validated the feasibility of this setup.

  16. Loeb measures in practice recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Cutland, Nigel J

    2000-01-01

    This expanded version of the 1997 European Mathematical Society Lectures given by the author in Helsinki, begins with a self-contained introduction to nonstandard analysis (NSA) and the construction of Loeb Measures, which are rich measures discovered in 1975 by Peter Loeb, using techniques from NSA. Subsequent chapters sketch a range of recent applications of Loeb measures due to the author and his collaborators, in such diverse fields as (stochastic) fluid mechanics, stochastic calculus of variations ("Malliavin" calculus) and the mathematical finance theory. The exposition is designed for a general audience, and no previous knowledge of either NSA or the various fields of applications is assumed.

  17. Multidirectional mobilities: Advanced measurement techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Lars Holger

    Today high noise-and-vibration comfort has become a quality sign of products in sectors such as the automotive industry, aircraft, components, households and manufacturing. Consequently, already in the design phase of products, tools are required to predict the final vibration and noise levels. These tools have to be applicable over a wide frequency range with sufficient accuracy. During recent decades a variety of tools have been developed such as transfer path analysis (TPA), input force estimation, substructuring, coupling by frequency response functions (FRF) and hybrid modelling. While these methods have a well-developed theoretical basis, their application combined with experimental data often suffers from a lack of information concerning rotational DOFs. In order to measure response in all 6 DOFs (including rotation), a sensor has been developed, whose special features are discussed in the thesis. This transducer simplifies the response measurements, although in practice the excitation of moments appears to be more difficult. Several excitation techniques have been developed to enable measurement of multidirectional mobilities. For rapid and simple measurement of the loaded mobility matrix, a MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technique is used. The technique has been tested and validated on several structures of different complexity. A second technique for measuring the loaded 6-by-6 mobility matrix has been developed. This technique employs a model of the excitation set-up, and with this model the mobility matrix is determined from sequential measurements. Measurements on ``real'' structures show that both techniques give results of similar quality, and both are recommended for practical use. As a further step, a technique for measuring the unloaded mobilities is presented. It employs the measured loaded mobility matrix in order to calculate compensation forces and moments, which are later applied in order to compensate for the loading of the

  18. p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde-reactive substances in tail tendon collagen of streptozotocin-diabetic rats: temporal relation to biomechanical properties and advanced glycation endproduct (AGE)-related fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefek, M; Gajdosik, A; Gajdosikova, A; Krizanova, L

    2000-11-15

    In the present work, pepsin digests of tail tendons from streptozotocin-diabetic rats were found to contain material that reacted rapidly at room temperature with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (Ehrlich's reagent) to give an adduct with an absorbance spectrum characteristic of the Ehrlich chromogen of pyrrolic nature determined in ageing collagens. A significant correlation of the Ehrlich adduct with tendon mechanical strength and collagen fluorescence characteristic of advanced glycation endproducts was observed. Collagen content of the Ehrlich-positive material was found to be significantly elevated in tendons of diabetic rats compared with age-matched healthy controls. The results indicate that the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde-reactive pyrrole moieties may contribute to the increased cross-linking of diabetic matrix collagen. Profound inhibitory effect of aminoguanidine was observed, underlining the role of non-enzymatic mechanisms of advanced glycation in pyrrolisation and cross-linking of collagen exposed to hyperglycaemia. It is hypothesised that quantification of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde-reactive material in matrix collagen may provide a tissue measure of integrated hyperglycaemia over prolonged periods of time. Further research is to assess the significance of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde-reactive substances in diabetic collagen tissues and to reveal their relationship to enzyme-mediated physiological pyrrolisation of ageing collagens.

  19. Measurements of reactive gaseous rocket injector response factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Bell, W. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1977-01-01

    The results presented represent the first successful attempt at the measurement of the driving capabilities of coaxial gaseous propellant rocket injectors. The required data have been obtained by employing the modified impedance tube technique with compressed air as the oxidizer and acetylene gas as the fuel. The data describe the frequency dependence of the injector admittances, from which the frequency dependence of the injection response factors can be calculated. The measured injector admittances have been compared with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann (1967) analytical model assuming different values for the characteristic combustion time. The values of combustion time which result in a best fit between the measured and predicted data are indicated for different equivalence ratios. It is shown that for the coaxial injector system investigated in this study the characteristic combustion times vary between .7 and 1.2 msec for equivalence ratios in the range of .57 to 1.31. The experimental data clearly show that the tested injector system could indeed drive combustion instabilities over a frequency range that is in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the Feiler and Heidmann model.

  20. Advanced (Measurement) Applications of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Yaacov; Cummings, Kelli Dawn; Biancarosa, Gina; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a commentary on the current state of several measurement issues pertaining to curriculum-based measures of reading (R-CBM). We begin by providing an overview of the utility of R-CBM, followed by a presentation of five specific measurements considerations: (a) the reliability of R-CBM oral reading fluency…

  1. K {sub infinity} measurements of HTR lattices by oscillated zero reactivity technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, F.; Brighenti, G.; Chiodi, P.L.; Ghilardotti, G.; Guiliani, C.

    1972-06-15

    The principles of the K {sub infinity} measurement of a HTR lattice, carried out by the oscillated zero reactivity method have been reported at the 9th DCPM. The RB-2 reactor modifications, requested for these measurements have been shown at the 10th DCPM. This report summarizes the modified RB-2 reactor characteristics, the present status of measurements, some preliminary results, and, the next measurements program. The report reflects the status of the work at the end of May 1972.

  2. IASI measurements of reactive trace species in biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-F. Coheur

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents observations of a series of short-lived species in biomass burning plumes from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, launched onboard the MetOp-A platform in October 2006. The strong fires that have occurred in the Mediterranean Basin – and particularly Greece – in August 2007, and those in Southern Siberia and Eastern Mongolia in the early spring of 2008 are selected to support the analyses. We show that the IASI infrared spectra in these fire plumes contain distinctive signatures of ammonia (NH3, ethene (C2H4, methanol (CH3OH and formic acid (HCOOH in the atmospheric window between 800 and 1200 cm−1, with some noticeable differences between the plumes. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3COOONO2, abbreviated as PAN was also observed with good confidence in some plumes and a tentative assignment of a broadband absorption spectral feature to acetic acid (CH3COOH is made. For several of these species these are the first reported measurements made from space in nadir geometry. The IASI measurements are analyzed for plume height and concentration distributions of NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. The Greek fires are studied in greater detail for the days associated with the largest emissions. In addition to providing information on the spatial extent of the plume, the IASI retrievals allow an estimate of the total mass emissions for NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. Enhancement ratios are calculated for the latter relative to carbon monoxide (CO, giving insight in the chemical processes occurring during the transport, the first day after the emission.

  3. Midbrain volume predicts fMRI and ERP measures of reward reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joshua M; Foti, Dan; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Proudfit, Greg H

    2015-01-01

    Ventral striatal activation measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and feedback negativity amplitude measured with event-related potentials (ERPs) are each enhanced during reward processing. Recent research has found that these two neural measures of reward processing are also related to one another, such that increases in ventral striatal activity are accompanied by increases in the amplitude of the feedback negativity. Although there is a long history of research implicating the midbrain dopamine system in reward processing, there has been little research into the possibility that structural variability in the midbrain may be linked to functional variability in reward reactivity. Here, we used structural MRI to measure midbrain volumes in addition to fMRI and ERP measures of functional neural reactivity to rewards in a simple gambling task. The results suggest that as midbrain volumes increase, fMRI reward reactivity in the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex also increases. A similar relationship exists between midbrain structure and the amplitude of the feedback negativity; further, this relationship is mediated specifically by activity in the ventral striatum. These data demonstrate convergence between neuroanatomical, hemodynamic, and electrophysiological measures. Thus, structural variability in the midbrain relates to variability in fMRI and ERP measures of functional reward reactivity, which may play a critical role in reward-related psychopathologies and the treatment of these disorders.

  4. Measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with fluorescent probes: challenges and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Dennery, Phyllis A.; Forman, Henry Jay; Grisham, Matthew B.; Mann, Giovanni E.; Moore, Kevin; Roberts, L. Jackson; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this position paper is to present a critical analysis of the challenges and limitations of the most widely used fluorescent probes for detecting and measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Where feasible, we have made recommendations for the use of alternate probes and appropriate analytical techniques that measure the specific products formed from the reactions between fluorescent probes and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We have proposed guidelines that will help present and future researchers with regard to the optimal use of selected fluorescent probes and interpretation of results. PMID:22027063

  5. Intercomparison of the comparative reactivity method (CRM) and pump-probe technique for measuring total OH reactivity in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R. F.; Blocquet, M.; Schoemaecker, C.; Léonardis, T.; Locoge, N.; Fittschen, C.; Hanoune, B.; Stevens, P. S.; Sinha, V.; Dusanter, S.

    2015-10-01

    The investigation of hydroxyl radical (OH) chemistry during intensive field campaigns has led to the development of several techniques dedicated to ambient measurements of total OH reactivity, which is the inverse of the OH lifetime. Three techniques are currently used during field campaigns, including the total OH loss rate method, the pump-probe method, and the comparative reactivity method. However, no formal intercomparison of these techniques has been published so far, and there is a need to ensure that measurements of total OH reactivity are consistent among the different techniques. An intercomparison of two OH reactivity instruments, one based on the comparative reactivity method (CRM) and the other based on the pump-probe method, was performed in October 2012 in a NOx-rich environment, which is known to be challenging for the CRM technique. This study presents an extensive description of the two instruments, the CRM instrument from Mines Douai (MD-CRM) and the pump-probe instrument from the University of Lille (UL-FAGE), and highlights instrumental issues associated with the two techniques. It was found that the CRM instrument used in this study underestimates ambient OH reactivity by approximately 20 % due to the photolysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the sampling reactor; this value is dependent on the position of the lamp within the reactor. However, this issue can easily be fixed, and the photolysis of VOCs was successfully reduced to a negligible level after this intercomparison campaign. The UL-FAGE instrument may also underestimate ambient OH reactivity due to the difficulty to accurately measure the instrumental zero. It was found that the measurements are likely biased by approximately 2 s-1, due to impurities in humid zero air. Two weeks of ambient sampling indicate that the measurements performed by the two OH reactivity instruments are in agreement, within the measurement uncertainties for each instrument, for NOx mixing ratios

  6. Advanced Measuring (Instrumentation Methods for Nuclear Installations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiu-kuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear technology has been widely used in the world. The research of measurement in nuclear installations involves many aspects, such as nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, safety and security, nuclear accident, after action, analysis, and environmental applications. In last decades, many advanced measuring devices and techniques have been widely applied in nuclear installations. This paper mainly introduces the development of the measuring (instrumentation methods for nuclear installations and the applications of these instruments and methods.

  7. Analytical estimation of control rod shadowing effect for excess reactivity measurement of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masaaki; Yamashita, Kiyonobu; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Fujisaki, Shingo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tokuhara, Kazumi; Nakata, Tetsuo

    1998-05-01

    The control rod shadowing effect has been estimated analytically in application of the fuel addition method to excess reactivity measurement of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The movements of control rods in the procedure of the fuel addition method have been simulated in the analysis. The calculated excess reactivity obtained by the simulation depends on the combinations of measuring control rods and compensating control rods and varies from -10% to +50% in comparison with the excess reactivity calculated from the effective multiplication factor of the core where all control rods are fully withdrawn. The control rod shadowing effect is reduced by the use of plural number of measuring and compensation control rods because of the reduction in neutron flux deformation in the measuring procedure. As a result, following combinations of control rods are recommended; 1) Thirteen control rods of the center, first, and second rings will be used for the reactivity measurement. The reactivity of each control rod is measured by the use of the other twelve control rods for reactivity compensation. 2) Six control rods of the first ring will be used for the reactivity measurement. The reactivity of each control rod is measured by the use of the other five control rods for reactivity compensation. (author)

  8. Effects of Beijing Olympics control measures on reducing reactive hydrocarbon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shao; Bin, Wang; Sihua, Lu; Bin, Yuan; Ming, Wang

    2011-01-15

    Stringent air-quality control measures were implemented for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. This large-scale manmade experiment provided an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of measures to reduce the reactivity of hydrocarbons (HCs) from emission sources, which is important for ground-level ozone abatement. Photochemical initial concentrations (PICs), i.e., the levels of HCs from sources before undergoing chemical reactions, were calculated from ambient measurements. PICs obtained using the ratio method for HCs and the sequential reaction model for alkyl nitrates were in good agreement. Propene, 1-butene, iso-butene, trans-2-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-pentene, and m,p-xylene were identified as key reactive species in terms of their photochemical consumptions and correspondent ozone formation potentials (OFPs). During the Olympics and Paralympics, the PICs of these seven species were reduced by 27-66%, contributing 20% to the reduction in total PICs and 60% to the reduction in total OFP compared with June levels. Source apportionments from the chemical mass balance model indicated that gasoline vehicle exhaust was the predominant contributor to the key reactive species (45-78%). Reductions of gasoline vehicle exhaust during the Olympics and Paralympics explained 53-77% and 59-68% of the reductions in PICs of the key reactive HCs and total OFP, respectively.

  9. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionigi, Fabio; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Pedersen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    -vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ∼0.4 and ∼4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical...... characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic...

  10. Retinal hemodynamic oxygen reactivity assessed by perfusion velocity, blood oximetry and vessel diameter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver Niels; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the oxygen reactivity of a fundus photographic method of measuring macular perfusion velocity and to integrate macular perfusion velocities with measurements of retinal vessel diameters and blood oxygen saturation. METHODS: Sixteen eyes in 16 healthy volunteers were studied at two...... examination sessions using motion-contrast velocimetry and retinal oximetry with vessel diameter corrections. To test oxygen reactivity, participants were examined during normoxia, after 15 min of hyperoxia and finally after 45 min of normoxia. Repeatability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients...... retinal arterial oxygen saturation from 95.1 ± 5.0% to 96.6 ± 6.4% (p = 0.038) and increased retinal venous oxygen saturation from 62.9 ± 6.7% to 70.3 ± 7.8% (p = 0.0010). Parameters returned to baseline levels after subsequent normoxia. Saturation and vessel diameter ICCs were 0.88-0.98 (range...

  11. Real catalysis on single crystalline model catalysts with in-situ reactivity measurement

    OpenAIRE

    O. Shekhah; Ranke, W.; Schlögl, R.

    2003-01-01

    The pressure and materials gap between reactivity studies in UHV and real catalysis can only be overcome by application of in-situ methods for catalyst characterization and/or activity measurements under realistic pressure and temperature conditions. As a model reaction we study the economically important catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) to styrene (St) [1]. The technical catalyst consists of potassium-promoted iron oxides. We use single crystalline epitaxial layers of Fe2O3, Fe...

  12. Direct N2O5 reactivity measurements at a polluted coastal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Gaston

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurements of N2O5 reactivity on ambient aerosol particles were made during September 2009 at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO Pier facility located in La Jolla, CA. N2O5 reactivity measurements were made using a custom flow reactor and the particle modulation technique alongside measurements of aerosol particle size distributions and non-refractory composition. The pseudo-first order rate coefficients derived from the particle modulation technique and the particle surface area concentrations were used to determine the population average N2O5 reaction probability, γ(N2O5, approximately every 50 min. Insufficient environmental controls within the instrumentation trailer led us to restrict our analysis primarily to nighttime measurements. Within this subset of data, γ(N2O5 ranged from γ(N2O5 are important, such as organic coatings or non-aqueous particles. The largest apparent driver of day-to-day variability in the measured γ(N2O5 at this site was the particle nitrate loading, as inferred from both the measured particle composition and the parameterizations. The relative change in measured γ(N2O5 as a function of particle nitrate loading appears to be consistent with expectations based on laboratory data, providing direct support for the atmospheric importance of the so-called "nitrate effect".

  13. Direct N2O5 reactivity measurements at a polluted coastal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Prather

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurements of N2O5 reactivity on ambient aerosol particles were made during September 2009 at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO Pier facility located in La Jolla, CA. N2O5 reactivity measurements were made using a custom flow reactor and the particle modulation technique alongside measurements of aerosol particle size distributions and non-refractory composition. The pseudo-first order rate coefficients derived from the particle modulation technique and the particle surface area concentrations were used to determine the population average N2O5 reaction probability, γ(N2O5, approximately every 50 min. Insufficient environmental controls within the instrumentation trailer led us to restrict our analysis primarily to nighttime measurements. Within this subset of data, γ(N2O5 ranged from 2O5 are important, such as organic coatings or non-aqueous particles. The largest apparent driver of day-to-day variability in the measured γ(N2O5 at this site was the particle nitrate loading, as inferred from both the measured particle composition and the parameterizations. The relative change in measured γ(N2O5 as a function of particle nitrate loading appears to be consistent with expectations based on laboratory data, providing direct support for the atmospheric importance of the so-called "nitrate effect".

  14. Development of measurement technique of large negative reactivity by an inverse kinetics rod drop method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Murayama, Yoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    The determination of the large negative reactivity by a rod drop method is conducted by the change of the average neutron density in the core between the critical condition at constant power and the deep subcritical condition. The neutron density is measured with a neutron detector which output the pulse or electric current signal without time delay. If an electric-current-output neutron detector is used for the measurement, a logarithmic amplifier is required to measure over a wide range of neutron density of more than 3 digits and the time delay characteristic of the amplifier may badly influence the measurement results. The authors developed a measurement technique with an inverse kinetics rod drop (IKRD) method compensating the time delay characteristic of a logarithmic amplifies, and confirmed the validity and high precision of the technique by applying it to the measurement data obtained in the characteristic experiments of the JRR-3M silicide core. (author)

  15. Nondestructive Measurements for Diagnostics of Advanced Reactor Passive Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowant, Matthew S.; Dib, Gerges; Roy, Surajit; Luzi, Lorenzo; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2016-09-20

    Information on advanced reactor (AdvRx) component condition and failure probability is necessary to maintaining adequate safety margins and avoiding unplanned shutdowns, both of which have regulatory and economic consequences. Prognostic health management (PHM) technologies provide one approach to addressing these needs by providing the technical means for lifetime management of significant passive components and reactor internals. However, such systems require measurement data that are sensitive to degradation of the component. This paper describes results to date of ongoing research on nondestructive measurements of component condition for degradation mechanisms of relevance to AdvRx concepts. The focus of this paper is on in-situ ultrasonic measurements during high-temperature creep degradation. The data were analyzed to assess the sensitivity of the measurements to creep degradation, with the specific objective of assessing the suitability of the resulting correlations for remaining life prediction. The details of the measurements, results of data analysis, and ongoing research in this area are discussed.

  16. Reactive Strength Index Modified Is a Valid Measure of Explosiveness in Collegiate Female Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kristof; Kiely, Michael T; Geiser, Christopher F

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the reactive strength index modified (RSImod) as a measure of lower body explosiveness. Fifteen female, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I volleyball players performed vertical countermovement jumps (CMJs) while standing on a force plate. Each player performed 3 CMJs. The vertical ground reaction forces collected during each jump were used to calculate jump height, time to take-off, time to peak force, peak force, peak rate of force development, and peak power; the latter 3 variables were all normalized to body mass. Reactive strength index modified was calculated as the ratio between jump height and time to take-off. All variables, except for jump height, were then entered a factor analysis, which reduced the input data into 2 factors: a force factor and a speed factor. Although RSImod loaded more strongly onto the force factor, further analysis showed that RSImod loaded positively onto both force and speed factors. Visual analysis of the Cartesian coordinates also showed that RSImod loaded into the quadrant of greater force and speed abilities. These results indicate that the construct of RSImod, as derived from CMJ force-time data, captures a combination of speed-force factors that can be interpreted as lower body explosiveness during the CMJ. Reactive strength index modified therefore seems to be a valid measure to study lower body explosiveness.

  17. Feasibility of reactivity worth measurements by perturbation method with Caliban and Silene experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casoli, Pierre; Authier, Nicolas [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Valduc, 21120 Is-Sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Reactivity worth measurements of material samples put in the central cavities of nuclear reactors allow to test cross section nuclear databases or to extract information about the critical masses of fissile elements. Such experiments have already been completed on the Caliban and Silene experimental reactors operated by the Criticality and Neutronics Research Laboratory of Valduc (CEA, France) using the perturbation measurement technique. Calculations have been performed to prepare future experiments on new materials, such as light elements, structure materials, fission products or actinides. (authors)

  18. Central Reactivity Measurements on Assemblies 1 and 3 of the Fast Reactor FR0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londen, S.O.

    1966-01-15

    The reactivity effects of small samples of various materials have been measured, by the period method at the core centre of Assemblies 1 and 3 of the fast zero power reactor FR0. For some materials the reactivity change as a function of sample size has also been determined experimentally. The core of Assembly 1 consisted only of uranium enriched to 20 % whereas the core of Assembly 3 was diluted with 30 % graphite. The results have been compared with calculated values obtained with a second-order transport-theoretical perturbation model and using differently shielded cross sections depending upon sample size. Qualitative agreement has generally been found, although discrepancies still exist. The spectrum perturbation caused by the experimental arrangement has been analyzed and found to be rather important.

  19. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cosme

    Full Text Available As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51 passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses

  20. Reproducibility of parameters of postocclusive reactive hyperemia measured by diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Rosas, Ernesto E.; Billings, Stephen A.; Chico, Timothy; Coca, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess microvascular function has shown promising results. An important limitation when using a single source-detector pair, however, is the lack of depth sensitivity. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) overcomes this limitation using an array of sources and detectors that allow the reconstruction of volumetric hemodynamic changes. This study compares the key parameters of postocclusive reactive hyperemia measured in the forearm using standard NIRS and DOT. We show that while the mean parameter values are similar for the two techniques, DOT achieves much better reproducibility, as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We show that DOT achieves high reproducibility for muscle oxygen consumption (ICC: 0.99), time to maximal HbO2 (ICC: 0.94), maximal HbO2 (ICC: 0.99), and time to maximal HbT (ICC: 0.99). Absolute reproducibility as measured by the standard error of measurement is consistently smaller and close to zero (ideal value) across all parameters measured by DOT compared to NIRS. We conclude that DOT provides a more robust characterization of the reactive hyperemic response and show how the availability of volumetric hemodynamic changes allows the identification of areas of temporal consistency, which could help characterize more precisely the microvasculature.

  1. Measuring the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of total reactive nitrogen by eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, C.; Wolff, V.; Marx, O.; Brümmer, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-11-01

    The (net) exchange of reactive nitrogen (Nr) with the atmosphere is an important driver for ecosystem productivity and greenhouse gas exchange. The exchange of airborne Nr includes various trace compounds that usually require different specific measurement techniques, and up to now fast response instruments suitable for eddy covariance measurements are only available for few of these compounds. Here we present eddy covariance flux measurements with a recently introduced converter (TRANC) for the sum of all Nr compounds (∑Nr). Measurements were performed over a managed grassland field with phases of net emission and net deposition of ∑Nr and alternating dominance of oxidized (NOX) and reduced species (NH3). Spectral analysis of the eddy covariance data exhibited the existence of covariance function peaks at a reasonable time lag related to the sampling tube residence time under stationary conditions. Using ogive analysis, the high-frequency damping was quantified to 19%-26% for a low measurement height of 1.2 m and to about 10% for 4.8 m measurement height. ∑Nr concentrations and fluxes were compared to parallel NO and NO2 measurements by dynamic chambers and NH3 measurements by the aerodynamic gradient technique. The average concentration results indicate that the main compounds NO2 and NH3 were converted by the TRANC system with an efficiency of near 100%. With an optimised sample inlet also the fluxes of these compounds were recovered reasonably well including net deposition and net emission phases. The study shows that the TRANC system is suitable for fast response measurements of oxidized and reduced nitrogen compounds and can be used for continuous eddy covariance flux measurements of total reactive nitrogen.

  2. Measurements of reactive halogen species as oxidants of mercury over the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkamer, R.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B. K.; Sinreich, R.; Terschure, A. F.; Edgerton, E. S.; Wu, Y.; Nair, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    The gas-phase reaction of bromine and chlorine radicals with gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is a source for gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM). It has been established that oxidation by bromine is relevant at high latitudes, and can also occur in mid-latitude regions (Peleg et al. 2007), or in the free troposphere. A subject of ongoing debate concerns the role of free tropospheric bromine vs boundary layer bromine in oxidizing mercury. Here we present measurements of reactive halogen species bromine oxide (BrO) and iodine oxide (IO) along with gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), and particulate mercury (Hgp) at a coastal location in Gulf Breeze, Fl. The University of Colorado has deployed a research grade Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument to measure BrO, IO, as well as formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen dimers (O4). Here we present the compilation of the data collected by this instrument over the time period from May 2009 to January 2011, which include the first measurements of BrO, IO, and CHOCHO over the Gulf of Mexico. We also present several case studies for days where significant amounts of reactive halogens were measured, explore the sources and back trajectories of the air masses carrying these compounds, and relate our observations to mercury data collected at a nearby SEARCH network site.

  3. Spent fuel measurements. passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR) and photon signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigenbrodt, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-29

    The International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) safeguards technical objective is the timely detection of a diversion of a significant quantity of nuclear material from peaceful activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. An important IAEA task towards meeting this objective is the ability to accurately and reliably measure spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to verify reactor operating parameters and verify that the fuel has not been removed from reactors or SNF storage facilities. This dissertation analyzes a method to improve the state-of-the-art of nuclear material safeguards measurements using two combined measurement techniques: passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR) and passive spectral photon measurements.

  4. A Survey of Advanced Microwave Frequency Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Swaroop Khare

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwaves are radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. The science of photonics includes the generation, emission, modulation, signal processing, switching, transmission, amplification, detection and sensing of light. Microwave photonics has been introduced for achieving ultra broadband signal processing. Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM receivers play an important role in electronic warfare. Technologies used for signal processing, include conventional direct Radio Frequency (RF techniques, digital techniques, intermediate frequency (IF techniques and photonic techniques. Direct RF techniques suffer an increased loss, high dispersion, and unwanted radiation problems in high frequencies. The systems that use traditional RF techniques can be bulky and often lack the agility required to perform advanced signal processing in rapidly changing environments. In this paper we discussed a survey of Microwave Frequency Measurement Techniques. The microwaves techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper provides the major advancement in the Microwave Frequency MeasurementTechniques research; using these approaches the features and categories in the surveyed existing work.

  5. Advances in non-invasive measures of vocal acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, G R; Steckol, K F; Cooper, M H

    1991-10-01

    Objective assessment of vocal pitch, loudness, and quality is a crucial adjunct to endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of vocal pathology. Historically, this assessment was made through subjective, perceptual measures that were questionable in terms of validity and reliability. Recent advances in electronic technology now permit objective analysis of the acoustic characteristics of voice. Kay Elemetric's Visi-Pitch, DSP 5500 Digital Spectrograph, and Nasometer are representative of these new instruments and are used as illustrations in the discussion of the assessment of speech acoustics.

  6. Strategies for measuring flows of reactive nitrogen at the landscape scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theobald, M.R.; Akkal, N.; Bienkowski, J.

    2011-01-01

    .g., hydrological flows) or the interface between two media (e.g., exchange between the soil and the atmosphere). However, the study of flows of Nr at the landscape scale requires a more integrated approach that combines measurement techniques to quantify the flows from one medium to the next. This paper discusses......Within a rural landscape there are flows of reactive nitrogen (Nr) through and between the soil, vegetation, atmosphere and hydrological systems as well as transfer as a result of agricultural activities. Measurements of these flows and transfers have generally been limited to individual media (e...... the design of an experiment carried out in the NitroEurope IP to characterise the Nr flows in six contrasting European rural landscapes during a period of 1-2 years. The focus is on characterisation as it is not possible to measure all Nr Methods/Approach flows at all locations and, therefore...

  7. Advanced Measurements of Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhad Farzbod; Stephen J. Reese; Zilong Hua; Marat Khafizov; David H. Hurley

    2012-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is being considered as a fuel cladding material for accident tolerant fuel under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Silicon carbide has many potential advantages over traditional zirconium based cladding systems. These include high melting point, low susceptibility to corrosion, and low degradation of mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. In addition, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) made from SiC have high mechanical toughness enabling these materials to withstand thermal and mechanical shock loading. However, many of the fundamental mechanical and thermal properties of SiC CMCs depend strongly on the fabrication process. As a result, extrapolating current materials science databases for these materials to nuclear applications is not possible. The “Advanced Measurements” work package under the LWRS fuels pathway is tasked with the development of measurement techniques that can characterize fundamental thermal and mechanical properties of SiC CMCs. An emphasis is being placed on development of characterization tools that can used for examination of fresh as well as irradiated samples. The work discuss in this report can be divided into two broad categories. The first involves the development of laser ultrasonic techniques to measure the elastic and yield properties and the second involves the development of laser-based techniques to measurement thermal transport properties. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of SiC CMCs in regards to thermal and mechanical properties. The material properties characterized within this work package will be used as validation of advanced materials physics models of SiC CMCs developed under the LWRS fuels pathway. In addition, it is envisioned that similar measurement techniques can be used to provide process control and quality assurance as well as measurement of

  8. TRANC – a novel fast-response converter to measure total reactive atmospheric nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wolff

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The input and loss of plant available nitrogen (reactive nitrogen: Nr from/to the atmosphere can be an important factor for the productivity of ecosystems and thus for its carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. We present a novel converter for reactive nitrogen (TRANC: Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter, which offers the opportunity to quantify the sum of all airborne reactive nitrogen compounds (∑Nr in high time resolution. The basic concept of the TRANC is the full conversion of all Nr to nitrogen monoxide (NO within two reaction steps. Initially, reduced Nr compounds are being oxidised, and oxidised Nr compounds are thermally converted to lower oxidation states. Particulate Nr is being sublimated and oxidised or reduced afterwards. In a second step, remaining higher nitrogen oxides or those generated in the first step are catalytically converted to NO with carbon monoxide used as reduction gas. The converter is combined with a fast response chemiluminescence detector (CLD for NO analysis and its performance was tested for the most relevant gaseous and particulate Nr species under both laboratory and field conditions. Recovery rates during laboratory tests for NH3 and NO2 were found to be 95 and 99%, respectively, and 97% when the two gases were combined. In-field longterm stability over an 11-month period was approved by a value of 91% for NO2. Effective conversion was also found for ammonium and nitrate containing particles. The recovery rate of total ambient Nr was tested against the sum of individual measurements of NH3, HNO3, HONO, NH4+, NO3−, and NOx using a combination of different well-established devices. The results show that the TRANC-CLD system precisely captures fluctuations in ∑Nr concentrations and also matches the sum of all individual Nr compounds measured by the different single techniques. The TRANC features a specific design with very short distance between the sample air inlet and the place where the thermal

  9. Characterisation of advanced windows. Determination of thermal properties by measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duer, K.

    2001-04-01

    This report describes work carried out with the aim of facilitating a full energy performance characterisation of advanced windows and glazings by means of measurements. The energy performance of windows and glazings are characterised by two parameters: The thermal transmittance (U-value) and the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) and methods to determine these two parameters by measurements have been investigated. This process has included the improvement of existing equipment and existing measuring methods as well as the development of new measuring equipment and new methods of measuring and data treatment. Measurements of the thermal transmittance of windows and glazings in a guarded hot box have been investigated. The calibration and measuring procedures for determining the U-values of facade windows were analysed and a suggestion for a new calibration and measuring procedure for determining the U-values of roof windows in a guarded hot box was elaborated. The accuracy of the guarded hot box measurements was examined by comparisons to measurements in a hot-plate device and excellent agreement between the results was obtained. Analysis showed that the expected uncertainty in the U-value measurement is about 5% for a specimen with a U-value of 1.75 W/m{sup 2}K. The U-values of three different windows were measured in two separate round robin tests applying two different calibration procedures. The windows U-values where ranging from 1.1 to 2.5 W/m{sup 2}K and all measured results were within the expected uncertainties of the measurements. On the basis of the investigations on hot box measurements a high degree of confidence in the measurement accuracy and the measuring procedure of the guarded hot box at the Department of Buildings and Energy has been obtained. Indoor g-value measurements in a calorimetric test facility (the METSET) mounted in a solar simulator have been investigated and a number of problems regarding these measurements have been

  10. Reactivity of dogs' brain oscillations to visual stimuli measured with non-invasive electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miiamaaria V Kujala

    Full Text Available Studying cognition of domestic dogs has gone through a renaissance within the last decades. However, although the behavioral studies of dogs are beginning to be common in the field of animal cognition, the neural events underlying cognition remain unknown. Here, we employed a non-invasive electroencephalography, with adhesive electrodes attached to the top of the skin, to measure brain activity of from 8 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris while they stayed still to observe photos of dog and human faces. Spontaneous oscillatory activity of the dogs, peaking in the sensors over the parieto-occipital cortex, was suppressed statistically significantly during visual task compared with resting activity at the frequency of 15-30 Hz. Moreover, a stimulus-induced low-frequency (~2-6 Hz suppression locked to the stimulus onset was evident at the frontal sensors, possibly reflecting a motor rhythm guiding the exploratory eye movements. The results suggest task-related reactivity of the macroscopic oscillatory activity in the dog brain. To our knowledge, the study is the first to reveal non-invasively measured reactivity of brain electrophysiological oscillations in healthy dogs, and it has been based purely on positive operant conditional training, without the need for movement restriction or medication.

  11. Importance weighting of local flux measurements to improve reactivity predictions in nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulla, Sandra; Hoh, Siew Sin; Nervo, Marta; Ravetto, Piero [Politecnico di Torino, Dipt. Energia (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    The reactivity monitoring is a key aspect for the safe operation of nuclear reactors, especially for subcritical source-driven systems. Various methods are available for both, off-line and on-line reactivity determination from direct measurements carried out on the reactor. Usually the methods are based on the inverse point kinetic model applied to signals from neutron detectors and results may be severely affected by space and spectral effects. Such effects need to be compensated and correction procedures have to be applied. In this work, a new approach is proposed, by using the full information from different local measurements to generate a global signal through a proper weighting of the signals provided by single neutron detectors. A weighting techique based on the use of the adjoint flux proves to be efficient in improving the prediction capability of inverse techniques. The idea is applied to the recently developed algorithm, named MAρTA, that can be used in both off-line and online modes.

  12. A new method for total OH reactivity measurements using a fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nölscher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary and most important oxidant in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH. Currently OH sinks, particularly gas phase reactions, are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. To date direct measurements of total OH reactivity have been either performed using a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF system ("pump-and-probe" or "flow reactor" or the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM with a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS. Both techniques require large, complex and expensive detection systems. This study presents a feasibility assessment for CRM total OH reactivity measurements using a new detector, a Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID. Such a system is smaller, more portable, less power consuming and less expensive than other total OH reactivity measurement techniques.

    Total OH reactivity is measured by the CRM using a competitive reaction between a reagent (here pyrrole with OH alone and in the presence of atmospheric reactive molecules. The new CRM method for total OH reactivity has been tested with parallel measurements of the GC-PID and the previously validated PTR-MS as detector for the reagent pyrrole during laboratory experiments, plant chamber and boreal field studies. Excellent agreement of both detectors was found when the GC-PID was operated under optimum conditions. Time resolution (60–70 s, sensitivity (LOD 3–6 s−1 and overall uncertainty (25% in optimum conditions for total OH reactivity were equivalent to PTR-MS based total OH reactivity measurements. One drawback of the GC-PID system was the steady loss of sensitivity and accuracy during intensive measurements lasting several weeks, and a possible toluene interference. Generally, the GC-PID system has been shown to produce closely comparable results to the PTR-MS and thus in suitable environments (e.g. forests it

  13. Total OH reactivity measurements using a new fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sinha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary and most important oxidant in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH. Currently OH sinks, particularly gas phase reactions, are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. To date, direct measurements of total OH reactivity have been either performed using a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF system ("pump-and-probe" or "flow reactor" or the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS. Both techniques require large, complex and expensive detection systems. This study presents a feasibility assessment for CRM total OH reactivity measurements using a new detector, a Gas Chromatographic Photoionization Detector (GC-PID. Such a system is smaller, more portable, less power consuming and less expensive than other total OH reactivity measurement techniques.

    Total OH reactivity is measured by the CRM using a competitive reaction between a reagent (here pyrrole with OH alone and in the presence of atmospheric reactive molecules. The new CRM method for total OH reactivity has been tested with parallel measurements of the GC-PID and the previously validated PTR-MS as detector for the reagent pyrrole during laboratory experiments, plant chamber and boreal field studies. Excellent agreement of both detectors was found when the GC-PID was operated under optimum conditions. Time resolution (60–70 s, sensitivity (LOD 3–6 s−1 and overall uncertainty (25% in optimum conditions for total OH reactivity were similar to PTR-MS based total OH reactivity measurements. One drawback of the GC-PID system was the steady loss of sensitivity and accuracy during intensive measurements lasting several weeks, and a possible toluene interference. Generally, the GC-PID system has been shown to produce closely comparable results to the PTR-MS and thus in suitable environments (e.g. forests it

  14. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (USA)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  16. Long term Suboxone™ emotional reactivity as measured by automatic detection in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Edward; Han, David; Dumouchel, Pierre; Dehak, Najim; Quatieri, Thomas; Moehs, Charles; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Simpatico, Thomas; Barh, Debmalya; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Addictions to illicit drugs are among the nation's most critical public health and societal problems. The current opioid prescription epidemic and the need for buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone®; SUBX) as an opioid maintenance substance, and its growing street diversion provided impetus to determine affective states ("true ground emotionality") in long-term SUBX patients. Toward the goal of effective monitoring, we utilized emotion-detection in speech as a measure of "true" emotionality in 36 SUBX patients compared to 44 individuals from the general population (GP) and 33 members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Other less objective studies have investigated emotional reactivity of heroin, methadone and opioid abstinent patients. These studies indicate that current opioid users have abnormal emotional experience, characterized by heightened response to unpleasant stimuli and blunted response to pleasant stimuli. However, this is the first study to our knowledge to evaluate "true ground" emotionality in long-term buprenorphine/naloxone combination (Suboxone™). We found in long-term SUBX patients a significantly flat affect (p<0.01), and they had less self-awareness of being happy, sad, and anxious compared to both the GP and AA groups. We caution definitive interpretation of these seemingly important results until we compare the emotional reactivity of an opioid abstinent control using automatic detection in speech. These findings encourage continued research strategies in SUBX patients to target the specific brain regions responsible for relapse prevention of opioid addiction.

  17. Long term Suboxone™ emotional reactivity as measured by automatic detection in speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Hill

    Full Text Available Addictions to illicit drugs are among the nation's most critical public health and societal problems. The current opioid prescription epidemic and the need for buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone®; SUBX as an opioid maintenance substance, and its growing street diversion provided impetus to determine affective states ("true ground emotionality" in long-term SUBX patients. Toward the goal of effective monitoring, we utilized emotion-detection in speech as a measure of "true" emotionality in 36 SUBX patients compared to 44 individuals from the general population (GP and 33 members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. Other less objective studies have investigated emotional reactivity of heroin, methadone and opioid abstinent patients. These studies indicate that current opioid users have abnormal emotional experience, characterized by heightened response to unpleasant stimuli and blunted response to pleasant stimuli. However, this is the first study to our knowledge to evaluate "true ground" emotionality in long-term buprenorphine/naloxone combination (Suboxone™. We found in long-term SUBX patients a significantly flat affect (p<0.01, and they had less self-awareness of being happy, sad, and anxious compared to both the GP and AA groups. We caution definitive interpretation of these seemingly important results until we compare the emotional reactivity of an opioid abstinent control using automatic detection in speech. These findings encourage continued research strategies in SUBX patients to target the specific brain regions responsible for relapse prevention of opioid addiction.

  18. Recent advances in automation, robotics and measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the recent advances and developments in control, automation, robotics, and measuring techniques. It presents contributions of top experts in the fields, focused on both theory and industrial practice. The particular chapters present a deep analysis of a specific technical problem which is in general followed by a numerical analysis and simulation, and results of an implementation for the solution of a real world problem. The book presents the results of the International Conference AUTOMATION 2014 held 26 - 28 March, 2014 in Warsaw, Poland on Automation – Innovations and Future Prospectives The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be useful for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems.

  19. A new advanced experimental setup for in-depth study of the interfacial reaction during reactive wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenznick, Sascha; Stratmann, Martin; Rohwerder, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Reactive wetting plays a crucial role in many technical processes, from soldering in microelectronics, production of metal/ceramic composites, to hot dip galvanizing in mass production of zinc coated steel sheet. In all these cases the wetting behavior of metal melts on different surfaces plays a crucial role in material joining and coating. In all these processes the formation of the interfacial reaction layer has to occur within as short a time as possible in order to ensure a fast overall production speed. As the interfacial layer determines the stability of the formed composites, detailed knowledge of its growth mechanisms is required for a directed process optimization. However, the investigation of the processes occurring at the buried interface between substrate and wetting phase is difficult, especially for the case of liquid metal wetting metallic or ceramic solid substrates at high temperatures. Here, a novel advanced technique for the investigation of high temperature wetting processes up to a temperature of 1100K is presented. It is based on the sessile drop technique but, in addition, allows spinning off the droplet at any chosen wetting time, thus providing direct access to the interfacial reaction layer. Since the experimental setup is integrated into a UHV compatible reaction chamber, not only excellent control of the composition of the atmosphere is ensured, but also direct transfer to surface analytical tools such as scanning electron microscope or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis without intermediate exposure to air is realized. As will be shown for the case of hot dip galvanising of steel, this is an outstanding advance compared to existing methods.

  20. Phlorotannins from brown algae (Fucus vesiculosus) inhibited the formation of advanced glycation endproducts by scavenging reactive carbonyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Liwei

    2012-02-08

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in vivo is associated with aging, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, renal failure, etc. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae Fucus vesiculosus phlorotannins on the formation of AGEs. F. vesiculosus phlorotannins were extracted using 70% acetone. The resultant extract was fractionated into dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was further fractionated into four subfractions (Ethyl-F1 to -F4) using a Sephadex LH-20 column. F. vesiculosus acetone extract or fractions significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs mediated by glucose and methylglyoxal in a concentration-dependent manner. The concentrations of F. vesiculosus extracts required to inhibit 50% of albumin glycation (EC(50)) in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-methylglyoxal assay were lower than those of aminoguanidine (a drug candidate for diabetic complication), except for F. vesiculosus acetone extract and dichloromethane fraction. In the BSA-glucose assay, F. vesiculosus extracts inhibited BSA glycation more than or as effectively as aminoguanidine, except for Ethyl-F3 and -F4. The ethyl acetate fraction and its four subfractions scavenged more than 50% of methylglyoxal in two hours. The hypothesis whether F. vesiculosus phlorotannins scavenged reactive carbonyls by forming adducts was tested. Phloroglucinol, the constituent unit of phlorotannins, reacted with glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Five phloroglucinol-carbonyl adducts were detected and tentatively identified using HPLC-ESI-MS(n).

  1. C-reactive Protein: Repeated Measurements will Improve Dialysis Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Gabriela; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a common feature in the uremic phenotype and associates with poor outcomes. The awareness regarding the importance of inflammation assessment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has risen in recent years, and despite the development of novel biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP) is still the most measured inflammatory parameter. Notwithstanding, the possible weak points of CRP determination, this biomarker has demonstrated being useful both for guidance in clinical practice and for risk estimation. In addition, regular determination of CRP among dialysis patients has been associated with better outcomes in different dialysis facilities. Because persistent inflammation may be a silent reflection of various pathophysiologic alterations in CKD, it is crucial that inflammatory markers are regularly monitored and therapeutic attempts be made to target this inflammation.

  2. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  3. Carbon Dioxide Measurements from Space: Scientific Advance and Societal Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.

    2009-04-01

    The dawn of the 21st Century finds spaceborne sensors poised to revolutionize the atmospheric CO2 record by providing high-quality measurements with unprecedented spatio-temporal coverage and density. Space-based CO2 observations will augment local and regional measurements from ground and airborne sensors, providing global context for existing measurements and covering regions not readily accessible or instrumented by other means. Hyperspectral data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), launched in 2002, have been used to produce global maps of CO2 concentrations in the mid-troposphere. These data provide important new constraints on the global distribution and transport of CO2. Future satellite missions dedicated to CO2 observations will collect precise global measurements, enabling more detailed process studies and contributing to further improvements in coupled carbon-climate model development, initialization, and validation. Japan's GOSAT mission, scheduled for launch in January 2009 will measure CO2 and CH4 spectral radiances via thermal and near infrared spectrometry to study the transport mechanisms of greenhouse gases with an emphasis on identification of CO2 sources and sinks on sub-continental scales in support of the Kyoto protocol. NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), scheduled to launch in February 2009, will deliver measurements of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, with the precision, temporal and spatial resolution, and coverage needed to characterize the variability of CO2 sources and sinks on regional spatial scales and seasonal to interannual time scales. Satellite CO2 observations, combined with continued ground and airborne measurements, will improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the atmospheric abundance and distribution of this important greenhouse gas, generating both scientific advance and societal benefit. Deriving actionable information from these observation

  4. What You Find Depends on How You Measure It: Reactivity of Response Scales Measuring Predecisional Information Distortion in Medical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurek, Martine; Kostopoulou, Olga

    2016-01-01

    "Predecisional information distortion" occurs when decision makers evaluate new information in a way that is biased towards their leading option. The phenomenon is well established, as is the method typically used to measure it, termed "stepwise evolution of preference" (SEP). An inadequacy of this method has recently come to the fore: it measures distortion as the total advantage afforded a leading option over its competitor, and therefore it cannot differentiate between distortion to strengthen a leading option ("proleader" distortion) and distortion to weaken a trailing option ("antitrailer" distortion). To address this, recent research introduced new response scales to SEP. We explore whether and how these new response scales might influence the very proleader and antitrailer processes that they were designed to capture ("reactivity"). We used the SEP method with concurrent verbal reporting: fifty family physicians verbalized their thoughts as they evaluated patient symptoms and signs ("cues") in relation to two competing diagnostic hypotheses. Twenty-five physicians evaluated each cue using the response scale traditional to SEP (a single response scale, returning a single measure of distortion); the other twenty-five did so using the response scales introduced in recent studies (two separate response scales, returning two separate measures of distortion: proleader and antitrailer). We measured proleader and antitrailer processes in verbalizations, and compared verbalizations in the single-scale and separate-scales groups. Response scales did not appear to affect proleader processes: the two groups of physicians were equally likely to bolster their leading diagnosis verbally. Response scales did, however, appear to affect antitrailer processes: the two groups denigrated their trailing diagnosis verbally to differing degrees. Our findings suggest that the response scales used to measure information distortion might influence its constituent processes, limiting

  5. Advances in the Rising Bubble Technique for discharge measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgersom, Koen; Luxemburg, Willem; Willemsen, Geert; Bussmann, Luuk

    2014-05-01

    Already in the 19th century, d'Auria described a discharge measurement technique that applies floats to find the depth-integrated velocity (d'Auria, 1882). The basis of this technique was that the horizontal distance that the float travels on its way to the surface is the image of the integrated velocity profile over depth. Viol and Semenov (1964) improved this method by using air bubbles as floats, but still distances were measured manually until Sargent (1981) introduced a technique that could derive the distances from two photographs simultaneously taken from each side of the river bank. Recently, modern image processing techniques proved to further improve the applicability of the method (Hilgersom and Luxemburg, 2012). In the 2012 article, controlling and determining the rising velocity of an air bubble still appeared a major challenge for the application of this method. Ever since, laboratory experiments with different nozzle and tube sizes lead to advances in our self-made equipment enabling us to produce individual air bubbles with a more constant rising velocity. Also, we introduced an underwater camera to on-site determine the rising velocity, which is dependent on the water temperature and contamination, and therefore is site-specific. Camera measurements of the rising velocity proved successful in a laboratory and field setting, although some improvements to the setup are necessary to capture the air bubbles also at depths where little daylight penetrates. References D'Auria, L.: Velocity of streams; A new method to determine correctly the mean velocity of any perpendicular in rivers and canals, (The) American Engineers, 3, 1882. Hilgersom, K.P. and Luxemburg, W.M.J.: Technical Note: How image processing facilitates the rising bubble technique for discharge measurement, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(2), 345-356, 2012. Sargent, D.: Development of a viable method of stream flow measurement using the integrating float technique, Proceedings of

  6. Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen and greenhouse gases at the NitroEurope core flux measurement sites: Measurement strategy and first data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiba, U.; Drewer, J.; Tang, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    The NitroEurope project aims to improve understanding of the nitrogen (N) cycle at the continental scale and quantify the major fluxes of reactive N by a combination of reactive N measurements and modelling activities. As part of the overall measurement strategy, a network of 13 flux ‘super sites...... by a network of low-cost flux measurements (Level-2, 9 sites) and a network to infer reactive N fluxes at 58 sites (Level-1), for comparison with carbon (C) flux measurements. Measurements at the Level-3 sites include high resolution N2O, NO (also CH4, CO2) fluxes, wet and dry N deposition, leaching of N and C...

  7. Quantitative measurements of C-reactive protein using silicon nanowire arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Lee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Min-Ho Lee, Kuk-Nyung Lee, Suk-Won Jung, Won-Hyo Kim, Kyu-Sik Shin, Woo-Kyeong SeongKorea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi, KoreaAbstract: A silicon nanowire-based sensor for biological application showed highly desirable electrical responses to either pH changes or receptor-ligand interactions such as protein disease markers, viruses, and DNA hybridization. Furthermore, because the silicon nanowire can display results in real-time, it may possess superior characteristics for biosensing than those demonstrated in previously studied methods. However, despite its promising potential and advantages, certain process-related limitations of the device, due to its size and material characteristics, need to be addressed. In this article, we suggest possible solutions. We fabricated silicon nanowire using a top-down and low cost micromachining method, and evaluate the sensing of molecules after transfer and surface modifications. Our newly designed method can be used to attach highly ordered nanowires to various substrates, to form a nanowire array device, which needs to follow a series of repetitive steps in conventional fabrication technology based on a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method. For evaluation, we demonstrated that our newly fabricated silicon nanowire arrays could detect pH changes as well as streptavidin-biotin binding events. As well as the initial proof-of-principle studies, C-reactive protein binding was measured: electrical signals were changed in a linear fashion with the concentration (1 fM to 1 nM in PBS containing 1.37 mM of salts. Finally, to address the effects of Debye length, silicon nanowires coupled with antigen proteins underwent electrical signal changes as the salt concentration changed.Keywords: silicon nanowire array, C-reactive protein, vapor-liquid-solid method

  8. Measurements of UV-generated free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, Th.; Jung, K.; Fuchs, J.

    2006-03-01

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in skin by UV irradiation were measured by electron spin resonance (ESR). To increase the sensitivity of measurement the short life free radicals/ROS were scavenged and accumulated by using the nitroxyl probe 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetrametylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (PCA). The spatial distribution of free radicals/ROS measured in pig skin biopsies with ESR imaging after UV irradiation corresponds to the intensity decay of irradiance in the depth of the skin. The main part of free radicals/ROS were generated by UVA (320-400 nm) so that the spatial distribution of free radicals reaches up to the lower side of the dermis. In vivo measurements on human skin were performed with a L-band ESR spectrometer and a surface coil integrating the signal intensities from all skin layers to get a sufficient signal amplitude. Using this experimental arrangement the protection of UVB and UVA/B filter against the generation of free radicals/ROS in skin were measured. The protection against ROS and the repair of damages caused by them can be realized with active antioxidants characterized by a high antioxidative power (AP). The effect of UV filter and antioxidants corresponding to their protection against free radicals/ROS in skin generated by UVAB irradiation can be quantified by the new radical sun protection factor (RSF). The RSF indicates the increase of time for staying in the sun to generate the same number of free radicals/ROS in the skin like for the unprotected skin. Regarding the amount of generated free radicals/ROS in skin as an biophysical endpoint the RSF characterizes both the protection against UVB and UVA radiation.

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  10. Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, John W.; Wies, Richard; Trudnowski, Daniel

    2008-11-25

    Time-synchronized measurements provide rich information for estimating a power-system's electromechanical modal properties via advanced signal processing. This information is becoming critical for the improved operational reliability of interconnected grids. A given mode's properties are described by its frequency, damping, and shape. Modal frequencies and damping are useful indicators of power-system stress, usually declining with increased load or reduced grid capacity. Mode shape provides critical information for operational control actions. This project investigated many advanced techniques for power system identification from measured data focusing on mode frequency and damping ratio estimation. Investigators from the three universities coordinated their effort with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Significant progress was made on developing appropriate techniques for system identification with confidence intervals and testing those techniques on field measured data and through simulation. Experimental data from the western area power system was provided by PNNL and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for both ambient conditions and for signal injection tests. Three large-scale tests were conducted for the western area in 2005 and 2006. Measured field PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) data was provided to the three universities. A 19-machine simulation model was enhanced for testing the system identification algorithms. Extensive simulations were run with this model to test the performance of the algorithms. University of Wyoming researchers participated in four primary activities: (1) Block and adaptive processing techniques for mode estimation from ambient signals and probing signals, (2) confidence interval estimation, (3) probing signal design and injection method analysis, and (4) performance assessment and validation from simulated and field measured data. Subspace based methods have been use to improve previous results from block

  11. Measurement based analysis of active and reactive power losses in a distribution network with wind farms and CHPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of the active and reactive power losses in a distribution network with wind turbines and combined heat and power plants. The investigation is based on 15 min average power measurements and load flow calculations in the power system simulation tool Power......Factory®. Based on the measurements and simulations, a regressive model for calculation and allocation of active and reactive power losses has been derived. The influence of the covariance between load and production on the system losses is investigated separately....

  12. Advanced metrology of surface defects measurement for aluminum die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Myszka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific objective of the research is to develop a strategy to build computer based vision systems for inspection of surface defects inproducts, especially discontinuities which appear in castings after machining. In addition to the proposed vision inspection method theauthors demonstrates the development of the advanced computer techniques based on the methods of scanning to measure topography ofsurface defect in offline process control. This method allow to identify a mechanism responsible for the formation of casting defects. Also,the method allow investigating if the, developed vision inspection system for identification of surface defects have been correctlyimplemented for an online inspection. Finally, in order to make casting samples with gas and shrinkage porosity defects type, the LGT gas meter was used . For this task a special camera for a semi-quantitative assessment of the gas content in aluminum alloy melts, using a Straube-Pfeiffer method was used. The results demonstrate that applied solution is excellent tool in preparing for various aluminum alloysthe reference porosity samples, identified next by the computer inspection system.

  13. New Indices of Endothelial Function Measured by Digital Thermal Monitoring of Vascular Reactivity: Data from 6084 Patients Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naghavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial function is viewed as a barometer of cardiovascular health and plays a central role in vascular reactivity. Several studies showed digital thermal monitoring (DTM as a simple noninvasive method to measure vascular reactivity that is correlated with atherosclerosis risk factors and coronary artery disease. Objectives. To further evaluate the relations between patient characteristics and DTM indices in a large patient registry. Methods. DTM measures were correlated with age, sex, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6084 patients from 18 clinics. Results. DTM vascular reactivity index (VRI was normally distributed and inversely correlated with age (r=-0.21, p<0.0001. Thirteen percent of VRI tests were categorized as poor vascular reactivity (VRI < 1.0, 70 percent as intermediate (1.0 ≤ VRI < 2.0, and 17 percent as good (VRI ≥ 2.0. Poor VRI (<1.0 was noted in 6% of <50 y, 10% of 50–70 y, and 18% of ≥70 y. In multiple linear regression analyses, age, sex, and diastolic blood pressure were significant but weak predictors of VRI. Conclusions. As the largest database of finger-based vascular reactivity measurement, this report adds to prior findings that VRI is a meaningful physiological marker and reflects a high level of residual risk found in patients currently under care.

  14. Flux measurements of reactive nitrogen compounds using a chemiluminescence analyser with different converter types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Christof; Wolff, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    The availability of reactive nitrogen (Nr) is a key limiting factors for the productivity and the competition success of individual species. On the other hand, certain nitrogenous compounds can also be emitted from natural or managed ecosystems. Thus the quantification of the Nr exchange can be essential for the interpretation of ecosystem behavior. For the observation of Nr dry deposition and emission the eddy covariance (EC) method is preferable since it does not modify the environmental conditions of the ecosystem, is less prone to wall effects than chamber methods, and is less affected by gas phase chemical reactions than gradient methods. Since the various Nr compounds can undergo fast chemical reactions and have differing chemical and physical characteristics, a variety of detection techniques is usually necessary that often cannot meet the fast response requirements of the EC technique. Here we show applications of a fast response 2-channel NO analyzer suitable for EC measurements. In combination with different inlet converters (photolytic converter, gold catalyst converter, and high-temperature steel converter), the system could alternatively be used for flux measurements of NO2, NOy, and total Nr. The quantification of By combining the 2-channel analyzer with the NOy and total Nr converter simultaneously, the NH3 flux could be determined from the difference between the two channels. Concentration and flux measurements of the system were verified by inter-comparison with other methods. Potential problems include the damping of high-frequency fluctuations in the inlet system. It is therefore important to place the converter close to the sampling inlet and to quantify and correct the damping effects. Moreover, like most other flux measurement techniques, the system is susceptible to non-stationary trace gas concentrations that often occur near pollution sources.

  15. C-reactive protein, advanced glycation end products and their receptor in type 2 diabetic, elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of AGEs (advanced glycation end products), RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) and CRP (C-reactive protein) in elderly patients with T2DM with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to determine the predictors (including AGEs, RAGE and CRP levels) of having MCI in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: 276 diabetics elders were screened for MCI (using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: MoCA score). D...

  16. New Directions in Measuring Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Validation of a Teacher Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Thomaes, Sander; van Aken, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The well-known distinction between reactive and proactive aggression is theoretically important but empirically controversial. Recently, aggression researchers have argued that we should separate the form and function of aggression to make a clearer distinction between reactive and proactive aggression. This article describes the validation of a…

  17. A high precision method for quantitative measurements of reactive oxygen species in frozen biopsies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Berg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR technique using the spin probe cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH was introduced as a versatile method for high precision quantification of reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide radical in frozen biological samples such as cell suspensions, blood or biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Loss of measurement precision and accuracy due to variations in sample size and shape were minimized by assembling the sample in a well-defined volume. Measurement was carried out at low temperature (150 K using a nitrogen flow Dewar. The signal intensity was measured from the EPR 1st derivative amplitude, and related to a sample, 3-carboxy-proxyl (CP• with known spin concentration. RESULTS: The absolute spin concentration could be quantified with a precision and accuracy better than ±10 µM (k = 1. The spin concentration of samples stored at -80°C could be reproduced after 6 months of storage well within the same error estimate. CONCLUSION: The absolute spin concentration in wet biological samples such as biopsies, water solutions and cell cultures could be quantified with higher precision and accuracy than normally achievable using common techniques such as flat cells, tissue cells and various capillary tubes. In addition; biological samples could be collected and stored for future incubation with spin probe, and also further stored up to at least six months before EPR analysis, without loss of signal intensity. This opens for the possibility to store and transport incubated biological samples with known accuracy of the spin concentration over time.

  18. A review of hemorheology: Measuring techniques and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Patrícia C.; Pinho, Fernando T.; Alves, Manuel A.; Oliveira, Mónica S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Significant progress has been made over the years on the topic of hemorheology, not only in terms of the development of more accurate and sophisticated techniques, but also in terms of understanding the phenomena associated with blood components, their interactions and impact upon blood properties. The rheological properties of blood are strongly dependent on the interactions and mechanical properties of red blood cells, and a variation of these properties can bring further insight into the human health state and can be an important parameter in clinical diagnosis. In this article, we provide both a reference for hemorheological research and a resource regarding the fundamental concepts in hemorheology. This review is aimed at those starting in the field of hemodynamics, where blood rheology plays a significant role, but also at those in search of the most up-to-date findings (both qualitative and quantitative) in hemorheological measurements and novel techniques used in this context, including technical advances under more extreme conditions such as in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow or under extensional flow, which impose large deformations comparable to those found in the microcirculatory system and in diseased vessels. Given the impressive rate of increase in the available knowledge on blood flow, this review is also intended to identify areas where current knowledge is still incomplete, and which have the potential for new, exciting and useful research. We also discuss the most important parameters that can lead to an alteration of blood rheology, and which as a consequence can have a significant impact on the normal physiological behavior of blood.

  19. Cerebral Blood Flow and Transcranial Doppler Sonography Measurements of CO(2)-Reactivity in Acute Traumatic Brain Injured Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinstrup, Peter; Ryding, Erik Hilmer; Asgeirsson, Bogi;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements are helpful in managing patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and testing the cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2) provides information about injury severity and outcome. The complexity and potential hazard of performing CBF measurements...... limits routine clinical use. An alternative approach is to measure the CBF velocity using bedside, non-invasive, and transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography. This study was performed to investigate if TCD is a useful alternative to CBF in patients with severe TBI. METHOD: CBF and TCD flow velocity...... measurements and cerebrovascular reactivity to hypocapnia were simultaneously evaluated in 27 patients with acute TBI. Measurements were performed preoperatively during controlled normocapnia and hypocapnia in patients scheduled for hematoma evacuation under general anesthesia. MAIN FINDING AND CONCLUSION...

  20. Measuring Empathic Tendencies: Reliability And Validity of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim De Corte

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980 is a commonly used self-report instrument designed to assess empathic tendencies. The IRI consists of four separate subscales: Perspective Taking (PT, Fantasy (FS, Empathic Concern (EC, and Personal Distress (PD. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the IRI. The IRI was administered to a Dutch sample of 651 normal functioning adults. The factor structure of the IRI was examined by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The results of the CFA revealed that there is room for improvement and modification of the original theoretical model. The validity of the IRI was tested using internal criteria (i. e., scale intercorrelations and external criteria (i. e., correlations with subscales of the EQ-i (Bar-On, 1997, the NEO-FFI (Hoekstra, Ormel, & De Fruyt, 1996, Mach-IV (Van Kenhove, Vermeir, & Verniers, 2001, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965, and the WAIS-III (Wechsler, 2000. Overall, the internal consistency, construct validity, and factor structure of scores from the Dutch version of the IRI suggest that it is a useful instrument to measure people's self-reported empathic tendencies.

  1. Screening symptoms of reactive attachment disorder: evidence for measurement invariance and convergent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Eleonora; De Schipper, J Clasien; Bosmans, Guy; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-09-01

    The Relationship Problems Questionnaire (RPQ) was developed to screen symptoms of the inhibited and disinhibited subtype of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). This study further examines the psychometric properties of the RPQ in children with severe emotional and behavioural problems by testing its measurement invariance across informants and its convergent validity. Parents and teachers of 152 children [mean age (Mage) = 7.92] from 20 schools for special education filled out the RPQ and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). During a home visit in a subsample of 77 children the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI) was administered to the caregiver and the child was observed using an observational schedule for RAD. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed the expected two-factor structure for both parent and teacher RPQ. Configural and metric invariance, but no scalar invariance, were obtained across informants. Both RPQ-subscales had acceptable to good internal consistencies and correlated as expected with similar DAI-subscales. Furthermore, the disinhibited RPQ-scale related with observations of the child's approach to a stranger. Finally, significant associations were found between the RPQ and the SDQ. Overall, the RPQ has good psychometric qualities as a multi-informant instrument for RAD-symptoms in children with severe emotional and behavioural problems.

  2. TRANC – a novel fast-response converter to measure total reactive atmospheric nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marx

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The input and loss of plant available nitrogen (N from/to the atmosphere can be an important factor for the productivity of ecosystems and thus for its carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. We present a novel converter for the measurement of total reactive nitrogen (TRANC: Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter, which offers the opportunity to quantify the sum of all airborne reactive nitrogen (Nr compounds in high time resolution. The basic concept of the TRANC is the full conversion of total Nr to nitrogen monoxide (NO within two reaction steps. Initially, reduced N compounds are being oxidised, and oxidised N compounds are thermally converted to lower oxidation states. Particulate N is being sublimated and oxidised or reduced afterwards. In a second step, remaining higher N oxides or those originated in the first step are catalytically converted to NO with carbon monoxide used as reduction gas. The converter is combined with a fast response chemiluminescence detector (CLD for NO analysis and its performance was tested for the most relevant gaseous and particulate Nr species under both laboratory and field conditions. Recovery rates during laboratory tests for NH3 and NO2 were found to be 95 and 99%, respectively, and 97% when the two gases were combined. In-field longterm stability over an 11-month period was approved by a value of 91% for NO2. Effective conversion was also found for ammonium and nitrate containing particles. The recovery rate of total ambient Nr was tested against the sum of individual measurements of NH3, HNO3, HONO, NH4+, NO3, and NOx using a combination of different well-established devices. The results show that the TRANC-CLD system precisely captures fluctuations in Nr concentrations and also matches the sum of all

  3. Simultaneous measurements of reactive scalar and velocity in a planar liquid jet with a second-order chemical reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tomoaki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Nagata, Kouji; Terashima, Osamu [Nagoya University, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya (Japan); Kubo, Takashi [Meijo University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents a new experimental approach for simultaneous measurements of velocity and concentration in a turbulent liquid flow with a chemical reaction. For the simultaneous measurements, we developed a combined probe consisting of an I-type hot-film probe and an optical fiber probe based on the light absorption spectrometric method. In a turbulent planar liquid jet with a second-order chemical reaction (A+B{yields}R), streamwise velocity and concentrations of all reactive species are measured by the combined probe. The turbulent mass fluxes of the reactive species are estimated from the simultaneous measurements. The results show that the influence of the chemical reaction on the turbulent mass flux of the reactant species near the jet exit is different from its influence in other regions, and the turbulent mass flux of the product species has a negative value near the jet exit and a positive value in other regions. (orig.)

  4. Microcomputer-based equipment-control and data-acquisition system for fission-reactor reactivity-worth measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, W.P.; Bucher, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Material reactivity-worth measurements are one of the major classes of experiments conducted on the Zero Power research reactors (ZPR) at Argonne National Laboratory. These measurements require the monitoring of the position of a servo control element as a sample material is positioned at various locations in a critical reactor configuration. In order to guarantee operational reliability and increase experimental flexibility for these measurements, the obsolete hardware-based control unit has been replaced with a microcomputer based equipment control and data acquisition system. This system is based on an S-100 bus, dual floppy disk computer with custom built cards to interface with the experimental system. To measure reactivity worths, the system accurately positions samples in the reactor core and acquires data on the position of the servo control element. The data are then analyzed to determine statistical adequacy. The paper covers both the hardware and software aspects of the design.

  5. Measurement and modeling of engineered nanoparticle transport and aging dynamics in a reactive porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftaly, Aviv; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2016-07-01

    A continuous time random walk particle tracking (CTRW-PT) method was employed to model flow cell experiments that measured transport of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in a reactive porous medium. The experiments involved a water-saturated medium containing negatively charged, polyacrylamide beads, resembling many natural soils and aquifer materials, and having the same refraction index as water. Negatively and positively charged ENPs were injected into a uniform flow field in a 3-D horizontal flow cell, and the spatial and temporal concentrations of the evolving ENP plumes were obtained via image analysis. As a benchmark, and to calibrate the model, Congo red tracer was employed in 1-D column and 3-D flow cell experiments, containing the same beads. Negatively charged Au and Ag ENPs demonstrated migration patterns resembling those of the tracer but were slightly more dispersive; the transport was well represented by the CTRW-PT model. In contrast, positively charged AgNPs displayed an unusual behavior: establishment of an initial plume of essentially immobilized ENPs, followed by development of a secondary, freely migrating plume. The mobile plume was found to contain ENPs that, with aging, exhibited aggregation and charge inversion, becoming negatively charged and mobile. In this case, the CTRW-PT model was modified to include a probabilistic law for particle immobilization, to account for the decreasing tendency (over distance and time) of the positively charged AgNPs to attach to the porous medium. The agreement between experimental results and modeling suggests that the CTRW-PT framework can account for the non-Fickian and surface-charge-dependent transport and aging exhibited by ENPs in porous media.

  6. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and products identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction of Cl. radicals with sub-micron palmitic acid (PA particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapors and introduced in the reactor where chlorine atoms are produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by GC/MS analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analyses have shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although, the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2 which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids are identified by GC/MS. Formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids are also suspected. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface, but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. Furthermore the identified reaction products are explained by a chemical mechanism showing the pathway of the formation of more functionalized products. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  7. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and product identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M.; Ciuraru, R.; Gosselin, S.; Batut, S.; Visez, N.; Petitprez, D.

    2013-12-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of Cl• radicals with submicron palmitic acid (PA) particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapours and introduced into the reactor, where chlorine atoms were produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ) has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analysis has shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2, which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids were identified by GC/MS. The formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids is also suspected. A reaction pathway for the main products and more functionalized species is proposed. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  8. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and products identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M.; Ciuraru, R.; Gosselin, S.; Batut, S.; Visez, N.; Petitprez, D.

    2013-06-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of Cl. radicals with sub-micron palmitic acid (PA) particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapors and introduced in the reactor where chlorine atoms are produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ) has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by GC/MS analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analyses have shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although, the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2 which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids are identified by GC/MS. Formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids are also suspected. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface, but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. Furthermore the identified reaction products are explained by a chemical mechanism showing the pathway of the formation of more functionalized products. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  9. Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Social Measurement: Advancing Social Work Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kirk A.; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Much of the current neighborhood-based research uses variables aggregated on administrative boundaries such as zip codes, census tracts, and block groups. However, other methods using current technological advances in geographic sciences may broaden our ability to explore the spatial concentration of neighborhood factors affecting individuals and…

  10. Metformin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced renal tubular cell injury by suppressing reactive oxygen species generation via reducing receptor for AGEs (RAGE) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Takeuchi, M; Yamagishi, S

    2012-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play a role in tubulointerstitial damage in diabetic nephropathy. Recently, metformin has been shown to ameliorate tubular injury both in cell culture and diabetic animal model. However, effects of metformin on AGEs-induced tubular cell apoptosis and damage remain unknown. We examined here whether and how metformin could block the AGEs-RAGE-elicited tubular cell injury in vitro. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with dihydroethidium staining. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation and annexin V expression level. AGEs upregulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently increased ROS generation and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β gene expression in human renal proximal tubular cells, all of which were significantly blocked by the treatment of 0.01 and 0.1 mM metformin. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase significantly blocked the effects of metformin on RAGE gene expression and ROS generation in AGEs-exposed tubular cells. Furthermore, metformin dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced apoptotic cell death of tubular cells; 1 mM metformin completely suppressed the pro-apoptotic effects of AGEs in 2 different assay systems. Our present study suggests that metformin could inhibit the AGEs-induced apoptosis and inflammatory and fibrotic reactions in tubular cells probably by reducing ROS generation via suppression of RAGE expression through AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Metformin may protect against tubular cell injury in diabetic nephropathy by blocking the AGEs-RAGE-ROS axis.

  11. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold;

    2014-01-01

    with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was ..., there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is a reliable and rapid......BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE...

  12. A flow-tube based laser-induced fluorescence instrument to measure OH reactivity in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, T.; Goddard, A.; Whalley, L. K.; Furneaux, K. L.; Edwards, P. M.; Seal, C. P.; Self, D. E.; Johnson, G. P.; Read, K. A.; Lee, J. D.; Heard, D. E.

    2009-08-01

    A field instrument utilising the artificial generation of OH radicals in a sliding injector flow-tube reactor with detection by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed to measure the rate of decay of OH by reaction with its atmospheric sinks. The OH reactivity instrument has been calibrated using known concentrations of CO, NO2 and single hydrocarbons in a flow of zero air, and the impact of recycling of OH via the reaction HO2+NO→OH+NO2 on the measured OH reactivity has been quantified. As well as a detailed description of the apparatus, the capabilities of the new instrument are illustrated using representative results from deployment in the semi-polluted marine boundary layer at the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory, UK, and in a tropical rainforest at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch station, Danum Valley, Borneo.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability : Reactivity and Number of Days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to we

  14. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Reactivity and Number of Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to wear a pedometer for 14 days. The outcome measure…

  15. The added value of C-reactive protein measurement in diagnosing pneumonia in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minnaard, Margaretha C; de Groot, Joris A H; Hopstaken, Rogier M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is increasingly being included in the diagnostic work-up for community-acquired pneumonia in primary care. Its added diagnostic value beyond signs and symptoms, however, remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of individual patient data to quantify the a...

  16. QUALITATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF IGE AND IGG IN HUMAN ASTHMATIC SERUM FOR MOLD REACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rational: Molds have the ability to induce allergic asthma-like responses in mouse models; however, their role in human disease is unclear. This study was to develop a screening tool for reactivity of human sera to mold extracts by using a minimal amount of sera for a qual...

  17. Handbook of microwave component measurements with advanced VNA techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dunsmore, Joel P

    2012-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art coverage for making measurements on RF and Microwave Components, both active and passive. A perfect reference for R&D and Test Engineers, with topics ranging from the best practices for basic measurements, to an in-depth analysis of errors, correction methods, and uncertainty analysis, this book provides everything you need to understand microwave measurements. With primary focus on active and passive measurements using a Vector Network Analyzer, these techniques and analysis are equally applicable to measurements made with Spectrum Analyzers or Noise Figure

  18. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

    2009-09-01

    Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

  19. Safety Assessment of Advanced Imaging Sequences I: Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Pihl, Michael Johannes;

    2016-01-01

    intensity measurement program. The approach can measure and store data for a full imaging sequence in 3.8 to 8.2 s per spatial position. Based on Ispta, MI, and probe surface temperature, the method gives the ability to determine whether a sequence is within US FDA limits, or alternatively indicate how...

  20. Total OH reactivity measurements in ambient air in a southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine forest during BEACHON-SRM08 summer campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Kato, Shungo; Greenberg, Jim; Harley, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Turnipseed, A.; Apel, Eric; Guenther, Alex B.; Smith, Jim; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2014-03-01

    Total OH reactivity was measured during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen-Southern Rocky Mountain 2008 field campaign (BEACHON-SRM08) held at Manitou Experimental Forest (MEF) in Colorado USA during the summer season in August, 2008. The averaged total OH reactivity was 6.8 s-1, smaller than that measured in urban or suburban areas, while sporadically high OH reactivity was also observed during some evenings. The total OH reactivity measurements were accompanied by observations of traces species such as CO, NO, NOy, O3 and SO2 and VOCs. From the calculation of OH reactivity based on the analysis of these trace species, 35.3-46.3% of OH reactivity for VOCs came from biogenic species that are dominated by 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO), and monoterpenes. MBO was the most prominent contribution to OH reactivity of any other trace species. A comparison of observed and calculated OH reactivity shows that the calculated OH reactivity is 29.5-34.8% less than the observed value, implying the existence of missing OH sink. One of the candidates of missing OH was thought to be the oxidation products of biogenic species.

  1. Total OH reactivity measurements in ambient air in a southern Rocky mountain ponderosa pine forest during BEACHON-SRM08 summer campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Kato, Shungo; Greenberg, Jim; Harley, Peter; Karl, Thomas; Turnipseed, Andrew; Apel, Eric; Guenther, Alex; Smith, Jim; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2014-03-01

    Total OH reactivity was measured during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen-Southern Rocky Mountain 2008 field campaign (BEACHON-SRM08) held at Manitou Experimental Forest (MEF) in Colorado USA in August, 2008. The averaged total OH reactivity was 6.7 s-1, smaller than that measured in urban (33.4 s-1, Yoshino et al., 2012) and suburban (27.7 s-1, Yoshino et al., 2006) areas in Tokyo in the same season, while sporadically high OH reactivity was also observed during some evenings. The total OH reactivity measurements were accompanied by observations of traces species such as CO, NO, NOy, O3 and SO2 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). From the calculation of OH reactivity based on the analysis of these trace species, 46.3% of OH reactivity for VOCs came from biogenic species that are dominated by 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), and monoterpenes. MBO was the most prominent contribution to OH reactivity of all trace species. A comparison of observed and calculated OH reactivity shows that the calculated OH reactivity is 29.5% less than the observed value, implying the existence of missing OH sinks. One of the candidates of missing OH is thought to be the oxidation products of biogenic species.

  2. Two-Group Theory of the Feynman-Alpha Method for Reactivity Measurement in ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénárd Pál

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the Feynman-alpha method, which is used to determine the subcritical reactivity of systems driven by an external source such as an ADS, is extended to two energy groups with the inclusion of delayed neutrons. This paper presents a full derivation of the variance to mean formula with the inclusion of two energy groups and delayed neutrons. The results are illustrated quantitatively and discussed in physical terms.

  3. Branch-level measurement of total OH reactivity for constraining unknown BVOC emission during the CABINEX (Community Atmosphere-Biosphere INteractions Experiments-09 Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We present OH reactivity measurements using the comparative reactivity method with a branch enclosure technique for four different tree species (red oak, white pine, beech and red maple in the UMBS PROPHET tower footprint during the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteraction EXperiment (CABINEX field campaign in July of 2009. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was sequentially used as a detector for OH reactivity and BVOC including isoprene and monoterpenes (MT, in enclosure air, so that the measurement dataset contains both measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from well-known BVOC. The results indicate that isoprene and MT, and in one case a sesquiterpene, can account for the measured OH reactivity. Significant discrepancy between measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from isoprene and MT is found for the red maple enclosure dataset but it can be reconciled by adding reactivity from emission of a sesquiterpene, α-farnesene, detected by GC-MS. This leads us to conclude that no significant unknown BVOC emission contributed to ambient OH reactivity from these trees at least during the study period. This conclusion leads us to explore the contribution from unmeasured isoprene (the dominant OH sink in this ecosystem oxidation products such as hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and C4 and C5-hydroxycarbonyl using recently published isoprene oxidation mechanisms (Mainz Isoprene Mechanism II and Leuven Isoprene Mechanism. Evaluation of conventionally unmeasured first generation oxidation products of isoprene and their possible contribution to ambient missing OH reactivity indicates that the ratio of OH reactivity from unmeasured products over OH reactivity from MVK + MACR is strongly dependent on NO concentrations. The unmeasured oxidation products can contribute ~7.2% (8.8% from LIM and 5.6% by MIM 2 when NO = 100 pptv of the isoprene contribution towards total ambient OH reactivity. This amount can

  4. Multi-Objective Advanced Inverter Controls to Dispatch the Real and Reactive Power of Many Distributed PV Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seuss, John [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Grijalva, Santiago [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this report compares several real - time control strategies for the power output of a large number of PV distributed throughout a large distribution feeder circuit. Both real and reactive power controls are considered with the goal of minimizing network over - voltage violations caused by large amounts of PV generation. Several control strategies are considered under various assumptions regarding the existence and latency of a communication network. The control parameters are adjusted to maximize the effectiveness of each control. The controls are then compared based on their ability to achieve multiple objectiv es. These objectives include minimizing the total number of voltage violations , minimizing the total amount of PV energy curtailed or reactive power generated, and maximizing the fairness of any control action among all PV systems . The controls are simulat ed on the OpenDSS platform using time series load and spatially - distributed irradiance data.

  5. The advance and development of damage measurement technique of rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Geng-she(杨更社)

    2003-01-01

    The key problem of rock damage mechanics is that determination of the variable of rock damage and the establishment of damage constitutive relation of rock, which is inevitable involved in the measurement problem of rock. In this paper, the measurement technology and method of rock damage are comprehensively narrated, analyzed and studied. On the basis of the narrating the former study, a new method (Computerized Tomography,CT for short) is introduced, which is applied to rock damage measurement. On the other hand, some newest study results and laws in the field are also introduced, which are from some scholars, the author of this paper.

  6. Serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products correlates inversely with measures of adiposity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Imrhan, Victorine

    2014-06-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may promote inflammation by interacting with the receptor for advanced glycation end products. Serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), a form of receptor for advanced glycation end products thought to mediate AGE's inflammatory properties, is decreased in diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Evidence in older adults suggests that sRAGE is depressed in individuals without current disease who are obese; however, 2 studies have failed to find this correlation. We hypothesized that sRAGE would be inversely correlated with adiposity and positively correlated with inflammation, even in apparently healthy, young adults. By considering adults of body mass index (BMI) varying from normal weight to overweight and obese, we aimed to define how closely AGEs and sRAGE correlate with adiposity and other indicators of metabolic stress. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained from participants (n = 69). Sera were analyzed for sRAGE, n-epsilon carboxy-methyl-lysine, a measure of AGEs, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. High molecular weight adiponectin, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol were also assessed (n = 32). Spearman rank correlations were used to evaluate the relationship among indicators of adiposity and biochemical indicators of metabolic health and inflammation. Factors inversely correlated with sRAGE include weight (Rs = -0.397; P = .001), waist circumference (-0.291; P = .015), and BMI (-0.3338; P = .004). High molecular weight adiponectin was positively correlated with sRAGE, and predictors of sRAGE included BMI and total cholesterol. This is the first time these associations have been found in a diverse population of young adults.

  7. Advances in bioanalytical techniques to measure steroid hormones in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Steroid hormones are measured clinically to determine if a patient has a pathological process occurring in the adrenal gland, or other hormone responsive organs. They are very similar in structure making them analytically challenging to measure. Additionally, these hormones have vast concentration differences in human serum adding to the measurement complexity. GC-MS was the gold standard methodology used to measure steroid hormones clinically, followed by radioimmunoassay, but that was replaced by immunoassay due to ease of use. LC-MS/MS has now become a popular alternative owing to simplified sample preparation than for GC-MS and increased specificity and sensitivity over immunoassay. This review will discuss these methodologies and some new developments that could simplify and improve steroid hormone analysis in serum.

  8. Concepts and recent advances in generalized information measures and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Andres M

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of the information measure widely known as Shannon entropy, quantifiers based on information theory and concepts such as entropic forms and statistical complexities have proven to be useful in diverse scientific research fields. This book contains introductory tutorials suitable for the general reader, together with chapters dedicated to the basic concepts of the most frequently employed information measures or quantifiers and their recent applications to different areas, including physics, biology, medicine, economics, communication and social sciences. As these quantif

  9. A summary period measure of immigrant advancement in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pitkin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for summarizing the pace of advancement of the foreign-born population in a given period. The method standardizes for variations in the duration of residence or age composition of immigrant groups, attainments possessed by different groups when first observed after entry, and other temporal effects on measured advances, forming an index of Expected Lifetime Advance based on the pace of change in a period. The measure is applied to Mexican and Asian immigrants. Between the 1980s and the 1990s, the rates of advancement for Mexicans accelerated in six out of seven social, economic, and civic outcomes. Rates of advancement for Asians were similar in both decades.

  10. Meso-Scale Experimental & Numerical Studies for Predicting Macro-scale Performance of Advanced Reactive Materials (ARMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    particular interest because of the extraordinarily high enthalpy of reaction (ΔHrxn 0 = -320 kJ/mol) when forming the stable TiB2 product phase. This...of impact-initiated reactions in Ti-Al-B based reactive materials in the form of compacts of powders of different sizes and morphologies. The major...provide the thermal and mass transport resulting in highly exothermic Ti and B intermetallic reaction and/or oxidation reaction (Al or B). The time

  11. Safety Assessment of Advanced Imaging Sequences I: Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2016-01-01

    distributions. The method is several orders of magnitude faster than approaches using an oscilloscope, and it also facilitates validating the emitted pressure field and the scanner’s emission sequence software. It has been implemented using the experimental SARUS scanner and the Onda AIMS III intensity...... measurement system (Onda Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Four different sequences have been measured: a fixed focus emission, a duplex sequence containing B-mode and flow emissions, a vector flow sequence with B-mode and flow emissions in 17 directions, and finally a synthetic aperture (SA) duplex flow...... sequence. A BK8820e (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) convex array probe is used for the first three sequences and a BK8670 linear array probe for the SA sequence. The method is shown to give the same intensity values within 0.24% of the AIMS III Soniq 5.0 (Onda Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) commercial...

  12. A Survey of Advanced Microwave Frequency Measurement Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Swaroop Khare,

    2012-01-01

    Microwaves are radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. The science of photonics includes the generation, emission, modulation, signal processing, switching, transmission, amplification, detection and sensing of light. Microwave photonics has been introduced for achieving ultra broadband signal processing. Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM) receivers play an important ro...

  13. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  14. Advanced wavefront measurement and analysis of laser system modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Auerback, J.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    High spatial resolution measurements of the reflected or transmitted wavefronts of large aperture optical components used in high peak power laser systems is now possible. These measurements are produced by phase shifting interferometry. The wavefront data is in the form of 3-D phase maps that reconstruct the wavefront shape. The emphasis of this work is on the characterization of wavefront features in the mid-spatial wavelength range (from 0.1 to 10.0 mm) and has been accomplished for the first time. Wavefront structure from optical components with spatial wavelengths in this range are of concern because their effects in high peak power laser systems. At high peak power, this phase modulation can convert to large magnitude intensity modulation by non-linear processes. This can lead to optical damage. We have developed software to input the measured phase map data into beam propagation codes in order to model this conversion process. We are analyzing this data to: (1) Characterize the wavefront structure produced by current optical components, (2) Refine our understanding of laser system performance, (3) Develop a database from which future optical component specifications can be derived.

  15. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-07

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm.

  16. Advanced spherical near-field antenna measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    The DTU-ESA facility has since the 1980es provided highly accurate antenna radiation pattern measurements and gain calibration by use of the probe corrected spherical nearfield technique, both for ESA (the European Space Agency) and other customers and continues to do so. Recent years activities...... and showing the capabilities of each participating facility. A special campaign was carried out with the aim of establishing a reference radiation pattern for the DTU-ESA VAST-12 antenna. The on-ground calibration of the MIRAS space radiometer for ESA's SMOS mission was carried out at the DTU-ESA facility...

  17. Advances in traceability of Freeform Measurements on CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Larsen, Erik;

    2001-01-01

    the need for complex calibrated items to be used in the substitution method for uncertainty assessment. The procedure is beeing investigated as one of the possible approaches for the new ISO 15530 series on uncertainty assessment for CMMs. The calibration of freeform surfaces is here presented...... as an example. A turbine blade has been calibrated using a CAD-based measuring system and a software tool to perform data collection, analysis, calculation and display of uncertainty. The measurands are represented by the local deviations from nominal points, with spacing of 0.2 mm in 9 different sections...

  18. Advanced computational methods for the assessment of reactor core behaviour during reactivity initiated accidents. Final report; Fortschrittliche Rechenmethoden zum Kernverhalten bei Reaktivitaetsstoerfaellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, A.; Perin, Y.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W.; Seubert, A.; Klein, M.; Gallner, L.; Krzycacz-Hausmann, B.

    2012-05-15

    The document at hand serves as the final report for the reactor safety research project RS1183 ''Advanced Computational Methods for the Assessment of Reactor Core Behavior During Reactivity-Initiated Accidents''. The work performed in the framework of this project was dedicated to the development, validation and application of advanced computational methods for the simulation of transients and accidents of nuclear installations. These simulation tools describe in particular the behavior of the reactor core (with respect to neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and thermal mechanics) at a very high level of detail. The overall goal of this project was the deployment of a modern nuclear computational chain which provides, besides advanced 3D tools for coupled neutronics/ thermal-hydraulics full core calculations, also appropriate tools for the generation of multi-group cross sections and Monte Carlo models for the verification of the individual calculational steps. This computational chain shall primarily be deployed for light water reactors (LWR), but should beyond that also be applicable for innovative reactor concepts. Thus, validation on computational benchmarks and critical experiments was of paramount importance. Finally, appropriate methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were to be integrated into the computational framework, in order to assess and quantify the uncertainties due to insufficient knowledge of data, as well as due to methodological aspects.

  19. Advances in corneal topography measurements with conical null-screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Cossio-Guerrero, Cesar; Huerta-Carranza, Oliver; Moreno-Oliva, Víctor I.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we report the design of a null-screen for corneal topography. To avoid the difficulties in the alignment of the test system due to the face contour (eyebrows, nose, or eyelids), we design a conical null-screen with a novel radial points distribution drawn on it in such a way that its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Additionally, an algorithm to compute the sagittal and meridional radii of curvature for the corneal surface is presented. The sagittal radius is obtained from the surface normal, and the meridional radius is calculated from a function fitted to the derivative of the sagittal curvature by using the surfacenormals raw data. Experimental results for the testing a calibration spherical surface are shown. Also, we perform some corneal topography measurements.

  20. An evaluation of electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation techniques for in-service measurements on Type 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoner, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) tests can be used to measure quantitatively the sensitization of Type 304 stainless steel. The single loop (SL) and double loop (DL) EPR techniques were compared as non-destructive methods for determining sensitization under both laboratory and simulated field environments. Measurements were performed on specimens heat-treated to produce levels of sensitization from no sensitization to heavy sensitization. At temperatures of 22/degree/C and 30/degree/C testing with standard laboratory and portable field apparatus, both EPR techniques were capable of distinguishing sensitization levels at the range spanning those characterized as being non-susceptible and susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Through correlations developed for the test data, it is possible to translate field results to the standard laboratory test conditions. This was demonstrated for the SL test through measurements performed on a pipe specimen containing IGSCC. 12 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Measurement-Based Performance Evaluation of Advanced MIMO Transceiver Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Uwe; Schneider, Christian; Thomä, Reiner

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and the results of performance investigations on a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transceiver scheme for frequency-selective radio channels. The method relies on offline simulations and employs real-time MIMO channel sounder measurement data to ensure a realistic channel modeling. Thus it can be classified in between the performance evaluation using some predefined channel models and the evaluation of a prototype hardware in field experiments. New aspects for the simulation setup are discussed, which are frequently ignored when using simpler model-based evaluations. Example simulations are provided for an iterative ("turbo") MIMO equalizer concept. The dependency of the achievable bit error rate performance on the propagation characteristics and on the variation in some system design parameters is shown, whereas the antenna constellation is of particular concern for MIMO systems. Although in many of the considered constellations turbo MIMO equalization appears feasible in real field scenarios, there exist cases with poor performance as well, indicating that in practical applications link adaptation of the transmitter and receiver processing to the environment is necessary.

  2. Measurement-Based Performance Evaluation of Advanced MIMO Transceiver Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology and the results of performance investigations on a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transceiver scheme for frequency-selective radio channels. The method relies on offline simulations and employs real-time MIMO channel sounder measurement data to ensure a realistic channel modeling. Thus it can be classified in between the performance evaluation using some predefined channel models and the evaluation of a prototype hardware in field experiments. New aspects for the simulation setup are discussed, which are frequently ignored when using simpler model-based evaluations. Example simulations are provided for an iterative ("turbo" MIMO equalizer concept. The dependency of the achievable bit error rate performance on the propagation characteristics and on the variation in some system design parameters is shown, whereas the antenna constellation is of particular concern for MIMO systems. Although in many of the considered constellations turbo MIMO equalization appears feasible in real field scenarios, there exist cases with poor performance as well, indicating that in practical applications link adaptation of the transmitter and receiver processing to the environment is necessary.

  3. Advanced Measurement and Modeling Techniques for Improved SOFC Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Adler; L. Dunyushkina; S. Huff; Y. Lu; J. Wilson

    2006-12-31

    The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of factors governing performance and degradation of mixed-conducting SOFC cathodes. Two new diagnostic tools were developed to help achieve this goal: (1) microelectrode half-cells for improved isolation of cathode impedance on thin electrolytes, and (2) nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (NLEIS), a variant of traditional impedance that allows workers to probe nonlinear rates as a function of frequency. After reporting on the development and efficacy of these tools, this document reports on the use of these and other tools to better understand performance and degradation of cathodes based on the mixed conductor La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSC) on gadolinia or samaria-doped ceria (GDC or SDC). We describe the use of NLEIS to measure O{sub 2} exchange on thin-film LSC electrodes, and show that O{sub 2} exchange is most likely governed by dissociative adsorption. We also describe parametric studies of porous LSC electrodes using impedance and NLEIS. Our results suggest that O{sub 2} exchange and ion transport co-limit performance under most relevant conditions, but it is O{sub 2} exchange that is most sensitive to processing, and subject to the greatest degradation and sample-to-sample variation. We recommend further work that focuses on electrodes of well-defined or characterized geometry, and probes the details of surface structure, composition, and impurities. Parallel work on primarily electronic conductors (LSM) would also be of benefit to developers, and to improved understanding of surface vs. bulk diffusion.

  4. Reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) in exhaust of advanced PM-NO x abatement technologies for future diesel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Zimmerli, Yan; Czerwinski, Jan; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Haag, Regula; Seiler, Cornelia; Wichser, Adrian; Ulrich, Andrea; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mosimann, Thomas; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Long-term exposure to increased levels of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) and particulate matter (PM) affect human health. Many cities are currently not able to fulfill European air quality standards for these critical pollutants. Meanwhile, promising new abatement technologies such as diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are developed to reduce PM and RNC emissions. Herein, effects of a urea-based SCR system on RNC emissions are discussed and we quantified the highly reactive intermediates isocyanic acid (HNCO) and ammonia (NH 3), both potential secondary pollutants of the urea-based SCR chemistry. A diesel engine (3.0 L, 100 kW), operated in the ISO 8178/4 C1, cycle was used as test platform. A V 2O 5-based SCR catalyst was either applied as such or down-stream of a high oxidation potential-DPF (hox-DPF). With active SCR, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) conversion efficiencies of 0.86-0.94 and 0.86-0.99 were obtained. On the other hand, mean HNCO and NH 3 emissions increased to 240-280 and 1800-1900 mg h -1. On a molar basis, HNCO accounted for 0.8-1.4% and NH 3 for 14-25% of the emitted RNCs. On roads, SCR systems will partly be inactive when exhaust temperatures drop below 220 °C. The system was active only during 75% of the test cycle, and urea dosing was stopped and restarted several times. Consequently, NO conversion stopped but interestingly, NO 2 was still converted. Such light-off and shutdown events are frequent in urban driving, compromising the overall deNO x efficiency. Another important effect of the SCR technology is illustrated by the NH 3/NO 2 ratio, which was >1 with active SCR, indicating that exhaust is basic rather than acidic after the SCR catalyst. Under these conditions, isocyanic acid is stable. The widespread use of various converter technologies already affected RNC release. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and hox-DPFs increased NO 2 emissions, three-way catalysts (TWCs

  5. Measurement and modelling of reactive transport in geological barriers for nuclear waste containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qingrong; Joseph, Claudia; Schmeide, Katja; Jivkov, Andrey P

    2015-11-11

    Compacted clays are considered as excellent candidates for barriers to radionuclide transport in future repositories for nuclear waste due to their very low hydraulic permeability. Diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, controlled by a nano-scale pore system. Assessment of the clays' long-term containment function requires adequate modelling of such pore systems and their evolution. Existing characterisation techniques do not provide complete pore space information for effective modelling, such as pore and throat size distributions and connectivity. Special network models for reactive transport are proposed here using the complimentary character of the pore space and the solid phase. This balances the insufficient characterisation information and provides the means for future mechanical-physical-chemical coupling. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of clays is represented using different length parameters and percentage of pores in different directions. Resulting networks are described as mathematical graphs with efficient discrete calculus formulation of transport. Opalinus Clay (OPA) is chosen as an example. Experimental data for the tritiated water (HTO) and U(vi) diffusion through OPA are presented. Calculated diffusion coefficients of HTO and uranium species are within the ranges of the experimentally determined data in different clay directions. This verifies the proposed pore network model and validates that uranium complexes are diffusing as neutral species in OPA. In the case of U(vi) diffusion the method is extended to account for sorption and convection. Rather than changing pore radii by coarse grained mathematical formula, physical sorption is simulated in each pore, which is more accurate and realistic.

  6. Nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy measurements on reactively sputtered TiN coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish C Barshilia; K S Rajam

    2004-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings were deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering process. The films were deposited on silicon (111) substrates at various process conditions, e.g. substrate bias voltage (B) and nitrogen partial pressure. Mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated by a nanoindentation technique. Force vs displacement curves generated during loading and unloading of a Berkovich diamond indenter were used to determine the hardness () and Young’s modulus () of the films. Detailed investigations on the role of substrate bias and nitrogen partial pressure on the mechanical properties of the coatings are presented in this paper. Considerable improvement in the hardness was observed when negative bias voltage was increased from 100–250 V. Films deposited at |B| = 250 V exhibited hardness as high as 3300 kg/mm2. This increase in hardness has been attributed to ion bombardment during the deposition. The ion bombardment considerably affects the microstructure of the coatings. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the coatings revealed fine-grained morphology for the films prepared at higher substrate bias voltage. The hardness of the coatings was found to increase with a decrease in nitrogen partial pressure.

  7. Time resolved measurement of film growth during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschker, Felix; Benedikt, Jan; Maszl, Christian; von Keudell, Achim

    2013-01-01

    The growth rate during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride is measured with a temporal resolution of up to 25 us using a rotating shutter concept. According to that concept a 200 um slit is rotated in front of the substrate synchronous with the HIPIMS pulses. Thereby, the growth flux is laterally distributed over the substrate. By measuring the resulting deposition profile with profilometry and with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the temporal variation of the titanium and nitrogen growth flux per pulse is deduced. The analysis reveals that film growth occurs mainly during a HIPIMS pulse, with the growth rate following the HIPIMS phases ignition, current rise, gas rarefaction, plateau and afterglow. The growth fluxes of titanium and nitrogen follow slightly different behaviors with titanium dominating at the beginning of the HIPIMS pulse and nitrogen at the end of the pulse. This is explained by the gas rarefaction effect resulting in a dense initial metal plasma and...

  8. Reactivity worth measurements on fast burst reactor Caliban - description and interpretation of integral experiments for the validation of nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, VALDUC, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2012-07-01

    Reactivity perturbation experiments using various materials are being performed on the HEU fast core CALIBAN, an experimental device operated by the CEA VALDUC Criticality and Neutron Transport Research Laboratory. These experiments provide valuable information to contribute to the validation of nuclear data for the materials used in such measurements. This paper presents the results obtained in a first series of measurements performed with Au-197 samples. Experiments which have been conducted in order to improve the characterization of the core are also described and discussed. The experimental results have been compared to numerical calculation using both deterministic and Monte Carlo neutron transport codes with a simplified model of the reactor. This early work led to a methodology which will be applied to the future experiments which will concern other materials of interest. (authors)

  9. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide: From green plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgio eKfoury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide (PLA is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity (high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET, high impact poly(styrene (HIPS and poly(propylene (PP, PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application.This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive blending PLA-based systems.

  10. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): From ``green'' plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity (high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)), PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems.

  11. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): from "green" plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity [high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)], PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems.

  12. Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Hartog, Jasper W L; Graaff, Reindert; Huisman, Roel J; Links, Thera P; den Hollander, Nynke C; Thorpe, Susan R; Baynes, John W; Navis, Gerjan; Gans, Rijk O B; Smit, Andries J

    2005-12-01

    Tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE) are a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and trigger cytokines driven inflammatory reactions. AGE are thought to contribute to the chronic complications of diabetes and ESRD. Tissue autofluorescence is related to the accumulation of AGE. Therefore, skin autofluorescence (AF) may provide prognostic information on mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Skin AF was measured noninvasively with an AF reader at baseline in 109 HD patients. Overall and cardiovascular mortality was monitored prospectively during a period of 3 yr. The AF reader was validated against AGE contents in skin biopsies from 29 dialysis patients. Forty-two of the 109 (38.5%) HD patients died. Cox regression analysis showed that AF was an independent predictor of overall and cardiovascular mortality (for overall mortality odds ratio [OR] 3.9), as were pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD; OR 3.1), C-reactive protein (OR 1.1), and serum albumin (OR 0.3). Multivariate analysis revealed that 65% of the variance in AF could be attributed to the independent effects of age, dialysis and renal failure duration, presence of diabetes, triglycerides levels, and C-reactive protein. AF was also independently linked to the presence of CVD at baseline (OR 8.8; P < 0.001). AF correlated with collagen-linked fluorescence (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), pentosidine (r = 0.75, P < 0.001), and carboxy(m)ethyllysine (both r = 0.45, P < 0.01). Skin AF is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in ESRD. This supports a role for AGE as a contributor to mortality and CVD and warrants interventions specifically aimed at AGE accumulation.

  13. K{sub {infinity}} measurements of HTR lattices by oscillated zero reactivity technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, F.; Brighenti, G.; Chiodi, P.L.; Giuliani, C.

    1973-10-15

    Referring to 9th DCPM and 15th DCPM (AGN), the measurements program has been scheduled as foreseen, with some variations suggested by the experience development. The measurements are scheduled to be completed by the end of 1973, but we have judged interesting to present some of the results obtained to date.

  14. Advanced glycation end products induce human corneal epithelial cells apoptosis through generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Shi

    Full Text Available Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs has been implicated in the progression of diabetic keratopathy. However, details regarding their function are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and JNK, p38 MAPK on AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA induced Human telomerase-immortalized corneal epithelial cells (HUCLs apoptosis. We found that AGE-BSA induced HUCLs apoptosis and increased Bax protein expression, decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. AGE-BSA also induced the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE. AGE-BSA-RAGE interaction induced intracellular ROS generation through activated NADPH oxidase and increased the phosphorylation of p47phox. AGE-BSA induced HUCLs apoptosis was inhibited by pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitors, ROS quencher N-acetylcysteine (NAC or neutralizing anti-RAGE antibodies. We also found that AGE-BSA induced JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitor effectively blocked AGE-BSA-induced HUCLs apoptosis. In addition, NAC completely blocked phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK induced by AGE-BSA. Our results indicate that AGE-BSA induced HUCLs apoptosis through generation of intracellular ROS and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

  15. Effect of Fibrinogen on Platelet Reactivity Measured by the VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, A B; Laguta, P S; Guskova, E V; Yarovaya, E B; Titaeva, E V; Storozhilova, A N; Panchenko, E P

    2016-05-01

    The VerifyNow assay is based upon the ability of activated platelets to cross-link beads coated with fibrinogen. However, fibrinogen is an abundant protein of blood, and therefore it may affect test results by competing with fibrinogen of beads for binding to platelets. To test this assumption, we assessed the influence of artificial alteration of fibrinogen level in blood samples obtained from donors (n = 9) and patients on clopidogrel therapy (n = 8) on the results of the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Fibrinogen level was altered by adding to blood samples 1/10 volume of fibrinogen solution (10.56 g/liter) or corresponding buffer. Relative to baseline, addition of buffer significantly increased platelet reactivity, whereas addition of fibrinogen decreased it. Analysis of the relationship between change in platelet reactivity values (dBase and dPRU) and change in fibrinogen concentration (dFg) revealed strong negative correlations: dBase = -63.3 × dFg - 27.1 (r = -0.924, p fibrinogen strongly influences results of the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, and (ii) correcting for fibrinogen effect may be needed to improve the accuracy of the test in the measuring of antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel therapy.

  16. Experimental Antithrombotic Effect of Garlic Varieties Measured by a Global In Vitro Test of Platelet Reactivity and Spontaneous Thrombolytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Ijiri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of arterial thrombotic diseases has high priority over treatment in developed countries. Unsuitable life style such as inappropriate quality and quantity of daily diet is known to increase the risk for acute thrombotic events, while a regular diet with proven antithrombotic effects might be beneficial in preventing the disease. The present study was undertaken as a part of a series of research in screening vegetables, fruits and medicinal herbs for antithrombotic activity by animal models of thrombosis. In the present study the effects of fifteen garlic varieties (accessions on platelet reactivity and spontaneous (endogenous thrombolytic activity were measured ex vivo from saline-diluted rat blood by the Global Thrombosis Test (GTT. All accessions showed antithrombotic activity but the activity varied between accessions. The heat stable antithrombotic activity was dominantly due to inhibition of platelet reactivity to high shear stress while the spontaneous thrombolytic activity was not affected. These findings suggest that daily intake of garlic as part of an antithrombotic diet may be beneficial for the prevention of arterial thrombotic disorders.

  17. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics by systematically investigating the effect of design and operating variables, to evaluate the reported dimensionless groups as scaling factors, and to establish a reliable scale-up methodology for the TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters based on hydrodynamic similarity via advanced measurement and computational techniques. An additional objective is to develop an on-line non-invasive measurement technique based on gamma ray densitometry (i.e. Nuclear Gauge Densitometry) that can be installed and used for coater process monitoring to ensure proper performance and operation and to facilitate the developed scale-up methodology. To achieve the objectives set for the project, the work will use optical probes and gamma ray computed tomography (CT) (for the measurements of solids/voidage holdup cross-sectional distribution and radial profiles along the bed height, spouted diameter, and fountain height) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) (for the measurements of the 3D solids flow field, velocity, turbulent parameters, circulation time, solids lagrangian trajectories, and many other of spouted bed related hydrodynamic parameters). In addition, gas dynamic measurement techniques and pressure transducers will be utilized to complement the obtained information. The measurements obtained by these techniques will be used as benchmark data to evaluate and validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models (two fluid model or discrete particle model) and their closures. The validated CFD models and closures will be used to facilitate the developed methodology for scale-up, design and hydrodynamic similarity. Successful execution of this work and the proposed tasks will advance the fundamental understanding of the coater flow field and quantify it for proper and safe design, scale-up, and performance. Such achievements will overcome the barriers to AGR applications and will help assure that the US maintains

  18. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics by systematically investigating the effect of design and operating variables, to evaluate the reported dimensionless groups as scaling factors, and to establish a reliable scale-up methodology for the TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters based on hydrodynamic similarity via advanced measurement and computational techniques. An additional objective is to develop an on-line non-invasive measurement technique based on gamma ray densitometry (i.e. Nuclear Gauge Densitometry) that can be installed and used for coater process monitoring to ensure proper performance and operation and to facilitate the developed scale-up methodology. To achieve the objectives set for the project, the work will use optical probes and gamma ray computed tomography (CT) (for the measurements of solids/voidage holdup cross-sectional distribution and radial profiles along the bed height, spouted diameter, and fountain height) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) (for the measurements of the 3D solids flow field, velocity, turbulent parameters, circulation time, solids lagrangian trajectories, and many other of spouted bed related hydrodynamic parameters). In addition, gas dynamic measurement techniques and pressure transducers will be utilized to complement the obtained information. The measurements obtained by these techniques will be used as benchmark data to evaluate and validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models (two fluid model or discrete particle model) and their closures. The validated CFD models and closures will be used to facilitate the developed methodology for scale-up, design and hydrodynamic similarity. Successful execution of this work and the proposed tasks will advance the fundamental understanding of the coater flow field and quantify it for proper and safe design, scale-up, and performance. Such achievements will overcome the barriers to AGR applications and will help assure that the US maintains

  19. Measuring reactive nitrogen emissions from point sources using visible spectroscopy from aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, M L; Solomon, S; Daniel, J S; Langford, A O; Portmann, R W; Ryerson, T B; Nicks, D K; McKeen, S A

    2003-02-01

    Accurate measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a key trace gas in the formation and destruction of tropospheric ozone, are important in studies of urban pollution. Nitrogen dioxide column abundances were measured during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000 using visible absorption spectroscopy from an aircraft. The method allows for quantification of the integrated total number of nitrogen dioxide molecules in the polluted atmosphere and is hence a useful tool for measuring plumes of this key trace gas. Further, we show how such remote-sensing observations can be used to obtain information on the fluxes of nitrogen dioxide into the atmosphere with unique flexibility in terms of aircraft altitude, and the height and extent of mixing of the boundary layer. Observations of nitrogen dioxide plumes downwind of power plants were used to estimate the flux of nitrogen oxide emitted from several power plants in the Houston and Dallas metropolitan areas and in North Carolina. Measurements taken over the city of Houston were also employed to infer the total flux from the city as a whole.

  20. Measuring craving: An attempt to connect subjective craving with cue reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ooteman; M.W.J. Koeter; R. Vserheul; G.M. Schippers; W. van den Brink

    2006-01-01

    Background: Better insight into craving may contribute to the development of more efficient relapse prevention strategies. Inconsistent findings on the relation between craving and relapse may be due to difficulties in the measurement of craving. These difficulties are accounted for by 3 interrelate

  1. The Weird World, and Equally Weird Measurement Models: Reactive Indicators and the Validity Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayduk, Leslie A.; Robinson, Hannah Pazderka; Cummings, Greta G.; Boadu, Kwame; Verbeek, Eric L.; Perks, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers using structural equation modeling (SEM) aspire to learn about the world by seeking models with causal specifications that match the causal forces extant in the world. This quest for a model matching existing worldly causal forces constitutes an ontology that orients, or perhaps reorients, thinking about measurement validity. This…

  2. Evaluation of a catalytic reduction technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, D. W.; Eubank, C. S.; Hubler, C. S.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of a technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy-containing species in the atmosphere has been examined. In the technique, an NOy component species, which may include NO, NO2, NO3, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and particulate nitrate, are catalytically reduced by CO to form NO molecules on the surface of a metal converter tube, and the NO product is detected by chemiluminescence produced in reaction with O3. Among the catalysts tested in the temperature range of 25-500 C, Au was the preferred catalyst. The results of laboratory tests investigating the effects of pressure, O3, and H2O on NOy conversion, and the possible sources of interference, have shown that the technique is suitable for atmospheric analyses. The results of a test in ambient air at a remote ground-based field site are included.

  3. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Timothy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lincoln, E. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sams, Robert L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cameron, Melanie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veres, Patrick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yokelson, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Urbanski, Shawn [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Profeta, Luisa T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilman, Jessica [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuster, W. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akagi, Sheryl [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stockwell, Chelsea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Albert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wold, Cyle E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warneke, Carsten [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); de Gouw, Joost A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burling, Ian R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Reardon, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Matthew D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Griffith, David W.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roberts, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-17

    Objectives: Project RC-1649, “Advanced Chemical Measurement of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns” was undertaken to use advanced instrumental techniques to study in detail the particulate and vapor-phase chemical composition of the smoke that results from prescribed fires used as a land management tool on DoD bases, particularly bases in the southeastern U.S. The statement of need (SON) called for “(1) improving characterization of fuel consumption” and “(2) improving characterization of air emissions under both flaming and smoldering conditions with respect to volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and reactive gases.” The measurements and fuels were from several bases throughout the southeast (Camp Lejeune, Ft. Benning, and Ft. Jackson) and were carried out in collaboration and conjunction with projects 1647 (models) and 1648 (particulates, SW bases). Technical Approach: We used an approach that featured developing techniques for measuring biomass burning emission species in both the laboratory and field and developing infrared (IR) spectroscopy in particular. Using IR spectroscopy and other methods, we developed emission factors (EF, g of effluent per kg of fuel burned) for dozens of chemical species for several common southeastern fuel types. The major measurement campaigns were laboratory studies at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (FSL) as well as field campaigns at Camp Lejeune, NC, Ft. Jackson, SC, and in conjunction with 1648 at Vandenberg AFB, and Ft. Huachuca. Comparisons and fusions of laboratory and field data were also carried out, using laboratory fuels from the same bases. Results: The project enabled new technologies and furthered basic science, mostly in the area of infrared spectroscopy, a broadband method well suited to biomass burn studies. Advances in hardware, software and supporting reference data realized a nearly 20x improvement in sensitivity and now provide quantitative IR spectra for potential detection of ~60 new

  4. In situ measurements of IO and reactive iodine aboard the RV Sonne during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Dwayne; Walker, Hannah; Ingham, Trevor; Huang, Ru-Jin; Wittrock, Folker

    2013-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are emitted from the oceans by marine species such as macroalgae and phytoplankton and contribute to halogen loading in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project combined ship-borne, aircraft-based and ground-based measurements in and over the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea, and around the coast of Malaysian Borneo. In this paper we present measurements of IO radicals in coastal and open ocean regions made onboard the German research vessel RV Sonne in November 2011 between Singapore and Manila, via the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo (South China Sea) and the Sulu Sea. In situ measurements of IO were made on 12 days by the University of Leeds laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrument, with a detection limit of 0.3 pptv for a 30 minute averaging period. The cruise average IO concentration was found to be 1.2 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 2.4 pptv in the middle of the Sulu Sea, an area known for high biological activity. Only a weak diurnal profile was observed, with IO detected above the detection limit on 10 out of the 11 nights when the LIF instrument was operational. Measurements of IO at night in the open ocean have not previously been reported and indicate the presence of gas phase or heterogeneous mechanisms that recycle iodine species without requiring light. There was reasonable agreement for IO concentrations measured by the University of Leeds LIF and the University of Bremen MAX-DOAS instruments, for which a comparison will be presented. I2, ICl and HOI were measured by the University of Mainz using a coupled diffusion denuder system followed by analysis using gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectroscopy, with a detection of 0.17 pptv for 30 mins (I2). The cruise average I2 concentration was found to be 2.0 pptv, with a maximum concentration observed during one night of 12.7 pptv on the northern coast

  5. Method development for thermal analyses testing on Reillex HPQ resin using the advanced reactive system screening tool (ARSST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    Reillex™ HPQ resin was developed by Los Alamos Laboratory and Reilly Industries Inc. in an effort to increase safety and process efficiency during the recovery and purification of plutonium. Ionac™ A-641, another strong base macroporous anion exchange resin used in the nuclear industry, was known to undergo a runaway reaction in hot nitric acid solutions. Because of this, an extensive amount of thermal analyses testing on the Reillex™ HPQ resin in SRNL was performed in 1999-2001 prior to use. A report on the thermal stability qualification of the Reillex™ HPQ resin in 8M (35%) and 12M (53%) HNO3 was reported in 2000. In 2001, the reactivity of Reillex™ HPQ resin in 14.4M (64%) HNO3 was evaluated. In January of 2001, thermal stability scoping tests were performed on irradiated Reillex™ HPQ resin in 14.4M (64%) HNO3 (as a worst case scenario) and the results sent to Fauske and Associates to calculate a rupture disk size for the HB-Line resin column. A technical report by Fauske and Associates was issued in February 2001 recommending a 2.0” vent line with a rupture disk set pressure of 60 psig. This calculation was based on ARSST thermal analyses scoping tests at SRNL in which 4 grams of dried resin and 6.0 grams of 64% nitric acid in a 10 gram test cell, produced a maximum pressure rate (dP/dt) of 720 psi/min (12 psi/sec) and a maximum temperature of 250 °C. In 2015, a new batch of Reillex™ HPQ resin was manufactured by Vertellus Industries. A test sample of the resin was sent to SRNL to perform acceptance and qualification thermal stability testing using the ARSST. During these tests, method development was performed to ensure that a representative resin to acid ratios were used while running the tests in the ARSST. Fauske and Associates recommended to either use a full test cell representative of the HB-Line column or a 10 gram sample in the test cell that was representative of the ratios of resin to nitric acid in

  6. Accelerating flow propagator measurements for the investigation of reactive transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourne, A. A.; Sederman, A. J.; Mantle, M. D.; Gladden, L. F.

    2016-11-01

    NMR propagator measurements are widely used for identifying the distribution of molecular displacements over a given observation time, characterising a flowing system. However, where high q-space resolution is required, the experiments are time consuming and therefore unsuited to the study of dynamic systems. Here, it is shown that with an appropriately sampled subset of the q-space points in a high-resolution flow propagator measurement, one can quickly and robustly reconstruct the fully sampled propagator through interpolation of the acquired raw data. It was found that exponentially sampling ∼4% of the original data-points allowed a reconstruction with the deviation from the fully sampled propagator below the noise level, in this case reducing the required experimental time from ∼2.8 h to 2D imaging data. Such insights are of importance in understanding well acidisation and CO2 sequestration processes.

  7. Investigation of potential interferences on the measurement of dissolved reactive phosphate using zirconium oxide-based DGT technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Sun; Yifei Chen; Di Xu; Yan Wang; Shiming Ding

    2013-01-01

    A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique based on hydrous zirconium oxide (Zr-oxide) has been recently developed for the measurement of dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP).In this study,the detailed performance of the DGT technique is reported.Spiking experiments revealed that several orthophosphate monoester compounds contributed to the Zr-oxide DGT measurements of DRP.However,such a phenomenon is unlikely to occur during field conditions due to the low concentration of organic P in typical natural waters.The presence of Cl-(up to 106 g/L),SO42-(up to 16 g/L),HCO3-(up to 817 g/L),and AsO2-and AsO43-(both up to 1 mg As/L) in solutions had negligible effects on the measurement of DRP.The threshold concentrations of Cl-,SO42-and HCO3-have been increased from previous reports for the measurements of DRP using other adsorbent-based DGT techniques.The capacity for DGT measurements of DRP decreased with increasing solution pH (4.2-9.2).The lowest capacity (95 μg P/cm2 at pH 9.2) was still greater than that of other DGT techniques that are usually used for the measurement of DRP (2-12 μg P/cm2).The Zr-oxide binding gel could be stored for up to 2 years without any aging effect.This period of validity was considerably longer than the ferrihydrite binding gel that is commonly used in present DGT devices (6 months).The field application revealed that the concentrations of DRP measured in three fresh water samples using the Zr-oxide DGT technique were in agreement with those of the traditional colorimetric method.

  8. Long Term Suboxone™ Emotional Reactivity As Measured by Automatic Detection in Speech

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Addictions to illicit drugs are among the nation’s most critical public health and societal problems. The current opioid prescription epidemic and the need for buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone®; SUBX) as an opioid maintenance substance, and its growing street diversion provided impetus to determine affective states (“true ground emotionality”) in long-term SUBX patients. Toward the goal of effective monitoring, we utilized emotion-detection in speech as a measure of “true” emotionality in 36 ...

  9. Viscoelasticity measurement of gel formed at the liquid-liquid reactive interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujiie, Tomohiro

    2012-11-01

    We have experimentally studied a reacting liquid flow with gel formation by using viscous fingering (VF) as a flow field. Here, two systems were employed. In one system, sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution and ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In another system, xthantan gum (XG) solution and the ferric ion solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. We showed that influence of gel formation on VF were qualitatively different in these two systems. We consider that the difference in the two systems will be caused by the difference in the properties of the gels. Therefore, we have measured the rheological properties of the gels by means of a rheometer. In the present study, viscoelasticity measurement was performed by two methods. One is the method which uses Double Wall Ring sensor (TA instrument) and another is the method using parallel plate. In both viscoelasticity measurements, the behavior of the formed gel was qualitatively consistent. We have found that the gel in the SPA system shows viscoelastic fluid like behavior. Moreover, we have found that the gel in the XG system shows solid like behavior.

  10. A New Computerised Advanced Theory of Mind Measure for Children with Asperger Syndrome: The ATOMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Renae B.; Sofronoff, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the ability of children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) to attribute mental states to characters in a new computerised, advanced theory of mind measure: The Animated Theory of Mind Inventory for Children (ATOMIC). Results showed that children with AS matched on IQ, verbal comprehension, age and gender performed equivalently on…

  11. On-road Emissions of Reactive Nitrogen through In-situ, Mobile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Pan, D.; Golston, L.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. Existing atmospheric measurements suggest that urban traffic may provide significant amount of NH3. NH3 emissions in urban areas may cause greater impact on air quality and human health, because other aerosol tracers, like NO and NO2, are emitted by similar on-road sources. However, the on-road NH3 emission inventories are subject to significant uncertainties. A mobile platform is developed by mounting multiple portable (total power ~ 100 W, weight ~ 25 kg), high-resolution (10 Hz), open-path sensors on top of a passenger car. On-road NH3 emissions are quantified in the real-world driving conditions by synchronized NH3, CO, and CO2 measurements. The mobile platform has covered over 16,000 km in the US and China since 2013. The total on-road sampling time is over 300 hours. Major US metropolitan areas that have been sampled include LA, SF, Houston, Philadelphia, and Denver. Three Chinese megacities (Beijing, Baoding, and Shijiazhuang) were sampled in both 2013 and 2014. The average emission factors (grams of NH3 emitted per kilogram of fuel) range from 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg. Different methodologies were compared, including on-road emission ratios, tunnel measurements, and city-scale gradient measurements. These methodologies yielded the same emission factor for Houston (0.4±0.05 g/kg) within the sampling uncertainties and showed that multiple approaches are consistent with one another. The observed NH3 emission ratios indicate that National Emisison Inventory (NEI) underestimates on-road NH3 emissions by up to 50% in some major urban areas. On-road NH3 emission factors show higher values in both stop-and-go driving conditions and freeway speeds with a minimum near 70 km/h. This is consistent with another observation that the emission factors in urban traffic are generally larger than suburban traffic. Road gradient

  12. Performance of current measurement system in poloidal field power supply for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. M.; Li, J.; Wan, B. N.; Lu, Z.; Wang, L. S.; Jiang, L.; Lu, C. H.; Huang, J.

    2016-11-01

    As one of the core subsystems of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), the poloidal field power system supplies energy to EAST's superconducting coils. To measure the converter current in the poloidal field power system, a current measurement system has been designed. The proposed measurement system is composed of a Rogowski coil and a newly designed integrator. The results of the resistor-inductor-capacitor discharge test and the converter equal current test show that the current measurement system provides good reliability and stability, and the maximum error of the proposed system is less than 1%.

  13. Chip electrophoresis as a novel approach to measure the polyphenols reactivity toward human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Iturmendi, Néréa; Gambuti, Angelita; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Moio, Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Saliva is a biological fluid with a multifunctional role that makes it interesting in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. In food research, human saliva represented a useful tool by which we measure the tactile sensation elicited by polyphenol-rich beverages called astringency. A method based on SDS-PAGE analysis of saliva before and after the binding reaction with wine polyphenols has been successfully used in previous studies for measuring wine astringency by means of the saliva precipitation index. In this work, chip electrophoresis was used alternatively to SDS-PAGE and results were compared. Chip electrophoresis provides a very good reproducibility for wine and grape astringency. Moreover, this approach is much faster than the conventional SDS-PAGE method requiring several hours for an analysis. Another advantage over traditional gel is lower sample and reagent volume requirements, as well as the lower and less toxic wastes, contributing benefits to health and environment. The application of this novel method allowed, using the principal component analysis, to distinguish grapes and wines according to the saliva precipitation index and structural characteristics determined by the phoroglucinolysis analysis.

  14. Buckling measurement in the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor in cylindrical configuration of minor excess of reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgato, Rafael Turrini; Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Aredes, Vitor Ottoni; Silva, Alexandre F. Povoa da; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the results of experimental Buckling in the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor in its cylindrical configuration with 28 fuel rods along its diameter. The IPEN/MB-01 is a zero power reactor designed to operate at a maximum power of 100 watts. It is a versatile nuclear facility, which allows for the simulation of all the characteristics of a nuclear power reactor making it an ideal test bed for this kind of measurement. A mapping of neutron flux inside the reactor is carried out in order to determine the total Buckling of the cylindrical configuration. The reactor was operated for one hour. Then, the activity of the fuel rods is measured by gamma ray spectrometry using a HPGe solid state detector and a suitable rod scanner. Photon energies of 276.6keV from {sup 239}Np (neutron capture (n,?) nuclear reaction) and 293.3keV from {sup 143}Ce (fission (n,f) nuclear reaction on both {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) , are respectively along both axial and radial directions. Other measurements are performed using gold wires and foils along radial and axial directions of the reactor core. The three methods above resulted in a weighted average value of 93.18 ± 8.47 m-2 for the Total Buckling of this cylindrical core configuration with 28 control rods along its diameter with 568 fuel rods and only 271 pcm of excess reactivity. (author)

  15. Measurements of reactive nitrogen produced by tropical thunderstorms during BIBLE-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Takegawa, N.; Nishi, N.; Kashihara, T.; Kawakami, S.; Kudoh, S.; Blake, D.; Shirai, T.; Liley, B.; Ko, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kawasaki, Z.; Ogawa, T.

    2007-09-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment phase C (BIBLE-C) aircraft mission was carried out near Darwin, Australia (12°S, 131°E) in December 2000. This was the first aircraft experiment designed to estimate lightning NO production rates in the tropics, where production is considered to be most intense. During the two flights (flights 10 and 13 made on December 9 and 11-12, respectively) enhancements of NOx (NO + NO2) up to 1000 and 1600 parts per trillion by volume (pptv, 10-s data) were observed at altitudes between 11.5 and 14 km. The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) cloud (brightness temperature) data and ground-based lightning measurements by the Global Positioning and Tracking System (GPATS) indicate that there were intensive lightning events over the coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria, which took place upstream from our measurement area 10 to 14 h prior to the measurements. For these two flights, air in which NOx exceeded 100 pptv extended over 620 × 140 and 400 × 170 km2 (wind direction × perpendicular direction), respectively, suggesting a significant impact of lightning NO production on NOx levels in the tropics. We estimate the amount of NOx observed between 11.5 and 14 km produced by the thunderstorms to be 3.3 and 1.8 × 1029 NO molecules for flights 10 and 13, respectively. By using the GPATS lightning flash count data, column NO production rates are estimated to be 1.9-4.4 and 21-49 × 1025 NO molecules per single flash for these two flight data sets. In these estimations, it is assumed that the column NO production between 0 and 16 km is greater than the observed values between 11.5 and 14 km by a factor of 3.2, which is derived using results reported by Pickering et al. (1998). There are however large uncertainties in the GPATS lightning data in this study and care must be made when the production rates are referred. Uncertainties in these estimates are discussed. The impact on the ozone production rate is also described.

  16. Measurement of Local Reactive and Resistive Photoresponse of a Superconducting Microwave Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlage, Steven M.; Zhuravel, Alexander P.; Ustinov, Alexey V.

    2006-03-01

    Despite the voluminous work on the nature of nonlinear effects in high-temperature superconductors (HTS), the causes are not completely clear and remain under debate. The Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM) is a spatially-resolved method that can simultaneously measure optical and high frequency properties of HTS devices. Earlier results showed high resolution images of non-uniform microwave current distributions near the edge of a patterned transmission line structure [A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, K. S. Harshavardhan, and S. M. Anlage, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4979 (2002)]. We have developed a new operational mode in which the microscope separately images the resistive and inductive components of the bolometric photoresponse. The two images show interesting and dramatic differences, leading to new insights about linear and nonlinear properties of HTS microwave devices.

  17. C-reactive protein, advanced glycation end products and their receptor in type 2 diabetic, elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata eGorska-Ciebiada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of AGEs (advanced glycation end products, RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products and CRP (C-reactive protein in elderly patients with T2DM with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI and to determine the predictors (including AGEs, RAGE and CRP levels of having MCI in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: 276 diabetics elders were screened for MCI (using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: MoCA score. Data of biochemical parameters and biomarkers were collected. Results: Serum AGEs, RAGE and CRP levels were significantly increased in MCI patients compared to controls. In group of patients with MCI serum RAGE level was positively correlated with AGEs level and with CRP level. RAGE, AGEs and CRP concentrations were positively correlated with HbA1c levels and negatively correlated with MoCA score. The univariate logistic regression models revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of diagnosis of MCI in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes were: higher levels of HbA1c, RAGE, AGEs, CRP, TG, lower level of HDL cholesterol, previous CVD, HA or use of HA drugs, hiperlipidaemia, retinopathy, nephropathy, increased number of co-morbidities, older age and less years of formal education. HA or use of HA drugs, previous CVD, higher level of RAGE and CRP, older age and less years of formal education are the factors increasing the likelihood of having MCI in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes in multivariable model. Conclusions: In summary, serum AGEs, RAGE and CRP are increased in the circulation of MCI elderly diabetic patients compared to controls. A larger population-based prospective study needs to be performed to further confirm the relationship between AGEs, RAGE and the cognitive decline or progress to dementia.

  18. Measurements of reactive chlorocarbons over the Surinam tropical rain forest: indications for strong biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Scheeren

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the understanding of the emissions and chemical behavior of halocarbons from anthropogenic sources (e.g. CFCs and HCFCs, the biogeochemistry of naturally emitted halocarbons is still poorly understood. We present measurements of chloromethane (methyl chloride, CH3Cl, trichloromethane (chloroform, CHCl3, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2, and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4 from air samples taken over the Surinam rainforest during the 1998 LBA/CLAIRE campaign. The samples were collected in stainless steel canisters on-board a Cessna Citation jet aircraft and analyzed in the laboratory using a gas chromatograph equipped with FID and ECD. The chlorocarbons we studied have atmospheric lifetimes of ~1 year or less, and appear to have significant emissions from natural sources including oceans, soils and vegetations, as well as biomass burning. These sources are primarily concentrated in the tropics (30º N-30º S. We detected an increase as a function of latitude of methyl chloride, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene mixing ratios, in pristine air masses advected from the Atlantic Ocean toward the central Amazon. In the absence of significant biomass burning sources, we attribute this increase to biogenic emissions from the Surinam rainforest. From our measurements, we deduce fluxes from the Surinam rainforest of 7.6±1.8 μg CH3Cl m−2 h−1, 1.11±0.08g CHCl3 μm−2 h−1, and 0.36±0.07 μg C2Cl4 m−2 h−1. Extrapolated to a global scale, our emission estimates suggest a large potential source of 2 Tg CH3Cl yr−1 from tropical forests, which could account for the net budget discrepancy (underestimation of sources, as indicated previously. In addition, our estimates suggest a potential emission of 57±17,Gg C2C4 yr−1

  19. In situ measurements and modeling of reactive trace gases in a small biomass burning plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus; Anderson, Bruce E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Crawford, James H.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Eichler, Philipp; Fried, Alan; Keutsch, Frank N.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Walega, James G.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Yang, Melissa; Yokelson, Robert J.; Wisthaler, Armin

    2016-03-01

    An instrumented NASA P-3B aircraft was used for airborne sampling of trace gases in a plume that had emanated from a small forest understory fire in Georgia, USA. The plume was sampled at its origin to derive emission factors and followed ˜ 13.6 km downwind to observe chemical changes during the first hour of atmospheric aging. The P-3B payload included a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), which measured non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) at unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution (10 m spatial/0.1 s temporal). Quantitative emission data are reported for CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, and 16 NMOGs (formaldehyde, methanol, acetonitrile, propene, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone plus its isomer propanal, acetic acid plus its isomer glycolaldehyde, furan, isoprene plus isomeric pentadienes and cyclopentene, methyl vinyl ketone plus its isomers crotonaldehyde and methacrolein, methylglyoxal, hydroxy acetone plus its isomers methyl acetate and propionic acid, benzene, 2,3-butanedione, and 2-furfural) with molar emission ratios relative to CO larger than 1 ppbV ppmV-1. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 2-furfural, and methanol dominated NMOG emissions. No NMOGs with more than 10 carbon atoms were observed at mixing ratios larger than 50 pptV ppmV-1 CO. Downwind plume chemistry was investigated using the observations and a 0-D photochemical box model simulation. The model was run on a nearly explicit chemical mechanism (MCM v3.3) and initialized with measured emission data. Ozone formation during the first hour of atmospheric aging was well captured by the model, with carbonyls (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, methylglyoxal, 2-furfural) in addition to CO and CH4 being the main drivers of peroxy radical chemistry. The model also accurately reproduced the sequestration of NOx into peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and the OH-initiated degradation of furan and 2-furfural at an average OH concentration of 7.45 ± 1.07 × 106 cm-3 in the

  20. A new method for direct total OH reactivity measurements using a fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Sinha, V.; Bockisch, S.; Klüpfel, T.; Williams, J.

    2012-04-01

    The primary and most important oxidant in the troposphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH). Currently the atmospheric sinks of OH are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink term of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. The first direct measurements of total OH reactivity were performed using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) [1], [2]. Recently a new method for determining OH reactivity was developed called the comparative reactivity method (CRM) [3]. The measurement principle is based on a competitive reaction between a reactive molecule not normally present in air with OH, and atmospheric OH reactive molecules with OH. The reactive molecule (X), is passed through a Teflon coated glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced into the reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the competing ambient air molecules directly provides the atmospheric total OH reactivity. In the first version of this set up, molecule X is pyrrole (C5H4N) and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). In comparison to the original LIF based system, the PTR-MS has the advantage of being smaller, less expensive, and commercially available. However, using the PTR-MS for total OH reactivity measurements prevents it from probing the broad variety of volatile organic compounds in ambient air. Moreover, even smaller, less expensive and more portable detectors are available. This work examines the potential for a GC-PID in order to make the total OH reactivity measurement accessible to more practitioners. This study presents measurements of total OH reactivity with a custom built GC-PID (VOC-Analyzer from IUT-Berlin, now ENIT (Environics-IUT GmbH))[4]. The GC-PID is small (260

  1. Coastal measurements of short-lived reactive iodocarbons and bromocarbons at Roscoff, Brittany during the RHaMBLe campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Carpenter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of the volatile reactive iodocarbons C2H5I, 1-C3H7I, 2-C3H7I, CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2 and bromocarbons CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were determined by GC/MS analysis of marine boundary layer air at Roscoff, Brittany on the northwest coast of France during September 2006. Comparison with other coastal studies suggests that emissions of these trace gases are strongly influenced by site topography, seaweed populations and distribution, as well as wind speed and direction and tide height. Concentrations of the very short-lived dihalomethanes CH2IBr and CH2I2 in particular showed evidence of tidal dependence, with higher concentrations observed at low tide during maximum exposure of seaweed beds. We also present a limited number of halocarbon measurements in surface seawater and estimate sea-air fluxes based on these and simultaneous air measurements. CH2Br2 and CHBr3 were strongly correlated both in air and in seawater, with CH2Br2/CHBr3 ratios of 0.19 in air and 0.06 in water. The combined midday I atom flux from the photolabile diahlomethanes CH2I2, CH2IBr and CH2ICl of ~5×103 molecules cm−3 s−1 is several orders of magnitude lower than the estimated I atom flux from I2 based on coinciding measurements at the same site, which indicates that at Roscoff the major I atom precursor was I2 rather than reactive iodocarbons.

  2. A Novel Microcharacterization Technique in the Measurement of Strain and Orientation Gradient in Advanced Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestai, H.; Harris, K.; Lourenco, L.

    1997-01-01

    Representation of morphology and evolution of the microstructure during processing and their relation to properties requires proper experimental techniques. Residual strains, lattice distortion, and texture (micro-texture) at the interface and the matrix of a layered structure or a functionally gradient material and their variation are among parameters important in materials characterization but hard to measure with present experimental techniques. Current techniques available to measure changes in interred material parameters (residual stress, micro-texture, microplasticity) produce results which are either qualitative or unreliable. This problem becomes even more complicated in the case of a temperature variation. These parameters affect many of the mechanical properties of advanced materials including stress-strain relation, ductility, creep, and fatigue. A review of some novel experimental techniques using recent advances in electron microscopy is presented here to measure internal stress, (micro)texture, interracial strength and (sub)grain formation and realignment. Two of these techniques are combined in the chamber of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope to measure strain and orientation gradients in advanced materials. These techniques which include Backscattered Kikuchi Diffractometry (BKD) and Microscopic Strain Field Analysis are used to characterize metallic and intermetallic matrix composites and superplastic materials. These techniques are compared with the more conventional x-ray diffraction and indentation techniques.

  3. Advanced digital speckle correlation method for strain measurement and nondestructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guan-chang; Bao, Nai-Keng; Chung, Po Sheun

    1997-03-01

    An advanced digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) is presented in this paper. The advantages of this method will not only improve the processing speed but also increase the measuring accuracy. Some mathematics tools are derived and a powerful computing program is developed for further applications. A new feature of the measuring sensitivity of DSCM that can be varied by different amplification of the optical arrangement is first presented. This advantage may be superior to those available in other optical metrology methods like Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) in micro-deformation measurements. The applications of strain measurement and nondestructive testing are described and the advantages of DSCM are obvious. Some examples of material behavior measurement and plastic strain measurement are presented. Due to the high sensitivity of DSCM, another potential application in nondestructive testing (NDT) is also described in this paper. From the application examples given, this advanced DSCM proves to be a new and effective optical strain sensing technique especially for small objects or micro-deformation measurements.

  4. Advanced glycation end products measured by skin autofluorescence in a population with central obesity

    OpenAIRE

    den Engelsen, Corine; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J; Salomé, Philippe L; Rutten, Guy E

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is enhanced by chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress and this process may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF), a measure of accumulation of AGEs in skin collagen, is associated with vascular disease in patients with diabetes.   Because central obesity enhances oxidative stress people with central obesity might already have increased accumulation of AGEs before diabetes or cardiovascular dise...

  5. An Assessment of Wind Plant Complex Flows Using Advanced Doppler Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, W. S.; Schroeder, J.; Hirth, B.; Duncan, J.; Guynes, J.

    2015-12-01

    As installed wind energy capacity continues to steadily increase, the need for comprehensive measurements of wind plant complex flows to further reduce the cost of wind energy has been well advertised by the industry as a whole. Such measurements serve diverse perspectives including resource assessment, turbine inflow and power curve validation, wake and wind plant layout model verification, operations and maintenance, and the development of future advanced wind plant control schemes. While various measurement devices have been matured for wind energy applications (e.g. meteorological towers, LIDAR, SODAR), this presentation will focus on the use of advanced Doppler radar systems to observe the complex wind flows within and surrounding wind plants. Advanced Doppler radars can provide the combined advantage of a large analysis footprint (tens of square kilometers) with rapid data analysis updates (a few seconds to one minute) using both single- and dual-Doppler data collection methods. This presentation demonstrates the utility of measurements collected by the Texas Tech University Ka-band (TTUKa) radars to identify complex wind flows occurring within and nearby operational wind plants, and provide reliable forecasts of wind speeds and directions at given locations (i.e. turbine or instrumented tower sites) 45+ seconds in advance. Radar-derived wind maps reveal commonly observed features such as turbine wakes and turbine-to-turbine interaction, high momentum wind speed channels between turbine wakes, turbine array edge effects, transient boundary layer flow structures (such as wind streaks, frontal boundaries, etc.), and the impact of local terrain. Operational turbine or instrumented tower data are merged with the radar analysis to link the observed complex flow features to turbine and wind plant performance.

  6. Final Technical Report: Advanced Measurement and Analysis of PV Derate Factors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burton, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Measurement and Analysis of PV Derate Factors project focuses on improving the accuracy and reducing the uncertainty of PV performance model predictions by addressing a common element of all PV performance models referred to as “derates”. Widespread use of “rules of thumb”, combined with significant uncertainty regarding appropriate values for these factors contribute to uncertainty in projected energy production.

  7. Scenarios and performance measures for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1991-01-01

    Described here are the contemplated input and expected output for the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) Models. The discrete event simulations of these models are presented with specific scenarios that stress ISDN satellite parameters. Performance measure criteria are presented for evaluating the advanced ISDN communication satellite designs of the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  8. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transactions. Current exposure is also called replacement cost. Default—(1) Retail. (i) A retail exposure of a...-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches D Appendix D to Part 325 Banks and Banking FEDERAL... Advanced Measurement Approaches Part IGeneral Provisions Section 1Purpose, Applicability, Reservation...

  9. Autonomic nervous activation triggered during induction of reactive hyperemia exerts a greater influence on the measured reactive hyperemia index by peripheral arterial tonometry than on flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Masanobu; Higashi, Yukihito; Takase, Bonpei; Furumoto, Tomoo; Kario, Kazuomi; Ohya, Yusuke; Yamashina, Akira

    2014-10-01

    Flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery (FMD) and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) measured by peripheral arterial tonometry are known to be weakly associated with one another, but the mechanisms underlying this weak association remain to be clarified. We examined whether the autonomic nervous activation induced by the 5 min forearm clamping used to induce reactive hyperemia might exert any influence on the FMD and RHI in subjects with hypertension. In 115 subjects with hypertension (age 61±1 years), the FMD and RHI were measured simultaneously, and the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters (low-frequency component (LF), high-frequency component (HF), and the ratio (LF/HF) between the two) were calculated from the electrocardiographic recordings obtained before and after the start of forearm clamping. A multivariate linear regression analysis with adjustments for confounding variables demonstrated that the RHI, but not the FMD, was significantly associated with the percent change of the LF/HF associated with forearm clamping (beta=-0.204, P=0.043). In conclusion, autonomic nervous system activation, especially sympathetic activation, induced by 5-min forearm clamping utilized to provoke reactive hyperemia may significantly affect the RHI rather than FMD in subjects with hypertension.

  10. Associations of C-reactive protein with measures of obesity, insulin resistance, and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy, middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Hak (Liesbeth); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); M.L. Bots (Michiel); K.H. Polderman; C.G. Schalkwijk (Casper); I.C.D. Westendorp (Iris); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractObesity, the insulin resistance syndrome, and atherosclerosis are closely linked and may all be determinants of an increased acute-phase response. In this study, we examined the relationship of C-reactive protein (CRP) with measures of obesity, variables of

  11. NASA programs in advanced sensors and measurement technology for aeronautical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA involvement in the development, implementation, and experimental use of advanced aeronautical sensors and measurement technologies is presently discussed within the framework of specific NASA research centers' activities. The technology thrusts are in the fields of high temperature strain gages and microphones, laser light-sheet flow visualization, LTA, LDV, and LDA, tunable laser-based aviation meteorology, and fiber-optic CARS measurements. IR thermography and close-range photogrammetry are undergoing substantial updating and application. It is expected that 'smart' sensors will be increasingly widely used, especially in conjunction with smart structures in aircraft and spacecraft.

  12. Combination of Fibrinogen and High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein Measurements is Potential in Identification of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djanggan Sargowo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of cardiovascular diseases with high morbidity and mortality rates. Novel biomarkers that can detect accurately acute coronary syndrome (ACS at early stage, are necessary to improve current strategies and/or to identify subjects who are at risk. Fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP roles in inflammation process could be potential for ACS early detection. This study was conducted to evaluate measurements of fibrinogen and hs-CRP on ACS. METHODS: An analytic observational study with cross sectional approach was conducted on patients with Troponin I positive. After signing informed consent, anamnesis and complete blood count were conducted. Besides that, liver function, renal function, and blood glucose tests were conducted as well. Samples of selected subjects were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Troponin I, fibrinogen and hs-CRP. Then statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: There were 76 subjects in each ACS and non-ACS groups. ACS group showed significant higher levels of both fibrinogen and hs-CRP compared to Non-ACS group (p=0.000. Among evaluated risk factors, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.003 and hypertension (p=0.000 were significantly higher in ACS group than in non-ACS group. Among evaluated clinical factors, blood glucose (p=0.001 and age (p=0.000 were significantly higher in ACS group than in non-ACS group. Combination of fibrinogen and hs-CRP measurements showed the highest sensitivity (75.00%, specificity (80.26%, accuracy (77.63%, positive predictive value (79.19% and negative predictive value (76.25%. CONCLUSIONS: Since fibrinogen and hs-CRP were increased in ACS group and combination of fibrinogen and hs-CRP measurements showed the highest sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, we suggest that combination of fibrinogen and hs-CRP measurements could give added value to

  13. Recent advances in measuring chromospheric magnetic fields in the He I 10830 Å line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagg, A.

    During the last decade advances in instrumentation, atomic physics and modeling have greatly improved the access to the chromospheric magnetic field vector. High sensitivity polarimeters like the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP2, VTT) or the Spectro-Polarimeter for Infrared and Optical Regions (SPINOR, HAO) lead to reliable Zeeman measurements using the He I 10830 Å triplet. The simultaneously measured Si I 10827 Å line provides additional information on the structure of the underlying photosphere. Theoretical modeling of the Hanle and the Paschen-Back effect helped to significantly improve the analysis of polarization measurements in the He I triplet, allowing to directly visualize the magnetic structure of spicules, polar prominences and active regions. Here, I will summarize the results of chromospheric magnetic field measurements using this interesting triplet obtained in the last couple of years and discuss the great potential it has to further uncover the complex structure of the chromosphere and its coupling to the photosphere.

  14. Advanced NSCLC First Pass Perfusion at 64-slice CT: Reproducibility of Volume-based Quantitative Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie HU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to explore the reproducibility of volume-based quantitative measurement of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC perfusion at 64-slice CT. Methods Fourteen patients with proved advanced NSCLC were enrolled in this dynamic first pass volume-based CT perfusion (CTP study (8×5 mm collimation, and they underwent the second scan within 24 h. According to the longest diameters, those patients were classified to ≤3 cm and >3 cm groups, and each group had 7 patients. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Bland-Altman statistics were used to evaluate the reproducibility of CTP imaging. Results In both groups of advanced NSCLC, the reproducibility with BF, BV, and PS values were good (ICC >0.75 for all, but mean transit time (MTT values. For advanced NSCLC (≤3 cm, repeatability coefficient (RC values with blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, MTT and permeability surface area product (PS values were 56%, 45%, 114%, and 78%, respectively, and the 95% change intervals of RC were -39%-53%, -29%-62%, -83%-145%, and -57%-98%, respectively. For advanced NSCLC (>3 cm, those values were 46%, 30%, 59%, and 33%, respectively, and the 95% change intervals of RC were -48%-45%, -33%-26%, -54%-64%, and -18%-48%. Conclusion There is greater reproducibility of tumor size >3 cm than that of ≤3 cm. BF and BV could be addressed for reliable clinical application in antiangiogenesis therapeutic monitoring with advanced NSCLC patients.

  15. Measures to minimize cross-contamination risks in Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Roseti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current European regulations define in vitro expanded cells for clinical purposes as substantially manipulated and include them in the class of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products to be manufactured in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practice. These quality requirements are generally thought to be elaborate and costly. However, they ensure three main product characteristics: safety, consistency, and absence of cross-contamination. The term crosscontamination is used to indicate misidentification of one cell line or culture by another. The Good Manufacturing Practice Guidelines suggest some recommendations in order to prevent cross-contaminations and require a demonstration that the implemented actions are effective. Here we report some practical examples useful both to minimize crosscontamination risks in an Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products production process and to evaluate the efficacy of the adopted measures.

  16. Advanced distillation curve measurements for corrosive fluids: Application to two crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Starkey Ott; Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2008-10-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications include a composition-explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis) and corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The composition-explicit information is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to a variety of fluids, including simple n-alkanes, rocket propellant, gasoline, jet fuels, and a hydrocarbon fluid made corrosive with dissolved hydrogen sulfide. In the current contribution, we present the application of the advanced distillation curve method to two samples of crude oil. A primary motivation behind the work is to precisely measure the distillation curves of these oils using our advanced distillation apparatus; these low uncertainty measurements of true thermodynamic state points can be used for equation of state development and differentiation of crude oil samples. Then, the information content of each distillation was extended much further by use of the composition-explicit data channel: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectrophotometry (IR), gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD), and the copper strip corrosion test (CSCT) were used for each distillate volume fraction sampled. Consequently, for each volume fraction of crude oil distillate sampled, we can address the composition, quantitate the total sulfur content, and measure the corrosivity. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE APPLICABLE REACTIVITY RANGE OF A REACTIVITY COMPUTER FOR A CANDU-6 REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUN KI LEE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a CANDU digital reactivity computer system (CDRCS to measure the worth of the liquid zone controller in a CANDU-6 was developed and successfully applied to a physics test of refurbished Wolsong Unit 1. In advance of using the CDRCS, its measureable reactivity range should be investigated and confirmed. There are two reasons for this investigation. First, the CANDU-6 has a larger reactor and smaller excore detectors than a general PWR and consequently the measured reactivity is likely to reflect the peripheral power variation only, not the whole core. The second reason is photo neutrons generated from the interaction of the moderator and gamma-rays, which are never considered in a PWR. To evaluate the limitations of the CDRCS, several tens of three-dimensional steady and transient simulations were performed. The simulated detector signals were used to obtain the dynamic reactivity. The difference between the dynamic reactivity and the static worth increases in line with the water level changes. The maximum allowable reactivity was determined to be 1.4 mk in the case of CANDU-6 by confining the difference to less than 1%.

  18. Advanced flow measurement and active flow control of aircraft with MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Chengyu; Deng Jinjun; Ma Binghe; Yuan Weizheng

    2012-01-01

    Advanced flow measurement and active flow control need the development of new type devices and systems. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies become the important and feasible approach for micro transducers fabrication. This paper introduces research works of MEMS/NEMS Lab in flow measurement sensors and active flow control actuators. Micro sensors include the flexible thermal sensor array, capacitive shear stress sensor and high sensitivity pressure sensor. Micro actuators are the balloon actuator and synthetic jet actuator respectively. Through wind tunnel test, these micro transducers achieve the goals of shear stress and pressure distribution measurement, boundary layer separation control, lift enhancement, etc. And unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight test verifies the ability of maneuver control of micro actuator. In the future work, micro sensor and actuator can be combined into a closed-loop control system to construct aerodynamic smart skin system for aircraft.

  19. Virtual charge state separator as an advanced tool coupling measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaramyshev, S.; Vormann, H.; Adonin, A.; Barth, W.; Dahl, L.; Gerhard, P.; Groening, L.; Hollinger, R.; Maier, M.; Mickat, S.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.

    2015-05-01

    A new low energy beam transport for a multicharge uranium beam will be built at the GSI High Current Injector (HSI). All uranium charge states coming from the new ion source will be injected into GSI heavy ion high current HSI Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), but only the design ions U4 + will be accelerated to the final RFQ energy. A detailed knowledge about injected beam current and emittance for pure design U4 + ions is necessary for a proper beam line design commissioning and operation, while measurements are possible only for a full beam including all charge states. Detailed measurements of the beam current and emittance are performed behind the first quadrupole triplet of the beam line. A dedicated algorithm, based on a combination of measurements and the results of advanced beam dynamics simulations, provides for an extraction of beam current and emittance values for only the U4 + component of the beam. The proposed methods and obtained results are presented.

  20. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  1. A novel approach for predicting acyl glucuronide reactivity via Schiff base formation: development of rapidly formed peptide adducts for LC/MS/MS measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyao; Davis, Margaret; Li, Fangbiao; Azam, Farooq; Scatina, JoAnn; Talaat, Rasmy

    2004-09-01

    A novel technique to study the reactivity of acyl glucuronide metabolites to protein has been developed and is described herein. Considered here are acyl glucuronide metabolites, which have undergone the rearrangement of the glucuronic acid moiety at physiological temperature and pH. The investigation of the reactivity of these electrophilic metabolites was carried out by measuring the rate of reaction of rearranged AG metabolites in forming the corresponding acyl glucuronide-peptide adduct in the presence of Lys-Phe. This differs from the parallel technique used in forming AG adducts of proteins that have been previously reported. In the study described here, the Schiff base adduct, diclofenac acyl glucuronide-Lys-Phe product, was generated and structurally elucidated by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis. The product structure was proved to be a Schiff base adduct by chemical derivatization by nucleophilic addition of HCN and chemical reduction with NaCNBH(3), followed by LC/MS/MS analysis. It is proposed here that the degree of reactivity of acyl glucuronides as measured by covalent binding to protein is proportional to the amount of its peptide adduct generated with the peptide technique described. The application of this technique to the assessment of the degree of reactivity of acyl glucuronide metabolites was validated by developing a reactivity rank of seven carboxylic acid-containing drugs. Consistency was achieved between the ranking of reactivity in the peptide technique for these seven compounds and the rankings found in the literature. In addition, a correlation (R(2) = 0.95) was revealed between the formation of a peptide adduct and the rearrangement rate of the primary acyl glucuronide of seven tested compounds. A structure effect on the degree of reactivity has demonstrated the rate order: acetic acid > propionic acid > benzoic acid derivatives. A rational explanation of this order was proposed, based on the inherent

  2. Combining moving inlets for measuring gradients of reactive trace gases and thoron measurements for the determination of near surface fluxes -first results from the Amazon rain forest-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörgel, Matthias; Artaxo, Paulo; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto; Trebs, Ivonne; Vega, Oscar; Yañez-Serrano, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    For many compounds of interest no fast response sensors for the determination of eddy covariance fluxes are available. Therefore, flux-gradient relationships are used. The most common are the aerodynamic gradient method and the modified Bowen ratio method. For those approaches some assumptions have to be made which restrict their use. An alternative approach to calculate these fluxes might be given by the "thoron clock" method. The radon isotope Thoron (220Rn) is exhaled from the soil and has a half life time of 56 seconds. Therefore, it exists in measureable amounts only close to the ground and is hardly advected. Its only source is the radioactive decay of Thorium in soil. As it is a noble gas Thoron is not influenced by biochemical processes in air. Consequently, its concentration profile only depends on vertical mixing and the radioactive decay which is a physical constant. According to Lehmann et al. (1999) and Plake and Trebs (2013) a transport-time can be directly calculated from two heights thoron concentration/activity for the layer in-between without further assumptions. From this transport time the transfer velocity is derived which is then applied to calculate the fluxes of other (reactive) trace gases. A major advantage of the method is that the transport-time is known and using the measured concentration profile the chemical loss of a compound can be directly calculated and corrected for. We have applied this method for a first time in the Amazon rainforest during a field campaign at the ATTO site 150 km North East of Manaus in the dry season of 2014. We measured gradients of NO, NO2, O3, HONO and VOCs by using a movable inlet on a lift system close to the forest floor (0.19 m, 0.52 m and 1.59 m). A Thoron profile was measure in parallel at the lower two heights. First results of the gradients, the transport times and some preliminary flux values will be presented. References: Lehmann, B.E., Lehmann, M., Neftel, A .: 220 Radon calibration of near

  3. The measurement of response shift in patients with advanced prostate cancer and their partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Boyle Ciaran

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence to support the phenomenon of response shift (RS in quality of life (QoL studies, with many current QoL measures failing to allow for this. If significant response shift occurs amongst prostate cancer patients, it will be necessary to allow for this in the design of future clinical research and to reassess the conclusions of previous studies that have not allowed for this source of bias. This study therefore aimed to assess the presence of RS and psychosocial morbidity in patients with advanced prostate cancer and their partners. Methods 55 consecutive advanced prostate cancer patients and their partners completed the Prostate Cancer Patient & Partner questionnaire (PPP, shortly after diagnosis and again at 3 months and 6 months. At the follow-up visits, both patients and partners also completed a then-test in order to assess RS. Results Partners consistently showed greater psychological morbidity than patients in relation to the prostate cancer. This was most marked on the General Cancer Distress (GCD subscale (p Conclusion These results suggest the presence of RS in patients with advanced prostate cancer and their partners, with higher levels of psychosocial morbidity noted amongst partners. This is the first study to identify RS in partners and calls into question the interpretation of all studies assessing changes in QoL that fail to allow for this phenomenon.

  4. Measurements of neutron cross sections for advanced nuclear energy systems at n_TOF (CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbagallo M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The n_TOF facility operates at CERN with the aim of addressing the request of high accuracy nuclear data for advanced nuclear energy systems as well as for nuclear astrophysics. Thanks to the features of the neutron beam, important results have been obtained on neutron induced fission and capture cross sections of U, Pu and minor actinides. Recently the construction of another beam line has started; the new line will be complementary to the first one, allowing to further extend the experimental program foreseen for next measurement campaigns.

  5. Measured performance of 12 demonstation projects - IEA Task 13 "advanced solar low energy buildings"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Poel, Bart

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from measurements and experiences gained from interviews on 12 advanced solar low energy houses designed and built as part of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme – Task 13. Three years after the IEA Task 13 formally ended, the results were collected...... % compared with typical houses was achieved. Prevention of overheating requires special attention also at northern lati-tudes. Interviews with occupants revealed the need to explain the building's behaviour thoroughly to its users and elaboration of user manuals....

  6. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... loss must reflect the net present value of cash flows as of the default date using a discount rate...-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF... Appendix C to Part 3—Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

  7. Measuring the reactivity of commercially available zero-valent iron nanoparticles used for environmental remediation with iopromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Doris; Micić, Vesna; Laumann, Susanne; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-10-01

    The high specific surface area and high reactivity of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles have led to much research on their application to environmental remediation. The reactivity of nZVI is affected by both the water chemistry and the properties of the particular type of nZVI particle used. We have investigated the reactivity of three types of commercially available Nanofer particles (from Nanoiron, s.r.o., Czech Republic) that are currently either used in, or proposed for use in full scale environmental remediation projects. The performance of one of these, the air-stable and thus easy-to-handle Nanofer Star particle, has not previously been reported. Experiments were carried out first in batch shaking reactors in order to derive maximum reactivity rates and provide a rapid estimate of the Nanofer particle's reactivity. The experiments were performed under near-natural environmental conditions with respect to the pH value of water and solute concentrations, and results were compared with those obtained using synthetic water. Thereafter, the polyelectrolyte-coated Nanofer 25S particles (having the highest potential for transport within porous media) were chosen for the experiments in column reactors, in order to elucidate nanoparticle reactivity under a more field-site realistic setting. Iopromide was rapidly dehalogenated by the investigated nZVI particles, following pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics that was independent of the experimental conditions. The specific surface area normalized reaction rate constant (kSA) value in the batch reactors ranged between 0.12 and 0.53Lm(-2)h(-1); it was highest for the uncoated Nanofer 25 particles, followed by the polyacrylic acid-coated Nanofer 25S and air-stable Nanofer Star particles. In the batch reactors all particles were less reactive in natural water than in synthetic water. The kSA values derived from the column reactor experiments were about 1000 times lower than those from the batch reactors, ranging

  8. Reactivity and recovery from different types of work measured by catecholamines and cortisol : a systematic literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, JK; Frings-Dresen, MHW; Meijman, TF; van der Beek, AJ

    2000-01-01

    Objectives-To review occupational health, laboratory, and sports Literature on neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from mental, combined mental and physical, or physical tasks. Methods-A systematic literature search was performed in eight databases. Studies with catecholamines or cortisol as effe

  9. Measurements of Bauschinger effect and transient behavior of a quenched and partitioned advanced high strength steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Shun-lai, E-mail: shawn@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Sun, Li [Manufacturing Process Research, General Motors China Science Lab, No. 56, Jinwan Road, Shanghai (China); Niu, Chao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, the needs for new advanced high strength steels (AHSS) with high ductility and strength have rapidly increased to achieve the targets of more fuel-efficient and safer vehicles in automotive industry. However, several undesirable phenomena are experimentally observed during the forming of such materials, particularly with complex loading and large plastic deformation. Springback is one of the most important problems that should be compensated in sheet metal forming process. In this paper, we investigated the hardening behavior of a Q and P (quench and partitioning) steel designated by QP980CR, which is a new third generation advance high strength steel, from the Baosteel Group Corp. in Shanghai, China. The uni-axial tensile and cyclic simple shear tests were conducted. The uni-axial tensile tests were performed on the specimens at 0°, 45° and 90° to rolling direction (RD). The flow stress and transverse strain evolution were obtained in view of the digital image correlation (DIC) measurement. The plastic anisotropy was optimized from the uni-axial tensile tests and thereafter incorporated into the simulations of cyclic simple shear tests. The cyclic simple shear tests were conducted with three prestrains to measure the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and permanent softening, and to determine the material parameters of the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening model.

  10. Advances in quantitative hepcidin measurements by time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorine W Swinkels

    Full Text Available Assays for the detection of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in plasma or urine have not yet been widely available, whereas quantitative comparisons between hepcidin levels in these different matrices were thus far even impossible due to technical restrictions. To circumvent these limitations, we here describe several advances in time-of flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS, the most important of which concerned spiking of a synthetic hepcidin analogue as internal standard into serum and urine samples. This serves both as a control for experimental variation, such as recovery and matrix-dependent ionization and ion suppression, and at the same time allows value assignment to the measured hepcidin peak intensities. The assay improvements were clinically evaluated using samples from various patients groups and its relevance was further underscored by the significant correlation of serum hepcidin levels with serum iron indices in healthy individuals. Most importantly, this approach allowed kinetic studies as illustrated by the paired analyses of serum and urine samples, showing that more than 97% of the freely filtered serum hepcidin can be reabsorbed in the kidney. Thus, the here reported advances in TOF MS-based hepcidin measurements represent critical steps in the accurate quantification of hepcidin in various body fluids and pave the way for clinical studies on the kinetic behavior of hepcidin in both healthy and diseased states.

  11. Audio-band coating thermal noise measurement for Advanced LIGO with a multimode optical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, S.; Yu, H.; Yam, W.; Martynov, D.; Evans, M.

    2017-01-01

    In modern high precision optical instruments, such as in gravitational wave detectors or frequency references, thermally induced fluctuations in the reflective coatings can be a limiting noise source. This noise, known as coating thermal noise, can be reduced by choosing materials with low mechanical loss. Examination of new materials becomes a necessity in order to further minimize the coating thermal noise and thus improve sensitivity of next generation instruments. We present a novel approach to directly measure coating thermal noise using a high finesse folded cavity in which multiple Hermite-Gaussian modes coresonate. This method is used to probe surface fluctuations on the order 10-17 m /√{Hz } in the frequency range 30-400 Hz. We applied this technique to measure thermal noise and loss angle of the coating used in Advanced LIGO.

  12. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: black hole - neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Pürrer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The pioneering observations of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO have ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for GW observations, of which black hole - neutron star (BHNS) binaries form an important subset. GWs from coalescing BHNS systems carry signatures of the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, as well as of its disruption close to merger. In this talk, I will discuss how well we can measure tidal effects from individual and populations of LIGO observations of disruptive BHNS mergers. I will also talk about how our measurements of non-tidal parameters can get affected by ignoring tidal effects in BHNS parameter estimation.

  13. Advancing the extended parallel process model through the inclusion of response cost measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintamaki, Lance S; Yang, Z Janet

    2014-01-01

    This study advances the Extended Parallel Process Model through the inclusion of response cost measures, which are drawbacks associated with a proposed response to a health threat. A sample of 502 college students completed a questionnaire on perceptions regarding sexually transmitted infections and condom use after reading information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the health risks of sexually transmitted infections and the utility of latex condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infection transmission. The questionnaire included standard Extended Parallel Process Model assessments of perceived threat and efficacy, as well as questions pertaining to response costs associated with condom use. Results from hierarchical ordinary least squares regression demonstrated how the addition of response cost measures improved the predictive power of the Extended Parallel Process Model, supporting the inclusion of this variable in the model.

  14. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Duong Ngo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO. A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process. A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA.

  15. Measured and predicted rotor performance for the SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Kelley, N.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    Measured and predicted rotor performance for the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades were compared to assess the accuracy of predictions and to identify the sources of error affecting both predictions and measurements. An awareness of these sources of error contributes to improved prediction and measurement methods that will ultimately benefit future rotor design efforts. Propeller/vane anemometers were found to underestimate the wind speed in turbulent environments such as the San Gorgonio Pass wind farm area. Using sonic or cup anemometers, good agreement was achieved between predicted and measured power output for wind speeds up to 8 m/sec. At higher wind speeds an optimistic predicted power output and the occurrence of peak power at wind speeds lower than measurements resulted from the omission of turbulence and yaw error. In addition, accurate two-dimensional (2-D) airfoil data prior to stall and a post stall airfoil data synthesization method that reflects three-dimensional (3-D) effects were found to be essential for accurate performance prediction.

  16. Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, G. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1-20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ˜0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

  17. [Research advances in evaluation and measurement techniques of latent human immunodeficiency virus reservoirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qihui, Zhou; Biao, Zhu

    2016-05-25

    Latent reservoir (LR) of HIV is the cells (such as CD4(+)T cell) where HIV is able to hide. These cellular reservoirs are located throughout the body, including the spleen, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal lymphoid tissues, and become the major obstacle to cure HIV infection. To truly cure patients, a new strategy "shock and kill" was put forward by scientists, which is to shock HIV-infected cells out of hidden reservoirs in the body and then kill them. Quantitatively evaluating the size of long-lived LR is essential to this strategy. This paper reviews assays that measure the magnitude of the latent HIV reservoir, including Alu-gag PCR, quantitative viral outgrowth assay (Q-VOA) and tat/rev induced limiting dilution assay(TILDA). Alu-gag PCR can differentiate the integrated and un-integrated HIV DNA, however, it cannot distinguish defective virus from competent virus, leading to overestimate the real size of LR. Q-VOA is based on cell culture, and is the golden standard for measuring the LR since it provides a definitive minimal estimate of reservoir size. Its disadvantages are being more costly, large amount of blood sample required, and underestimating the true size, which was resulted from particles being not released after one round of stimulation. TILDA measures cells with inducible msRNA as these transcripts are absent in latently infected cells but induced upon viral reactivation. It requires small blood sample size, does not need extraction of viral nucleic acids, can be completed in 2 d and covers a wide dynamic range of reservoir sizes, but has the disadvantage of overestimating the true size of LR.

  18. MPACT FY2011 Advanced Time-Correlated Measurement Research at INL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; S. M. Watson

    2011-09-01

    Simulations and experiments have been carried out to investigate advanced time-correlated measurement methods for characterizing and assaying nuclear material for safeguarding the nuclear fuel cycle. These activities are part of a project studying advanced instrumentation techniques in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) program. For fiscal year 2011 work focused on examining the practical experimental aspects of using a time-tagged, associated-particle electronic neutron generator for interrogating low-enrichment uranium in combination with steady-state interrogation using a moderated 241Am-Li neutron source. Simulation work for the project involved the use of the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation tool to determine the relative strength and the time-of-flight energy spectra of different sample materials under irradiation. Work also took place to develop a post-processor parser code to extract comparable data from the MCNP5&6 codes. Experiments took place using a commercial deuterium-tritium associated-particle electronic neutron generator to irradiate a number of uranium-bearing material samples. Time-correlated measurements of neutron and photon signatures of these measurements were made using five liquid scintillator detectors in a novel array, using high-speed waveform digitizers for data collection. This report summarizes the experiments that took place in FY2011, presents preliminary analyses that have been carried out to date for a subpart of these experiments, and describes future activities planned in this area. The report also describes support Idaho National Laboratory gave to Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2011 to facilitate 2-dimensional imagery of mixed-oxide fuel pins for safeguards applications as a part of the MPACT program.

  19. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A. Judd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  20. Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder in School-Aged Foster Children - A Confirmatory Approach to Dimensional Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Stine; Breivik, Kyrre; Heiervang, Einar; Havik, Toril; Odd E. Havik

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and external correlates of the constructs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following were addressed: First, do our data support the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD/DSED as two separate constructs? Second, are RAD and DSED distinct from other well-established dimensions of child psychopathology? Third, what are the ...

  1. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  2. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  3. Cruise noise of an advanced single-rotation propeller measured from an adjacent aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from flight measurements of the noise from a full-scale SR-7L advanced single-rotation turbofan model mounted on the wing of the NASA Lewis Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft (a modified Gulfstream II). Data obtained on the PTA with an outboard microphone boom and by the NASA Lewis acoustically instrumented Learjet flying along several sidelines relative to the PTA are presented in tables and graphs and briefly discussed. It is found that the PTA-boom and Learjet sound levels are in good agreement at Mach 0.69 and altitude 20,000 ft, but the Learjet values are significantly lower than the boom levels at Mach 0.79 and altitude 36,000 ft.

  4. Using saliva to measure endogenous cortisol in nursing home residents with advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Kovach, Christine R; Raff, Hershel; Joosse, Laura; Basmadjian, Alicia; Hegadoren, Kathleen M

    2008-06-01

    Two research teams determined the feasibility of saliva collection for cortisol measurement in nursing home residents with advanced dementia. Study aims were to: (a) determine if sufficient saliva could be obtained for assay and (b) examine whether cortisol values exhibited range and variability for meaningful interpretation. Useable samples were consistent across sites, suggesting that saliva collection for cortisol assay is a viable method in this setting. Cortisol values showed range and variability. More than half of the residents showed the normal adult pattern of high morning levels decreasing throughout the day. A third of the participants demonstrated an increase in the evening cortisol levels, while the remaining profiles were flat, suggesting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation in this population.

  5. Measuring Antioxidant Activity in Bioorganic Samples by the Differential Oxygen Uptake Apparatus: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Amorati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure of O2 consumption during the inhibited autoxidation of an easily oxidizable substrate is one of the most reliable and predictive methods to assess antioxidant activity, especially for structure-activity relationship studies, for food and industrial applications. The differential oxygen uptake apparatus described herein represents a powerful and cost-effective way to obtain antioxidant activity from inhibited autoxidation studies. These experiments provide the rate constant and the stoichiometry of the reaction between antioxidants and peroxyl radicals (ROO∙, which are involved in the propagation of radical damage. We show the operation principles and the utility of this instrumentation in the bioorganic laboratory, with regard to the recent advances in this field, ranging from the study of natural antioxidants in biomimetic system, to the use of substrates generating hydroperoxyl radicals, and to the evaluation of novel nanoantioxidants.

  6. Efficacy and toxicity in brain tumor treatment - quantitative Measurements using advanced MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Søren

    2016-01-01

    and are now being used for presurgical and radiation therapy (RT) planning. More advanced MRI sequences have gained attention. Sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have entered the clinical world concurrently......From the clinical introduction in the 1980s, MRI has grown to become an indispensable brain imaging modality, mainly due to its excellent ability to visualize soft tissues. Morphologically, T1- and T2-weighted brain tumor MRI have been part of routine diagnostic radiology for more than two decades...... with the introduction of magnets with higher field strength. Ongoing technical development has enabled a change from semiquantitative measurements to a true quantitative approach. This step is expected to have a great impact on the treatment of brain tumor patients in the future. The aim of this Ph.D. dissertation...

  7. Recent Beam Measurements and New Instrumentation at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, F.; Baptiste, K.; Barry, W.; Chin, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /Frascati; Jaegerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.; Julian, J.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Low, R.; Plate, D.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.; Scarvie, T.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC; Weber, J.; Zolotorev, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-04-11

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley was the first of the soft x-ray third generation light source ever built, and since 1993 has been in continuous and successful operation serving a large community of users in the VUV and soft x-ray community. During these years the storage ring underwent through several important upgrades that allowed maintaining the performance of this veteran facility at the forefront. The ALS beam diagnostics and instrumentation have followed a similar path of innovation and upgrade and nowadays include most of the modem and last generation devices and technologies that are commercially available and used in the recently constructed third generation light sources. In this paper we will not focus on such already widely known systems, but we will concentrate our effort in the description of some measurements techniques, instrumentation and diagnostic systems specifically developed at the ALS and used during the last few years.

  8. Interaction of reactive oxygen species in atherogenetic properties of advanced glycation end products in diabetes%活性氧与糖基化终产物致动脉粥样硬化作用的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯契; 刘乃丰

    2003-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence for an involvement of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS) in diabetes mellitus (DM). For many years, knowledge on the contribution to diabetic complications and vascular disease induced by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been rising. During the development of atherosclerosis, AGEs and ROS might have interaction. In this article, weprovided four angles of view to discuss the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: the chemistry of ROS, the effect of vascular targets of ROS on activity of AGEs, the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of atherogenesis by AGEs, the same effect of ROS and AGEs-transcriptional regulation.

  9. Advancement of an Infra-Red Technique for Whole-Field Concentration Measurements in Fluidized Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Jose A.; de Nooijer, Niek C. A.; Gallucci, Fausto; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    For a better understanding and description of the mass transport phenomena in dense multiphase gas-solids systems such as fluidized bed reactors, detailed and quantitative experimental data on the concentration profiles is required, which demands advanced non-invasive concentration monitoring techniques with a high spatial and temporal resolution. A novel technique based on the selective detection of a gas component in a gas mixture using infra-red properties has been further developed. The first stage development was carried out using a very small sapphire reactor and CO2 as tracer gas. Although the measuring principle was demonstrated, the real application was hindered by the small reactor dimensions related to the high costs and difficult handling of large sapphire plates. In this study, a new system has been developed, that allows working at much larger scales and yet with higher resolution. In the new system, propane is used as tracer gas and quartz as reactor material. In this study, a thorough optimization and calibration of the technique is presented which is subsequently applied for whole-field measurements with high temporal resolution. The developed technique allows the use of a relatively inexpensive configuration for the measurement of detailed concentration fields and can be applied to a large variety of important chemical engineering topics. PMID:26927127

  10. Advanced-warning system risk-reduction experiments: the Multispectral Measurements Program (MSMP) and the Balloon Altitude Mosaic Measurements (BAMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ken R.

    2000-12-01

    MSMP and BAMM were commissioned by the Air Force Space Division (AFSD) in the late seventies to generate data in support of the Advanced Warning System (AWS), a development activity to replace the space-based surveillance satellites of the Defense Support Program (DSP). These programs were carried out by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory with planning and mentoring by Irving Spiro of The Aerospace Corporation, acting on behalf of the program managers, 1st Lt. Todd Frantz, 1st Lt. Gordon Frantom, and 1st Lt. Ken Hasegawa of the technology program office at AFSD. The motivation of MSMP was the need for characterizing the exhaust plumes of the thrusters aboard post-boost vehicles, a primary target for the infrared sensors of the proposed AWS system. To that end, the experiments consisted of a series of Aries rocket launches from White Sands Missile Range in which dual payloads were carried aloft and separately deployed at altitudes above 100 km. One module contained an ensemble of sensors spanning the spectrum from the vacuum ultraviolet to the long wave infrared, all slaved to an rf tracker locked onto a beacon on the target module. The target was a small pressure-fed liquid-propellant rocket engine, a modified Atlas vernier, programmed for a series of maneuvers in the vicinity of the instrument module. As part of this program, diagnostic measurements of the target engine exhaust were made at Rocketdyne, and shock tube experiments on excitation processes were carried out by staff members of Calspan.

  11. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy: An Odyssey in Measurement Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Albert

    Perhaps the speeds of sound, or, equivalently, the elastic moduli are some of the most fundamental attributes of a solid, connecting to fundamental physics, metallurgy, non-destructive testing, and more. Unlike most of the quantities used to characterize condensed matter, the elastic moduli are fourth-rank tensors containing a wealth of detail, directional information, and consistency constraints that provide some of the most revealing probes of solids. We describe here the current state of the art in one method, Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy, where the mechanical resonances of a specimen of regular shape (easy to measure) are analyzed (difficult computational problem) to obtain the full elastic tensor. With modern advances in electronics and analysis, fractions of a part per million changes in elastic moduli are detectable providing new and important insight into grand challenges in condensed matter physics. This work was supported as part of the Materials Science of Actinides, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award # DE-SC0001089.

  12. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America airborne investigation are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are being investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the mission science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of intervening optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the Earth's surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture to support the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) and ACT-America programs.

  13. Optical modeling and polarization calibration for CMB measurements with ACTPol and Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Brian; Austermann, Jason; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Newburgh, Laura; Page, Lyman A.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    array of detectors for Advanced ACTPol, the next generation upgrade to ACTPol, will be deployed in 2016. We plan to continue using both techniques and compare them to astrophysical source measurements for the Advanced ACTPol polarization calibration.

  14. A structured review of health utility measures and elicitation in advanced/metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yanni Hao,1 Verena Wolfram,2 Jennifer Cook2 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2Adelphi Values, Bollington, UK Background: Health utilities are increasingly incorporated in health economic evaluations. Different elicitation methods, direct and indirect, have been established in the past. This study examined the evidence on health utility elicitation previously reported in advanced/metastatic breast cancer and aimed to link these results to requirements of reimbursement bodies. Methods: Searches were conducted using a detailed search strategy across several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EconLit databases, online sources (Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and the Health Economics Research Center, and web sites of health technology assessment (HTA bodies. Publications were selected based on the search strategy and the overall study objectives. Results: A total of 768 publications were identified in the searches, and 26 publications, comprising 18 journal articles and eight submissions to HTA bodies, were included in the evidence review. Most journal articles derived utilities from the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D. Other utility measures, such as the direct methods standard gamble (SG, time trade-off (TTO, and visual analog scale (VAS, were less frequently used. Several studies described mapping algorithms to generate utilities from disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL instruments such as European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer 23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – General questionnaire (FACT-G, and Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer (UBQ-C; most used EQ-5D as the reference. Sociodemographic factors that affect health utilities, such as age, sex

  15. EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Gao, Yongsheng; Krystek, Michael

    2008-08-01

    . Neuschaefer-Rube et al, also from PTB, present procedures and standards to test tactile and optical microsensors and micro-computed tomography systems, which are similar to the established tests for classical coordinate measuring machines and assess local and global sensor characteristics. The last three papers are related to micro/nano-metrology and intelligent instrumentation. Jiang et al from Tohoku University describe the fabrication of piezoresistive nanocantilevers for ultra-sensitive force detection by using spin-out diffusion, EB lithography and FAB etching, respectively. Y-C Liu et al from National Taiwan University develop an economical and highly sensitive optical accelerometer using a commercial optical pickup head. Michihata et al from Osaka University experimentally investigate the positioning sensing property and accuracy of a laser trapping probe for a nano-coordinate measuring machine. As guest editors, we believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for Production Engineering. We would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. We would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to Professor P Hauptmann, Editor-in-Chief of MST, for his kind offer to publish selected ISMTII 2007 papers in MST, and to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

  16. Measurement of non-axisymmetry in centres of advanced mergers of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jog, C J; Jog, Chanda J.; Maybhate, Aparna

    2006-01-01

    We measure the non-axisymmetry in the luminosity distribution in the inner few kpc of the remnants of advanced mergers of galaxies with a view to understand the relaxation in the central regions. For this, we analyze the images from the 2MASS archival data for a selected sample of 12 merging galaxies, which show signs of interaction but have a single nucleus. The central regions are fitted by elliptical isophotes whose centres are allowed to vary to get the best fit. The centres of isophotes show a striking sloshing pattern with a spatial variation of up to 20-30 % within the central 1 kpc. This indicates mass asymmetry and a dynamically unrelaxed behaviour. Next, we Fourier-analyze the galaxy images while keeping the centre constant and measure the deviation from axisymmetry in terms of the fractional Fourier amplitudes (A_1, A_2 etc) as a function of radius. All mergers show a high value of lopsidedness (upto A_1 ~ 0.2) in the central 5 kpc. The m=2 asymmetry is even stronger, with values of A_2 upto ~ 0.3,...

  17. Measurement of reactive species generated by dielectric barrier discharge in direct contact with water in different atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Vesna V.; Dojčinović, Biljana P.; Jović, Milica; Roglić, Goran M.; Obradović, Bratislav M.; Kuraica, Milorad M.

    2017-04-01

    The formation of hydroxyl radical and long-living chemical species (H2O2, O3, \\text{NO}3- and \\text{NO}2- ) generated in the liquid phase of a water falling film dielectric barrier discharge in dependence on the gas atmosphere (air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon and helium) was studied. The chemical molecular probe dimethyl sulfoxide was employed for quantification of ˙OH, and the influence of hydroxyl radical scavenging on formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was investigated. In addition to liquid analysis, plasma diagnostics was applied to indicate possible reaction pathways of plasma–liquid interaction. The highest ˙OH production rate of 1.19  ×  10‑5 mol l‑1 s‑1 was found when water was treated in oxygen, with a yield of 2.75  ×  10‑2 molecules of ˙OH per 100 eV. Formation of hydrogen peroxide in air, nitrogen and argon discharges is determined by recombination reaction of hydroxyl radicals, reaching the highest yield of about 0.7 g kWh‑1 when distilled water was treated in argon discharge. Ozone formation was dominant in oxygen and air discharges. Strong acidification along with formation of reactive nitrogen species was detected in water treated in air and nitrogen discharges.

  18. 电网功率因数的测量及无功自动补偿控制%Power-factor measurement and reactive automitic compensation control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘骏跃

    2001-01-01

    提出一种精度较高的功率因数测量方法。利用单片计算机实现对低压电网无功补偿电容器组的自动投切控制,可适用于各种负载、各类用户。%A high precision method of power-factor measurement is researched,and a reactive power compensation control system to low voltage network with capacitor bank is realized by sing-chip computer 8031.The controller apply to every user and every load.

  19. Real-time measurement of reactive gases (NO, NO2, O3, CO) at ERSA, Cape Corsica, a long term Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Jean-Marc; Colomb, Aurelie; Gheusi, Francois; Sauvage, Stephane; Pont, Veronique; Tison, Emmanuel; Bordier, Florent; Grignion, Guillaume; Savelli, Jean-Luc; Dulac, Francois; Sciare, Jean; Nicolas, Jose; Bourrianne, Thierry; Bouvier, Laetitia

    2013-04-01

    Important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly airmasses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The ERSA observatory is a french initiative within the framework of CHARMEX (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) and CORSICA (Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (http://www2.obs-mip.fr/corsica) . The measurements of the station include real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges), a broad spectrum of aerosol properties (chemical composition, ground optical properties, integrated and space-resolved optical properties , size distribution properties, mass, hygroscopicity as well as dry/wet depositions). Among all the parameters, reactive gases are recognized as precursors of ozone and aerosol. The primarily emitted nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) have a substantial impact on radical chemistry, ozone (O3) formation and aerosol by their atmospheric oxidation to aerosol nitrate. Carbon monoxide (CO) is mostly primarily emitted from combustion processes, but it is also formed in substantial amounts from the oxidation of methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Due to its high global turn-over rates CO is a major O3 precursor, and it has a strong impact on the oxidizing capacity and thus indirectly on the concentration of the climate gas CH4. O3 is a climate gas itself, however, also strongly involved in NO/NO2 partitioning and oxidizing capacity, thus coupling back on several photochemical processes. Accordingly, impacts on climate are multiple and rather complex. The understanding requires high quality, long-term observations of these reactive species. We

  20. Utilizing chromophoric dissolved organic matter measurements to derive export and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon exported to the Arctic Ocean: A case study of the Yukon River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R.G.M.; Aiken, G.R.; Butler, K.D.; Dornblaser, M.M.; Striegl, R.G.; Hernes, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The quality and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported by Arctic rivers is known to vary with hydrology and this exported material plays a fundamental role in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon at high latitudes. We highlight the potential of optical measurements to examine DOM quality across the hydrograph in Arctic rivers. Furthermore, we establish chromophoric DOM (CDOM) relationships to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and lignin phenols in the Yukon River and model DOC and lignin loads from CDOM measurements, the former in excellent agreement with long-term DOC monitoring data. Intensive sampling across the historically under-sampled spring flush period highlights the importance of this time for total export of DOC and particularly lignin. Calculated riverine DOC loads to the Arctic Ocean show an increase from previous estimates, especially when new higher discharge data are incorporated. Increased DOC loads indicate decreased residence times for terrigenous DOM in the Arctic Ocean with important implications for the reactivity and export of this material to the Atlantic Ocean. Citation: Spencer, R. G. M., G. R. Aiken, K. D. Butler, M. M. Dornblaser, R. G. Striegl, and P. J. Hernes (2009), Utilizing chromophoric dissolved organic matter measurements to derive export and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon exported to the Arctic Ocean: A case study of the Yukon River, Alaska, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L06401, doi:10.1029/ 2008GL036831. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Erken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  2. Perceived vs. measured effects of advanced cockpit systems on pilot workload and error: are pilots' beliefs misaligned with reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M

    2009-05-01

    Four types of advanced cockpit systems were tested in an in-flight experiment for their effect on pilot workload and error. Twelve experienced pilots flew conventional cockpit and advanced cockpit versions of the same make and model airplane. In both airplanes, the experimenter dictated selected combinations of cockpit systems for each pilot to use while soliciting subjective workload measures and recording any errors that pilots made. The results indicate that the use of a GPS navigation computer helped reduce workload and errors during some phases of flight but raised them in others. Autopilots helped reduce some aspects of workload in the advanced cockpit airplane but did not appear to reduce workload in the conventional cockpit. Electronic flight and navigation instruments appeared to have no effect on workload or error. Despite this modest showing for advanced cockpit systems, pilots stated an overwhelming preference for using them during all phases of flight.

  3. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products, measured as skin autofluorescence, in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Jasper W L; de Vries, Aiko P J; Lutgers, Helen L; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Huisman, Roel M; van Son, Willem J; de Jong, Paul E; Smit, Andries J

    2005-06-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate during renal failure and dialysis. Kidney transplantation is thought to reverse this accumulation by restoring renal function. Using a noninvasive and validated autofluorescence reader, we evaluated AGE levels in 285 transplant recipients (mean age, 52 years; range, 41 to 60 years), 32 dialysis patients (mean age, 56 years; range, 43 to 65 years), and 231 normal control subjects (mean age, 51 years; range, 40 to 65 years). Measurements in transplant recipients were performed for a mean of 73 months (range, 32 to 143 months) after transplantation. Dialysis patients were on dialysis therapy for a mean of 42 months (range, 17 to 107 months). Fluorescence was significantly increased in dialysis patients compared with normal control subjects (2.8 vs. 2.0 arbitrary units [a.u.], P < .0001). Although fluorescence levels were significantly decreased in transplant recipients compared with dialysis patients (2.5 vs. 2.8 a.u., P < .0001), fluorescence in transplant recipients was higher than in controls (2.5 vs. 2.0 a.u., P < .0001). In transplant recipients, fluorescence correlated positively with the duration of dialysis prior to transplantation (R = 0.21, P < .0001), and negatively with creatinine clearance (R = -0.34, P < .0001). No correlation was found between time after transplantation and fluorescence in transplant recipients (R = -0.10, P = .10). Fluorescence in dialysis patients was positively correlated with duration of dialysis (R = 0.36, P = .042). Our results, like those of others, suggest that kidney transplantation does not fully correct increased AGE levels found in dialysis patients. The increased AGE levels in kidney transplant recipients cannot be explained by the differences in renal function alone. The availability of a simple, noninvasive method (AGE-Reader) to measure AGE accumulation may be used to monitor AGE accumulation in a clinical setting as well as in a study setting.

  4. Advanced glycation end products measured by skin autofluorescence in a population with central obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Engelsen, Corine; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J; Salomé, Philippe L; Rutten, Guy E

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is enhanced by chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress and this process may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF), a measure of accumulation of AGEs in skin collagen, is associated with vascular disease in patients with diabetes.   Because central obesity enhances oxidative stress people with central obesity might already have increased accumulation of AGEs before diabetes or cardiovascular disease become manifest. To test this hypothesis, we compared the distribution of skin AF and its association with clinical and biochemical parameters in individuals with and without central obesity. Skin AF was measured by a validated AGE Reader in 816 persons with and 431 persons without central obesity, aged 20-70 y. Mean skin AF increased with age and smoking and was higher in centrally obese individuals compared with non-obese individuals (p = 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p = 0.13). Mean skin AF in the subgroups without central obesity and without other risk factors (n = 106), central obesity without other risk factors (n = 74) and central obesity with other risk factors (n = 742) was 1.63 ± 0.37, 1.74 ± 0.44 and 1.87 ± 0.43 AU, respectively (p for trend < 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p for trend = 0.12). In the group with central obesity age, current smoking, alcohol consumption, waist circumference, creatinine clearance and hs-CRP were independently associated with skin AF (R(2) = 29.4%). Waist circumference hardly contributed to the explained variance. The relationship between waist circumference and skin AF is not as obvious as we hypothesized.

  5. Correlation between turbidimetric and nephelometric methods of measuring C-reactive protein in patients with unstable angina or non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Luis C. L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the turbidimetric method of C-reactive protein (CRP as a measure of low-grade inflammation in patients admitted with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS. METHODS: Serum samples obtained at hospital arrival from 68 patients (66±11 years, 40 men, admitted with unstable angina or non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction were used to measure CRP by the methods of nephelometry and turbidimetry. RESULTS: The medians of C-reactive protein by the turbidimetric and nephelometric methods were 0.5 mg/dL and 0.47 mg/dL, respectively. A strong linear association existed between the 2 methods, according to the regression coefficient (b=0.75; 95% C.I.=0.70-0.80 and correlation coefficient (r=0.96; P<0.001. The mean difference between the nephelometric and turbidimetric CRP was 0.02 ± 0.91 mg/dL, and 100% agreement between the methods in the detection of high CRP was observed. CONCLUSION: In patients with non-ST elevation ACS, CRP values obtained by turbidimetry show a strong linear association with the method of nephelometry and perfect agreement in the detection of high CRP.

  6. New method to assess the pozzolanic reactivity of mineral admixtures by means of pH and electrical conductivity measurements in lime:pozzolan suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashima, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A very simple method based on electrical conductivity and pH measurements was proposed for assessing reactivity of pozzolans. Calcium hydroxide:pozzolan water suspensions were monitored by means of measurements of electrical conductivity and pH values. In these suspensions, Ca(OH2 in solid state was initially present, being them, thus, saturated in this reagent. Three testing temperatures were selected (40, 50 and 60 °C. In the experiments carried out, calcium hydroxide was suspended in deionized water for yielding a lime saturated suspension. The addition of siliceous pozzolan (two types of rice husk ash RHA and two types of densified silica fume DSF were tested to the saturated lime suspension can produce the unsaturation of the system, depending on the testing time, testing temperature and reactivity of pozzolan. When unsaturation was reached, the loss of electrical conductivity was higher than 30% and the variation of pH was higher than 0.15 units. These threshold values were selected for characterizing the reactivity of pozzolans by means of a proposed template, classifying the pozzolan in three different reactivity levels.En este trabajo se propone un método simple basado en medidas de conductividad eléctrica y pH. Se determinaron los valores de conductividad eléctrica y pH de suspensiones acuosas de hidróxido cálcico:puzolana. En las suspensiones, había inicialmente Ca(OH2 en estado sólido, de manera que dichas suspensiones estaban, por tanto, saturadas respecto a ese reactivo. Se seleccionaron tres temperaturas de trabajo (40, 50 and 60 °C. En las experiencias, el hidróxido cálcico fue mezclado con agua desionizada, generando una suspensión saturada en cal. La adición de puzolana silícea (se ensayaron dos tipos de ceniza de cáscara de arroz y dos tipos de humo de sílice densificado a la suspensión saturada de cal puede producir la insaturación del sistema, dependiendo del tiempo, temperatura y reactividad de la puzolana

  7. Methodological considerations of electron spin resonance spin trapping techniques for measuring reactive oxygen species generated from metal oxide nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min Sook; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Ah Young; Song, Mi Ryoung; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Jun Sung

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated on the surfaces of nanomaterials are important for understanding their toxicity and toxic mechanisms, which are in turn beneficial for manufacturing more biocompatible nanomaterials in many industrial fields. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a useful tool for detecting ROS formation. However, using this technique without first considering the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and proper conditions of the spin trapping agent (such as incubation time) may lead to misinterpretation of the resulting data. In this report, we suggest methodological considerations for ESR as pertains to magnetism, sample preparation and proper incubation time with spin trapping agents. Based on our results, each spin trapping agent should be given the proper incubation time. For nanomaterials having magnetic properties, it is useful to remove these nanomaterials via centrifugation after reacting with spin trapping agents. Sonication for the purpose of sample dispersion and sample light exposure should be controlled during ESR in order to enhance the obtained ROS signal. This report will allow researchers to better design ESR spin trapping applications involving nanomaterials.

  8. Using highly sensitive C-reactive protein measurement to diagnose MODY in a family with suspected type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Rachel E J; Jones, Jackie; McDonald, Timothy J; Smith, Rebecca; Shepherd, Maggie H; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2012-07-11

    The authors report an adolescent who was found to have diabetes on routine blood testing. The initial diagnosis was type 2 diabetes because she was obese, did not have type 1 diabetes antibodies and both parents had diabetes. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was low in the proband and her father (≤0.1 mg/l) indicating that type 2 diabetes was unlikely, and that hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α-maturity onset diabetes of the young (HNF1A-MODY) was the most likely diagnosis. Following a genetic diagnosis of HNF1A-MODY in the proband and her father, both patients were treated with gliclazide, with improvement in HbA1c. This case highlights the challenges of making a correct diagnosis of MODY in young onset diabetes. The authors report the first case where hsCRP, an easily available biomarker, has been used on an individual level to determine appropriate genetic testing of MODY in a family whose main differential diagnosis was familial type 2 diabetes.

  9. A multiple metrics approach to prioritizing strategies for measuring and managing reactive nitrogen in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Ariel I.; Moomaw, William R.; Liptzin, Daniel; Gramig, Benjamin M.; Reeling, Carson; Meyer, Johanna; Hurley, Kathleen

    2016-06-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle exceeds the safe planetary boundary for the use of reactive nitrogen (Nr). We complement global analysis by analyzing regional mass flows and the relative consequences of multiple chemical forms of Nr as they ‘cascade’ through multiple environmental media. The goals of this paper are (1) to identify the amounts of Nr that flow through a specific nitrogen rich region, (2) develop multiple metrics to characterize and compare multiple forms of Nr and the different damages that they cause, and (3) to use these metrics to assess the most societally acceptable and cost effective means for addressing the many dimensions of Nr damage. This paper uses a multiple metrics approach that in addition to mass flows considers economic damage, health and mitigation costs and qualitative damages to evaluate options for mitigating Nr flows in California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Most analysis focuses attention on agricultural Nr because it is the largest flow in terms of mass. In contrast, the multiple metrics approach identifies mobile source Nr emissions as creating the most economic and health damage in the SJV. Emissions of Nr from mobile sources are smaller than those from crop agriculture and dairy in the SJV, but the benefits of abatement are greater because of reduced health impacts from air pollution, and abatement costs are lower. Our findings illustrate the benefit of a comprehensive multiple metrics approach to Nr management.

  10. Skin autofluorescence as a measure of advanced glycation end products deposition is elevated in peripheral artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Lisanne C.; Noordzij, Marjon J.; Mulder, Douwe J.; Smit, Andries J.; Lutgers, Helen L.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Lefrandt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence for an important role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease beyond diabetes mellitus and renal disease is growing. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a validated noninvasive measure of tissue AGEs. We hypothesized t

  11. Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, R; Hartog, JWL; Graaff, R; Huisman, RJ; Links, TP; den Hollander, NC; Thorpe, [No Value; Baynes, JW; Navis, G; Gans, ROB; Smit, AJ

    2005-01-01

    Tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE) are a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and trigger cytokines driven inflammatory reactions. AGE are thought to contribute to the chronic complications of diabetes and ESRD. Tissue autofluorescence is related to the accumulation of AGE. Therefore, sk

  12. Experimental Design for Evaluating Selected Nondestructive Measurement Technologies - Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M3AT-16PN2301043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pitman, Stan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Good, Morris S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walker, Cody M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-16

    Report documents design of bench-scale experiments for evaluating capability and sensitivity of selected nondestructive measurement technologies for early detection of degradation modes of interest for passive components condition in advanced reactors. Includes requirements for deploying instrumentation for in-situ monitoring at ongoing materials testing sites.

  13. Repeated measures of body mass index and C-reactive protein in relation to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Jørgensen, Torben; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been linked with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and both have been associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have used a single 'baseline' measurement and such analyses cannot account for possible changes in these which...... body mass index (BMI) and CRP with all-cause mortality and CVD. Being overweight (≥25-obese (≥30-....79-0.94) and 0.80 (0.72-0.89). A similar relationship was found, but only for overweight in Glostrup, HR (95 % CI) 0.88 (0.76-1.02); and moderately obese in Tromsø, HR (95 % CI) 0.79 (0.62-1.01). Associations were not evident between repeated measures of BMI and CVD. Conversely, increasing CRP concentrations...

  14. Comparison between the measured and calculated reactivity in measuring the effectiveness of the emergency protection at the stage of physical start-up of unit no. 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavun, O. Yu.; Popykin, A. I.; Shevchenko, R. A.; Shevchenko, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents comparisons between the effectiveness of the emergency protection under both stationary and nonstationary formulations calculated with the use of the RADUGA-7.5 package [1] and experimental data obtained in measuring the "weight" of the emergency protection in the process of physical start-up of the VVER-1000 reactor of unit no. 3 of the Kalinin NPP. On the basis of the results obtained, recommendations are given on comparing the measured and calculated reactivity and parameters determined by using its value.

  15. Characterizing the chemical evolution of air masses via multi-platform measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during CalNEX: Composition, OH reactivity, and potential SOA formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Bon, D.; Warneke, C.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Holloway, J. S.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Li, S.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are critical components in the photochemical production of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). During the CalNex 2010 field campaign, an extensive set of VOCs were measured at the Pasadena ground site, and aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and the WHOI Research Vessel Atlantis. The measurements from each platform provide a unique perspective into the emissions, transport, and atmospheric processing of VOCs within the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The observed enhancement ratios of the hydrocarbons measured on all three platforms are in good agreement and are generally well correlated with carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the prevalence of on-road VOC emission sources throughout the SoCAB. Offshore measurements aboard the ship and aircraft are used to characterize the air mass composition as a function of the land/sea-breeze effect. VOC ratios and other trace gases are used to identify air masses containing relatively fresh emissions that were often associated with offshore flow and re-circulated continental air associated with onshore flow conditions. With the prevailing southwesterly airflow pattern in the LAB throughout the daytime, the Pasadena ground site effectively functions as a receptor site and is used to characterize primary VOC emissions from downtown Los Angeles and to identify the corresponding secondary oxidation products. The chemical evolution of air masses as a function of the time of day is investigated in order to determine the relative impacts of primary emissions vs. secondary VOC products on OH reactivity and potential SOA formation. The reactivity of VOCs with the hydroxyl radical (OH) at the Pasadena site was dominated by the light hydrocarbons, isoprene, and oxygenated VOCs including aldehydes (secondary products) and alcohols (primary anthropogenic emissions). Toluene and benzaldehyde, both of which are associated with primary anthropogenic emissions, are the predominant VOC precursors to the

  16. Assessment of impaired vascular reactivity in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy: effect of nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on intrarenal diffusion and oxygenation measured by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar; Gutberlet, Marcel; Gueler, Faikah; Sann, Holger; Husen, Bettina; Wacker, Frank; Reiche, Dania

    2013-11-15

    Diabetes is associated with impaired vascular reactivity and the development of diabetic nephropathy. In a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy, the effects of systemic nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition on intrarenal diffusion and oxygenation were determined by noninvasive magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and blood O2 level-dependent (BOLD) imaging, respectively. Eight weeks after the induction of diabetes, 21 rats [n = 7 rats each in the untreated control group, diabetes mellitus (DM) group, and DM with uninephrectomy (DM UNX) group] were examined by MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging and BOLD sequences were acquired before and after NO synthesis inhibition with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In the same rats, mean arterial pressure and vascular conductance were determined with and without the influence of L-NAME. In control animals, NO synthesis inhibition was associated with a significant increase of mean arterial pressure of 33.8 ± 4.3 mmHg (P animals. Similarly, L-NAME challenge induced a significant reduction of renal transverse relaxation time (T2*) at MRI in control animals, indicating reduced renal oxygenation after L-NAME injection compared with baseline. DM UNX animals did not show a significant T2* reduction after NO synthesis inhibition in the renal cortex and attenuated T2* reduction in the outer medulla. MRI parameters of tissue diffusion were not affected by L-NAME in all groups. In conclusion, BOLD imaging proved valuable to noninvasively measure renal vascular reactivity upon NO synthesis inhibition in control animals and to detect impaired vascular reactivity in animals with diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Advanced beamformers for cochlear implant users: acute measurement of speech perception in challenging listening conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Buechner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the performance of monaural and binaural beamforming technology with an additional noise reduction algorithm, in cochlear implant recipients. METHOD: This experimental study was conducted as a single subject repeated measures design within a large German cochlear implant centre. Twelve experienced users of an Advanced Bionics HiRes90K or CII implant with a Harmony speech processor were enrolled. The cochlear implant processor of each subject was connected to one of two bilaterally placed state-of-the-art hearing aids (Phonak Ambra providing three alternative directional processing options: an omnidirectional setting, an adaptive monaural beamformer, and a binaural beamformer. A further noise reduction algorithm (ClearVoice was applied to the signal on the cochlear implant processor itself. The speech signal was presented from 0° and speech shaped noise presented from loudspeakers placed at ±70°, ±135° and 180°. The Oldenburg sentence test was used to determine the signal-to-noise ratio at which subjects scored 50% correct. RESULTS: Both the adaptive and binaural beamformer were significantly better than the omnidirectional condition (5.3 dB±1.2 dB and 7.1 dB±1.6 dB (p<0.001 respectively. The best score was achieved with the binaural beamformer in combination with the ClearVoice noise reduction algorithm, with a significant improvement in SRT of 7.9 dB±2.4 dB (p<0.001 over the omnidirectional alone condition. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the binaural beamformer implemented in the Phonak Ambra hearing aid could be used in conjunction with a Harmony speech processor to produce substantial average improvements in SRT of 7.1 dB. The monaural, adaptive beamformer provided an averaged SRT improvement of 5.3 dB.

  18. Advanced multi-frequency radar: Design, preliminary measurements and particle size distribution retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majurec, Ninoslav

    In the spring of 2001 the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) at the University of Massachusetts began the development of an advanced Multi-Frequency Radar (AMFR) system for studying clouds and precipitation. This mobile radar was designed to consist of three polarimetric Doppler subsystems operating at Ku-band (13.4 GHz), Ka-band (35.6 GHz) and W-band (94.92 GHz). This combination of frequency bands allows a measurement of a wide range of atmospheric targets ranging from weakly reflecting clouds to strong precipitation. The antenna beamwidths at each frequency were intentionally matched, ensuring consistent sampling volume. Multi-frequency radar remote sensing techniques are not widely used because few multi-frequency radars are available to the science community. One exception is the 33 GHz/95 GHz UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS), which AMFR is intended to replace. AMFR's multi-parameter capabilities are designed for characterizing the complex microphysics of layer clouds and precipitation processes in winter storms. AMFR will also play an important role in developing algorithms and validating measurements for an upcoming generation of space-borne radars. The frequency bands selected for AMFR match those of several sensors that have been deployed or are under development. These include the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agencies (JAXA's) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite Ku-band (13 GHz) radar, the CloudSat W-band (95 GHz) radar, and the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellite radars at Ku-band and Ka-band. This dissertation describes the AMFR hardware design and development. Compared to CPRS, the addition of one extra frequency band (Ku) will extend AMFR's measurement capabilities towards the larger particle sizes (precipitation). AMFR's design is based around high-power klystron amplifiers. This ensures complete coherency (CPRS uses magnetrons and coherent-on-receive technique). The partial loss in sensitivity due to

  19. Investigating the Effect of Inflammation on Atrial Fibrillation Occurrence by Measuring Highly Sensitive C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hassanzadeh Delui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmias that cardiologists and internists encounter. The goal of this article is to clarify an overview of the evidence linking inflammation to AF existence, which may highlight the effect of some pharmacological agents that have genuine potential to reduce the clinical burden of AF by modulating inflammatory pathways. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, 50 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF with different etiologies and 50 patients with sinus rhythm and similar bases were selected. Sampling for highly sensitive c-reactive (hs-CRP was done on the patients presenting with AF to the Ghaem hospital between October 2006 and June 2007. Results: Mean age of the patients was 62 years with maximum of 90 and minimum of 36 and standard deviation of 13.80. The most frequent age group was 71-80years. Fifty-four percent of patients were male and 46% were female. Mean serum hs-CRP levels in AF patients with hypertension (HTN ,Ischemic heart disease(IHD, Valvular heart disease (VHD, HTN+IHD and hyperthyroidism were 8.10, 9.40, 8.68, 10.16 and 5.98 mg/Lit; respectively. There was significant difference between hs-CRP levels in hypertensive patients in the two groups (P=0.010. Similar results were observed in IHD patients, VHD patients and HTN+IHD patients in two groups (P=0.015, P=0.037, P=0.000. Conclusion: In addition to some risk factors like baseline cardiac diseases, aging, thyrotoxicosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and cardiac surgery, there also appears to be consistent links between hs-CRP, a marker of inflammation, and the pathogenesis of AF.

  20. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products, measured as skin autofluorescence, in renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, JWL; De Vries, APJ; Lutgers, HL; Meerwaldt, R; Huisman, RM; Van Son, WJ; De Jong, PE; Smit, AJ; Baynes, JW; Monnier, VM; Ames, JM; Thorpe,

    2005-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate during renal failure and dialysis. Kidney transplantation is thought to reverse this accumulation by restoring renal function. Using a noninvasive and validated autofluorescence reader, we evaluated AGE levels in 285 transplant recipients (mean age,

  1. Sunlight-Triggered Nanoparticle Synergy: Teamwork of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide Released from Mesoporous Organosilica with Advanced Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Julia; Trepka, Bastian; Klinkenberg, Nele; Bronner, Hannah; Schleheck, David; Polarz, Sebastian

    2016-03-09

    Colonization of surfaces by microorganisms is an urging problem. In combination with the increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria, severe infections are reported more frequently in medical settings. Therefore, there is a large demand to explore innovative surface coatings that provide intrinsic and highly effective antibacterial activity. Materials containing silver nanoparticles have been developed in the past for this purpose, but this solution has come into criticism due to various disadvantages like notable toxicity against higher organisms, the high price, and low abundance of silver. Here, we introduce a new, sunlight-mediated organosilica nanoparticle (NP) system based on silver-free antibacterial activity. The simultaneous release of nitric oxide (NO) in combination with singlet oxygen and superoxide radicals (O2(•-)) as reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to the emergence of highly reactive peroxynitrite molecules with significantly enhanced biocidal activity. This special cooperative effect can only be realized, if the ROS-producing moieties and the functional entities releasing NO are spatially separated from each other. In one type of particle, Rose Bengal as an efficient singlet oxygen ((1)O2) producer was covalently bound to SH functionalities applying thiol-ene click chemistry. "Charging" the second type of particles with NO was realized by quantitatively transferring the thiol groups into S-nitrosothiol functionalities. We probed the oxidation power of ROS-NP alone and in combination with NO-NP using sunlight as a trigger. The high antibacterial efficiency of dual-action nanoparticles was demonstrated using disinfection assays with the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  2. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  3. Angular-divergence calculation for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak neutral beam injection ion source based on spectroscopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Yuan, E-mail: jtext@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Chundong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhuang, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Calorimetric method has been primarily applied for several experimental campaigns to determine the angular divergence of high-current ion source for the neutral beam injection system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). A Doppler shift spectroscopy has been developed to provide the secondary measurement of the angular divergence to improve the divergence measurement accuracy and for real-time and non-perturbing measurement. The modified calculation model based on the W7AS neutral beam injectors is adopted to accommodate the slot-type accelerating grids used in the EAST's ion source. Preliminary spectroscopic experimental results are presented comparable to the calorimetrically determined value of theoretical calculation.

  4. Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fuchs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent field campaigns, hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations that were measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF were up to a factor of ten larger than predicted by current chemical models for conditions of high OH reactivity and low NO concentration. These discrepancies, which were observed in forests and urban-influenced rural environments, are so far not entirely understood. In summer 2011, a series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, in order to investigate the photochemical degradation of isoprene, methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK, methacrolein (MACR and aromatic compounds by OH. Conditions were similar to those experienced during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta (PRD, China, in 2006, where a large difference between OH measurements and model predictions was found. During experiments in SAPHIR, OH was simultaneously detected by two independent instruments: LIF and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS. Because DOAS is an inherently calibration-free technique, DOAS measurements are regarded as a reference standard. The comparison of the two techniques was used to investigate potential artifacts in the LIF measurements for PRD-like conditions of OH reactivities of 10 to 30 s−1 and NO mixing ratios of 0.1 to 0.3 ppbv. The analysis of twenty experiment days shows good agreement. The linear regression of the combined data set (averaged to the DOAS time resolution, 2495 data points yields a slope of 1.02 ± 0.01 with an intercept of (0.10 ± 0.03 × 106 cm−3 and a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. This indicates that the sensitivity of the LIF instrument is well-defined by its calibration procedure. No hints for artifacts are observed for isoprene, MACR, and different aromatic compounds. LIF measurements were approximately 30–40% (median larger than those by DOAS after MVK (20 ppbv and

  5. Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H.; Dorn, H.-P.; Bachner, M.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Gomm, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Nehr, S.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2012-07-01

    During recent field campaigns, hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations that were measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were up to a factor of ten larger than predicted by current chemical models for conditions of high OH reactivity and low NO concentration. These discrepancies, which were observed in forests and urban-influenced rural environments, are so far not entirely understood. In summer 2011, a series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, in order to investigate the photochemical degradation of isoprene, methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein (MACR) and aromatic compounds by OH. Conditions were similar to those experienced during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, in 2006, where a large difference between OH measurements and model predictions was found. During experiments in SAPHIR, OH was simultaneously detected by two independent instruments: LIF and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Because DOAS is an inherently calibration-free technique, DOAS measurements are regarded as a reference standard. The comparison of the two techniques was used to investigate potential artifacts in the LIF measurements for PRD-like conditions of OH reactivities of 10 to 30 s-1 and NO mixing ratios of 0.1 to 0.3 ppbv. The analysis of twenty experiment days shows good agreement. The linear regression of the combined data set (averaged to the DOAS time resolution, 2495 data points) yields a slope of 1.02 ± 0.01 with an intercept of (0.10 ± 0.03) × 106 cm-3 and a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. This indicates that the sensitivity of the LIF instrument is well-defined by its calibration procedure. No hints for artifacts are observed for isoprene, MACR, and different aromatic compounds. LIF measurements were approximately 30-40% (median) larger than those by DOAS after MVK (20 ppbv) and toluene (90 ppbv) had been added. However, this discrepancy has a

  6. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  7. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): from “green” plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity [high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)], PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems. PMID:24790960

  8. On Advance of Low Electrolyte Dyeing Technique with Reactive Dye%活性染料低电解质染色研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳金发; 马小强

    2012-01-01

    印染工业中存在电解质用量大,染色废水处理负担重等一系列问题。目前实现活性染料低电解质或无电解质染色的主要方法有:开发低电解质活性染料、对纤维素纤维阳离子改性、研发活性染料无电解质染色助剂及调整染色工艺。这些方法的工艺、效果和应用前景各有不同。%Nowadays,the dyeing industry is faced with the problems of high consumption of electrolyte and high cost in disposal of waste water.There are several ways of reducing or eliminating the usage of electrolyte in dyeing.For instance,we can develop and deploy reactive dye with low electrolyte,pretreat the dye by cationizing the cellulosic fibers,develop electrolyte free dyeing auxiliary and improve dyeing technique.The paper studies on these techniques,their effect and application.

  9. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  10. An automated online instrument to quantify aerosol-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) for ambient measurement and health-relevant aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Francis P. H.; Fuller, Stephen J.; Freshwater, Ray; Green, David C.; Kelly, Frank J.; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient aerosol particles have been well documented, but it is still unclear which aerosol properties are most important for their negative health impact. Some studies suggest the oxidative effects of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potential major contributors to the toxicity of particles. Traditional ROS measurement techniques are labour-intensive, give poor temporal resolution and generally have significant delays between aerosol sampling and ROS analysis. However, many oxidising particle components are reactive and thus potentially short-lived. Thus, a technique to quantify particle-bound ROS online would be beneficial to quantify also the short-lived ROS components. We introduce a new portable instrument to allow online, continuous measurement of particle-bound ROS using a chemical assay of 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), via fluorescence spectroscopy. All components of the new instrument are attached to a containing shell, resulting in a compact system capable of automated continuous field deployment over many hours or days. From laboratory measurements, the instrument was found to have a detection limit of ˜ 4 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per cubic metre (m3) air, a dynamic range up to at least ˜ 2000 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per m3 air and a time resolution of ≤ 12 min. The instrument allows for ˜ 16 h automated measurement if unattended and shows a fast response to changes in concentrations of laboratory-generated oxidised organic aerosol. The instrument was deployed at an urban site in London, and particulate ROS levels of up to 24 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per m3 air were detected with PM2.5 concentrations up to 28 µg m-3. The new and portable Online Particle-bound ROS Instrument (OPROSI) allows fast-response quantification; this is important due to the potentially short-lived nature of particle-bound ROS as well as fast-changing atmospheric conditions

  11. Cognitive Load Theory: Advances in Research on Worked Examples, Animations, and Cognitive Load Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); G.W.C. Paas (Fred); J. Sweller (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe contributions to this special issue document some recent advances of cognitive load theory, and are based on contributions to the Third International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (2009), Heerlen, The Netherlands. The contributions focus on developments in example-based learning,

  12. In-flight Quality and Accuracy of Attitude Measurements from the CHAMP Advanced Stellar Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz;

    2005-01-01

    The German geo-observations satellite CHAMP carries highly accurate vector instruments. The orientation of these relative to the inertial reference frame is obtained using star trackers. These advanced stellar compasses (ASC) are fully autonomous units, which provide, in real time, the absolute...

  13. Understanding Fluorescence Measurements through a Guided-Inquiry and Discovery Experiment in Advanced Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna; Salin, Eric Dunbar

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on fluorescence spectroscopy suitable for an advanced analytical laboratory is presented. Its conceptual development used a combination of the expository and discovery styles. The "learn-as-you-go" and direct "hands-on" methodology applied ensures an active role for a student in the process of visualization and discovery of concepts.…

  14. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In October–November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC, US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR systems and whole air sampling (WAS into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4–27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3, aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13–195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The

  15. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In October–November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC, US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR systems and whole air sampling (WAS into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4–27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3, aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13–195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC

  16. But does it do any good? Measuring the impact of music therapy on people with advanced dementia: (Innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Karen

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the impact of music therapy upon a group of nine people with advanced dementia in a hospital setting. It demonstrates how the impact of music therapy was measured using the case notes completed by nursing and care staff and how these notes suggested that music therapy had a positive effect on the mood and behaviour on eight of the nine people receiving music therapy.

  17. Simulated Performance of the Integrated Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity and Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry Detector Designed for Spent Fuel Measurement at the Fugen Reactor in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Timothy J. II [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Adrienne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seya, Michio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolind, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    An integrated nondestructive assay instrument, which combined the Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) and the Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) techniques, is the research focus for a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency as part of the Next Generation Safeguard Initiative. We will quantify the anticipated performance of this experimental system in two physical environments: (1) At LANL we will measure fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) assemblies for which the average enrichment can be varied from 0.2% to 3.2% and for which Gd laced rods will be included. (2) At Fugen we will measure spent Mixed Oxide (MOX-B) and LEU spent fuel assemblies from the heavy water moderated Fugen reactor. The MOX-B assemblies will vary in burnup from {approx}3 GWd/tHM to {approx}20 GWd/tHM while the LEU assemblies ({approx}1.9% initial enrichment) will vary from {approx}2 GWd/tHM to {approx}7 GWd/tHM. The estimated count rates will be calculated using MCNPX. These preliminary results will help the finalization of the hardware design and also serve a guide for the experiment. The hardware of the detector is expected to be fabricated in 2012 with measurements expected to take place in 2012 and 2013. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  18. C-reactive protein, established risk factors and social inequalities in cardiovascular disease – the significance of absolute versus relative measures of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedblad Bo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of relative scales in socioepidemiological studies has recently been criticized. The criticism is based mainly on the fact that the importance of different risk factors in explaining social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD varies, depending on which scale is used to measure social inequalities. The present study examines the importance of established risk factors, as opposed to low-grade inflammation, in explaining socioeconomic differences in the incidence of CVD, using both relative and absolute scales. Methods We obtained information on socioeconomic position (SEP, established risk factors (smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, and low-grade inflammation as measured by high-sensitive (hs C-reactive protein (CRP levels, in 4,268 Swedish men and women who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS. Data on first cardiovascular events, i.e., stroke or coronary event (CE, was collected from regional and national registers. Social inequalities were measured in relative terms, i.e., as ratios between incidence rates in groups with lower and higher SEP, and also in absolute terms, i.e., as the absolute difference in incidence rates in groups with lower and higher SEP. Results Those with low SEP had a higher risk of future CVD. Adjustment for risk factors resulted in a rather small reduction in the relative socioeconomic gradient, namely 8% for CRP (≥ 3 mg/L and 21% for established risk factors taken together. However, there was a reduction of 18% in the absolute socioeconomic gradient when looking at subjects with CRP-levels Conclusion C-reactive protein and established risk factors all contribute to socioeconomic differences in CVD. However, conclusions on the importance of "modern" risk factors (here, CRP, as opposed to established risk factors, in the association between SEP and CVD depend on the scale on which social inequalities are measured. The one-sided use of the relative

  19. A National Initiative to Advance School Mental Health Performance Measurement in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Elizabeth Halsted; Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Lever, Nancy; Ereshefsky, Sabrina; Mosby, Amanda; Bohnenkamp, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Standardized health performance measurement has increasingly become an imperative for assuring quality standards in national health care systems. As compared to somatic health performance measures, behavioral health performance measures are less developed. There currently is no national standardized performance measurement system for monitoring…

  20. Comparison of Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Measure Adherence Between Oncology Fellows, Advanced Practice Providers, and Attending Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jason; Zhang, Tian; Shah, Radhika; Kamal, Arif H; Kelley, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Quality improvement measures are uniformly applied to all oncology providers, regardless of their roles. Little is known about differences in adherence to these measures between oncology fellows, advance practice providers (APP), and attending physicians. We investigated conformance across Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures for oncology fellows, advance practice providers, and attending physicians at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC). Using data collected from the Spring 2012 and 2013 QOPI cycles, we abstracted charts of patients and separated them based on their primary provider. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were calculated for each QOPI measure between fellows, advanced practice providers (APPs), and attending physicians. A total of 169 patients were reviewed. Of these, 31 patients had a fellow, 39 had an APP, and 99 had an attending as their primary oncology provider. Fellows and attending physicians performed similarly on 90 of 94 QOPI metrics. High-performing metrics included several core QOPI measures including documenting consent for chemotherapy, recommending adjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate, and prescribing serotonin antagonists when prescribing emetogenic chemotherapies. Low-performing metrics included documentation of treatment summary and taking action to address problems with emotional well-being by the second office visit. Attendings documented the plan for oral chemotherapy more often (92 vs. 63%, P=0.049). However, after the chart audit, we found that fellows actually documented the plan for oral chemotherapy 88% of the time (p=0.73). APPs and attendings performed similarly on 88 of 90 QOPI measures. The quality of oncology care tends to be similar between attendings and fellows overall; some of the significant differences do not remain significant after a second manual chart review, highlighting that the use of manual data collection for QOPI analysis is an imperfect system, and there may

  1. An Exploration of Advanced Distributed Learning Service Success Measures for Social Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    System and Navy eLearning should be sought and made available. In addition, three existing concepts, already being used in other Air Force arenas, are...color images. 14. ABSTRACT Since the turn of the century, the military has leveraged computer networks and online media to modernize its training...training system , the Advanced Distributed Learning Service (ADLS), to train and track a number of social policy topics such as the Law of Armed Conflict

  2. It takes a (virtual) village: crowdsourcing measurement consensus to advance survivorship care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Carla; Beckjord, Ellen; Moser, Richard P; Vieux, Sana N; Padgett, Lynne S; Hesse, Bradford W

    2015-03-01

    We report results from the use of an innovative tool (the Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database) to drive consensus on the use of measures evaluating the efficacy and implementation of survivorship care plans. The goal of this initiative was to increase the use of publicly available shared measures to enable comparability across studies. Between February and August 2012, research and practice communities populated the GEM platform with constructs and measures relevant to survivorship care planning, rated the measures, and provided qualitative feedback on the quality of the measures. Fifty-one constructs and 124 measures were entered into the GEM-Care Planning workspace by participants. The greatest number of measures appeared in the domains of Health and Psychosocial Outcomes, Health Behaviors, and Coordination of Care/Transitional Care. Using technology-mediated social participation, GEM presents a novel approach to how we measure and improve the quality of survivorship care.

  3. Exchange of information by the introduction of the advanced measurement and control systems; Utveksling av informasjon ved innfoering av AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-15

    Data from the advanced measurement and control systems (in Norwegian: AMS) can provide significant new impacts to society, given that the relevant information from the systems made available to customers, utilities, power suppliers and any providers of other services. There are three types of information that is important: quality-assured data, raw data and general information. Quality assured data should be collected and sent out automatically weekly to third parties (power suppliers and independent providers of services) as soon as possible after they are assured, in a handy format. Raw data, ie current consumption (instant values), should be made available for electricity suppliers and independent third parties by sending the meter to the local receiver, or via measuring system. Raw data and functionality for control may also be useful for the network owner and / or system operator. The measurement system should be used to control if possible. Customers must be given access to raw data, either via the display, PC, TV or similar. If the system opens to control through measuring system, third parties should also be given the right to send the signal through the company's computer system. The advanced measurement and control systems can also provide the ability to send customer information, including so-called statutory information (prices, disconnection, etc.). In this context it should be considered whether it might be appropriate to offer customers the display or software to receive information. (AG)

  4. What Is Reactive Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 69 KB November 2014 What is Reactive Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Information About Reactive Arthritis and Other Related Conditions What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set ...

  5. Advanced measurement systems based on digital processing techniques for superconducting LHC magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, Alessandro; Cennamo, Felice

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator aimed at exploring deeper into matter than ever before, is currently being constructed at CERN. Beam optics of the LHC, requires stringent control of the field quality of about 8400 superconducting magnets, including 1232 main dipoles and 360 main quadrupoles to assure the correct machine operation. The measurement challenges are various: accuracy on the field strength measurement up to 50 ppm, harmonics in the ppm range, measurement equipment robustness, low measurement times to characterize fast field phenomena. New magnetic measurement systems, principally based on analog solutions, have been developed at CERN to achieve these goals. This work proposes the introduction of digital technologies to improve measurement performance of three systems, aimed at different measurement target and characterized by different accuracy levels. The high accuracy measurement systems, based on rotating coils, exhibit high performance in static magnetic field. With vary...

  6. Antioxidant Activity/Capacity Measurement. 3. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (ROS/RNS) Scavenging Assays, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, and Chromatographic/Chemometric Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Çapanoğlu, Esra

    2016-02-10

    There are many studies in which the antioxidant potential of different foods have been analyzed. However, there are still conflicting results and lack of information as a result of unstandardized assay techniques and differences between the principles of the methods applied. The measurement of antioxidant activity, especially in the case of mixtures, multifunctional or complex multiphase systems, cannot be evaluated satisfactorily using a simple antioxidant test due to the many variables influencing the results. In the literature, there are many antioxidant assays that are used to measure the total antioxidant activity/capacity of food materials. In this review, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) scavenging assays are evaluated with respect to their mechanism, advantages, disadvantages, and potential use in food systems. On the other hand, in vivo antioxidant activity (AOA) assays including oxidative stress biomarkers and cellular-based assays are covered within the scope of this review. Finally, chromatographic and chemometric assays are reviewed, focusing on their benefits especially with respect to their time saving, cost-effective, and sensitive nature.

  7. Improved peak-fit procedure for XPS measurements of inhomogeneous samples—Development of the advanced Tougaard background method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, R., E-mail: rhesse@uni-leipzig.de; Weiß, M.; Szargan, R.; Streubel, P.; Denecke, R.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of a spectrum processing software for XPS (Photoelectron Spectra). • Research of both peak form and spectral background analysis of core level XP spectra of laterally inhomogeneous samples. • Comparison of the traditional Shirley background, the improved Tougaard background and the new advanced Tougaard background. • Usage of separate loss functions for each spectral component. • Introduction of a new Five-parameter inelastic electron scattering cross section including a variable parameter to treat the electronic band-gap energy. - Abstract: A new method for the fitting of X-ray photoelectron spectra using an advanced Tougaard-background model for laterally inhomogeneous samples is presented. New is the use of a separate loss function for each spectral component. Additionally, a new Five-parameter inelastic electron scattering cross section (5-PIESCS) including a variable parameter to treat the electronic band gap energy is introduced for a better modelling of the loss structures of insulators. Synthetically generated test spectra using two peaks with strongly different loss structures and measured spectra from different samples are fitted with the traditionally used Shirley background (B{sub S}), the Tougaard background for homogeneous samples (B{sub TH}), and the newly developed advanced Tougaard background for laterally inhomogeneous samples (B{sub TI}). It was found that the fit results for the peak areas and peak positions of the three methods could be strongly different. In many cases the use of the Shirley background and the Tougaard background for homogeneous samples resulted in completely wrong component areas in spite of sometimes rather satisfying residual functions and Abbe criteria. In contrast, the advanced Tougaard background for inhomogeneous samples gave excellent results for all wide range spectra including pronounced loss structures. The new source code of the UNIFIT software (Version 2016 or higher) to

  8. The psychiatric advanced practice nurse with prescriptive authority: role development, practice issues, and outcomes measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, C; Chiverton, P

    1997-04-01

    Within the rapidly changing health care system, there is an increased need for professionals who can provide cost-effective primary health care for mentally ill patients. This article discusses the role of the Psychiatric Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) with Prescriptive Authority as a cost-effective, high-quality component of comprehensive mental health care delivery. Historical aspects of the development of the Nurse Practitioner (NP) role are discussed, as well as issues specific to the role in psychiatric nursing. The implementation of this role at Rochester is described, followed by recommendations for studying the impact of the psychiatric NP on care delivery, including process and outcome variables.

  9. Process data: a means to measure operational performance and implement advanced analytical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Pablo; Chow, Vincent S; French, John; Puterman, Martin L; Tyldesley, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of an ambulatory clinic in which an operational review was conducted to identify opportunities for efficiency in appointment scheduling and capacity allocation. We required process data to compare that which was planned to that which actually happened and to develop advanced analytical models. Similar to other health care studies, these data proved to be limited or non-existent. Consequently we had to conduct a time-consuming collection of operational metrics. We make recommendations for the perpetual collection of process data for modeling and simulation.

  10. Advanced laboratory for testing plasma thrusters and Hall thruster measurement campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma engines are used for space propulsion as an alternative to chemical thrusters. Due to the high exhaust velocity of the propellant, they are more efficient for long-distance interplanetary space missions than their conventional counterparts. An advanced laboratory of plasma space propulsion (PlaNS at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM specializes in designing and testing various electric propulsion devices. Inside of a special vacuum chamber with three performance pumps, an environment similar to the one that prevails in space is created. An innovative Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster (LμPPT with liquid propellant was built at the laboratory. Now it is used to test the second prototype of Hall effect thruster (HET operating on krypton propellant. Meantime, an improved prototype of krypton Hall thruster is constructed.

  11. Measurement of C-reactive protein and prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentrations in differentiation of canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia/mucometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginler, S O; Ateş, A; Diren Sığırcı, B; Sontaş, B H; Sönmez, K; Karaçam, E; Ekici, H; Evkuran Dal, G; Gürel, A

    2014-08-01

    Canine pyometra is a dioestrus period disease in which systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common outcome due to the response of the body to the bacterial infection. The purpose of this study was i) to differentiate canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH)/mucometra by measuring serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM) concentrations in blood and ii) to compare serum concentrations of CRP and PGFM in bitches with a pathological uterus (pyometra or CEH/mucometra) to concentrations in bitches with a healthy uterus. Mean CRP concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in dogs with pyometra compared to those with CEH/mucometra or healthy uterus. However, no statistical difference could be detected between the groups for mean PGFM concentrations. Mean white blood cell count (WBC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein concentrations were found significantly higher (p < 0.001) in dogs with pyometra. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated microorganism from dogs with pyometra (64.3%). Edwardsiella spp. was detected in a single case of pyometra for the first time. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that serum CRP concentrations were increased in dogs with pyometra and thus we conclude that serum CRP concentration but not PGFM might be useful as a marker to differentiate a case of CEH/mucometra from pyometra in female dogs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in which Edwardsiella spp. has been isolated in the canine uterus.

  12. Development of an automated sampling-analysis system for simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gas and particle phases: GAC-ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yuanxun; Zhang, Yang; Zeng, Limin; Dong, Huabin; Huo, Peng; Fang, Dongqing; Schauer, James J.

    2016-06-01

    A novel online system, GAC-ROS, for simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both gas and particle phases was developed based on 2‧,7‧-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay to provide fast sampling and analysis of atmospheric ROS. The GAC-ROS, composed of a Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC), a series of reaction and transportation systems, and a fluorescence detector, was tested for instrumental performance in laboratory. Results showed good performance with a favorable R2 value for the calibration curve (above 0.998), high penetration efficiencies of ROS (above 99.5%), and low detection limits (gas-phase ROS: 0.16 nmol H2O2 m-3; particle-phase ROS: 0.12 nmol H2O2 m-3). Laboratorial comparison between online and offline methods for particle-bound ROS showed significant loss of ROS due to the relatively long time off-line treatment. Field observations in Beijing found that concentrations of ROS in winter time were significantly higher than those observed in spring. Only a few weak positive correlations were found between ROS and some air pollutants, which reflects the complexities of ROS generation and transformation in atmosphere. This study was the first to simultaneously obtain concentrations of gas and particle-phase ROS using an online method. Consequently, it provides a powerful tool to characterize the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and the sources of the oxidizing capacity.

  13. Advanced two-way satellite frequency transfer by carrier-phase and carrier-frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Miho; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Carrier-phase measurement is one of the ways to improve the measurement resolution of two-way satellite frequency transfer. We introduce two possible methods for carrier-phase measurement: direct carrier-phase detection identified by Two-Way Carrier-Phase (TWCP) and the use of carrier-frequency information identified by Two-Way Carrier Frequency (TWCF). We performed the former using an arbitrary waveform generator and an analog-to-digital sampler and the latter using a conventional modem. The TWCF measurement using the modem had a resolution of 10-13 and the result agreed with that obtained by GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer in a 1500 km baseline. The measurement accuracy may have been limited by the poor frequency resolution of the modem; however, the TWCF measurement was able to improve the stability of conventional two-way satellite frequency transfer. Additionally, we show that the TWCP measurement system has the potential to achieve a frequency stability of 10-17.

  14. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  15. Modification of the Sandia National Laboratories/California advanced coordinate measuring machine for high speed scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.M.; Pilkey, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Cassou, R.M.; Summerhays, K.D. [Univ. of San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    The Moore M48V high accuracy coordinate measuring machine (CMM), while mechanically capable of exact measurement of physical artifacts, is not, in its original configuration, well suited for rapid gathering of high density dimensional information. This report describes hardware and software modifications to the original control and data acquisition system that allow relatively high speed scanning of cylindrical features. We also estimate the accuracy of the individual point data on artifacts measured with this system and provide detailed descriptions of the hardware and software apparatus as an aid to others who may wish to apply the system to cylindrical or other simple geometries. 6 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Anomalously high lifetimes measured by quasi-steady-state photoconductance in advanced solar cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Mattias; Chan, Catherine; Abbott, Malcolm D.; Trupke, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance is widely used in photovoltaics industry to measure the effective minority carrier lifetime of silicon wafers, a key material parameter affecting final solar cell efficiency. When interpreting photoconductance based lifetime measurements, it is important to account for various artefacts that can cause an over-estimation of the carrier lifetime, such as minority carrier trapping. This paper provides experimental evidence for another artefact in photoconductance lifetime measurements, affecting samples that have a conductive layer that is interrupted by lines of the opposite polarity doping, forming laterally alternating regions of p/n doping. This structure often appears in the emitter region of samples used to monitor the lifetime of interdigitated back contact cells. The cause of this artefact is linked to a reduction in the measured dark conductance. Experimental data are presented that suggest this is due to the formation of a phototransistor type structure on the samples surface, resulting in variations in conductivity under different illumination levels.

  17. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 5 of 6: Phase Measurement of Galvanneal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristopher Burnett; Ronald Guel; James R. Philips; L. Lowry; Beverly Tai

    1999-05-31

    Augmentation of the internal software of a commercial X-ray fluorescence gauge is shown to enable the instrument to extend its continuous on-line real-time measurements of a galvanneal coating's total elemental content to encompass similar measurements of the relative thickness of the coating's three principal metallurgical phases. The mathematical structure of this software augmentation is derived from the theory of neural networks. The performance of the augmented gauge is validated by comparing the gauge implied real-time phase distribution with the phase distribution independently measured off-line on between the gauge and laboratory measurements and to suggest preferred approaches to be followed in future application of the augmented gauge.

  18. Recent advances in measurement and dietary mitigation of enteric methane emissions in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emission, which is mainly produced during normal fermentation of feeds by the rumen microorganisms, represents a major contributor to the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Several enteric CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored recently. A number of new techniques have also been developed and existing techniques have been improved in order to evaluate CH4 mitigation technologies and prepare an inventory of GHG emissions precisely. The aim of this review is to discuss different CH4 measuring and mitigation technologies, which have been recently developed. Respiration chamber technique is still considered as a gold standard technique due to its greater precision and reproducibility in CH4 measurements. With the adoption of recent recommendations for improving the technique, the SF6 method can be used with a high level of precision similar to the chamber technique. Short-term measurement techniques of CH4 measurements generally invite considerable within- and between animal variations. Among the short-term measuring techniques, Greenfeed and methane hood systems are likely more suitable for evaluation of CH4 mitigation studies, if measurements could be obtained at different times of the day relative to the diurnal cycle of the CH4 production. Carbon dioxide and CH4 ratio, sniffer and other short-term breath analysis techniques are more suitable for on farm screening of large number of animals to generate the data of low CH4 producing animals for genetic selection purposes. Different indirect measuring techniques are also investigated in recent years. Several new dietary CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored, but only a few of them are practical and cost-effective. Future research should be directed towards both the medium- and long-term mitigation strategies, which could be utilized on farms to accomplish substantial reductions of CH4 emissions and to profitably reduce carbon footprint of livestock production systems. This

  19. Driving Pressure Influence in Voltage Maps Measurement Process Using Advanced Pneumatic Mapping Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kukucka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper deals with the method of the voltage-impedance map measurement process as a method useful for the electric mapping of human skin. The area of research extends from the basic research to its practical application in acupuncture skin mapping and acupuncture point localization and visualization. The problem of sufficient skin coverage and electrical contact with measuring electrodes is solved by the conventional mechanical telescopic electrodes and by the pneumatic matrix electrode probe. A 2D or 3D voltage-impedance map of skin is an output of the measuring, interpretation and evaluation process. New pneumatic construction of measuring probe was implemented to achieve a better coverage of specified skin area and get a reduced force range of the touching electrodes allowing the steady contact of the skin-electrode. A skin contact is related to the driving pressure of touching electrodes. Our paper offers experimentally measured results, voltage maps of skin on specific areas, selected measured and described acupuncture points and their applications in electro-acupuncture.

  20. Measuring hemoglobin amount and oxygen saturation of skin with advancing age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Midori; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ogawa-Ochiai, Keiko; Akiba, Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    We measured the oxygen saturation of skin at various ages using our previously proposed method that can rapidly simulate skin spectral reflectance with high accuracy. Oxygen saturation is commonly measured by a pulse oximeter to evaluate oxygen delivery for monitoring the functions of heart and lungs at a specific time. On the other hand, oxygen saturation of skin is expected to assess peripheral conditions. Our previously proposed method, the optical path-length matrix method (OPLM), is based on a Monte Carlo for multi-layered media (MCML), but can simulate skin spectral reflectance 27,000 times faster than MCML. In this study, we implemented an iterative simulation of OPLM with a nonlinear optimization technique such that this method can also be used for estimating hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation from the measured skin spectral reflectance. In the experiments, the skin reflectance spectra of 72 outpatients aged between 20 and 86 years were measured by a spectrophotometer. Three points were measured for each subject: the forearm, the thenar eminence, and the intermediate phalanx. The result showed that the oxygen saturation of skin remained constant at each point as the age varied.

  1. Measure and integration an advanced course in basic procedures and applications

    CERN Document Server

    König, Heinz

    1997-01-01

    This book sets out to restructure certain fundamentals in measure and integration theory, and thus to fee the theory from some notorious drawbacks. It centers around the ubiquitous task of producing appropriate contents and measures from more primitive data, in order to extend elementary contents and to represent elementary integrals. This task has not been met with adequate unified means so far. The traditional main tools, the Carathéodory and Daniell-Stone theorems, are too restrictive and had to be supplemented by other ad-hoc procedures. Around 1970 a new approach emerged, based on the notion of regularity, which in traditional measure theory is linked to topology. The present book develops the new approach into a systematic theory. The theory unifies the entire context and is much more powerful than the former means. It has striking implications all over measure theory and beyond. Thus it extends the Riesz representation theorem in terms of Randon measures from locally compact to arbitrary Hausdorff top...

  2. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  3. High-speed 3D digital image correlation vibration measurement: Recent advancements and noted limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberniss, Timothy J.; Ehrhardt, David A.

    2017-03-01

    A review of the extensive studies on the feasibility and practicality of utilizing high-speed 3 dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for various random vibration measurement applications is presented. Demonstrated capabilities include finite element model updating utilizing full-field 3D-DIC static displacements, modal survey natural frequencies, damping, and mode shape results from 3D-DIC are baselined against laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), a comparison between foil strain gage and 3D-DIC strain, and finally the unique application to a high-speed wind tunnel fluid-structure interaction study. Results show good agreement between 3D-DIC and more traditional vibration measurement techniques. Unfortunately, 3D-DIC vibration measurement is not without its limitations, which are also identified and explored in this study. The out-of-plane sensitivity required for vibration measurement for 3D-DIC is orders of magnitude less than LDV making higher frequency displacements difficult to sense. Furthermore, the digital cameras used to capture the DIC images have no filter to eliminate temporal aliasing of the digitized signal. Ultimately DIC is demonstrated as a valid alternative means to measure structural vibrations while one unique application achieves success where more traditional methods would fail.

  4. Optical modeling and polarization calibration for CMB measurements with ACTPol and Advanced ACTPol

    CERN Document Server

    Koopman, Brian; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Coughlin, Kevin P; Duff, Shannon M; Gallardo, Patricio A; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn W; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D; Newburgh, Laura; Page, Lyman A; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Simon, Sara M; Vavagiakis, Eve M; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Located at an elevation of 5190 m, ACTPol measures the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular resolution. Calibration of the detector angles is a critical step in producing maps of the CMB polarization. Polarization angle offsets in the detector calibration can cause leakage in polarization from E to B modes and induce a spurious signal in the EB and TB cross correlations, which eliminates our ability to measure potential cosmological sources of EB and TB signals, such as cosmic birefringence. We present our optical modeling and measurements associated with calibrating the detector angles in ACTPol.

  5. ADVANCED 3D LASER MICROSCOPY FOR MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS OF VITRIFIED BONDED ABRASIVE TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WOJCIECH KAPLONEK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, when a precise non-contact assessment of an abrasive tools’ surface is required, alternative measurement methods are often used. Their use offers numerous advantages (referential method as they introduce new qualities into routinely realized measurements. Over the past few years there has been a dynamic increase in the interest for using new types of classical confocal microscopy. These new types are often defined as 3D laser microscopy. This paper presents select aspects of one such method’s application – confocal laser scanning microscopy – for diagnostic analysis of abrasive tools. In addition this paper also looks at the basis for operation, the origins and the development of this measurement technique.The experimental part of this paper presents the select results of tests carried out on grinding wheel active surfaces with sintered microcrystalline corundum grains SG™ bound with glass-crystalline bond. The 3D laser measuring microscopes LEXT OLS3100 and LEXT OLS4000 by Olympus were used in the experiments. Analysis of the obtained measurement data was carried out in dedicated OLS 5.0.9 and OLS4100 2.1 programs, supported by specialist TalyMap Platinum 5.0 software. The realized experiments confirmed the possibility of using the offered measurement method. This concerns both the assessment of grinding wheel active surfaces and their defects, as well as the internal structures of the tools (grain-bond connections. The method presented is an interesting alternative to the typical methods used in the diagnostics of abrasive tools.

  6. Audio-band Coating Thermal Noise Measurement for Advanced LIGO with a Multi-mode Optical Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Gras, S; Yam, W; Martynov, D; Evans, M

    2016-01-01

    In modern high precision optical instruments, such as in gravitational wave detectors or frequency references, thermally induced fluctuations in the reflective coatings can be a limiting noise source. This noise, known as coating thermal noise, can be reduced by choosing materials with low mechanical loss. Examination of new materials becomes a necessity in order to further minimize the coating thermal noise and thus improve sensitivity of next generation instruments. We present a novel approach to directly measure coating thermal noise using a high finesse folded cavity in which multiple Hermite-Gaussian modes co-resonate. This method is used to probe surface fluctuations on the order 10^-17 m\\rtHz in the frequency range 30-400 Hz. We applied this technique to measure thermal noise and loss angle of the coating used in Advanced LIGO.

  7. Quantitation of oxidized triglyceride monomers and dimers as an useful measurement for early and advanced stages of oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, G.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitation of oxidized triglyceride monomers and dimers is reported as a good measurement for early and advanced stages of oxidation. Applicability of this approach to follow-up oxidation was tested in samples of trilinolein and methyl linoleate stored at either room temperature or 60°C for different periods of time. Oxidized monomers, dimers and polymers were determined in 50 mg-samples by adding monostearin as internal standard and applying a combination of adsorption chromatography, using silica cartridges, followed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Additionally, peroxide values and tocopherol contents were measured. Results showed that a significant rise of dimeric compounds denoted the end of the induction period while oxidized monomers were the only group of compounds showing a progressive increase during the early stages of oxidation.

  8. Assessment of recent advances in measurement techniques for atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Christoph; Emmenegger, Lukas; Firdaus, Mohd; Hatakka, Juha; Heimann, Martin; Kozlova, Elena; Spain, T. Gerard; Steinbacher, Martin; van der Schoot, Marcel V.; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    Until recently, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements were made almost exclusively using nondispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption and gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) techniques, respectively. Recently, commercially available instruments based on spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have become more widely available and affordable. This resulted in a widespread use of these techniques at many measurement stations. This paper is focused on the comparison between a CRDS "travelling instrument" that has been used during performance audits within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with instruments incorporating other, more traditional techniques for measuring CO2 and CH4 (NDIR and GC/FID). We demonstrate that CRDS instruments and likely other spectroscopic techniques are suitable for WMO/GAW stations and allow a smooth continuation of historic CO2 and CH4 time series. Moreover, the analysis of the audit results indicates that the spectroscopic techniques have a number of advantages over the traditional methods which will lead to the improved accuracy of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements.

  9. Review on an Advanced High-Temperature Measurement Technology: The Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber thermometry technology for high-temperature measurement is briefly reviewed in this paper. The principles, characteristics, recent progresses and advantages of the technology are described. Examples of using the technology are introduced. Many blackbody, infrared, and fluorescence optical thermometers are developed for practical applications.

  10. Recent Advances in the Tempest UAS for In-Situ Measurements in Highly-Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argrow, B. M.; Frew, E.; Houston, A. L.; Weiss, C.

    2014-12-01

    The spring 2010 deployment of the Tempest UAS during the VORTEX2 field campaign verified that a small UAS, supported by a customized mobile communications, command, and control (C3) architecture, could simultaneously satisfy Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airspace requirements, and make in-situ thermodynamic measurements in supercell thunderstorms. A multi-hole airdata probe was recently integrated into the Tempest UAS airframe and verification flights were made in spring 2013 to collect in-situ wind measurements behind gust fronts produced by supercell thunderstorms in northeast Colorado. Using instantaneous aircraft attitude estimates from the autopilot, the in-situ measurements were converted to inertial wind estimates, and estimates of uncertainty in the wind measurements was examined. To date, the limited deployments of the Tempest UAS have primarily focused on addressing the engineering and regulatory requirements to conduct supercell research, and the Tempest UAS team of engineers and meteorologists is preparing for deployments with the focus on collecting targeted data for meteorological exploration and hypothesis testing. We describe the recent expansion of the operations area and altitude ceiling of the Tempest UAS, engineering issues for accurate inertial wind estimates, new concepts of operation that include the simultaneous deployment of multiple aircraft with mobile ground stations, and a brief description of our current effort to develop a capability for the Tempest UAS to perform autonomous path planning to maximize energy harvesting from the local wind field for increased endurance.

  11. Measuring intermediate mass black hole binaries with advanced gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Veitch, John; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms (SEOBNR) to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50 and 500 $M_\\odot$ and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ~200 $M_\\odot$, where the signal-to-noise-ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; (iv) sp...

  12. Comparing three different approaches to the measurement of needs concerning fatigue in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    -sectional nationwide survey, patients were asked about their needs concerning fatigue in three different ways: Fatigue intensity was measured with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire, fatigue burden (the extent fatigue was a problem) and fatigue felt need...

  13. Recent advances in outcome measures in IgM-anti-MAG+ neuropathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruppers, Mariëlle H J; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Notermans, Nicolette C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide an overview of all randomized trials performed in IgM Anti-Myelin Associated Glycoprotein related peripheral neuropathy (MGUSP) with emphasis on the applied outcome measures including the rationale for their choice and possible limitations, emphasizing

  14. Practical Intelligence and Tacit Knowledge: Advancements in the Measurement of Developing Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Anna T.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Gil, Guillermo; Drebot, Michael E.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Practical intelligence as measured by tacit-knowledge inventories generally has shown a weak relation to other intelligence constructs. However, the use of assessments capturing specialized, job-related knowledge may obscure the generality of practical intelligence and its relation to general intelligence. This article presents three studies in…

  15. Neutron flux measurements in the side-core region of Hunterston B advanced gas-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.A. [Serco, Rutherford House, Quedgeley, Gloucester, GL2 4NF (United Kingdom); Shaw, S.E. [British Energy, Barnett Way, Barnwood, Gloucester, GL4 3RS (United Kingdom); Huggon, A.P.; Steadman, R.J.; Thornton, D.A. [Serco, Rutherford House, Quedgeley, Gloucester, GL2 4NF (United Kingdom); Whiley, G.S. [British Energy, Barnett Way, Barnwood, Gloucester, GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The core restraints of advanced gas-cooled reactors are important structural components that are required to maintain the geometric integrity of the cores. A review of neutron dosimetry for the sister stations Hunterston B and Hinkley Point B identified that earlier conservative assessments predicted high thermal neutron dose rates to key components of the restraint structure (the restraint rod welds), with the implication that some of them may be predicted to fail during a seismic event. A revised assessment was therefore undertaken [Thornton, D. A., Allen, D. A., Tyrrell, R. J., Meese, T. C., Huggon, A.P., Whiley, G. S., and Mossop, J. R., 'A Dosimetry Assessment for the Core Restraint of an Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor,' Proceedings of the 13. International Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry (ISRD-13, May 2008), World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, 2009, W. Voorbraak, L. Debarberis, and P. D'hondt, Eds., pp. 679-687] using a detailed 3D model and a Monte Carlo radiation transport program, MCBEND. This reassessment resulted in more realistic fast and thermal neutron dose recommendations, the latter in particular being much lower than had been thought previously. It is now desirable to improve confidence in these predictions by providing direct validation of the MCBEND model through the use of neutron flux measurements. This paper describes the programme of work being undertaken to deploy two neutron flux measurement 'stringers' within the side-core region of one of the Hunterston B reactors for the purpose of validating the MCBEND model. The design of the stringers and the determination of the preferred deployment locations have been informed by the use of detailed MCBEND flux calculations. These computational studies represent a rare opportunity to design a flux measurement beforehand, with the clear intention of minimising the anticipated uncertainties and obtaining measurements that are known to be representative of the neutron fields to which

  16. A New Method for Reactive Power Measurement of Single Phase Circuit Based on Adaptive Notch Filter%基于自适应陷波器单相电路无功功率测量新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷桂梁; 郭磊; 李相男

    2013-01-01

      传统的根据无功功率的定义来计算无功功率的方法难以满足动态无功补偿控制系统中快速响应的要求。提出了基于自适应陷波器的单相电路的无功功率检测新方法。该方法采用自适应陷波器提取出单相电压、电流及它们的90°相位变换值,然后通过单相瞬时无功功率理论计算无功功率。仿真结果表明,在幅值稳定的情况下,该方法能够以较小的误差检测出无功功率;在幅值突变和线性变化的情况下,能够根据电压变化快速追踪无功功率的变化。%The reactive power calculation method with the traditional definition is difficult to meet the rapid response of the dynamic reactive power compensation system controller. A new method for reactive power measurement of single phase circuit based on ANF (adaptive notch filter) is proposed in this paper. Achieving the single-phase voltage and current and its 90-degree phase shift value by ANF, the method calculates reactive power according to the single-phase instantaneous power theory. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is able to measure the reactive power with less error when the voltage amplitude is steady, and track the variation of the reactive power rapidly while the voltage amplitude is changing suddenly or linearity.

  17. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-02

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater.

  18. 分离、富集液相中金离子的反应型材料%Advance of Reactive Material for the Separation and Enrichment of Au Ion in the Liquid Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵可江; 赵亮; 王新军

    2007-01-01

      本文介绍了近些年来国内外以化学吸附纤维(离子交换和螯合纤维)、活性炭纤维和树脂等有机功能材料为基础研究开发分离、富集液相中金离子(Au3+和Au+)的研究进展,其中包括含N、O、S等各种官能团有机功能纤维和树脂、活性炭纤维对液相中金离子吸附的实验理论研究、预富集分析测试和实际湿法冶金中的应用,对于不同吸附材料对金离子的吸附行为、吸附机理、影响因素等进行了初步探讨。指出了反应型材料的优势和目前所存在的问题,对其应用前景作了适当展望。%  It is introduced in this article the advance of the separation and enrichment of Au ion(Au+,Au3+) from liquid phase on the basis of reactive material(chemical adsorptive fiber(ion exchange and chelating fiber),active carbon fiber(ACF),resin et al) in China and abroad in recent years,which includes the experimental theoretical research,pre-enrichment analytical test and application in hydrometallagy by organic functional fiber and resin with functional groups containing N,O,S atom,ACF.As for different adsorbents,it simply discusses the gold adsorption performance,adsorption mechanism,affecting factor.Last it points out the advantages and the defects of the reactive material,and properly forcasts its application prospects.

  19. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would

  20. Advanced Measurements of the Aggregation Capability of the MPT Network Layer Multipath Communication Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lencse

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The MPT network layer multipath communicationlibrary is a novel solution for several problems including IPv6transition, reliable data transmission using TCP, real-time transmissionusing UDP and also wireless network layer routingproblems. MPT can provide an IPv4 or an IPv6 tunnel overone or more IPv4 or IPv6 communication channels. MPT canalso aggregate the capacity of multiple physical channels. In thispaper, the channel aggregation capability of the MPT libraryis measured up to twelve 100Mbps speed channels. Differentscenarios are used: both IPv4 and IPv6 are used as the underlyingand also as the encapsulated protocols and also both UDP andTCP are used as transport protocols. In addition, measurementsare taken with both 32-bit and 64-bit version of the MPT library.In all cases, the number of the physical channels is increased from1 to 12 and the aggregated throughput is measured.

  1. Rapid Measurements of Intensities for Safety Assessment of Advanced Imaging Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2014-01-01

    faster (minutes rather than hours) and the nal intensity level calculation can be made generic and reused for any kind of scan sequence by just knowing the number of imaging lines and the pulse repetition time. The scheme has been implemented on the Acoustic Intensity Measurement System AIMS III (Onda......, Sunnyvale, California, USA). The research scanner SARUS is used for the experiments, where one of the channels is used for the hydrophone signal. A 3 MHz BK 8820e (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) convex array with 192 elements is used along with an Onda HFL-0400 hydrophone connected to a AH-2010 pre......-amplier (Onda Corporation, Sunnyvale, USA). A single emission sequence is employed for testing and calibrating the approach. The measurements using the AIMS III and SARUS systems after calibration agree within a relative standard deviation of 0.24%. A duplex B-mode and ow sequence is also investigated...

  2. Measurements on semiconductor and scintillator detectors at the Advanced Light Source (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Cui, Yonggang; Gul, Rubi; Hossain, Anwar; Roy, Utpal N.; Yang, Ge; James, Ralph B.; Vanier, Peter E.

    2016-09-01

    During the transition period between closure of Beamline X27B at BNL's NSLS and the opening of Beamline MID at NSLS-II, we began operation of LBNL's ALS Beamline 3.3.2 to carry out our radiation detection materials RD. Measurements performed at this Beamline include, X-ray Detector Response Mapping and White Beam X-ray Diffraction Topography (WBXDT), among others. We will introduce the capabilities of the Beamline and present the most recent results obtained on CdZnTe and scintillators. The goal of the studies on CdZnTe is to understand the origin and effects of subgrain boundaries and help to visualize the presence of a higher concentration of impurities, which might be responsible for the deterioration of the energy resolution and response uniformity in the vicinity of the sub-grain boundaries. The results obtained in the second year of measurements will be presented.

  3. Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PNNL

    2016-02-21

    This document provides a framework for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings, performance, and user satisfaction from lighting retrofit projects involving occupancy-sensor-based, daylighting, and/or other types of automatic lighting. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for retrofit projects and to assist in developing specific project M&V plans.

  4. Comparison of advanced Arctic Ocean model sea ice fields to satellite derived measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Numerical models have proven integral to the study of climate dynamics. Sea ice models are critical to the improvement of general circulation models used to study the global climate. The object of this study is to evaluate a high resolution ice-ocean coupled model by comparing it to derived measurements from SMMR and SSM/I satellite observations. Utilized for this study was the NASA Goddard Space Flight (GSFC) Sea Ice Concentration Dat...

  5. Advances in Fast-response Acoustically Derived Air-temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoev, I.; Jacobsen, L.; Horst, T. W.; Conrad, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity.The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  6. Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    NFDRS National Fire Danger Rating System NH3 Ammonia NIFC National Interagency Fire Center NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health...amounts of many other compounds such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), and a multitude...of-the-art instrumentation. The data from these controlled laboratory burns were ultimately synthesized with data from actual field measurements

  7. Advancing the country image construct from a public relations perspective: from model to measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Buhmann, Alexander; Ingenhoff, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a new model for the measurement of the constitution and effects of the country image as a central target construct in international public relations. Design/methodology/approach – The authors combine concepts from reputation management (Eisenegger and Imhof, 2008; Ingenhoff and Sommer, 2007), national identity theory (Smith, 1987), and attitude theory (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) to derive a four-dimensional model, conceptualizing count...

  8. Advancing viral RNA structure prediction: measuring the thermodynamics of pyrimidine-rich internal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Andy; Mailey, Katherine; Sakai, Jessica; Gu, Xiaobo; Schroeder, Susan J

    2017-02-17

    Accurate thermodynamic parameters improve RNA structure predictions and thus accelerate understanding of RNA function and the identification of RNA drug binding sites. Many viral RNA structures, such as internal ribosome entry sites, have internal loops and bulges that are potential drug target sites. Current models used to predict internal loops are biased towards small, symmetric purine loops, and thus poorly predict asymmetric, pyrimidine-rich loops with more than 6 nucleotides that occur frequently in viral RNA. This paper presents new thermodynamic data for 40 pyrimidine loops, many of which can form UU or protonated CC base pairs. Protonated cytosine and uracil base pairs stabilize asymmetric internal loops. Accurate prediction rules are presented that account for all thermodynamic measurements of RNA asymmetric internal loops. New loop initiation terms for loops with more than 6 nucleotides are presented that do not follow previous assumptions that increasing asymmetry destabilizes loops. Since the last 2004 update, 126 new loops with asymmetry or sizes greater than 2x2 have been measured (Mathews 2004). These new measurements significantly deepen and diversify the thermodynamic database for RNA. These results will help better predict internal loops that are larger, pyrimidine-rich, and occur within viral structures such as internal ribosome entry sites.

  9. Advances in Mineral Dust Source Composition Measurement with Imaging Spectroscopy at the Salton Sea, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. O.; Realmuto, V. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Mahowald, N. M.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Okin, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust emitted from the Earth's surface is a principal contributor to direct radiative forcing over the arid regions, where shifts in climate have a significant impact on agriculture, precipitation, and desert encroachment around the globe. Dust particles contribute to both positive and negative forcing, depending on the composition of the particles. Particle composition is a function of the surface mineralogy of dust source regions, but poor knowledge of surface mineralogy on regional to global scales limits the skill of Earth System models to predict shifts in regional climate around the globe. Earth System models include the source, emission, transport and deposition phases of the dust cycle. In addition to direct radiative forcing contributions, mineral dust impacts include indirect radiative forcing, modification of the albedo and melting rates of snow and ice, kinetics of tropospheric photochemistry, formation and deposition of acidic aerosols, supply of nutrients to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and impact on human health and safety. We demonstrate the ability to map mineral dust source composition in the Salton Sea dust source region with imaging spectroscopy measurements acquired as part of the NASA HyspIRI preparatory airborne campaign. These new spectroscopically derived compositional measurements provide a six orders of magnitude improvement over current atlases for this dust source region and provide a pathfinder example for a remote measurement approach to address this critical dust composition gap for global Earth System models.

  10. Advanced Experimental Methods for Low-temperature Magnetotransport Measurement of Novel Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Joseph A; Le, Son T; Richter, Curt A; Seiler, David G

    2016-01-21

    Novel electronic materials are often produced for the first time by synthesis processes that yield bulk crystals (in contrast to single crystal thin film synthesis) for the purpose of exploratory materials research. Certain materials pose a challenge wherein the traditional bulk Hall bar device fabrication method is insufficient to produce a measureable device for sample transport measurement, principally because the single crystal size is too small to attach wire leads to the sample in a Hall bar configuration. This can be, for example, because the first batch of a new material synthesized yields very small single crystals or because flakes of samples of one to very few monolayers are desired. In order to enable rapid characterization of materials that may be carried out in parallel with improvements to their growth methodology, a method of device fabrication for very small samples has been devised to permit the characterization of novel materials as soon as a preliminary batch has been produced. A slight variation of this methodology is applicable to producing devices using exfoliated samples of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), as well as multilayer heterostructures of such materials. Here we present detailed protocols for the experimental device fabrication of fragments and flakes of novel materials with micron-sized dimensions onto substrate and subsequent measurement in a commercial superconducting magnet, dry helium close-cycle cryostat magnetotransport system at temperatures down to 0.300 K and magnetic fields up to 12 T.

  11. Advanced Optical Diagnostics for Ice Crystal Cloud Measurements in the NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy J.; Fagan, Amy; Van Zante, Judith F.; Kirkegaard, Jonathan P.; Rohler, David P.; Maniyedath, Arjun; Izen, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    A light extinction tomography technique has been developed to monitor ice water clouds upstream of a direct connected engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The system consists of 60 laser diodes with sheet generating optics and 120 detectors mounted around a 36-inch diameter ring. The sources are pulsed sequentially while the detectors acquire line-of-sight extinction data for each laser pulse. Using computed tomography algorithms, the extinction data are analyzed to produce a plot of the relative water content in the measurement plane. To target the low-spatial-frequency nature of ice water clouds, unique tomography algorithms were developed using filtered back-projection methods and direct inversion methods that use Gaussian basis functions. With the availability of a priori knowledge of the mean droplet size and the total water content at some point in the measurement plane, the tomography system can provide near real-time in-situ quantitative full-field total water content data at a measurement plane approximately 5 feet upstream of the engine inlet. Results from ice crystal clouds in the PSL are presented. In addition to the optical tomography technique, laser sheet imaging has also been applied in the PSL to provide planar ice cloud uniformity and relative water content data during facility calibration before the tomography system was available and also as validation data for the tomography system. A comparison between the laser sheet system and light extinction tomography resulting data are also presented. Very good agreement of imaged intensity and water content is demonstrated for both techniques. Also, comparative studies between the two techniques show excellent agreement in calculation of bulk total water content averaged over the center of the pipe.

  12. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  13. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions—From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Ip, Ezra; Pan, Zhongqi; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) using few-mode fibers (FMF) and the multicore fiber (MCF) based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF) and photonic crystal fibers (PCF) have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of SDM

  14. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions—From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Weng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA using few-mode fibers (FMF and the multicore fiber (MCF based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF and photonic crystal fibers (PCF have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of

  15. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions-From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Ip, Ezra; Pan, Zhongqi; Wang, Ting

    2016-08-30

    The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) using few-mode fibers (FMF) and the multicore fiber (MCF) based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF) and photonic crystal fibers (PCF) have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of SDM

  16. Advanced power cycling test for power module with on-line on-state VCE measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-min; Trintis, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    module. The proposed concept can perform various stress conditions which is valid in a real mission profile and it is using a real power converter application with small loss. The concept of the proposed test setup is first presented. Then, the on-line on-state collector-emitter voltage VCE measurement......Recent research has made an effort to improve the reliability of power electronic systems to comply with more stringent constraints on cost, safety, predicted lifetime and availability in many applications. For this, studies about failure mechanisms of power electronic components and lifetime...

  17. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-12-12

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.

  18. New approach for measuring 3D space by using Advanced SURF Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youm, Minkyo; Min, Byungil; Suh, Kyungsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Backgeun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The nuclear disasters compared to natural disaster create a more extreme condition for analyzing and evaluating. In this paper, measuring 3D space and modeling was studied by simple pictures in case of small sand dune. The suggested method can be used for the acquisition of spatial information by robot at the disaster area. As a result, these data are helpful for identify the damaged part, degree of damage and determination of recovery sequences. In this study we are improving computer vision algorithm for 3-D geo spatial information measurement. And confirm by test. First, we can get noticeable improvement of 3-D geo spatial information result by SURF algorithm and photogrammetry surveying. Second, we can confirm not only decrease algorithm running time, but also increase matching points through epi polar line filtering. From the study, we are extracting 3-D model by open source algorithm and delete miss match point by filtering method. However on characteristic of SURF algorithm, it can't find match point if structure don't have strong feature. So we will need more study about find feature point if structure don't have strong feature.

  19. Measurement of fission cross-section of actinides at n_TOF for advanced nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, Marco; Montagnoli, G; Mastinu, P

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the determination of high accuracy neutron-induced fission cross-sections of various isotopes - all of which radioactive - of interest for emerging nuclear technologies. The measurements had been performed at the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility n TOF. In particular, in this work, fission cross-sections on 233U, the main fissile isotope of the Th/U fuel cycle, and on the minor actinides 241Am, 243Am and 245Cm have been analyzed. Data on these isotopes are requested for the feasibility study of innovative nuclear systems (ADS and Generation IV reactors) currently being considered for energy production and radioactive waste transmutation. The measurements have been performed with a high performance Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), in conjunction with an innovative data acquisition system based on Flash-ADCs. The first step in the analysis has been the reconstruction of the digitized signals, in order to extract the information required for the discrimination between fission fragm...

  20. Advances on the Measure of Judgment and Meaning of the Product for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Alfinito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was the development a measure of judgment and meaning of the product valid for Brazilian consumers. It consisted in a two-stage study including both qualitative and quantitative approaches. In the qualitative stage, focus groups with 16 Brazilian participants allowed the generation of 40 items for a new scale of judgment and meaning of the product. After semantic validation and expert analysis, the found items composed a questionnaire administered to 684 participants in a paper-and-pencil survey. Results suggest that the items performed considerably better when compared to the previous version, indicating their potential of usage not only in Brazil, but also in other countries. The final measure remained with 20 items that were distributed in four factors, as pointed by the literature review. Two factors are related to judgment types (piecemeal and affective, whilst the other two are related to meaning types (utilitarian and symbolic. Additional results, as expected, showed that product's utilitarian meaning is positively correlated to a piecemeal judgment, whereas symbolic meaning is positively related to affective judgment. Managerial implications for marketing, and future research directions are proposed.

  1. Recent Advances in Highly Accurate Range Measurements with TerraSAR-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eineder, Michael; Balss, Ulrich; Gisinger, Christoph; Cong, Xiao Ying; Brcic, Ramon; Steigenberger, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Earth surface displacement measurement from space using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery is an interesting alternative to SAR interferometry (InSAR). The advantages are that 2D information can be retrieved (InSAR only 1D), absolute displacements can be retrieved (no reference point required) and it is very robust (phase unwrapping not required). On the other hand, the accuracy is limited by the pixel resolution, the object contrast, the orbit accuracy, by wave propagation distortion and by geodetic effects. Therefore the accuracy was more in the meter / decimeter level in the past, compared to millimeter accuracy of InSAR. During the recent years our team established a test and validation site at the geodetic observatory Wettzell, Germany and developed compensation methods to reduce the overall error of absolute range measurements from decimeters to only one centimeter. The methods include correction of dry and wet atmospheric delays, ionospheric corrections, solid earth tides, continental drift, atmospheric pressure loading and ocean tidal loading. For more one year a radar reflector was monitored and each image evaluated. Our presentation gives and overview of methods and achieved results. Futhermore, examples of real world applications and an outlook on more applications is given such as phase unwrapping augmentation.

  2. Advanced Receiver Design for Mitigating Multiple RF Impairments in OFDM Systems: Algorithms and RF Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Kiayani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct-conversion architecture-based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems are troubled by impairments such as in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q imbalance and carrier frequency offset (CFO. These impairments are unavoidable in any practical implementation and severely degrade the obtainable link performance. In this contribution, we study the joint impact of frequency-selective I/Q imbalance at both transmitter and receiver together with channel distortions and CFO error. Two estimation and compensation structures based on different pilot patterns are proposed for coping with such impairments. The first structure is based on preamble pilot pattern while the second one assumes a sparse pilot pattern. The proposed estimation/compensation structures are able to separate the individual impairments, which are then compensated in the reverse order of their appearance at the receiver. We present time-domain estimation and compensation algorithms for receiver I/Q imbalance and CFO and propose low-complexity algorithms for the compensation of channel distortions and transmitter IQ imbalance. The performance of the compensation algorithms is investigated with computer simulations as well as with practical radio frequency (RF measurements. The performance results indicate that the proposed techniques provide close to the ideal performance both in simulations and measurements.

  3. Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 1. Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Buscombe,; Rubin, David M.

    2012-01-01

    1. In this, the first of a pair of papers which address the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted natural granular material, a method is presented for simulation of two-phase (solid, void) assemblages of discrete non-cohesive particles. The purpose is to have a flexible, yet computationally and theoretically simple, suite of tools with well constrained and well known statistical properties, in order to simulate realistic granular material as a discrete element model with realistic size and shape distributions, for a variety of purposes. The stochastic modeling framework is based on three-dimensional tessellations with variable degrees of order in particle-packing arrangement. Examples of sediments with a variety of particle size distributions and spatial variability in grain size are presented. The relationship between particle shape and porosity conforms to published data. The immediate application is testing new algorithms for automated measurements of particle properties (mean and standard deviation of particle sizes, and apparent porosity) from images of natural sediment, as detailed in the second of this pair of papers. The model could also prove useful for simulating specific depositional structures found in natural sediments, the result of physical alterations to packing and grain fabric, using discrete particle flow models. While the principal focus here is on naturally occurring sediment and sedimentary rock, the methods presented might also be useful for simulations of similar granular or cellular material encountered in engineering, industrial and life sciences.

  4. New advanced electrochemical techniques for on site measurements of reinforcement corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade, C.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement techniques of reinforcement corrosion are scarcely researched if compared with the increasing number of publications in the subject. However, numerous possibilities and challenges remain without being explored. In present paper mention is made to some of the present possibilities of electrochemical techniques, either on-site or in the laboratory. Concerning on-site techniques it is commented the possibilities and limitations of present methods of measuring Polarization Resistance, Rp. Particular attention is given to the need to use a modulated guardring with sensors controlling this modulation to obtain accurate values of the corrosion rate. After, description of the basis of new techniques related to the measurements of the passivation state in cathodically protected structures, is made. The basis of a new method of measuring corrosion without the need to touch the metal is also presented. Regarding the use of embedded sensors, the experience until now shows the difficulty of interpretation of the data collected, due to the important influence of ambient temperature. Finally, some comments are presented on the need of joint work of material and structural specialists.

    Las técnicas de medida de la corrosión en hormigón armado se investigan muy poco en comparación con el creciente número de publicaciones sobre este tema. Sin embargo, existen muchas posibilidades y retos que todavía no han sido exploradas. En el presente artículo se descubren algunas de las presentes posibilidades de las técnicas electroquímicas, tanto in-situ como en laboratorio. En cuanto a las técnicas in situ se refiere, se comentan las posibilidades y limitaciones de los métodos actuales de medida de la Resistencia de Polarización, Rp. Se presta particular atención ante la necesidad de utilizar un anillo de guarda modulado con sensores que controlen esta modulación para obtener valores adecuados de velocidad de corrosión. Después se

  5. Advanced sine wave modulation of continuous wave laser system for atmospheric CO2 differential absorption measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Joel F; Nehrir, Amin R

    2014-01-01

    A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate online and offline wavelength transmitted and received channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit optimal autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit with zero off mainlobe values to within numerical precision. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not significantly degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  6. Application of advanced computing techniques to the analysis and display of space science measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpar, D.M.; Lapolla, M.V.; Horblit, B.

    1995-01-01

    A prototype system has been developed to aid the experimental space scientist in the display and analysis of spaceborne data acquired from direct measurement sensors in orbit. The authors explored the implementation of a rule-based environment for semi-automatic generation of visualizations that assist the domain scientist in exploring one`s data. The goal has been to enable rapid generation of visualizations which enhance the scientist`s ability to thoroughly mine his data. Transferring the task of visualization generation from the human programmer to the computer produced a rapid prototyping environment for visualizations. The visualization and analysis environment has been tested against a set of data obtained from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on the AMPTE/CCE satellite creating new visualizations which provided new insight into the data.

  7. Application of advanced computing techniques to the analysis and display of space science measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Lapolla, M. V.; Horblit, B.

    1995-01-01

    A prototype system has been developed to aid the experimental space scientist in the display and analysis of spaceborne data acquired from direct measurement sensors in orbit. We explored the implementation of a rule-based environment for semi-automatic generation of visualizations that assist the domain scientist in exploring one's data. The goal has been to enable rapid generation of visualizations which enhance the scientist's ability to thoroughly mine his data. Transferring the task of visualization generation from the human programmer to the computer produced a rapid prototyping environment for visualizations. The visualization and analysis environment has been tested against a set of data obtained from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on the AMPTE/CCE satellite creating new visualizations which provided new insight into the data.

  8. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G. N.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  9. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    cultivation data, such as the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Prediction models for the biomass concentrations were estimated on the basis of the individual sensors and on combinations of the sensors. The results showed that the more advanced sensors based on MWF......The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass...... is one of the best examples. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the performance of various online biomass sensors, and secondly to demonstrate their use in early development of a filamentous cultivation process. Eight Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations were run as part...

  10. Design and characterization of a 32-channel heterodyne radiometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y., E-mail: liuyong@ipp.ac.cn; Li, E. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Gao, X. [Institution of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer has been developed for the measurement of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). This system collects X-mode ECE radiation spanning a frequency range of 104–168 GHz, where the frequency coverage corresponds to a full radial coverage for the case with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.3 T. The frequency range is equally spaced every 2 GHz from 105.1 to 167.1 GHz with an RF bandwidth of ∼500 MHz and the video bandwidth can be switched among 50, 100, 200, and 400 kHz. Design objectives and characterization of the system are presented in this paper. Preliminary results for plasma operation are also presented.

  11. Heat transfer measurements in fully turbulent flows: basic investigations with an advanced thin foil triple sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocikat, H.; Herwig, H.

    2008-07-01

    In a former article in this journal a double layer hot film with two 10 μm nickel foils, separated by a 25 μm polyimide foil was introduced as a multi-purpose sensor. Each foil can be operated as a (calibrated) temperature sensor in its passive mode by imposing an electric current small enough to avoid heating by dissipation of electrical energy. Alternatively, however, each foil can also serve as a heater in an active mode with electric currents high enough to cause Joule heating. This double foil sensor can be used as a conventional heat flux sensor in its passive mode when mounted on an externally heated surface. In fully turbulent flows it alternatively can be operated in an active mode on a cold, i.e. not externally heated surface. Then, by heating the upper foil, a local heat transfer is initiated from which the local heat transfer coefficient h can be determined, once the lower foil is heated to the same temperature as the upper one, thus acting as a counter-heater. For further investigations with respect to the underlying sensor concept a triple sensor has been built which consists of three double layer film sensors very close to each other. Various aspects of heat transfer measurements in active modes can be addressed by this sensor.

  12. Advances in quality control for dioxins monitoring and evaluation of measurement uncertainty from quality control data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes an application of multivariate and multilevel quality control charts with the aim of improving the internal quality control (IQC) procedures for the monitoring of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs analysis in food. Dioxin analysts have to use the toxic equivalent concept (TEQ) to assess the toxicity potential of a mixture of dioxin-like compounds. The TEQ approach requires quantifying individually 29 dioxin-like compounds. Monitoring the congeners separately on univariate QC charts is misleading owing to the increase of false alarm rate. We propose to subdivide the TEQ value into 3 sub-groups and to control simultaneously the 3 variables in a T(2) chart. When a T(2) exceeds the upper control limit, it acts as a warning to trigger additional investigations on individual congeners. We discuss the minimum number of runs required to reliably estimate the QC chart parameters and we suggest using data from multilevel QC charts to properly characterize the standard deviations and the correlation coefficients. Moreover, the univariate QC chart can be sensitised to detect systematic errors by using exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) technique. The EWMA chart provides an additional guidance on setting appropriate criteria to control the method bias and to support trend analysis. Finally, we present an estimate of measurement uncertainty by computing the accuracy profile in a retrospective way with the QC data generated and we discuss assessment of compliance with regulatory maximum levels.

  13. Advances in sport concussion assessment: from behavioral to brain imaging measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemberg, Dave; Henry, Luke C; Macciocchi, Steve N; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Broglio, Steven P

    2009-12-01

    Given that the incidence of sports-related concussion is considered to have reached epidemic proportions, in the past 15 years we have witnessed an explosion of research in this field. The purpose of the current review is to compare the results provided by the different assessment tools used in the scientific literature in order to gain a better understanding of the sequelae and recovery following a concussion. Until recently, the bulk of the has literature focused on the immediate outcome in the hours and days post-injury as a means to plan the safest return-to-play strategy. This has led to the development of several assessment batteries that are relatively easy and rapid to administer and that allow for multiple testing sessions. The main conclusion derived from that literature is that cognitive symptoms tend to resolve within 1 week. However, accumulating evidence indicates that cognitive testing should be viewed as one of several complementary tools necessary for a comprehensive assessment of concussion. Including an objective measure of postural stability increases the sensitivity of the return-to-play decision-making process and minimizes the consequences of mitigating factors (e.g., practice effects and motivation) on neuropsychological test results. This is consistent with findings that symptom severity, neuropsychological function, and postural stability do not appear to be related or affected to the same degree after a concussion. Furthermore, recent evidence from brain imaging, including event-related potentials and functional and metabolic imaging, suggest abnormalities in the electrical responses, metabolic balance, and oxygen consumption of neurons that persist several months after the incident. We explain this apparent discrepancy in recovery by suggesting an initial and rapid phase of functional recovery driven by compensatory mechanisms and brain plasticity, which is followed by a prolonged neuronal recovery period during which subtle deficits in

  14. Recent Advances in Deep-Sea in situ Geochemical Measurements by ROV Deployed Laser Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Henthorn, R.; Hester, K. C.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Rosal, J.; Salamy, K. A.; Scholfield, J.; Shane, F. F.; Sherman, A. D.; Walz, P. M.; Brewer, P. G.

    2007-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a valuable analytical technique for making in situ geochemical measurements. It is applicable to liquids, solids and gases; requires little or no sample preparation; and is rapid with typical analysis times of several minutes or less. These features combine to make it an ideal technique for deployment and use on remotely operated vehicles in a variety of applications. We report results from our second generation laser Raman spectrometer (DORISS2), developed in conjunction with Kaiser Optical Systems, Inc., which is both lighter and more robust than the original design. Packaged within a single titanium pressure housing rated to 4000m, DORISS2 has a floating optical bench which minimizes misalignments and preserves instrument calibration both during and between dives. The pressure compensated fiber optic cables have improved signal strength from 8% to 88% at 1024 m greatly reducing the time required to acquire a sample spectrum and allowing the detection of lower concentrations of trace components. Development of the precision underwater positioner (PUP) has enabled the spectroscopic analysis of opaque targets where a focusing precision of +/- 0.1 mm is required. This has allowed us to investigate the composition of authigenic minerals (such as hydrothermal vent precipitates) and gas hydrates in their native and undisturbed condition, such as the massive outcrops on the seafloor at Barkley Canyon, or to inspect the fine-scale inhomogeneities that occur in seafloor synthesis experiments conducted in Monterey Bay. The recent development of a single axis positioner (SAP) has allowed us to use DORISS2 when payload weight is an issue, in places where the seafloor is too steep to safely deploy PUP, or where operational conditions (such as an overhanging ledge) are too restrictive and where PUP does not fit. The SAP adds a new degree of flexibility we have not previously had and has even permitted the analysis of scale carotenoids in a live rock fish

  15. Measurement and meaning of markers of reactive species of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur in healthy human subjects and patients with inflammatory joint disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winyard, Paul G; Ryan, Brent; Eggleton, Paul; Nissim, Ahuva; Taylor, Emma; Lo Faro, Maria Letizia; Burkholz, Torsten; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin E; Fox, Bridget; Viner, Nick; Haigh, Richard C; Benjamin, Nigel; Jones, Andrew M; Whiteman, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Reactive species of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur play cell signalling roles in human health, e.g. recent studies have shown that increased dietary nitrate, which is a source of RNS (reactive nitrogen species), lowers resting blood pressure and the oxygen cost of exercise. In such studies, plasma nitrite and nitrate are readily determined by chemiluminescence. At sites of inflammation, such as the joints of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) patients, the generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS overwhelms antioxidant defences and one consequence is oxidative/nitrative damage to proteins. For example, in the inflamed joint, increased RNS-mediated protein damage has been detected in the form of a biomarker, 3-nitrotyrosine, by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, ELISAs and MS. In addition to NO•, another cell-signalling gas produced in the inflamed joint is H2S (hydrogen sulfide), an RSS (reactive sulfur species). This gas is generated by inflammatory induction of H2S-synthesizing enzymes. Using zinc-trap spectrophotometry, we detected high (micromolar) concentrations of H2S in RA synovial fluid and levels correlated with clinical scores of inflammation and disease activity. What might be the consequences of the inflammatory generation of reactive species? Effects on inflammatory cell-signalling pathways certainly appear to be crucial, but in the current review we highlight the concept that ROS/RNS-mediated protein damage creates neoepitopes, resulting in autoantibody formation against proteins, e.g. type-II collagen and the complement component, C1q. These autoantibodies have been detected in inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

  16. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Gernaey, Krist V

    2011-10-01

    The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass is one of the best examples. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the performance of various online biomass sensors, and secondly to demonstrate their use in early development of a filamentous cultivation process. Eight Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations were run as part of process development in which the pH, the feeding strategy, and the medium composition were varied. The cultivations were monitored in situ using multi-wavelength fluorescence (MWF) spectroscopy, scanning dielectric (DE) spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements. In addition, we logged all of the classical cultivation data, such as the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Prediction models for the biomass concentrations were estimated on the basis of the individual sensors and on combinations of the sensors. The results showed that the more advanced sensors based on MWF and scanning DE spectroscopy did not offer any advantages over the simpler sensors based on dual frequency DE spectroscopy, turbidity, and CER measurements for prediction of biomass concentration. By combining CER, DE spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements, the prediction error was reduced to 1.5 g/l, corresponding to 6% of the covered biomass range. Moreover, by using multiple sensors it was possible to check the quality of the individual predictions and switch between the sensors in real time.

  17. The ESO UVES Advanced Data Products Quasar Sample - I. Dataset and New N_HI Measurements of Damped Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Peroux, Celine

    2013-01-01

    We present here a dataset of quasars observed with the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the VLT and available in the ESO UVES Advanced Data Products archive. The sample is made up of a total of 250 high resolution quasar spectra with emission redshifts ranging from 0.191 10^{19} cm^{-2}, which constitutes the sub-damped Lya absorber (sub-DLA) threshold. Within the wavelength coverage of our UVES data, we find 150 damped Lya systems (DLAs)/sub-DLAs in the range 1.5 < z_abs < 4.7. Of these 150, 93 are DLAs and 57 are sub-DLAs. An extensive search in the literature indicates that 6 of these DLAs and 13 of these sub-DLAs have their N_HI measured for the first time. Among them, 10 are new identifications as DLAs/sub-DLAs. For each of these systems, we obtain an accurate measurement of the HI column density and the absorber's redshift in the range 1.7 < z_abs < 4.2 by implementing a Voigt profile-fitting algorithm. These absorbers are further confirmed thanks to the detection of associ...

  18. Time-resolved ion energy distribution measurements using an advanced neutral particle analyzer on the MST reversed-field pinch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilerman, S; Anderson, J K; Reusch, J A; Liu, D; Fiksel, G; Polosatkin, S; Belykh, V

    2012-10-01

    An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) capable of simultaneously measuring hydrogen and deuterium ions of energies up to 45 keV has recently been developed for use on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The charge-to-mass separation allows for separate analysis of bulk deuterium ions and hydrogen ions injected with a 1 MW, 25 keV neutral beam. Orientation of the ANPA allows sampling of different regions of ion velocity space; a radial viewport favors collection of ions with high v(perpendicular)∕|v| while a recently installed tangential viewport favors ions with high v(||)∕|v|, such as those from the core-localized fast ion population created by the neutral beam. Signals are observed in the ANPA's highest energy channels during periodic magnetic reconnection events, which are drivers of anisotropic, non-Maxwellian ion energization in the reversed-field pinch. ANPA signal strength is dependent on the background neutral density, which also increases during magnetic reconnection events, so careful analysis must be performed to identify the true change in the ion distribution. A Monte Carlo neutral particle tracing code (NENE) is used to reconstruct neutral density profiles based on D(α) line emission, which is measured using a 16-chord filtered photodiode array.

  19. Conservation of reactive electromagnetic energy in reactive time

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The complex Poynting theorem (CPT) is extended to a canonical time-scale domain $(t,s)$. Time-harmonic phasors are replaced by the positive-frequency parts of general fields, which extend analytically to complex time $t+is$, with $s>0$ interpreted as a time resolution scale. The real part of the extended CPT gives conservation in $t$ of a time-averaged field energy, and its imaginary part gives conservation in $s$ of a time-averaged reactive energy. In both cases, the averaging windows are determined by a Cauchy kernel of width $\\Delta t\\sim \\pm s$. This completes the time-harmonic CPT, whose imaginary part is generally supposed to be vaguely `related to' reactive energy without giving a conservation law, or even an expression, for the latter. The interpretation of $s$ as reactive time, tracking the leads and lags associated with stored capacitative and inductive energy, gives a simple explanation of the volt-ampere reactive (var) unit measuring reactive power: a var is simply one Joule per reactive second. T...

  20. 次临界反应性测量的空间修正及其应用综述%The spatial effect in subcritical reactivity measurement and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 王释伟; 徐琳琳; 郑正

    2016-01-01

    The technology of reactivity measurement in subcritical core has special feature as the distribution of core flux will be affected by the movement of the control rod,the core subcritical reactivity and the extraneous neutron sources. So,in general, the subcritical core reactivity can only be “monitored”but never accurately “measured”. With the development of core simulation codes,the foreign scientists have researched the spatially corrected methods applied to the point core in subcritical reactivity measurements. Base on these methods,the dynamic rod worth measurement (DRWM) and subcritical rod worth measurement (SRWM)were applied in plant control rod worth measurements and some nuclear plants in china have used these methods but few people inland introduced the theory of spatially corrected methods. Base on this condition,this article summarized the theory and methods in subcritical core reactivity measurements and provided the data treating process using the reactivity measurement instruments. This will be useful to the research and application of subcritical reactivity measurement in china commercial nuclear power plants.%次临界下的反应性测量技术有着自身的特点,次临界下控制棒的动作、堆芯的次临界度以及外中子源的存在都会对堆芯中子通量的分布产生影响,因此通常情况下堆芯的次临界度只能“监视”,无法准确测量。在堆芯模拟软件发展的基础上,国外科研人员提出了次临界下点堆模型的空间修正方法,将这种方法用于动态棒价值测量(DRWM),并在此基础上进一步发展了次临界控制棒价值测量(SRWM),这些技术有的已经被国内核电站使用,但是国内对空间修正的原理及方法鲜有介绍。本文针对这种需求,总结概括了国外商用堆次临界反应性测量的基本原理与方法,并结合反应性测量仪表技术,给出了次临界反应性仪的数据处理流程,这对于推

  1. Advanced Antenna Measurement Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-18

    not suffer from the disturbing divergence behavior noted in the traditional Gerchberg- Papoulis approach to this problem. What is still needed is a...not suffer from the disturbing divergence behavior noted in the traditional Gerchberg- Papoulis approach to this problem. What is still needed is a...well-known Gerchberg- Papoulis (G-P) algorithm [5][6] and Martini, et al apply it to extrapolate the far zone field from the reliable region to the full

  2. Phosphorus, and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots as a fluorescent probe for real-time measurement of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inside macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunqian; Yu, Bin; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-05-15

    Phosphorus and nitrogen doped carbon dots (PN-CDs) were conveniently prepared by carbonization of adenosine-5'-triphosphate using a hydrothermal treatment. The PN-CDs with P/C atomic ratio of ca. 9.2/100 emit blue luminescence with high quantum yields of up to 23.5%. The PN-CDs were used as a novel sensing platform for live cell imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including ClO(-), ONOO(-), and NO in macrophages. The nanosensor design is based on our new finding that the strong fluorescence of the PN-CDs can be sensitively and selectively quenched by ROS and RNS both in vitro and in vivo. These results reveal that the PN-CDs can serve as a sensitive sensor for rapid imaging of ROS and RNS signaling with high selectivity and contrast.

  3. Leading research in fiscal 1996. Research study on advanced measurement/analysis technology; 1996 nendo sendo kenkyu. Kodo keisoku bunseki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For development of production technologies suitable for environment, safety and advanced information-oriented society by improving the flexibility of production lines, some new measurement technologies were researched. Problem solution was attempted by combining the in-situ multi-dimensional measurement technology capable of easily obtaining various 3-D information with the non-contact photon measurement technology superior in operability and sensitivity under any environment conditions. This solution requires a compact radiation source with higher brightness and wider spectral range, and a high-sensitive detector. The technology concentrating photon onto minute regions, high-efficiency transmission, and control technology of photon wave front are also necessary. Development and international standardization of a common interface is unavoidable. In addition, its network is essential for advanced use of multimedia,. In the future, the comfortable life surrounded by advanced products and multimedia, comfortable social environment, safety and resource saving will be achieved by this technology. 94 refs., 75 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. MEDICIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE LA MAGNITUD DE LAS FUERZAS REACTIVAS EN LOS APOYOS DE LAS MAZAS DEL MOLINO PANELERO APOLO 5 EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF MAGNITUDE REACTIVE FORCES IN MACE SUPPORTS OF PANELA MILL APOLO 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Ramírez Patiño

    2008-06-01

    shows the experimental development for measurement of reactive forces in supports of mace shafts in Panelero mill - Apolo 5. This includes the correct selection of measurement points in mill, the election of measurement technique and design of devices for measurement, as well as the procedure to follow for mill instrumentation. The obtained results allow to identifying the cureñas zone and shafts where the forces are maximum.

  5. Reactivity characteristics evaluations of the initial core of MONJU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Shusaku; Suzuki, Takayuki; Okimoto, Yutaka; Sasaki, Kenji; Deshimaru, Takehide [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Monju Construction Office; Nakashima, Fumiaki

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes measured results and their analysis results of the reactivity characteristics of the initial core of MONJU, specifically, those of the control and back-up rod reactivity worth, the fixed absorber reactivity worth, the fuel sub-assembly reactivity worth and the coolant reactivity worth. Those were measured during the MONJU reactor physics test carried out from May 1994 through November 1994. Since the measured values were reproduced quite well by calculations, we confirmed the applicability of our calculational method to the reactivity worth characteristics analysis of MONJU. (author)

  6. On the Rod Drop technique in integral reactivity measures in control banks and reactor safety; Sobre a tecnica de Rod Drop em medidas de reatividade integral em bancos de controle e seguranca de reatores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, Giovanni Laranjo

    2013-07-01

    This work presents a study on the effect of shading in neutron detectors, when used in measures of reactivity with the rod drop technique. Shading can be understood as a change in the efficiency of the detectors, when it is given in detected neutrons fission occurred in the reactor, more evident in the detectors closest to the bank being inserted. The method of analysis was based on simulations of reactor IPEN/MB-01, using the code CITATION and MCNP program. In both cases, the results were static, showing Neutronic flows in only two situations: before insertion of the control rod and after insertion. The measure of reactivity in this case was achieved using the expression derived from the source jerk technique. In addition to theoretical study, data from a rod drop experiment conducted in the reactor IPEN/MB-01 were also used. In this case, the reactivity was obtained using inverse kinetic method, since experimental data were set of values that vary with time. In all cases, correction factors for the shadowing effect have been proposed. (author)

  7. Reactive transport benchmarks for subsurface environmental simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl I.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-06-01

    Over the last 20 years, we have seen firsthand the evolution of multicomponent reactive transport modeling and the expanding range and increasing complexity of subsurface applications it is being used to address. There is a growing reliance on reactive transport modeling (RTM) to address some of the most compelling issues facing our planet: climate change, nuclear waste management, contaminant remediation, and pollution prevention. While these issues are motivating the development of new and improved capabilities for subsurface environmental modeling using RTM (e.g., biogeochemistry from cell-scale physiology to continental-scale terrestrial ecosystems, nonisothermal multiphase conditions, coupled geomechanics), there remain longstanding challenges in characterizing the natural variability of hydrological, biological, and geochemical properties in subsurface environments and limited success in transferring models between sites and across scales. An equally important trend over the last 20 years is the evolution of modeling from a service sought out after data has been collected to a multifaceted research approach that provides (1) an organizing principle for characterization and monitoring activities; (2) a systematic framework for identifying knowledge gaps, developing and integrating new knowledge; and (3) a mechanistic understanding that represents the collective wisdom of the participating scientists and engineers. There are now large multidisciplinary projects where the research approach is model-driven, and the principal product is a holistic predictive simulation capability that can be used as a test bed for alternative conceptualizations of processes, properties, and conditions. Much of the future growth and expanded role for RTM will depend on its continued ability to exploit technological advancements in the earth and environmental sciences. Advances in measurement technology, particularly in molecular biology (genomics), isotope fractionation, and high

  8. Assessing the occurrence of the dibromide radical (Br{sub 2}{sup -{center_dot}}) in natural waters: Measures of triplet-sensitised formation, reactivity, and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laurentiis, Elisa; Minella, Marco; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio [Universita degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy); Mailhot, Gilles; Sarakha, Mohamed [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Brigante, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.brigante@univ-bpclermont.fr [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63171 Aubiere (France); Vione, Davide, E-mail: davide.vione@unito.it [Universita degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via P. Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Torino, Centro Interdipartimentale NatRisk, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    The triplet state of anthraquinone-2-sulphonate (AQ2S) is able to oxidise bromide to Br{sup {center_dot}}/Br{sub 2}{sup -{center_dot}}, with rate constant (2-4) Dot-Operator 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} that depends on the pH. Similar processes are expected to take place between bromide and the triplet states of naturally occurring chromophoric dissolved organic matter ({sup 3}CDOM*). The brominating agent Br{sub 2}{sup -{center_dot}} could thus be formed in natural waters upon oxidation of bromide by both {sup {center_dot}}OH and {sup 3}CDOM*. Br{sub 2}{sup -{center_dot}} would be consumed by disproportionation into bromide and bromine, as well as upon reaction with nitrite and most notably with dissolved organic matter (DOM). By using the laser flash photolysis technique, and phenol as model organic molecule, a second-order reaction rate constant of {approx} 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup 2} L (mg C){sup -1} s{sup -1} was measured between Br{sub 2}{sup -{center_dot}} and DOM. It was thus possible to model the formation and reactivity of Br{sub 2}{sup -{center_dot}} in natural waters, assessing the steady-state [Br{sub 2}{sup -{center_dot}}] Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -13}-10{sup -12} M. It is concluded that bromide oxidation by {sup 3}CDOM* would be significant compared to oxidation by {sup {center_dot}}OH. The {sup 3}CDOM*-mediated process would prevail in DOM-rich and bromide-rich environments, the latter because elevated bromide would completely scavenge {sup {center_dot}}OH. Under such conditions, {sup {center_dot}}OH-assisted formation of Br{sub 2}{sup -{center_dot}} would be limited by the formation rate of the hydroxyl radical. In contrast, the formation rate of {sup 3}CDOM* is much higher compared to that of {sup {center_dot}}OH in most surface waters and would provide a large {sup 3}CDOM* reservoir for bromide to react with. A further issue is that nitrite oxidation by Br{sub 2}{sup -{center_dot}} could be an important source of the nitrating agent {sup {center

  9. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  10. Quantitative Measurement of Cerebrovascular Reactivity by Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent MR Imaging in Patients with Intracranial Stenosis : Preoperative Cerebrovascular Reactivity Predicts the Effect of Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D. M.; Han, J. S.; Poublanc, J.; Crawley, A. P.; Fierstra, J.; Tymianski, M.; Fisher, J. A.; Mikulis, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CVR is a measure of cerebral hemodynamic impairment. A recently validated technique quantifies CVR by using a precise CO2 vasodilatory stimulus and BOLD MR imaging. Our aim was to determine whether preoperative CO2 BOLD CVR predicts the hemodynamic effect of ECIC bypass surge

  11. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: a Bayesian analysis of neutron star - black hole binary observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO has ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for LIGO, of which neutron star-black hole (NSBH) binaries form an important subset. GWs from NSBH sources carry signatures of (a) the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, and (b) its potential tidal disruption near merger. In this paper, we present a Bayesian study of the measurability of neutron star tidal deformability $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{NS}\\propto (R/M)^{5}$ using observation(s) of inspiral-merger GW signals from disruptive NSBH coalescences, taking into account the crucial effect of black hole spins. First, we find that if non-tidal templates are used to estimate source parameters for an NSBH signal, the bias introduced in the estimation of non-tidal physical parameters will only be significant for loud signals with signal-to-noise ratios greater than $30$. For similarly loud signals, we also f...

  12. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey IV: Data Reduction Procedures for Surface Brightness Fluctuation Measurements with the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, S; Tonry, J L; Jordan, A; Peng, E W; Côté, P; Ferrarese, L; Merritt, D; Milosavljevic, M; West, M J; Mei, Simona; Blakeslee, John P.; Tonry, John L.; Jordan, Andres; Peng, Eric W.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David; Milosavljevic, Milos; West, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Virgo Cluster Survey is a large program to image 100 early-type Virgo galaxies using the F475W and F850LP bandpasses of the Wide Field Channel of the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The scientific goals of this survey include an exploration of the three-dimensional structure of the Virgo Cluster and a critical examination of the usefulness of the globular cluster luminosity function as a distance indicator. Both of these issues require accurate distances for the full sample of 100 program galaxies. In this paper, we describe our data reduction procedures and examine the feasibility of accurate distance measurements using the method of surface brightness fluctuations (SBF) applied to the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey F850LP imaging. The ACS exhibits significant geometrical distortions due to its off-axis location in the HST focal plane; correcting for these distortions by resampling the pixel values onto an undistorted frame results in pixel correlations tha...

  13. Advances in LWD pressure measurements: smart, time optimized pretests and on demand real-time transmission applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafim, Robson; Ferraris, Paolo [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The StethoScope Logging While Drilling (LWD) Pressure Measurement, introduced in Brazil in 2005, has been extensively used in deep water environment to provide reservoir pressure and mobility in real-time. In the last three years the StethoScope service was further enhanced to allow better real time monitoring using a larger transmission rate, higher RT data resolution and remote visualization. In order to guarantee stable formation pressures with a limited test duration under a wide range of conditions, Time Optimized Pretests (TOP) were developed. These tests adjust automatically drawdown and buildup parameters as a function of formation characteristics (pressure/mobility) without requiring any input from the operator. On-demand frame (ODF), an advanced telemetry triggered automatically during the pressure tests, allowed to increase equivalent transmission rate and resolution and to include quality indices computed downhole. This paper is focused on the TOP and ODF Field Test results in Brazil, which proved to be useful and reliable options for better real-time decisions together with remote monitoring visualization implemented by the RTMonitor program. (author)

  14. The clustering of massive Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter: measuring their mass distribution with Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Clesse, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection by Advanced LIGO of gravitational waves (GW) from the merging of a binary black hole system sets new limits on the merging rates of massive primordial black holes (PBH) that could be a significant fraction or even the totality of the dark matter in the Universe. aLIGO opens the way to the determination of the distribution and clustering of such massive PBH. If PBH clusters have a similar density to the one observed in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, we find merging rates comparable to aLIGO expectations. Massive PBH dark matter predicts the existence of thousands of those dwarf galaxies where star formation is unlikely because of gas accretion onto PBH, which would possibly provide a solution to the missing satellite and too-big-to-fail problems. Finally, we study the possibility of using aLIGO and future GW antennas to measure the abundance and mass distribution of PBH in the range [5 - 200] Msun to 10\\% accuracy.

  15. The clustering of massive Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter: Measuring their mass distribution with advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesse, Sébastien; García-Bellido, Juan

    2017-03-01

    The recent detection by Advanced LIGO of gravitational waves (GW) from the merging of a binary black hole system sets new limits on the merging rates of massive primordial black holes (PBH) that could be a significant fraction or even the totality of the dark matter in the Universe. aLIGO opens the way to the determination of the distribution and clustering of such massive PBH. If PBH clusters have a similar density to the one observed in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, we find merging rates comparable to aLIGO expectations. Massive PBH dark matter predicts the existence of thousands of those dwarf galaxies where star formation is unlikely because of gas accretion onto PBH, which would possibly provide a solution to the missing satellite and too-big-to-fail problems. Finally, we study the possibility of using aLIGO and future GW antennas to measure the abundance and mass distribution of PBH in the range [5-200] M⊙ to 10% accuracy.

  16. Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections and calculational methods for the advanced neutron source against the FOEHN critical experiments measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.A.; Gallmeier, F.X. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Energy, TN (United States); Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    The FOEHN critical experiment was analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections and Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutronics computer codes in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. The ANSL-V 99-group master cross section library was used for all the calculations. Three different critical configurations were evaluated using the multigroup KENO Monte Carlo transport code, the multigroup DORT discrete ordinates transport code, and the multigroup diffusion theory code VENTURE. The simple configuration consists of only the fuel and control elements with the heavy water reflector. The intermediate configuration includes boron endplates at the upper and lower edges of the fuel element. The complex configuration includes both the boron endplates and components in the reflector. Cross sections were processed using modules from the AMPX system. Both 99-group and 20-group cross sections were created and used in two-dimensional models of the FOEHN experiment. KENO calculations were performed using both 99-group and 20-group cross sections. The DORT and VENTURE calculations were performed using 20-group cross sections. Because the simple and intermediate configurations are azimuthally symmetric, these configurations can be explicitly modeled in R-Z geometry. Since the reflector components cannot be modeled explicitly using the current versions of these codes, three reflector component homogenization schemes were developed and evaluated for the complex configuration. Power density distributions were calculated with KENO using 99-group cross sections and with DORT and VENTURE using 20-group cross sections. The average differences between the measured values and the values calculated with the different computer codes range from 2.45 to 5.74%. The maximum differences between the measured and calculated thermal flux values for the simple and intermediate configurations are {approx} 13%, while the average differences are < 8%.

  17. Reactive perforating collagenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Mukesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive perforating collagenosis is a rare cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology. We hereby describe a case of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis in a patient of diabetes and chronic renal failure.

  18. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  19. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held 1 week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

  20. Retinal vascular lesions in patients of Caucasian and Asian origin with type 2 diabetes - Baseline results from the ADVANCE Retinal Measurements (AdRem) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Ronald P.; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy; Hughes, Alun D.; Stanton, Alice; Lu, Juming; Patel, Anushka; Thom, Simon A. McG.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Vingerling, Johannes R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The objective of this study was to describe prevalent vascular retinal lesions among patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the ADVANCE Retinal Measurements (AdRem) study, a substudy of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVAN

  1. Evaluation of the reactivity of exhaust from various biodiesel blends as a measure of possible oxidative effects: A concern for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenuga, Adeniyi A; Wright, Monica E; Atkinson, Dean B

    2016-03-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major constituent of ambient air pollution and are associated with various adverse health effects, posing a major safety and public health concern in ambient and occupational environments. The effects of DEP from various biodiesel blends on biological systems was investigated using glutathione (GSH) as a marker of possible oxidative effects, based on the decrease in the concentration of GSH at physiological pH. The fluorophoric agent 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde (NDA) was used as a selective probe of GSH in the presence of any likely interferents via fluorescence detection. Three different polar solvents (acetonitrile, methanol and water) were used to extract DEP generated during the combustion of different biodiesel blends (5%-99%). Oxidation of GSH to the disulfide (GSSG) was confirmed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A decrease in the concentration of GSH was observed in the presence of DEP extracts from all of the biodiesel blends studied, with reaction rates that depend on the biodiesel blend. Interestingly the reactivity peaked at 50% biodiesel (B50) rather than decreasing monotonically with increased biodiesel content, as was expected. Organic solvent DEP extracts showed wider variations in reactivity with GSH, with methanol extracts giving the largest decrease in GSH concentrations. This may imply a more organic nature of the oxidants in the biodiesel exhaust. It is therefore important to consider ways of reducing concentrations of organic components in biodiesel exhaust that can cause different toxic activity before any blend is offered as a preferred alternative to petroleum diesel fuel.

  2. International benchmark study of advanced thermal hydraulic safety analysis codes against measurements on IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainoun, A., E-mail: pscientific2@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Doval, A. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Av. Cmdt. Luis Piedrabuena 4950, C.P. 8400 S.C de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Umbehaun, P. [Centro de Engenharia Nuclear – CEN, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242-Cidade Universitaria, CEP-05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chatzidakis, S. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ghazi, N. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Park, S. [Research Reactor Design and Engineering Division, Basic Science Project Operation Dept., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mladin, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Street No. 1, P.O. Box 78, 115400 Mioveni, Arges (Romania); Shokr, A. [Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, Research Reactor Safety Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A set of advanced system thermal hydraulic codes are benchmarked against IFA of IEA-R1. • Comparative safety analysis of IEA-R1 reactor during LOFA by 7 working teams. • This work covers both experimental and calculation effort and presents new out findings on TH of RR that have not been reported before. • LOFA results discrepancies from 7% to 20% for coolant and peak clad temperatures are predicted conservatively. - Abstract: In the framework of the IAEA Coordination Research Project on “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors” the Brazilian research reactor IEA-R1 has been selected as reference facility to perform benchmark calculations for a set of thermal hydraulic codes being widely used by international teams in the field of research reactor (RR) deterministic safety analysis. The goal of the conducted benchmark is to demonstrate the application of innovative reactor analysis tools in the research reactor community, validation of the applied codes and application of the validated codes to perform comprehensive safety analysis of RR. The IEA-R1 is equipped with an Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA) which provided measurements for normal operation and loss of flow transient. The measurements comprised coolant and cladding temperatures, reactor power and flow rate. Temperatures are measured at three different radial and axial positions of IFA summing up to 12 measuring points in addition to the coolant inlet and outlet temperatures. The considered benchmark deals with the loss of reactor flow and the subsequent flow reversal from downward forced to upward natural circulation and presents therefore relevant phenomena for the RR safety analysis. The benchmark calculations were performed independently by the participating teams using different thermal hydraulic and safety

  3. Monadic Functional Reactive Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, A.J. van der; Shan, C

    2013-01-01

    Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a monadic computatio

  4. Surface Reactivity of Quasicrystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Cynthia J.

    1997-03-01

    A fundamental knowledge and understanding of the reactivity of quasicrystalline materials is of great interest because of certain practical properties these materials possess, namely low coefficients of friction and oxidation resistance. A recent "hierarchical cluster" model proposed by Janot(C. Janot Phys. Rev. B 56 (1996) 181.) predicts that quasicrystal surfaces should be intrinsically inert and rough, and is useful in explaining their interesting properties. Surface structure and preparation may play a role in the applicability of this model. In this talk, we examine these factors and present experimental measurements of the surface reactivity of some Al-based quasicrystalline materials under ultra-high vacuum conditions (less than 2 x 10-10 Torr). To gain an understanding of what properties are unique to quasicrystals, we make comparisons with the surface reactivity of crystalline alloys of similar composition and pure, crystalline aluminum. note number.

  5. Changes in reactivity and in the margins to thermal limits by the inclusion of control rods of advanced type in the Laguna Verde Power plant; Cambios en la reactividad y en los margenes a limites termicos por la inclusion de barras de control de tipo avanzado en la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, J.L.; Perusquia, R.; Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Ramirez, J.R. [ININ, Depto. de Sistemas Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jlhm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The obtained results are presented when simulating with CM-PRESTO code the cycle 10 of the unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Central, using two advanced types of control bars, besides the originally loaded ones. The two advanced types, to those that are denominated 1AV and 2AV in this work, are of different design, however both have in some place of the bar, a section with hafnium like neutron absorber material. They thought about three different scenarios, in the first one, used as reference, is simulated the cycle 10 using the original control bars, while in the other two cases the advanced types are used. The values of the reactivity were compared and of some margins to the thermal limits obtained when using the bars of advanced type, with those obtained in the case in that alone they are considered those original bars. It was found that in condition of power both advanced types present bigger absorber power of neutrons that the original bars, being quantified in average this bigger power in 0.22 pcm/notch for the type 1AV and in 0.51 pcm/notch for the type 2AV. The affectation of the margins to the observed thermal limits is minimum. (Author)

  6. Concerns in the application of fluorescent probes DCDHF-DA, DHR 123 and DHE to measure reactive oxygen species in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Mazyar

    2015-12-25

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed in biological systems by partial reduction of molecular oxygen. The essential role of ROS in maintaining physiological health may be corrupted into oxidative stress by their overproduction or the exhaustion of antioxidant mechanisms. Many studies covering a broad range of methodologies have investigated ROS production and their toxic mechanisms of action. Of these methodologies, fluorometry has been among the preferred techniques. Three frequently used fluorescent probes for in vitro studies are 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF-DA), Dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) and Dihydroethidium (DHE). Apart from the unavoidable limitations of auto-oxidation, photo-oxidation and photo-conversion, there are also concerns relating to protocol modification for the improved monitoring of ROS. This paper aims to highlight such contributing factors, including cell culture conditions and the characteristics of individual fluorescent probes in the utilization of these selected probes in in vitro systems.

  7. Dynamic reactive astrocytes after focal ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinghua Ding

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are specialized and most numerous glial cell type in the central nervous system and play important roles in physiology. Astrocytes are also critically involved in many neural disor-ders including focal ischemic stroke, a leading cause of brain injury and human death. One of the prominent pathological features of focal ischemic stroke is reactive astrogliosis and glial scar for-mation associated with morphological changes and proliferation. This review paper discusses the recent advances in spatial and temporal dynamics of morphology and proliferation of reactive astrocytes after ischemic stroke based on results from experimental animal studies. As reactive astrocytes exhibit stem cell-like properties, knowledge of dynamics of reactive astrocytes and glial scar formation will provide important insights for astrocyte-based cell therapy in stroke.

  8. Does Fear Reactivity during Exposure Predict Panic Symptom Reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuret, Alicia E.; Seidel, Anke; Rosenfield, Benjamin; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Rosenfield, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fear reactivity during exposure is a commonly used indicator of learning and overall therapy outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of fear reactivity during exposure using multimodal indicators and an advanced analytical design. We also investigated the degree to which treatment condition (cognitive…

  9. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftman, D.; Gupta, D.; Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Giammanco, F.; Conti, F.; Marsili, P.; Moreno, C. D.

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  10. Development and first applications of an OH reactivity instrument based on the Comparative Reactivity Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Michoud, V.; Hansen, R. F.; Leonardis, T.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Blocquet, M.; Schoemaecker, C.; Fittschen, C. M.; Zannoni, N.; Gros, V.; Sarda Esteve, R.; Sinha, V.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere is important to address fundamental issues related to both air quality and climate change. However, recent measurements of total OH reactivity have highlighted an incomplete understanding of the hydroxyl radical (OH) budget, the main oxidizing agent in the atmosphere. This context has led to the development of several techniques for measuring total OH reactivity to better constrain atmospheric chemistry. This presentation will review the development of an OH reactivity instrument developed at Mines Douai, France. This instrument, based on the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM), has been carefully characterized in the laboratory and has been compared to other OH reactivity instruments during two different field campaigns. These studies will be summarized to show that CRM instruments can perform reliable measurements in urban and remote areas providing that a few measurement artefacts are well characterized and accounted for during field campaigns.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and preliminary psychometric properties of the Affective Reactivity Index in Brazilian Youth: implications for DSM-5 measured irritability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Araújo DeSousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the Affective Reactivity Index (ARI to Brazilian Portuguese and to investigate preliminary psychometric properties of the adapted version. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation was based on the investigation of the theoretical and operational equivalences of the original ARI in the Brazilian context, followed by a process of translation, back-translation, and review by a committee of experts. Data analysis was carried out in a community sample of 133 schoolchildren aged 8 to 17 years to investigate the following characteristics of the ARI: 1 factor structure; 2 internal consistency; 3 construct validity comparing differential relationships between irritability and anxiety dimensions and impairment; and 4 item response theory (IRT parameters. Results: A final Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument was defined and is presented. Internal consistency was good, and our analysis supported the original single-factor structure of the ARI. Correlations of the ARI with distress-related anxiety dimensions were higher than with phobic-related anxiety dimensions, supporting its construct validity. In addition, higher ARI scores were associated with higher irritability-related impairment. IRT analysis underscored frequency of loss of temper as essential to inform about pathological states of irritability. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the ARI seems to be very similar to the original instrument in terms of conceptual, item, semantic, and operational equivalence. Our preliminary analysis replicates and extends previous evidence confirming promising psychometric properties for the ARI.

  12. Reactive Programming in Java

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reactive Programming in gaining a lot of excitement. Many libraries, tools, and frameworks are beginning to make use of reactive libraries. Besides, applications dealing with big data or high frequency data can benefit from this programming paradigm. Come to this presentation to learn about what reactive programming is, what kind of problems it solves, how it solves them. We will take an example oriented approach to learning the programming model and the abstraction.

  13. NMR measurement of identical polymer samples by round robin method. 4. Analysis of composition and monomer sequence distribution in poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) leading to determinations of monomer reactivity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatada, Koichi; Kitayama, Tatsuki; Terawaki, Yoshio [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science] [and others

    1995-11-01

    In order to assess the reliability of NMR measurement of polymers, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data for three copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) prepared with AIBN were collected from 46 spectrometers whose resonance frequencies for {sup 1}H NMR measurements ranging from 90 to 500 MHz. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra were measured in nitrobenzene-d{sub 5} at 110degC and acetonitrile-d{sub 3} at 70degC, respectively. Standard deviations ({sigma}`s) for chemical shift measurements of the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR signals were 0.003-0.008 ppm and 0.03-0.05 ppm, respectively. Compositions of the copolymers were determined from the relative intensities of the signals due to the OCH{sub 3} (MMA) and CH (AN) protons, and the {sigma} values for the determinations were 3.7-9.5%. The compositions determined from {sup 13}C NMR (C = O for MMA unit, CN for AN unit) agreed well with those obtained from {sup 1}H NMR. Monomer reactivity ratios r{sub ij} (i,j = 1 or 2) for a penultimate model were determined from monomer feed ratios and triad fractions obtained from the C = O (MMA) and CH (AN) carbon signals. Most of the {sigma} values for r{sub ij} determinations were 5-14%. While r{sub 22} and r{sub 12} are nearly equivalent, r{sub 11} and r{sub 21} are significantly different from each other, indicating a possible existence of the penultimate-unit effect in the copolymerization of MMA and AN. Terminal model reactivity ratios, r{sub 1} and r{sub 2}, determined formally from the compositions of three samples by Fineman-Ross method showed large {sigma} values (22-24%). (author).

  14. Advances in outcomes measurement in rehabilitation medicine: current initiatives from the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Cella, David

    2011-10-01

    The articles in this supplement present recent advances in the measurement of patient-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes. Specifically, these articles highlight the combined efforts of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Center on Medical Rehabilitation Research, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service to improve HRQOL measurement. In addition, this supplement is intended to provide rehabilitation professionals with information about these efforts and the implications that these advances in outcomes measurement have for rehabilitation medicine and clinical practice. These new measurement scales use state-of-the-art method techniques, including item response theory and computerized adaptive testing. In addition, scale development involves both qualitative and quantitative methods, as well as the administration of items to hundreds or even thousands of research participants. The scales deliberately have been built with overlap of items between scales so that linkages and equivalency scores can be computed. Ultimately, these scales should facilitate direct comparison of outcomes instruments across studies and will serve as standard data elements across research trials without compromising the specificity of disease- or condition-targeted measures. This supplement includes the initial publications for many of these new measurement initiatives, each of which provides researchers and clinicians with better tools for evaluation of the efficacy of their interventions.

  15. Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder in School-Aged Foster Children--A Confirmatory Approach to Dimensional Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stine; Breivik, Kyrre; Heiervang, Einar R; Havik, Toril; Havik, Odd E

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and external correlates of the constructs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following were addressed: First, do our data support the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD/DSED as two separate constructs? Second, are RAD and DSED distinct from other well-established dimensions of child psychopathology? Third, what are the external correlates of RAD/DSED in this sample? The study sample included 122 foster children aged 6-10 years. Foster parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the RAD/DSED-scale from the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment. Child protection caseworkers completed a questionnaire regarding exposure to maltreatment and placement history. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the RAD/DSED items identified a good fit for a model with a two-factor structure, which is congruent with the DSM-5 definition of RAD and DSED. A new CFA model, which included the RAD and DSED factors together with the four problem factors of the SDQ (emotional, conduct, hyperactivity-inattention, and peer problems), also demonstrated a good fit with our data. RAD and DSED were associated with the SDQ Impact scale and help seeking behavior. This was partly explained by the SDQ externalizing and peer problem subscales. Our findings lend support for the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD and DSED as separate dimensions of child psychopathology. Thus, the assessment of RAD and DSED provides information beyond other mental health problems.

  16. Temperature measurements in fluid flows (eventually reactive, multi-phase...) using optical methods; Mesure des temperatures dans les ecoulements (eventuellement reactifs, multiphasiques...) par methodes optiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `radiations` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 8 papers entitled: `simultaneous temperature and NO concentration measurements in a hydrogen-air turbulent flame`; `application of iodine laser induced fluorescence to temperature, pressure and velocity measurements`; `Doppler phase measurement of refractive index and temperature`; `experimental and numerical study of temperature fields of particulates in plasma jets`; `measurement and determination of temperatures and concentrations of hot exhaust gases with FTIR emission spectroscopy`; `combustion control in gas turbines using CO{sub 2} emission spectroscopy`; `analysis of gases temperature fields and particulate jets. Application to hydrogen-air, kerosene stato-reactors and to solid propellant jets`; `restitution of temperature and species profiles in pre-mixing flames by inversion of transmission and IR emission data. (J.S.)

  17. In situ and denuder-based measurements of elemental and reactive gaseous mercury with analysis by laser-induced fluorescence - results from the Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Anthony J.; Everhart, Stephanie; Bauer, Dieter; Remeika, James; Tatum Ernest, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    The University of Miami (UM) deployed a sequential two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (2P-LIF) instrument for the in situ measurement of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), during the Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison Experiment (RAMIX) campaign. A number of extended sampling experiments, typically lasting 6-8 h but on one occasion extending to ˜ 24 h, were conducted, allowing the 2P-LIF measurements of Hg(0) concentrations to be compared with two independently operated instruments using gold amalgamation sampling coupled with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopic (CVAFS) analysis. At the highest temporal resolution, ˜ 5 min samples, the three instruments measured concentrations that agreed to within 10-25 %. Measurements of total mercury (TM) were made by using pyrolysis to convert total oxidized mercury (TOM) to Hg(0). TOM was then obtained by difference. Variability in the ambient Hg(0) concentration limited our sensitivity for measurement of ambient TOM using this approach. In addition, manually sampled KCl-coated annular denuders were deployed and analyzed using thermal dissociation coupled with single-photon LIF detection of Hg(0). The TOM measurements obtained were normally consistent with KCl denuder measurements obtained with two Tekran speciation systems and with the manual KCl denuder measurements but with very large uncertainty. They were typically lower than measurements reported by the University of Washington (UW) Detector for Oxidized Hg Species (DOHGS) system. The ability of the 2P-LIF pyrolysis system to measure TM was demonstrated during one of the manifold HgBr2 spikes but the results did not agree well with those reported by the DOHGS system. The limitations of the RAMIX experiment and potential improvements that should be implemented in any future mercury instrument intercomparison are discussed. We suggest that instrumental artifacts make a substantial contribution to the discrepancies in the reported measurements over the

  18. Coinage Metal Hydrides: Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Abraham J; Lalic, Gojko; Sadighi, Joseph P

    2016-08-10

    Hydride complexes of copper, silver, and gold encompass a broad array of structures, and their distinctive reactivity has enabled dramatic recent advances in synthesis and catalysis. This Review summarizes the synthesis, characterization, and key stoichiometric reactions of isolable or observable coinage metal hydrides. It discusses catalytic processes in which coinage metal hydrides are known or probable intermediates, and presents mechanistic studies of selected catalytic reactions. The purpose of this Review is to convey how developments in coinage metal hydride chemistry have led to new organic transformations, and how developments in catalysis have in turn inspired the synthesis of reactive new complexes.

  19. An Assessment of the Penetrations in the First Wall Required for Plasma Measurments for Control of an Advanced Tokamak Plasma Demo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth M. Young

    2010-02-22

    A Demonstration tokamak (Demo) is an essential next step toward a magnetic-fusion based reactor. One based on advanced-tokamak (AT) plasmas is especially appealing because of its relative compactness. However, it will require many plasma measurements to provide the necessary signals to feed to ancillary systems to protect the device and control the plasma. This note addresses the question of how much intrusion into the blanket system will be required to allow the measurements needed to provide the information required for plasma control. All diagnostics will require, at least, the same shielding designs as planned for ITER, while having the capability to maintain their calibration through very long pulses. Much work is required to define better the measurement needs and the quantity and quality of the measurements that will have to be made, and how they can be integrated into the other tokamak structures.

  20. Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1: Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants; Affaldsforbraendingsmodeller til driftsoptimering. Fase 1: Avanceret maeleudstyr til forbedret drift af affaldsfyrede anlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    This report describes results from the PSO projects ELTRA-5294 and ELTRA-5348: Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1, and Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants. Phase 1. The two projects form the first step in a project course build on a long-term vision of a fully automatic system using a wide range of advanced measurement data, advanced dynamic models for prediction of operation and advanced regulation methods for optimization of the operation of waste incinerator plants. (BA)

  1. Technical Readiness and Gaps Analysis of Commercial Optical Materials and Measurement Systems for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Andersen, Eric S.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bliss, Mary; Cannon, Bret D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Mendoza, Albert; Sheen, David M.

    2013-08-06

    This report intends to support Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap and industry stakeholders by evaluating optical-based instrumentation and control (I&C) concepts for advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. These advanced designs will require innovative thinking in terms of engineering approaches, materials integration, and I&C concepts to realize their eventual viability and deployability. The primary goals of this report include: 1. Establish preliminary I&C needs, performance requirements, and possible gaps for AdvSMR designs based on best available published design data. 2. Document commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) optical sensors, components, and materials in terms of their technical readiness to support essential AdvSMR in-vessel I&C systems. 3. Identify technology gaps by comparing the in-vessel monitoring requirements and environmental constraints to COTS optical sensor and materials performance specifications. 4. Outline a future research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program plan that addresses these gaps and develops optical-based I&C systems that enhance the viability of future AdvSMR designs. The development of clean, affordable, safe, and proliferation-resistant nuclear power is a key goal that is documented in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. This roadmap outlines RD&D activities intended to overcome technical, economic, and other barriers, which currently limit advances in nuclear energy. These activities will ensure that nuclear energy remains a viable component to this nation’s energy security.

  2. Towards a quantitative understanding of total OH reactivity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yudong; Shao, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Nölscher, Anke C.; Kessel, Stephan; Guenther, Alex; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Over the past fifty years, considerable efforts have been devoted to measuring the concentration and chemical speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air and emissions. Recently, it has become possible to directly determine the overall effect of atmospheric trace gases on the oxidant hydroxyl radicals (OH), by measuring OH reactivity (OH loss frequency). Quantifying total OH reactivity is one way to characterize the roles of VOCs in formation of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Approaches for measuring total OH reactivity in both emissions and ambient air have been progressing and have been applied in a wide range of studies. Here we evaluate the main techniques used to measure OH reactivity, including two methods directly measuring OH decay and one comparative reactivity method (CRM), and summarize the existing experimental and modeling studies. Total OH reactivity varies significantly on spatial, diurnal, seasonal and vertical bases. Comparison with individually detected OH sinks often reveals a significant missing reactivity, ranging from 20% to over 80% in some environments. Missing reactivity has also been determined in most source emission studies. These source measurements, as well as numerical models, have indicated that both undetected primary emissions and unmeasured secondary products could contribute to missing reactivity. A quantitative understanding of total OH reactivity of various sources and ambient environments will enhance our understanding of the suite of compounds found in emissions as well as chemical processes, and will also provide an opportunity for the improvement of atmospheric chemical mechanisms.

  3. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 1. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this program was the development of a predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. The foundation to describe coal specific conversion behavior was AFR`s Functional Group and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, which had been previously developed. The combined FG-DVC model was integrated with BYU`s comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model for combustion and coal gasification, PCGC-2, and a one-dimensional model for fixed-bed gasifiers, FBED-1. Progress utilizing these models is described.

  4. Reactive standard deontic logic

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, Dov M.; Straßer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a reactive variant of SDL (standard deontic logic): SDLR1 (reactive standard deontic logic). Given a Kripkean view on the semantics of SDL in terms of directed graphs where arrows -> represent the accessibility relation between worlds, reactive models add two elements: arrows -> are labelled as 'active' or 'inactive', and double arrows a dagger connect arrows, e.g. (x(1) -> x(2)) a dagger (x(3) -> x(4)). The idea is that passing through x(1) -> x(2) activates a switch represented...

  5. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  6. Smell differential reactivity, but not taste differential reactivity, is related to food neophobia in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnery-Patris, Sandrine; Wagner, Sandra; Rigal, Natalie; Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has identified relationships between chemosensory reactivity and food neophobia in children. However, most studies have investigated this relationship using declarative data and without separately analysing smell and taste reactivity. Our first objective was to assess the relationships between smell and taste differential reactivity in toddlers (i.e. reactivity towards several stimuli), using experimental behavioural measurements. The second objective was to determine the relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia in toddlers, with the hypothesis that the more responsive a toddler was across food odours or tastes, the more neophobic s/he would be. An additional objective was to determine whether the potential relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia differ according to gender. One hundred and twenty-three toddlers aged from 20 to 22 months from the Opaline birth cohort (Observatory of Food Preferences in Infants and Children) were involved. A questionnaire was used to assess child's food neophobia. Toddlers' differential reactivity for smell (and for taste) was defined as the variability of behavioural responses over 8 odorants, and over the five basic tastes. Smell and taste differential reactivities were not correlated. Food neophobia scores were modestly but significantly positively correlated with smell differential reactivity but not with taste differential reactivity. When gender was considered, smell reactivity and neophobia were correlated only among boys. This indicates the need to study smell and taste reactivity separately to determine their associations with eating behaviours. This suggests that the rejection of novel foods in neophobic boys could be partly due to food odour. This finding is new and clearly requires further investigation.

  7. Out of the Armchair and into the Streets: Measuring Mindfulness Advances Knowledge and Improves Interventions--Reply to Grossman (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Ryan, Richard M.; Loverich, Tamara M.; Biegel, Gina M.; West, Angela Marie

    2011-01-01

    We address 3 critiques raised by Grossman (2011) of self-report measures of mindfulness and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale--Adolescent (MAAS-A) in particular. Grossman questioned whether self-report measures actually assess mindfulness, whether the construct of mindfulness can be understood apart…

  8. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  9. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 ± 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of

  10. Nonquaternary Cholinesterase Reactivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-30

    1978, 34, 523. 30. Lehninger , A. L., " Biochemistry ," Worth Publ. Inc., New York, 1970, p. 161. 31. Green, A. L.; Smith, H. J.; Biochem. J., 1958, 68...nerve agent antidotes focuses on nonquaternary cholinesterase reactivators. In principle , it should be possible to find nonquaternary hydroximic acid...elicit pronounced physiological responses. In principle , it should be possible to develop nonquaternary AChE reactivators that would not only equal

  11. Reactive sputter deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  12. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  13. Field Test Results from Lidar Measured Yaw Control for Improved Yaw Alignment with the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.; Slinger, C.; Medley, J.; Harris, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes field tests of a light detection and ranging (lidar) device placed forward looking on the nacelle of a wind turbine and used as a wind direction measurement to directly control the yaw position of a wind turbine. Conventionally, a wind turbine controls its yaw direction using a nacelle-mounted wind vane. If there is a bias in the measurement from the nacelle-mounted wind vane, a reduction in power production will be observed. This bias could be caused by a number of issues such as: poor calibration, electromagnetic interference, rotor wake, or other effects. With a lidar mounted on the nacelle, a measurement of the wind could be made upstream of the wind turbine where the wind is not being influenced by the rotor's wake or induction zone. Field tests were conducted with the lidar measured yaw system and the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system. Results show that a lidar can be used to effectively measure the yaw error of the wind turbine, and for this experiment, they also showed an improvement in power capture because of reduced yaw misalignment when compared to the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system.

  14. Analysis of Momentum Exchange Over The Northsea Using Eddy-correlation Stress Measurements and An Advanced Wind-over-waves Coupling Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. M. J.; Makin, V. K.; van Oort, C.; Worrel, E. H. W.

    Continuous flux measurements performed at the stable research platform Meetpost Noordwijk are described. For interpretation of these data, meteorological and hydro- graphic data at the platform are extracted from the operational observation network over the Northsea. A subset of the eddy-correlation stress data is analysed and inter- preted in the framework of an advanced wind-over-waves coupling model. The model uses the wind speed and the phase speed at the spectral peak to compute the stress and accounts for the stress contribution due to the air flow separation from breaking waves.

  15. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basel Committee on Banking Supervision's “International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital... instrument described in paragraph (1) of this definition. Excess spread for a period means: (1) Gross...

  16. Continuous Plasma density measurement in TJ-II infrared interferometer-Advanced signal processing based on FPGAs

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the behavioral simulation in an FPGA of a novel processing system for measuring line average electronic density in the TJ-II stellarator diagnostic, Infra-Red Two-Color Interferometer. Line average electronic density is proportional to phase difference between probing and reference signals of the interferometer, as the Appleton–Hartree cold plasma model states. The novelty of the approach is the development of a real time measuring system where research work has been carrie...

  17. Advanced Recording and Preprocessing of Physiological Signals. [data processing equipment for flow measurement of blood flow by ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of the volume flow-rate of blood in an artery or vein requires both an estimate of the flow velocity and its spatial distribution and the corresponding cross-sectional area. Transcutaneous measurements of these parameters can be performed using ultrasonic techniques that are analogous to the measurement of moving objects by use of a radar. Modern digital data recording and preprocessing methods were applied to the measurement of blood-flow velocity by means of the CW Doppler ultrasonic technique. Only the average flow velocity was measured and no distribution or size information was obtained. Evaluations of current flowmeter design and performance, ultrasonic transducer fabrication methods, and other related items are given. The main thrust was the development of effective data-handling and processing methods by application of modern digital techniques. The evaluation resulted in useful improvements in both the flowmeter instrumentation and the ultrasonic transducers. Effective digital processing algorithms that provided enhanced blood-flow measurement accuracy and sensitivity were developed. Block diagrams illustrative of the equipment setup are included.

  18. Kinetic measurements on the reactivity of hydrogen peroxide and ozone towards small atmospherically relevant aldehydes, ketones and organic acids in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Schöne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the aqueous atmospheric environment free radical reactions are an important degradation process for organic compounds. Nevertheless, non-radical oxidants like hydrogen peroxide and ozone also contribute to the degradation and conversion of this substance group (Tilgner und Herrmann, 2010. In this work kinetic investigations of non-radical reactions were conducted using UV/Vis spectroscopy (dual-beam spectrophotometer and Stopped Flow technique and a capillary electrophoresis system applying pseudo-first order kinetics of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, glyoxylic, pyruvic and glycolic acids as well as methacrolein (MACR and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK towards H2O2 and ozone. The measurements indicate rather small rate constants at room temperature of k2nd −1 s−1 (except for the unsaturated compounds exposed to ozone. Compared to radical reaction rate constants the values are about 10 orders of magnitude smaller (kOH· ~ 109 M−1 s−1. However, when considering the much larger non-radical oxidant concentrations compared to radical concentrations in urban cloud droplets, calculated turnovers change the picture to more important H2O2 reactions especially when compared to the nitrate radical. For some reactions also mechanistic suggestions are given.

  19. Kinetic measurements of the reactivity of hydrogen peroxide and ozone towards small atmospherically relevant aldehydes, ketones and organic acids in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, L.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-05-01

    Free radical reactions are an important degradation process for organic compounds within the aqueous atmospheric environment. Nevertheless, non-radical oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone also contribute to the degradation and conversion of these substances (Tilgner and Herrmann, 2010). In this work, kinetic investigations of non-radical reactions were conducted using UV / Vis spectroscopy (dual-beam spectrophotometer and stopped flow technique) and a capillary electrophoresis system applying pseudo-first order kinetics to reactions of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, glyoxylic, pyruvic and glycolic acid as well as methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) with H2O2 and ozone at 298 K. The measurements indicate rather small rate constants at room temperature of k2nd < 3 M-1 s-1 (except for the unsaturated compounds exposed to ozone). Compared to radical reaction rate constants the values are about 10 orders of magnitude smaller (kOH • ~109 M-1 s-1). However, when considering the much larger non-radical oxidant concentrations compared to radical concentrations in urban cloud droplets, calculated first-order conversion rate constants change the picture towards H2O2 reactions becoming more important, especially when compared to the nitrate radical. For some reactions mechanistic suggestions are also given.

  20. Kinetic measurements on the reactivity of hydrogen peroxide and ozone towards small atmospherically relevant aldehydes, ketones and organic acids in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, L.; Herrmann, H.

    2013-10-01

    Within the aqueous atmospheric environment free radical reactions are an important degradation process for organic compounds. Nevertheless, non-radical oxidants like hydrogen peroxide and ozone also contribute to the degradation and conversion of this substance group (Tilgner und Herrmann, 2010). In this work kinetic investigations of non-radical reactions were conducted using UV/Vis spectroscopy (dual-beam spectrophotometer and Stopped Flow technique) and a capillary electrophoresis system applying pseudo-first order kinetics of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, glyoxylic, pyruvic and glycolic acids as well as methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) towards H2O2 and ozone. The measurements indicate rather small rate constants at room temperature of k2nd < 3 M-1 s-1 (except for the unsaturated compounds exposed to ozone). Compared to radical reaction rate constants the values are about 10 orders of magnitude smaller (kOH· ~ 109 M-1 s-1). However, when considering the much larger non-radical oxidant concentrations compared to radical concentrations in urban cloud droplets, calculated turnovers change the picture to more important H2O2 reactions especially when compared to the nitrate radical. For some reactions also mechanistic suggestions are given.

  1. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  2. Advances in High Energy Solid-State 2-micron Laser Transmitter Development for Ground and Airborne Wind and CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  3. Advances in high-energy solid-state 2-micron laser transmitter development for ground and airborne wind and CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-10-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2- micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  4. Advancing Solar Irradiance Measurement for Climate-Related Studies: Accurate Constraint on Direct Aerosol Radiative Effect (DARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Q. Jack

    2011-01-01

    Earth's climate is driven primarily by solar radiation. As summarized in various IPCC reports, the global average of radiative forcing for different agents and mechanisms, such as aerosols or CO2 doubling, is in the range of a few W/sq m. However, when solar irradiance is measured by broadband radiometers, such as the fleet of Eppley Precision Solar Pyranometers (PSP) and equivalent instrumentation employed worldwide, the measurement uncertainty is larger than 2% (e.g., WMO specification of pyranometer, 2008). Thus, out of the approx. 184 W/sq m (approx.263 W/sq m if cloud-free) surface solar insolation (Trenberth et al. 2009), the measurement uncertainty is greater than +/-3.6 W/sq m, overwhelming the climate change signals. To discern these signals, less than a 1 % measurement uncertainty is required and is currently achievable only by means of a newly developed methodology employing a modified PSP-like pyranometer and an updated calibration equation to account for its thermal effects (li and Tsay, 2010). In this talk, we will show that some auxiliary measurements, such as those from a collocated pyrgeometer or air temperature sensors, can help correct historical datasets. Additionally, we will also demonstrate that a pyrheliometer is not free of the thermal effect; therefore, comparing to a high cost yet still not thermal-effect-free "direct + diffuse" approach in measuring surface solar irradiance, our new method is more economical, and more likely to be suitable for correcting a wide variety of historical datasets. Modeling simulations will be presented that a corrected solar irradiance measurement has a significant impact on aerosol forcing, and thus plays an important role in climate studies.

  5. Prognostic Value of Metabolic Tumor Volume Measured by {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas Treated by Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyu Ho; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Han, Eun Ji; Kim, Yeon Sil; Kim, Gi Wom; Na, Sea Jung; Sun, Dong Il; Jung, So Lyung; Jung, Chan Kwon; Kim, Min Sik; Lee, So Yeon; Kim, Sung Hoon [The Cathholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    We assessed the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) measured using {sup 18F} fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) inpatients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We retrospectively reviewed 56 patients (51 men, five women; mean age 56.0{+-}8.8 years) who had locally advanced HNSCC and underwent FDG PET/CT for initial evaluation. All patients had surgical resection and radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. The peak standardized uptake (SUV{sup peak)} and MTV of the target lesion, including primary HNSCC and metastatic cervical lymph nodes, were measured SUV{sup peak,} MTV, and clinico pathologic variables such as age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, pN stage, pT stage, TNM stage, histologic grade and treatment modality to disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). On the initial FDG PET/CT scans, the median SUV{sup peakw}as 7.8 (range, 1.8-19.0) and MTV was 17.0cm{sup 3(}range, 0.1-131.0cm{sup 3)}. The estimated 2 year DFS and OS rates were 67.2% and 81.8%. The cutoff points of SUV{sup peak6}.2 and MTV 20.7cm{sup 3w}ere the best discriminative values for predicting clinical outcome. MTV and ECOG performance status were significantly related to DFS and OS on univariate and multivariate analyses (P=0.05). The MTV obtained from initial FDG PET/CT scan is a significant prognostic factor for disease recurrence and mortality in locally advanced HNSCC treated with surgery and radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy.

  6. Recent Advances in Antenna Measurement Techniques at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav; Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports recent antenna measurement projects and research at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility at the Technical University of Denmark. High-accuracy measurement projects for the SMOS, SENTINEL-1, and BIOMASS missions of the European Space Agency were driven...... by uncertainty requirements of a few hundredths of dB for the directivity and correspondingly strong requirements for gain and/or phase. Research and development of 1:3 bandwidth range probes, and the near-field to far-field transformation algorithm accounting for the higher-order azimuthal modes...

  7. Further advancement of chassis-dynamometer measurement and control technology; Kodoka suru chassis dinamo keisoku seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    A new chassis-dynamometer was developed and put into the practical use in 1992. Currently this chassis-dynamometer, in which rollers are mounted on the AC-dynamometer shaft end, is being used in the majority of passenger car testing application. This paper present bow the associated measurement and control technology was upgraded and discusses the future trend in this field. (author)

  8. Associations among Empathy, Social Competence, & Reactive/Proactive Aggression Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    Differences between proactive and reactive aggression subtypes on self-reported measures of empathy, social competence, and expectation for reward were examined among 433 middle school students (65.4% White, 33.9% Black). As hypothesized, males scored higher on proactive and reactive aggression scales and lower on empathy measures than females.…

  9. Advanced methodology for measuring the extensive elastic compliance and mechanical loss directly in k31 mode piezoelectric ceramic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoubi, Maryam; Shekhani, Husain N.; Bansal, Anushka; Hennig, Eberhard; Scholehwar, Timo; Uchino, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants, and their corresponding losses are defined under constant conditions of two categories; namely, intensive (i.e., E, electric field or T, stress), and extensive (i.e., D, dielectric displacement or x, strain) ones. So far, only the intensive parameters and losses could be measured directly in a k31 mode sample. Their corresponding extensive parameters could be calculated indirectly using the coupling factor and "K" matrix. However, the extensive loss parameters, calculated through this indirect method, could have large uncertainty, due to the error propagation in calculation. In order to overcome this issue, extensive losses should be measured separately from the measurable intensive ones in lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) k31 mode rectangular plate ceramics. We propose a new mechanical-excitation methodology, using a non-destructive testing approach by means of a partial electrode configuration, instead of the conventional full electrode configuration. For this purpose, a non-electrode sample was prepared, where the electrode covered only 10% of the top and bottom surfaces at the center to actuate the whole sample, and also monitor the responding vibration. The admittance spectrum of this sample, corresponds to PZT properties under dielectric displacement D constant condition. Furthermore, ceramics with partial-electrodes were also prepared to create short and open circuit boundary conditions, attributing to resonance and anti-resonance modes. In the proposed way, we were able to measure both intensive and extensive elastic compliances and mechanical losses directly for the first time. The accuracy of this new method is compared with the conventional measurements by use of indirect calculations. The preliminary results (by neglecting the 10% actuator part difference at this point) were obtained, which were in good agreements (less than 3% difference) with the previous indirect method.

  10. [Low reactive laser therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Shigeru

    2012-07-01

    The type, characteristics and effect of low reactive laser equipment used for pain treatment in Japan are described in this section. Currently, low reactive laser therapy equipments marketed and used in Japan include diode laser therapeutic device with semiconductor as a medium consisting of aluminum, gallium and arsenic. Low reactive laser equipment comes in three models, the first type has a capacity of generating 1,000 mW output, and the second type has a capacity of generating 10 W output. The third type has four channels of output, 60, 100, 140 and 180 mW and we can select one channel out of the four channels. This model is also used as a portable device because of its light weight, and we can carry it to wards and to the outside of the hospital. Semiconductor laser has the capacity of deepest penetration and the effect tends to increase proportionally to the increasing output. Low reactive laser therapy is less invasive and lower incidence of complications. Although low reactive laser therapy might be effective for various pain disorders, the effect is different depending on the type of pain. We should keep in mind that this therapy will not give good pain relief equally in all patients with pain.

  11. Correlation of predicted and measured thermal stresses on an advanced aircraft structure with dissimilar materials. [hypersonic heating simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Additional information was added to a growing data base from which estimates of finite element model complexities can be made with respect to thermal stress analysis. The manner in which temperatures were smeared to the finite element grid points was examined from the point of view of the impact on thermal stress calculations. The general comparison of calculated and measured thermal stresses is guite good and there is little doubt that the finite element approach provided by NASTRAN results in correct thermal stress calculations. Discrepancies did exist between measured and calculated values in the skin and the skin/frame junctures. The problems with predicting skin thermal stress were attributed to inadequate temperature inputs to the structural model rather than modeling insufficiencies. The discrepancies occurring at the skin/frame juncture were most likely due to insufficient modeling elements rather than temperature problems.

  12. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.

    2016-11-01

    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO2/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 1016 m-2 at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  13. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  14. Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsiara Estanislau Maffei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A reatividade é definida como a reação do animal quando contido num ambiente de contenção móvel. Ela é quantificada por meio do teste de reatividade animal em ambiente de contenção móvel - REATEST®. Este teste consiste num dispositivo eletrônico acoplado à balança e num software específico. O dispositivo capta a movimentação que o animal provoca na balança, durante 20 segundos e a envia para o software que a processa determinando a reatividade do animal numa escala contínua de pontos. Pontuações maiores são de animais mais reativos (mais agressivo. A reatividade foi criada com os objetivos de solucionar os problemas até então existentes na seleção para temperamento e de permitir estimação de parâmetros genéticos mais confiáveis. Ela é uma característica objetiva que tem grande variabilidade fenotípica e é de quantificação rápida, fácil e segura, além de poder ser quantificada em qualquer tipo de balança, o que permite maior aplicabilidade. Ela não interfere nas práticas de manejo das fazendas porque é quantificada no momento da pesagem dos animais. Sua herdabilidade na raça Nelore é de 0,39 ao ano e 0,23 ao sobreano e suas correlações genéticas com ganho de peso diário são de -0,28 do nascimento até desmama e de -0,49 do desmame até ano. Já suas correlações genéticas com desenvolvimento do perímetro escrotal do ano ao sobreano variam de -0,25 e -0,41.The confinement reactivity (CR has been used as a measure of temperament in Brazil and it is defined as the animal reaction when contained in the scale. It is quantified through the animal reactivity test - REATEST®. This test consists of an electronic device coupled to the scale and of specific software. The device captures the movement that the animal provokes in the scale, during 20 seconds and sends it for the software that processes this movement and determines the animal CR in a continuous scale of points. Higher punctuations belong to

  15. Interactive Chemical Reactivity Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Haag, Moritz P; Bosson, Mael; Redon, Stephane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force-feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the Samson programming environment.

  16. Advanced quadrupole ion trap instrumentation for low level vehicle emissions measurements. CRADA final report for number ORNL93-0238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Goeringer, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dearth, M.A. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Environmental Research Consortium

    1997-09-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amenable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of sensitivity, specificity, speed, and flexibility with respect to the technical requirements of the top 15 analyzer.

  17. Continuous plasma density measurement in TJ-II infrared interferometer-Advanced signal processing based on FPGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L., E-mail: luis.esteban-hernandez@ciemat.e [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense No. 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense No. 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, J.A.; Nieto-Taladriz, O. [Departamento de Ingeniera Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense No. 30, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense No. 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This work presents the behavioral simulation in an FPGA of a novel processing system for measuring line average electronic density in the TJ-II stellarator diagnostic, Infra-Red Two-Color Interferometer. Line average electronic density is proportional to phase difference between probing and reference signals of the interferometer, as the Appleton-Hartree cold plasma model states. The novelty of the approach is the development of a real time measuring system where research work has been carried out in two ways: a new interpolation algorithm and the implementation of a new specific processor on an FPGA. The main goal of this new system is to measure line plasma electronic density for several channels in real time, also it will be useful to eliminate intermediate mixing frequency stages (the output signals coming from the interferometer are going to be directly sampled) and finally to generate real time density signals for control purposes in TJ-II and in other diagnostics. This device is intended to be the new data acquisition-processing system for the future six channel infrared interferometer that requires at least 14 input signals. The knowledge acquired could be useful in the design of W7-X and ITER IR-interferometer data acquisition and processing systems.

  18. Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of Health Care Empowerment: development and validation of the Health Care Empowerment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O; Rose, Carol Dawson; Dilworth, Samantha E; Neilands, Torsten B

    2012-01-01

    The Health Care Empowerment Model offers direction for the investigation of patient-controlled engagement and involvement in health care. At the core of the model is the construct of Health Care Empowerment (HCE), for which there exist no validated measures. A set of 27 candidate self-report survey items was constructed to capture five hypothesized inter-related facets of HCE (informed, engaged, committed, collaborative, and tolerant of uncertainty). The full item set was administered to 644 HIV-infected persons enrolled in three ongoing research studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a two factor solution comprising four items each on two subscales: (1) HCE: Informed, Committed, Collaborative, and Engaged HCE ICCE) and (2) HCE Tolerance of Uncertainty (HCE TU). Subscale scores were evaluated for relationships with relevant constructs measured in the three studies, including depression, provider relationships, medication adherence, and HIV-1 viral load. Findings suggest the utility of this 8-item Health Care Empowerment Inventory (HCEI) in efforts to measure, understand, and track changes in the ways in which individuals engage in health care.

  19. Advancing theories, models and measurement for an interprofessional approach to shared decision making in primary care: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frosch Dominick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared decision-making (SDM is defined as a process by which a healthcare choice is made by practitioners together with the patient. Although many diagnostic and therapeutic processes in primary care integrate more than one type of health professional, most SDM conceptual models and theories appear to be limited to the patient-physician dyad. The objectives of this study are to develop a conceptual model and propose a set of measurement tools for enhancing an interprofessional approach to SDM in primary healthcare. Methods/Design An inventory of SDM conceptual models, theories and measurement tools will be created. Models will be critically assessed and compared according to their strengths, limitations, acknowledgement of interprofessional roles in the process of SDM and relevance to primary care. Based on the theory analysis, a conceptual model and a set of measurements tools that could be used to enhance an interprofessional approach to SDM in primary healthcare will be proposed and pilot-tested with key stakeholders and primary healthcare teams. Discussion This study protocol is informative for researchers and clinicians interested in designing and/or conducting future studies and educating health professionals to improve how primary healthcare teams foster active participation of patients in making health decisions using a more coordinated approach.

  20. From the similarities between neutrons and radon to advanced radon-detection and improved cold fusion neutron-measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, L.; Espinosa, G.

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons and radon are both ubiquitous in the earth's crust. The neutrons of terrestrial origin are strongly related to radon since they originate mainly from the interactions between the alpha particles from the decays of radioactive-gas (namely Radon and Thoron) and the light nuclei. Since the early studies in the field of neutrons, the radon gas was used to produce neutrons by (α, n) reactions in beryllium. Another important similarity between radon and neutrons is that they can be detected only through the radiations produced respectively by decays or by nuclear reactions. These charged particles from the two distinct nuclear processes are often the same (namely alpha-particles). A typical neutron detector is based on a radiator facing a alpha-particle detector, such as in the case of a neutron film badge. Based on the similarity between neutrons and radon, a film badge for radon has been recently proposed. The radon film badge, in addition to be similar, may be even identical to the neutron film badge. For these reasons, neutron measurements can be easily affected by the presence of unpredictable large radon concentration. In several cold fusion experiments, the CR-39 plastic films (typically used in radon and neutron film-badges), have been the detectors of choice for measuring neutrons. In this paper, attempts will be made to prove that most of these neutron-measurements might have been affected by the presence of large radon concentrations.

  1. Improved accuracy of an LC-MS/MS method measuring 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in serum using unspiked controls and its application to determining cross-reactivity of a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Kirsten G; Hull, George; Sundvall, Jouko; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-03-23

    Measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is considered the best indicator of vitamin D status. Two minor vitamin D metabolites are common interferences encountered in 25(OH)D assays. The first is 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [3-epi-25(OH)D3], which if not chromatographically resolved from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], can overestimate 25(OH)D concentrations. The second is 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3], which can cross-react with the antibodies in 25(OH)D immunoassays. Our aim was to develop an LC-MS/MS method capable of detecting both 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 in serum without the use of a derivatization agent. We report an isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method, with electrospray ionization in the positive mode, that can simultaneously detect 24R,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2. The method employs a cost-effective liquid-liquid extraction using only 150μL of sera and a total run time of 10min. Method performance was assessed by using quality controls made from pooled sera as an alternative to sera spiked with analytes. Biobanked samples, originally analyzed by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), were re-analyzed with this method to determine the contribution of 24R,25(OH)2D3 cross-reactivity to 25(OH)D measurement bias. The CMIA over-estimation of 25(OH)D measurements relative to LC-MS/MS was found to depend on both 25(OH)D and 24R,25(OH)2D3 concentrations.

  2. Korea advanced liquid metal reactor development - Development of measuring techniques of the sodium two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moo Hwan; Cha, Jae Eun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The technology which models and measures the behavior of bubble in liquid sodium is very important to insure the safety of the liquid metal reactor. In this research, we designed/ manufactured each part and loop of experimental facility for sodium two phase flow, and applied a few possible methods, measured characteristic of two phase flow such as bubbly flow. A air-water loop similar to sodium loop on each measuring condition was designed/manufactured. This air-water loop was utilized to acquire many informations which were necessary in designing the two phase flow of sodium and manufacturing experimental facility. Before the manufacture of a electromagnetic flow meter for sodium, the experiment using each electromagnetic flow mete was developed and the air-water loop was performed to understand flow characteristics. Experiments for observing the signal characteristics of flow were performed by flowing two phase mixture into the electromagnetic flow mete. From these experiments, the electromagnetic flow meter was designed and constructed by virtual electrode, its signal processing circuit and micro electro magnet. It was developed to be applicable to low conductivity fluid very successfully. By this experiment with the electromagnetic flow meter, we observed that the flow signal was very different according to void fraction in two phase flow and that probability density function which was made by statistical signal treatment is also different according to flow patterns. From this result, we confirmed that the electromagnetic flow meter could be used to understand the parameters of two phase flow of sodium. By this study, the experimental facility for two phase flow of sodium was constricted. Also the new electromagnetic flow meter was designed/manufactured, and experimental apparatus for two phase flow of air-water. Finally, this study will be a basic tool for measurement of two phase flow of sodium. As the fundamental technique for the applications of sodium at

  3. Reactive power and harmonic compensation based on the generalized instantaneous reactive power theory for three-phase power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang Zheng [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lai, Jih-Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A generalized theory of instantaneous reactive power for three-phase power systems is proposed in this paper. This theory gives a generalized definition of instantaneous reactive power, which is valid for sinusoidal or nonsinusoidal, balanced or unbalanced, three- phase power systems with or without zero-sequence currents and/or voltages. The properties and physical meanings of the newly defined instantaneous reactive power are discussed in detail. With this new reactive power theory, it is very easy to calculate and decompose all components, such as fundamental active/reactive power and current, harmonic current, etc. Reactive power and/or harmonic compensation systems for a three-phase distorted power system with and without zero-sequence components in the source voltage and/or load current are then used as examples to demonstrate the measurement, decomposition, and compensation of reactive power and harmonics.

  4. Measurement of serum antibodies against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA: A guide for the treatment of specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu; Huang, Qian-Rong; Zheng, Guang-Shun; Jiao, Shun-Chang

    2014-10-01

    NY-ESO-1 has been identified as one of the most immunogenic antigens; thus, is a highly attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. The present study analyzed the expression of serum antibodies (Abs) against NY-ESO-1 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), with the aim of guiding the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific-immunotherapy for these patients. Furthermore, the present study was the first to evaluate the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and investigate the possible influencing factors. A total of 239 serum samples from 155 pathologically confirmed patients with advanced CRC (stages III and IV) were collected. The presence of spontaneous Abs against NY-ESO-1 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that 24.5% (38/155) of the investigated patients were positive for NY-ESO-1-specific Abs. No statistically significant correlations were identified between the expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and clinicopathological parameters, including age and gender, location, grading, local infiltration, lymph node status, metastatic status and K-ras mutation status (P>0.05). In 59 patients, the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs was analyzed, of which 14 patients were initially positive and 45 patients were initially negative. Notably, 16/59 (27.1%) patients changed their expression status during the study period, and the initially positive patients were more likely to change compared with the initially negative patients (85.7 vs. 8.8%; PESO-1 by ELISA is an easy and feasible method. The high expression rate of NY-ESO-1-specific Abs in CRC patients indicates that measuring the levels of serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 may guide the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced CRC.

  5. Advancing PROMIS's methodology: results of the Third Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) Psychometric Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Adam C; Cella, David; Cai, Li; Choi, Seung W; Crane, Paul K; Curtis, S McKay; Gruhl, Jonathan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Reise, Steven P; Teresi, Jeanne A; Thissen, David; Wu, Eric J; Hays, Ron D

    2011-12-01

    In 2002, the NIH launched the 'Roadmap for Medical Research'. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) is one of the Roadmap's key aspects. To create the next generation of patient-reported outcome measures, PROMIS utilizes item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing. In 2009, the NIH funded the second wave of PROMIS studies (PROMIS II). PROMIS II studies continue PROMIS's agenda, but also include new features, including longitudinal analyses and more sociodemographically diverse samples. PROMIS II also includes increased emphasis on pediatric populations and evaluation of PROMIS item banks for clinical research and population science. These aspects bring new psychometric challenges. To address this, investigators associated with PROMIS gathered at the Third Psychometric Summit in September 2010 to identify, describe and discuss pressing psychometric issues and new developments in the field, as well as make analytic recommendations for PROMIS. The summit addressed five general themes: linking, differential item functioning, dimensionality, IRT models for longitudinal applications and new IRT software. In this article, we review the discussions and presentations that occurred at the Third PROMIS Psychometric Summit.

  6. An advanced thin foil sensor concept for heat flux and heat transfer measurements in fully turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocikat, H.; Herwig, H.

    2007-02-01

    A double layer hot film with two 10 μm nickel foils, separated by a 25 μm polyimide foil is used as a multi-purpose sensor. Each foil can be operated as a (calibrated) temperature sensor in its passive mode by imposing an electric current small enough to avoid heating by dissipation of electrical energy. Alternatively, however, each foil can also serve as a heater in an active mode with electric currents high enough to cause Joule heating. This double foil sensor can be used as a conventional heat flux sensor in its passive mode when mounted on an externally heated surface. Together with the wall and free stream temperature this measured heat flux will provide the local heat transfer coefficient h = dot{q}w/left(Tw - T_{infty}right). In fully turbulent flows it alternatively can be operated in an active mode on a cold, i.e. not externally heated surface. Then, by heating the upper foil, a local heat transfer is initiated from which the local heat transfer coefficient h can be determined, once the lower foil is heated to the same temperature as the upper one, thus acting as a counter-heater. The overall concept behind this mode of measurement is based on the local character of heat transfer in fully turbulent flows which turns out to be almost independent of the upstream thermal events.

  7. Reactive biomolecular divergence in genetically altered yeast cells and isolated mitochondria as measured by biocavity laser spectroscopy : a rapid diagnostic method for studying cellular responses to stress and disease.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Michael P. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Gourley, Paul Lee; Copeland, Robert Guild; McDonald, Anthony Eugene; Hendricks, Judy K.; Naviaux, Robert K. (Univesity of California, San Diego, CA)

    2006-12-01

    We report an analysis of four strains of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The four strains are grouped in two pairs (wild type and altered), in which one strain differs genetically at a single locus, affecting mitochondrial function. In one pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho0 strain differ by complete removal of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In the second pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho- strain differ by knock-out of the nuclear gene encoding Cox4, an essential subunit of cytochrome c oxidase. The biocavity laser is used to measure the biophysical optic parameter Deltalambda, a laser wavelength shift relating to the optical density of cell or mitochondria that uniquely reflects its size and biomolecular composition. As such, Deltalambda is a powerful parameter that rapidly interrogates the biomolecular state of single cells and mitochondria. Wild-type cells and mitochondria produce Gaussian-like distributions with a single peak. In contrast, mutant cells and mitochondria produce leptokurtotic distributions that are asymmetric and highly skewed to the right. These distribution changes could be self-consistently modeled with a single, log-normal distribution undergoing a thousand-fold increase in variance of biomolecular composition. These features reflect a new state of stressed or diseased cells that we call a reactive biomolecular divergence (RBD) that reflects the vital interdependence of mitochondria and the nucleus.

  8. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  9. An advanced retrieval algorithm for greenhouse gases using polarization information measured by GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR I: Simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, N.; Yoshida, Y.; Uchino, O.; Morino, I.; Yokota, T.

    2016-11-01

    We present an algorithm for retrieving column-averaged dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) from reflected spectra in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) measured by the TANSO-FTS (Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer) sensor on board the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The algorithm uses the two linear polarizations observed by TANSO-FTS to improve corrections to the interference effects of atmospheric aerosols, which degrade the accuracy in the retrieved greenhouse gas concentrations. To account for polarization by the land surface reflection in the forward model, we introduced a bidirectional reflection matrix model that has two parameters to be retrieved simultaneously with other state parameters. The accuracy in XCO2 and XCH4 values retrieved with the algorithm was evaluated by using simulated retrievals over both land and ocean, focusing on the capability of the algorithm to correct imperfect prior knowledge of aerosols. To do this, we first generated simulated TANSO-FTS spectra using a global distribution of aerosols computed by the aerosol transport model SPRINTARS. Then the simulated spectra were submitted to the algorithms as measurements both with and without polarization information, adopting a priori profiles of aerosols that differ from the true profiles. We found that the accuracy of XCO2 and XCH4, as well as profiles of aerosols, retrieved with polarization information was considerably improved over values retrieved without polarization information, for simulated observations over land with aerosol optical thickness greater than 0.1 at 1.6 μm.

  10. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  11. Reactive Turing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, B.; Tilburg, P.J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    We propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system. We show that every computable transition system with a bounded branching degree is simulated modulo diverge

  12. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  13. Clojure reactive programming

    CERN Document Server

    Borges, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Clojure developer who is interested in using Reactive Programming to build asynchronous and concurrent applications, this book is for you. Knowledge of Clojure and Leiningen is required. Basic understanding of ClojureScript will be helpful for the web chapters, although it is not strictly necessary.

  14. Reactive power management of power networks with wind generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amaris, Hortensia; Ortega, Carlos Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    As the energy sector shifts and changes to focus on renewable technologies, the optimization of wind power becomes a key practical issue. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation brings into focus the development and application of advanced optimization techniques to the study, characterization, and assessment of voltage stability in power systems. Recent advances on reactive power management are reviewed with particular emphasis on the analysis and control of wind energy conversion systems and FACTS devices. Following an introduction, distinct chapters cover the 5 key

  15. REACTIVE POWER DEVICES IN SYSTEMS OF ELECTRIC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative characteristic of different concepts and expressions for determination of reactive power in the circuits with non-sinusoidal electric values has been given. For the first Ukrainian electric locomotives of DE1 type with the system of DC electric traction, the values of reactive power after Budeany, Fryze, and also the differential, integral and generalized reactive powers have been determined. Some measures on reducing its consumption by the DC electric rolling stock have been suggested.

  16. Behavioral reactivity to emotion challenge is associated with cortisol reactivity and regulation at 7, 15, and 24 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin

    2014-04-01

    Emotionally arousing stimuli have been largely unsuccessful in eliciting cortisol responses in young children. Whether or not emotion challenge will elicit a cortisol response, however, may in part be determined by the extent to which the tasks elicit behavioral reactivity and regulation. We examined relations of behavioral reactivity and regulation to emotional arousal in the context of fear and frustration to the cortisol response at 7, 15, and 24 months of age in a low income, rural population based sample of 1,292 families followed longitudinally from birth. At each age, children participated in fear and frustration inducing tasks, and cortisol samples were taken at three time points (before the tasks began, 20 min following peak emotional arousal or after the series of tasks ended, and 40 min after peak arousal or the tasks ended) in order to capture both increases (reactivity) and subsequent decreases (regulation) in the cortisol response. Using multilevel models, we predicted the cortisol response from measures of behavioral reactivity and regulation. At 7 months of age, cortisol reactivity and recovery were related to behavioral reactivity during a frustration-eliciting task and marginally related to behavioral reactivity during a fear-eliciting task. At 15 and 24 months of age, however, cortisol reactivity and recovery were related only to behavioral reactivity during a fear-eliciting task. Results indicate that while behavioral reactivity is predictive of whether or not infants and young children will exhibit a cortisol response to emotionally arousing tasks, behavioral and cortisol reactivity are not necessarily coupled.

  17. Airline return-on-investment model for technology evaluation. [computer program to measure economic value of advanced technology applied to passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This report presents the derivation, description, and operating instructions for a computer program (TEKVAL) which measures the economic value of advanced technology features applied to long range commercial passenger aircraft. The program consists of three modules; and airplane sizing routine, a direct operating cost routine, and an airline return-on-investment routine. These modules are linked such that they may be operated sequentially or individually, with one routine generating the input for the next or with the option of externally specifying the input for either of the economic routines. A very simple airplane sizing technique was previously developed, based on the Brequet range equation. For this program, that sizing technique has been greatly expanded and combined with the formerly separate DOC and ROI programs to produce TEKVAL.

  18. Advanced analytical methodologies for measuring healthy ageing and its determinants, using factor analysis and machine learning techniques: the ATHLOS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Caballero, Francisco; Soulis, George; Engchuan, Worrawat; Sánchez-Niubó, Albert; Arndt, Holger; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Chatterji, Somnath; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.

    2017-01-01

    A most challenging task for scientists that are involved in the study of ageing is the development of a measure to quantify health status across populations and over time. In the present study, a Bayesian multilevel Item Response Theory approach is used to create a health score that can be compared across different waves in a longitudinal study, using anchor items and items that vary across waves. The same approach can be applied to compare health scores across different longitudinal studies, using items that vary across studies. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) are employed. Mixed-effects multilevel regression and Machine Learning methods were used to identify relationships between socio-demographics and the health score created. The metric of health was created for 17,886 subjects (54.6% of women) participating in at least one of the first six ELSA waves and correlated well with already known conditions that affect health. Future efforts will implement this approach in a harmonised data set comprising several longitudinal studies of ageing. This will enable valid comparisons between clinical and community dwelling populations and help to generate norms that could be useful in day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:28281663

  19. The ESO UVES Advanced Data Products Quasar Sample - VI. Sub-Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Metallicity Measurements and the Circum-Galactic Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Quiret, S; Zafar, T; Kulkarni, V P; Jenkins, E D; Milliard, B; Rahmani, H; Popping, A; Sandhya, R M; Turnshek, D A; Monier, E M

    2016-01-01

    The Circum-Galactic Medium (CGM) can be probed through the analysis of absorbing systems in the line-of-sight to bright background quasars. We present measurements of the metallicity of a new sample of 15 sub-damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers (sub-DLAs, defined as absorbers with 19.0 < log N(H I) < 20.3) with redshift 0.584 < $\\rm z_{abs}$ < 3.104 from the ESO Ultra-Violet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) Advanced Data Products Quasar Sample (EUADP). We combine these results with other measurements from the literature to produce a compilation of metallicity measurements for 92 sub-DLAs as well as a sample of 362 DLAs. We apply a multi-element analysis to quantify the amount of dust in these two classes of systems. We find that either the element depletion patterns in these systems differ from the Galactic depletion patterns or they have a different nucleosynthetic history than our own Galaxy. We propose a new method to derive the velocity width of absorption profiles, using the modeled Voigt profile feat...

  20. Skin microvascular reactivity in patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihor, Ana; Gergar, Maša; Gaberšček, Simona; Lenasi, Helena

    2016-11-04

    Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired vascular function; however, little is known about its impact on microcirculation. We aimed to determine skin microvascular reactivity in hypothyroidism focusing on endothelial function and the sympathetic response. We measured skin laser Doppler (LD) flux (LDF) on the volar forearm and the finger pulp using LD flowmetry in hypothyroid patients (N = 13) and healthy controls (N = 15). Skin microvascular reactivity was assessed by a three-minute occlusion of the brachial artery, inducing postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PRH), and by a four-minute local cooling of the hand. An electrocardiogram (ECG), digital artery blood pressure and skin temperature at the measuring sites were recorded. Baseline LDF, the digital artery blood pressure and the heart rate were comparable between patients and controls. On the other hand, patients exhibited significantly longer PRH duration, significantly higher blood pressure during cooling (unpaired t-test, p skin microcirculation and an apparent increase in sympathetic reactivity after local cooling in hypothyroid patients. Hypothyroidism induces subtle changes of some haemodynamic parameters in skin microcirculation implying altered endothelial function and altered sympathetic reactivity.

  1. Measurement and correlation of supercritical CO2 and ionic liquid systems for design of advanced unit operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi MACHIDA; Ryosuke TAGUCHI; Yoshiyuki SATO; Louw J.FLORUSSE; Cor J.PETERS; Richard L.SMITH,Jr

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids combined with supercritical fluid technology hold great promise as working solvents for developing compact processes. Ionic liquids, which are organic molten salts, typically have extremely low volatility and high functionality, but possess high viscos-ities, surface tensions and low diffusion coefficients, which can limit their applicability. CO2, on the other hand,especially in its supercritical state, is a green solvent that can be used advantageously when combined with the ionic liquid to provide viscosity and surface tension reduction and to promote mass transfer. The solubility of CO2 in the ionic liquid is key to estimating the important physical properties that include partition coefficients, viscosities,densities, interfacial tensions, thermal conductivities and heat capacities needed in contactor design. In this work, we examine a subset of available high pressure pure component ionic liquid PVT data and high pressure CO2-ionic liquid solubility data and report new correlations for CO2-ionic liquid systems with equations of state that have some industrial applications including: (1) general, (2) fuel desulfurization, (3) CO2 capture, and (4) chiral separation.New measurements of solubility data for the CO2 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate, [bmim][OcSO4] system are reported and correlated. In the correlation of the CO2 ionic liquid phase behavior, the Peng-Robinson and the Sanchez-Lacombe equations of state were considered and are compared. It is shown that excellent correlation of CO2 solubility can be obtained with either equation and they share some common characteristics regarding inter-action parameters. In the Sanchez-Lacombe equation,parameters that are derived from the supercritical region were found to be important for obtaining good correlation of the CO2-ionic liquid solubility data.

  2. Dynamics of reactive collisions by optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, A. González; Vetter, R.

    This paper reviews recent developments in the study of reactive collisions using optical methods. Although the basic approach is from the experimental viewpoint, attention is paid to the conceptual and theoretical aspects of the physics underlying modern reaction dynamics. After a brief resume of basic concepts and definitions on both scalar and vectorial quantities characterizing the chemical reaction, a significant body of this paper describes the recent achievements using laser techniques, mainly via laser-induced fluorescence, and chemiluminescence. Both high-resolution crossed-beam and high-resolution bulb studies are presented in a complementary fashion, as they provide a detailed picture of reaction dynamics through the measurement of quantum state specific differential cross-sections. Specific examples include the use of Doppler resolved laser-induced fluorescence, multiphoton ionization or Cars studies. Some examples are also included based on the use of product imaging techniques, the novel approach of obtaining quantum state resolved differential cross-sections for chemical reactions. In addition, new data on the collision energy dependence of the collision cross-section, i.e. the excitation function, obtained by highly sensitive collision energy cross-beam techniques is also presented and reviewed. Another part of the paper is dedicated to recent advances in the study of reaction dynamics using electronically excited species. Emphasis is placed not only on the opening of new channels for chemical reactions but also on the possible outcome of the reaction products associated with the different symmetries of the excited potential energy surfaces. Finally, a section is dedicated to recent developments in studies carried out in the area of van der Waals and cluster reactions. The possibility of clocking the chemical act as well as very efficient trapping of reaction intermediates is illustrated with some examples. Throughout the whole paper care is taken to

  3. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  4. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  5. Establishment of a quantitative ELISA for the measurement of allergen-specific IgE in dogs using anti-IgE antibody cross-reactive to mouse and dog IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayama, Taro; Matsuno, Yukiko; Yasuda, Nobutaka; Tsukui, Toshihiro; Suzuta, Yasuyuki; Koyanagi, Masanori; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Olivry, Thierry; Masuda, Kenichi

    2011-02-15

    As IgE plays a pivotal role in type I hypersensitivity-mediated allergic diseases, it is valuable to measure absolute quantity of serum antigen-specific IgE for clinical and research purposes. Here we describe a novel ELISA system that enables quantification of antigen-specific IgE in ng/ml in dogs. A newly developed monoclonal antibody (CRE-DM) was shown to recognize canine and mouse IgE equally in a dose dependent manner, but it did not recognize canine IgG. The reactivity of CRE-DM to canine IgE was also confirmed by an inhibition ELISA using canine IgE as an inhibitor and the maximum inhibition rate was 91.3%. In order to know whether canine IgE specific to an allergen could be quantitatively measured with an ELISA using CRE-DM, we established a quantitative ELISA that could measure canine IgE recognizing Cry j 1, one of the major allergens of Japanese cedar pollen. In this ELISA, a standard curve was created by using concentration-predetermined Cry j 1-specific monoclonal mouse IgE. According to the standard curve, the concentration of Cry j 1-specific IgE in dogs that were experimentally sensitized to Japanese cedar pollen could be calculated and determined in ng/ml. The specificity of the Cry j 1-specific IgE ELISA using CRE-DM was also confirmed by inhibition ELISA using canine IgE as an inhibitor and the inhibition rate was 97.0%. Reproducibility of the ELISA in three independent assays was determined using groups of pooled canine sera whose Cry j 1-IgE titers ranged from 155.9 to 888.2 ng/ml. Intra- and inter-assay reproducibility was determined with coefficient of variation ranging between 3.1-5.2% and 2.2-8.0%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the ELISA utilizing CRE-DM was a specific, reliable and robust new laboratory test that could quantify absolute amount of antigen-specific IgE in canine serum. The ELISA will serve as a useful tool in the clinics to evaluate the change of serum IgE titers during anti-allergic treatments as well as

  6. Transient terahertz photoconductivity measurements of minority-carrier lifetime in tin sulfide thin films: Advanced metrology for an early stage photovoltaic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, R.; Sher, Meng-Ju; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K.; Steinmann, V.; Yang, Chuanxi; Hartman, Katy; Nelson, Keith A.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.; Gordon, Roy G.; Buonassisi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Materials research with a focus on enhancing the minority-carrier lifetime of the light-absorbing semiconductor is key to advancing solar energy technology for both early stage and mature material platforms alike. Tin sulfide (SnS) is an absorber material with several clear advantages for manufacturing and deployment, but the record power conversion efficiency remains below 5%. We report measurements of bulk and interface minority-carrier recombination rates in SnS thin films using optical-pump, terahertz-probe transient photoconductivity (TPC) measurements. Post-growth thermal annealing in H2S gas increases the minority-carrier lifetime, and oxidation of the surface reduces the surface recombination velocity. However, the minority-carrier lifetime remains below 100 ps for all tested combinations of growth technique and post-growth processing. Significant improvement in SnS solar cell performance will hinge on finding and mitigating as-yet-unknown recombination-active defects. We describe in detail our methodology for TPC experiments, and we share our data analysis routines in the form freely available software.

  7. Variations in coal maceral chemistry with rank advance in the German Creek and Moranbah Coal Measures of the Bowen Basin, Australia, using electron microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Colin R.; Li, Zhongsheng; Gurba, Lila W. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 (Australia)

    2005-07-20

    Variations in the elemental composition of individual macerals in seams from the Permian German Creek and Moranbah Coal Measures in the Bowen Basin of Queensland have been studied over a wide range of coal ranks, using light-element electron microprobe techniques, to establish the coalification tracks of key macerals in a single coal-bearing interval from subbituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. Vitrinite reflectance (Rv{sub max}) in the seams studied increases from 0.39% in the western part of the basin to over 3.5% in the east, apparently due to increases in burial depth. The study extends significantly the rank range covered by previous work on elemental analysis of individual macerals in the Gunnedah Basin, and provides a more useful basis than whole-coal analysis to evaluate the performance of coals in different utilisation processes. The microprobe results show that the carbon content of the telocollinite increases dramatically from 66% to 90% as the vitrinite reflectance of the coals (Rv{sub max}) increases from 0.39% to around 1.75%, but increases only slightly, from 90% to 91%, as Rv{sub max} increases from 1.75% to 3.52%. Oxygen decreases from around 26% to approximately 5% as Rv{sub max} increases from 0.39% to around 1.75%, and then decreases only very slightly into the anthracite range. The nitrogen content of the telocollinite in these coals also appears to decrease slightly with rank advance, and appears moreover to display a relatively abrupt drop at around 2% Rv{sub max}. This may be associated with the development of ammonium illite in the mineral matter. Organic sulphur in the telocollinite, on the other hand, seems to remain essentially constant with rank advance, at least in this particular succession. In contrast to vitrinite, fusinite and inertodetrinite have significantly higher but somewhat more constant carbon contents, varying only from around 81% to 93% C over the rank range studied. Oxygen in these macerals decreases from

  8. Determination of two reactive dyes concentration in dyed cotton fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to determine the unknown concentration of dichlortriazinyl reactive dyes, namely Reactive Yellow 22 and Reactive Blue 163, in dyed cotton fabric. The samples of cotton fabric were dyed individually with each dye as well as with a mixture of two dyes. The unknown concentrations of dyes were determined by measuring the corresponding reflectance values of dyed fabric samples and then using the relation between the concentration and reflectance values of the samples. The method set by Kubelka and Munk was used. The accuracy and repeatability of the concentrations determination were calculated by the statistical processing of the data obtained by measurements. Relative errors of individual determination of Reactive Yellow 22 and Reactive Blue 163 were 3.66% and 5.94% respectively. Relative errors in determination of