WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced mixed waste

  1. Advanced mixed waste treatment project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AMWTP DEIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with four alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. Four alternatives were analyzed: The No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The proposed AMWTP facility would treat low-level mixed waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste in preparation for disposal. Transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approval disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socio-economics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment. The AMWTP DEIS identifies as the Preferred Alternative the Proposed Action, which is the construction and operation of the AMWTP facility

  2. Russian technology advancements for waste mixing and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineers at the Mining and Chemical Combine nuclear facility, located in Zheleznogorsk, Russia, have developed a pulsating mixer/sluicer to mobilize a layer of consolidated, hardened sludge at the bottom of their 12-m-diameter by 30-m-high nuclear waste tanks. This waste has resisted mobilization by conventional sluicing jets. The new pulsating mixer/sluicer draws tank liquid into a pressure vessel, then expels it at elevated pressure either through a set of submerged mixing jets or a steerable through-air jet. Four versions (or generations) of this technology have been developed. Following testing of three other Russian mobilization and transfer systems at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a first generation of the new pulsating mixer/sluicer was identified for possible waste retrieval applications in U.S. high-level waste tanks (1). A second-generation pulsating mixer/sluicer was developed and successfully deployed in Tank TH-4 at the Oak Ridge Reservation, located in Tennessee, US (2). A thud-generation pulsating mixed/sluicer with a dual nozzle design was developed and is being tested for possible use by the Hanford Site's River Protection Project to retrieve waste from Tank 241-S-102, a single-shell tank containing radioactive saltcake and sludge. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area, the Mining and Chemical Combine is conducting cold (that is, nonradioactive) tests and demonstrations of the third-generation system in 2001 and 2002. This work is being conducted through the Tank Retrieval and Closure Demonstration Center, which is sponsored by the National Nuclear Safety Administration's Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (NN-40). A fourth-generation dual-nozzle pulsating mixer/sluicer is undergoing cold testing for use at the Mining and Chemical Combine to retrieve radioactive sludge there in 2004

  3. Advanced robotics technology applied to mixed waste characterization, sorting and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are over one million cubic meters of radioactively contaminated hazardous waste, known as mixed waste, stored at Department of Energy facilities. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing methods to safely and efficiently treat this type of waste. LLNL has automated and demonstrated a means of segregating items in a mixed waste stream. This capability incorporates robotics and automation with advanced multi-sensor information for autonomous and teleoperational handling of mixed waste items with previously unknown characteristics. The first phase of remote waste stream handling was item singulation; the ability to remove individual items of heterogeneous waste directly from a drum, box, bin, or pile. Once objects were singulated, additional multi-sensory information was used for object classification and segregation. In addition, autonomous and teleoperational surface cleaning and decontamination of homogeneous metals has been demonstrated in processing mixed waste streams. The LLNL waste stream demonstration includes advanced technology such as object classification algorithms, identification of various metal types using active and passive gamma scans and RF signatures, and improved teleoperational and autonomous grasping of waste objects. The workcell control program used an off-line programming system as a server to perform both simulation control as well as actual hardware control of the workcell. This paper will discuss the motivation for remote mixed waste stream handling, the overall workcell layout, sensor specifications, workcell supervisory control, 3D vision based automated grasp planning and object classification algorithms

  4. Advanced robotics technology applied to mixed waste characterization, sorting and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Hurd, R.; Grasz, E.

    1994-04-01

    There are over one million cubic meters of radioactively contaminated hazardous waste, known as mixed waste, stored at Department of Energy facilities. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing methods to safely and efficiently treat this type of waste. LLNL has automated and demonstrated a means of segregating items in a mixed waste stream. This capability incorporates robotics and automation with advanced multi-sensor information for autonomous and teleoperational handling of mixed waste items with previously unknown characteristics. The first phase of remote waste stream handling was item singulation; the ability to remove individual items of heterogeneous waste directly from a drum, box, bin, or pile. Once objects were singulated, additional multi-sensory information was used for object classification and segregation. In addition, autonomous and teleoperational surface cleaning and decontamination of homogeneous metals has been demonstrated in processing mixed waste streams. The LLNL waste stream demonstration includes advanced technology such as object classification algorithms, identification of various metal types using active and passive gamma scans and RF signatures, and improved teleoperational and autonomous grasping of waste objects. The workcell control program used an off-line programming system as a server to perform both simulation control as well as actual hardware control of the workcell. This paper will discuss the motivation for remote mixed waste stream handling, the overall workcell layout, sensor specifications, workcell supervisory control, 3D vision based automated grasp planning and object classification algorithms.

  5. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  6. Using Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Technology To Meet Accelerated Cleanup Program Milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some DOE Complex facilities are entering the late stages of facility closure. As waste management operations are completed at these sites, remaining inventories of legacy mixed wastes must be finally disposed. These wastes have unique physical, chemical and radiological properties that have made their management troublesome, and hence why they have remained on site until this late stage of closure. Some of these wastes have had no approved or practical treatment alternative until just recently. Results are provided from using advanced mixed waste treatment technology to perform two treatment campaigns on these legacy wastes. Combinations of macro-encapsulation, vacuum thermal desorption (VTD), and chemical stabilization, with off-site incineration of the organic condensate, provided a complete solution to the problem wastes. One program included approximately 1,900 drums of material from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. Another included approximately 1,200 drums of material from the Accelerated Cleanup Program at the Oak Ridge Reservation. Both of these campaigns were conducted under tight time schedules and demanding specifications, and were performed in a matter of only a few months each. Coordinated rapid waste shipment, flexible permitting and waste acceptance criteria, adequate waste receiving and storage capacity, versatile feed preparation and sorting capability, robust treatment technology with a broad feed specification, and highly reliable operations were all valuable components to successful accomplishment of the project requirements. Descriptions of the waste are provided; material that was difficult or impossible to treat in earlier phases of site closure. These problem wastes included: 1) the combination of special nuclear materials mixed with high organic chemical content and/or mercury, 2) high toxic metal content mixed with high organic chemical content, and 3) very high organic chemical content mixed with debris, solids and sludge

  7. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base

  8. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  9. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  10. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  11. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

  12. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost

  13. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  14. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  15. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  16. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions

  17. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-05-18

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  18. Advanced robotics handling and controls applied to Mixed Waste characterization, segregation and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Mixed Waste Operations program of the Department of Energy Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), a key emphasis is developing a total solution to the problem of characterizing, handling and treating complex and potentially unknown mixed waste objects. LLNL has been successful at looking at the problem from a system perspective and addressing some of the key issues including non-destructive evaluation of the waste stream prior to the materials entering the handling workcell, the level of automated material handling required for effective processing of the waste stream objects (both autonomous and tele-operational), and the required intelligent robotic control to carry out the characterization, segregation, and waste treating processes. These technologies were integrated and demonstrated in a prototypical surface decontamination workcell this past year

  19. The Challenges of Creating a Real-Time Data Management System for TRU-Mixed Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges associated with creating a data management system for waste tracking at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL). The waste tracking system combines data from plant automation systems and decision points. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information to enable the plant operators and engineers to assess the risks associated with each container and determine the best method of treating it. It is also used to track the transuranic (TRU) waste containers as they move throughout the various processes at the plant. And finally, the goal of the system is to support paperless shipments of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the approach, methodologies, the underlying design of the database, and the challenges of creating the Data Management System (DMS) prior to completion of design and construction of a major plant. The system was built utilizing an Oracle database platform, and Oracle Forms 6i in client-server mode. The underlying data architecture is container-centric, with separate tables and objects for each type of analysis used to characterize the waste, including real-time radiography (RTR), non-destructive assay (NDA), head-space gas sampling and analysis (HSGS), visual examination (VE) and coring. The use of separate tables facilitated the construction of automatic interfaces with the analysis instruments that enabled direct data capture. Movements are tracked using a location system describing each waste container's current location and a history table tracking the container's movement history. The movement system is designed to interface both with radio-frequency bar-code devices and the plant's integrated control system (ICS). Collections of containers or information, such as batches, were created across the various types of analyses, which enabled a single, cohesive approach to be developed for verification and

  20. Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE has developed a National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan which calls for the construction of 2 to 9 mixed waste treatment centers in the Complex in the near future. LLNL is working to establish an integrated mixed waste technology development and demonstration system facility, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), to support the DOE National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan. The MWMF will develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate incinerator-alternatives which will comply with regulations governing the treatment and disposal of organic mixed wastes. LLNL will provide the DOE with engineering data for design and operation of new technologies which can be implemented in their mixed waste treatment centers. MWMF will operate under real production plant conditions and process samples of real LLNL mixed waste. In addition to the destruction of organic mixed wastes, the development and demonstration will include waste feed preparation, material transport systems, aqueous treatment, off-gas treatment, and final forms, thus making it an integrated ''cradle to grave'' demonstration. Technologies from offsite as well as LLNL's will be tested and evaluated when they are ready for a pilot scale demonstration, according to the needs of the DOE

  1. Advanced oxidation and reduction processes: Closed-loop applications for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Los Alamos we are engaged in applying innovative oxidation and reduction technologies to the destruction of hazardous organics. Non thermal plasmas and relativistic electron-beams both involve the generation of free radicals and are applicable to a wide variety of mixed waste as closed-loop designs can be easily engineered. Silent discharge plasmas (SDP), long used for the generation of ozone, have been demonstrated in the laboratory to be effective in destroying hazardous organic compounds and offer an altemative to existing post-incineration and off-gas treatments. SDP generates very energetic electrons which efficiently create reactive free radicals, without adding the enthalpy associated with very high gas temperatures. A SDP cell has been used as a second stage to a LANL designed, packed-bed reactor (PBR) and has demonstrated DREs as high as 99.9999% for a variety of combustible liquid and gas-based waste streams containing scintillation fluids, nitrates, PCB surrogates, and both chlorinated and fluorinated solvents. Radiolytic treatment of waste using electron-beams and/or bremsstrahlung can be applied to a wide range of waste media (liquids, sludges, and solids). The efficacy and economy of these systems has been demonstrated for aqueous waste through both laboratory and pilot scale studies. We win present recent experimental and theoretical results for systems using stand alone SDP, combined PBR/SDP, and electron-beam treatment methods

  2. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  3. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  4. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  5. Mixed waste regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency are developing a dual regulatory program governing mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste. Due to the absence of a facility authorized to accept such waste for disposal, mixed waste generators are forced to store such waste on-site and thereby subject themselves to complex technical standards and permitting requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The paper discusses the results to date of the nuclear utility industry's technical analyses on the mixed waste issue, describes the industry's proposals for a legislative resolution of the issue, and provides general guidance for development of a facility-specific regulatory strategy by individual mixed waste generators

  6. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D

    2011-02-14

    The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in

  7. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and

  8. Mixed waste analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved superpower relations followed by the Soviet Union's collapse acted as catalysts for changing the mission at Rocky Flats. Now, environmental concerns command as much attention as production capability. As a result, laboratory instruments once dedicated to plutonium production have a new purpose - the analysis of mixed wastes. Waste drums destined for WIPP require headspace analysis by GS/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC). Flame AA analysis provides information on inorganic constituents. EPA guidelines for waste analysis (SW-846) overlook the obstacles of glove box manipulations. Sometimes, SW-846 guidelines conflict with the Rocky Flats waste minimization effort. However, the EPA encourages SW-846 adaptations if experimental data confirms the results. For water and soil samples, AA analysis of laboratory control samples show method capability inside a glove box. Non-radioactive drum headspace samples use a revised version of USEPA compendium method TO-14. Radioactive drum headspace samples require new instrumentation and change to SW-846 methods

  9. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  10. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country's most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country's largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation's mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE's earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies

  11. Mixed waste, a generator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compounds labelled with carbon-14 and tritium are used worldwide as tools for fundamental research in academic biochemical and medical research laboratories. Mixed waste, waste that is both hazardous and radioactive, is generated in the manufacture of these vital products. DuPont NEN Research Products has reduced the mixed waste originating in labelled chemicals' manufacture by 30% over the past year. Application of innovative waste minimization strategies will continue to reduce the volume of waste, but not eliminate it. As long as radiolabeled compounds are synthesized, mixed waste will be generated and disposal or treatment capacity will be needed

  12. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization

  13. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  14. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  15. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater

  16. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ''Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?'' That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation's mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation's mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ''Which mixed waste has no treatment option?'' Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology

  17. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  18. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers

  19. Asphalt solidification of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed wastes pose a problem to generators since there are no burial sites or treatment facilities currently accepting this waste type. One potential disposal method is treating the waste to render it non-hazardous, and disposing of it in accordance with radioactive waste requirements. A possible means of accomplishing this transformation is solidifying the waste in asphalt (bitumen). Associated Technologies Incorporated, in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, solidified in asphalt a surrogate sodium nitrate-based waste, spiked with EPtoxic metals and non-radioactive cesium and strontium. This paper reports the characteristics of the spiked ORNL solution that was solidified as well as the properties of the solidified end product. The waste samples generated underwent EP toxicity testing as well as ANS 16.1 leach testing for 90 days and the results of those tests are presented. Also, a discussion of the criteria for classifying a waste as hazardous are included in order to demonstrate that the waste, once solidified in asphalt, may no longer be considered hazardous

  20. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  1. Vitrification development for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification is a promising approach to waste-form immobilization. It destroys hazardous organic compounds and produces a durable and highly stable glass. Vitrification tests were performed on three surrogate wastes during fiscal year 1994; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste from Hanford, bottom ash from the Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator, and saltcrete from Rocky Flats. Preliminary glass development involved melting trials followed by visual homogeneity examination, short-duration leach tests on glass specimens, and long-term leach tests on selected glasses. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements were taken for the most durable glass formulations. Results for the saltcrete are presented in this paper and demonstrate the applicability of vitrification technology to this mixed waste

  2. Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation

  3. Mixed Waste Treatment Project -- Scope and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) facilities currently store and generate significant quantities of mixed wastes - mixtures of materials containing both radioactive and hazardous chemical contamination. These wastes must be managed in compliance with DOE requirements and EPA Land Disposal Restrictions. To help meet these requirements for low-level mixed wastes, the DOE Office of Waste Operations has established The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP). The overall goal of the MWTP is demonstration of effective treatment of low-level mixed wastes in a full-scale prototype plant. The MWTP staff, supported by a technical committee comprised of waste operations representatives from Hanford, Idaho, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats and Savannah River have reviewed the three major DOE data bases, the Integrated Data Base, the National Report on Prohibited Wastes and the Waste Management Information System data base managed by HAZWRAP. Database upgrades to meet MWTP needs are being pursued by field visits to the major mixed waste generators. A reference flowsheet was developed for treatment of low level contact handled mixed wastes. Technology gaps identified by these analyses are being used by DOE Waste Operations, and the Office of Technology Development to define technology development needs. A brief analysis of options for deployment of capabilities to treat mixed wastes at DOE facilities nationwide has been conducted

  4. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately

  5. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  6. Overview of robotics for Mixed Waste Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Operations Robotics program is developing robotics technology to make the handling and treatment of Department of Energy mixed waste; better, faster, safer and cheaper. This technology will provide remote operations and not require humans to be in contact with this radioactive and hazardous waste. The technology includes remote handling and opening of waste containers, remote removal of waste from the containers, remote characterization and sorting of the waste, and remote treatment and disposition of the waste. The initial technology development program culminated in an integrated demonstration in November 1993 and each aspect of this technology is described

  7. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration

  8. Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

  9. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper

  10. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  11. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  12. The mixed waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to ∼$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at ∼$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability

  13. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal

  14. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

  15. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP

  16. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits

  17. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  18. DOE regulatory reform initiative vitrified mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with responsibly managing the largest volume of mixed waste in the United States. This responsibility includes managing waste in compliance with all applicable Federal and State laws and regulations, and in a cost-effective, environmentally responsible manner. Managing certain treated mixed wastes in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage and disposal units (specifically those mixed wastes that pose low risks from the hazardous component) is unlikely to provide additional protection to human health and the environment beyond that afforded by managing these wastes in storage and disposal units subject to requirements for radiological control. In October, 1995, the DOE submitted a regulatory reform proposal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relating to vitrified mixed waste forms. The technical proposal supports a regulatory strategy that would allow vitrified mixed waste forms treated through a permit or other environmental compliance mechanism to be granted an exemption from RCRA hazardous waste regulation, after treatment, based upon the inherent destruction and immobilization capabilities of vitrification technology. The vitrified waste form will meet, or exceed the performance criteria of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass that has been accepted as an international standard for immobilizing radioactive waste components and the LDR treatment standards for inorganics and metals for controlling hazardous constituents. The proposal further provides that vitrified mixed waste would be responsibly managed under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) while reducing overall costs. Full regulatory authority by the EPA or a State would be maintained until an acceptable vitrified mixed waste form, protective of human health and the environment, is produced

  19. Engineering assessment of mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering assessment of the low-level radioactive mixed waste (contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents) management program at Los Alamos National Laboratory was performed during the summer and fall of 1989. The assessment was aimed at developing recommendations for upgrading existing or developing new mixed waste treatment, storage, characterization, and disposal capabilities at the facility. The assessment was initiated with a comparison of actual waste containers in storage to (1) the records maintained on those wastes and to (2) planning estimates of the types and rates of mixed wastes produced. The various types of mixed waste, calculated in this study to be generated at an annual rate of 160 cubic meters (projected from 1989 data), were categorized into 30 groupings of similar characteristics. These groupings were further combined by the types of treatment required to allow the waste to be disposed in accordance with EPA requirements. Three broad categories of treatment needs were thus generated and potential treatment processes and methods to satisfy these needs were identified. On-site laboratory capabilities to perform analytical characterization of mixed waste were reviewed

  20. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  1. Argonne-West Waste Characterization Area for mixed TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-West has developed characterize and repackage transuranic mixed waste, the Waste Characterization Area (WCA). This new facility is designed to current Department of Energy design criteria for radioactive waste handling facilities Characterization and repackaging of real waste within the WCA began in April 1994. Characterization operations include visual examination of solid waste and drum headspace and inner bag gas sample collection and analysis. Additions planned for the WCA in late 1994 include equipment for sludge waste core sample extraction, preparation, and analysis. This paper addresses general design strategy, facility features, and specialized equipment associated with the WCA

  2. Bayesian Control for Concentrating Mixed Nuclear Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Robert L.; Smith, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    A control algorithm for batch processing of mixed waste is proposed based on conditional Gaussian Bayesian networks. The network is compiled during batch staging for real-time response to sensor input.

  3. Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended

  4. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis

  5. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  6. Upfront Delisting of F006 Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE at the Savannah River Site will petition the US EPA to upfront delist treatment residues generated from the vitrification of approximately 650,000 gallons of a regulated mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. The upfront petition, based on bench-scale treatability studies and pilot-scale system data, will exclude the vitrified wasteform from hazardous waste management regulations. The EPA encourages the use of the upfront delisting method as it allows applicants prior knowledge of waste specific treatment standards, which when met will render the waste non-hazardous, before generating the final wasteform. To meet the EPA performance based treatment standards, the waste must be stabilized to control the leaching of hazardous and radioactive constituents from the final wasteform. SRS has contracted a vendor to stabilize the mixed waste in a temporary Vitrification Treatment Facility (VTF). The EPA has declared vitrification as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high level radioactive wastes and the DOE Office of Technology Development has taken the position that mixed waste needs to be stabilized to the highest degree possible to ensure that the resulting wasteform meets both current and future regulatory specifications. Treatability studies conducted on a VTF pilot-scale system unit indicates that the mixed waste can be converted into a highly durable glass form, which exceeds the projected EPA performance based criteria. Upfront petitions can be processed by the EPA concurrently during facility construction or permitting activities; therefore, the SRS VTF will be capable of producing wastes which are considered non-hazardous sooner than otherwise expected. At the same time, EPA imposed conditional testing requirements to verify that the delisting levels are achieved by the fully operational VTF, ensures that only non-hazardous wastes are removed from hazardous waste management regulations. Vitrification of the (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Mixed Waste Integrated Program -- Problem-oriented technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. Technology development is ongoing in technical areas required to process mixed waste: materials handling, chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction, off-gas treatment, final forms, and process monitoring/control. MWIP is currently developing a suite of technologies to process heterogeneous waste. One robust process is the fixed-hearth plasma-arc process that is being developed to treat a wide variety of contaminated materials with minimal characterization. Additional processes encompass steam reforming, including treatment of waste under the debris rule. Advanced off-gas systems are also being developed. Vitrification technologies are being demonstrated for the treatment of homogeneous wastes such as incinerator ash and sludge. An alternative to conventional evaporation for liquid removal--freeze crystallization--is being investigated. Since mercury is present in numerous waste streams, mercury removal technologies are being developed

  8. Mixed Wastes Vitrification by Transferred Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.TAPIA-FABELA; G.ZlSSIS; M.PACHECO-PACHECO; J.PACHECO-SOTELO; C.TORRES-REYES; R.VALDIVIA-BARRIENTOS; J.BENITEZ-READ; R.LOPEZ-CALLEJAS; F.RAMOS-FLORES; S.BOSHLE

    2007-01-01

    Thermal plasma technology provides a stable and long term treatment of mixed wastes through vitrification processes.In this work,a transferred plasma system was realized to vitrify mixed wastes,taking advantage of its high power density,enthalpy and chemical reactivity as well as its rapid quenching and high operation temperatures.To characterize the plasma discharge,a temperature diagnostic is realized by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES).To typify the morphological structure of the wastes samples,scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were applied before and after the plasma treatment.

  9. Status of mixed-waste regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste is waste containing radionuclides regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under the Atomic Energy Act, as well as hazardous waste materials regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This has led to a situation of dual regulation in which both NRC and EPA regulate the same waste under requirements that at times appear conflicting. The NRC has been working with the EPA to resolve the issues associated with the dual regulation of mixed waste. Discussions between the two agencies indicate that dual regulation of mixed wastes appears technically achievable, although the procedures may be complex and burdensome to the regulated community. The staffs of both agencies have been coordinating their efforts to minimize the burden of dual regulation on state agencies and the industry. Three major issues were identified as sources of potential regulatory conflict: (a) definition and identification of mixed waste, (b) siting guidelines for disposal facilities, and (c) design concepts for disposal units

  10. Trends in the management of mixed and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed wastes include hazardous as well as radioactive wastes. The factors driving mixed waste management and the changing industry practices involving mixed wastes are presented. The evolution of the waste management program is discussed. Attention is focused on DOE environmental programs

  11. Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  12. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Finney, R. [Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  13. Co-disposal of mixed waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal

  14. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  15. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  16. Mixed Waste Encapsulation in Polyester Resins. Treatment for Mixed Wastes Containing Salts. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference #1685

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous solid mixed wastes, such as treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of nitrate, sulfate, and chloride salts makes traditional cement stabilization of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. Salts can effect the setting rate of cements and can react with cement hydration products to form expansive and cement damaging compounds. Many of these salt wastes are in a dry granular form and are the by-product of treating spent acidic and metal solutions used to recover and reformulate nuclear weapons materials over the past 50 years. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) alone, there is approximately 8,000 cubic meters of nitrate salts (potassium and sodium nitrate) stored above ground with an earthen cover. Current estimates indicate that over 200 million kg of contaminated salt wastes exist at various DOE sites. Continued primary treatment of waste water coupled with the use of mixed waste incinerators may generate an additional 5 million kg of salt-containing, mixed waste residues each year. One of the obvious treatment solutions for these salt-containing wastes is to immobilize the hazardous components to meet Environmental Protection Agency/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (EPA/RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thus rendering the mixed waste to a radioactive waste only classification. One proposed solution is to use thermal treatment via vitrification to immobilize the hazardous component and thereby substantially reduce the volume, as well as provide exceptional durability. However, these melter systems involve expensive capital apparatus with complicated off-gas systems. In addition, the vitrification of high salt waste may cause foaming and usually requires extensive development to specify glass

  17. Hazardous and mixed waste transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas. (J.P.N.)

  18. Mixed Waste Integrated Program emerging technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. Over the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1.2 m3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) wastes. In order to successfully manage and treat these mixed wastes, DOE must adapt and develop characterization, treatment, and disposal technologies which will meet performance criteria, regulatory approvals, and public acceptance. Although technology to treat MLLW is not currently available without modification, DOE is committed to developing such treatment technologies and demonstrating them at the field scale by FY 1997. The Office of Research and Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) within the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), OfFice of Technology Development, is responsible for the development and demonstration of such technologies for MLLW and MTRU wastes. MWIP advocates and sponsors expedited technology development and demonstrations for the treatment of MLLW

  19. The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996

  20. MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE's mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel

  1. Mixed radioactive and chemotoxic wastes (RMW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first decades of development of nuclear energy, organizations involved in the management of nuclear wastes had their attention focused essentially on radioactive components. The impression may have prevailed that, considering the severe restrictions on radioactive materials, the protection measured applied for radioactive components of wastes would be more than adequate to cope with potential hazards from non radioactive components associated with radioactive wastes. More recently it was acknowledged that such interpretation is not necessarily justified in all cases since certain radioactive wastes also contain non-negligible amounts of heavy metals or hazardous organic components which, either, do not decay, or are subject to completely different decay (decomposition) mechanisms. The main purposes of the present study are to analyze whether mixed radioactive wastes are likely to occur in Europe and in what form, whether one needs a basis for integration for evaluating various forms of toxicity and by which practical interventions possible problems can be avoided or at least reduced. (au)

  2. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  3. Waste management planned for the advanced fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program has been proposed to develop and employ advanced technologies to increase the proliferation resistance of spent nuclear fuels, recover and reuse nuclear fuel resources, and reduce the amount of wastes requiring permanent geological disposal. In the initial GNEP fuel cycle concept, spent nuclear fuel is to be reprocessed to separate re-usable transuranic elements and uranium from waste fission products, for fabricating new fuel for fast reactors. The separated wastes would be converted to robust waste forms for disposal. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is proposed by DOE for developing and demonstrating spent nuclear fuel recycling technologies and systems. The AFCF will include capabilities for receiving and reprocessing spent fuel and fabricating new nuclear fuel from the reprocessed spent fuel. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication activities will generate a variety of radioactive and mixed waste streams. Some of these waste streams are unique and unprecedented. The GNEP vision challenges traditional U.S. radioactive waste policies and regulations. Product and waste streams have been identified during conceptual design. Waste treatment technologies have been proposed based on the characteristics of the waste streams and the expected requirements for the final waste forms. Results of AFCF operations will advance new technologies that will contribute to safe and economical commercial spent fuel reprocessing facilities needed to meet the GNEP vision. As conceptual design work and research and design continues, the waste management strategies for the AFCF are expected to also evolve. (authors)

  4. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  5. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ''lessons learned'' from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors

  6. PERMIT ROADMAP DEVELOPMENT FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and DOE established a multi-year Interagency Agreement (IAG) in1991. he main objective of the IAG (and of the second IAG that was added in 1993) is to conduct a research program on thermal technologies for treating mixed waste and to establish permit procedures for these tech...

  7. Mixed waste paper as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A successful recycling program requires several components: education and promotion, convenient collection service, and most importantly, a market for collected materials. In Washington state, domestic markets currently have, or are building, the capacity to use most of the glass, newsprint, aluminum, tin cans, and corrugated materials that are collected. Unfortunately, markets for mixed waste paper (MWP), a major component of the state's solid waste stream, have been slow to develop and are unable to absorb the tremendous volumes of material generated. The American Paper Stock Institute classifies MWP as low grade paper such as magazines, books, scrap paper, non-corrugated cardboard (boxboard/chipboard), and construction paper. When viewed as part of a curbside collection program MWP consists primarily of catalogs, binder paper, magazines, brochures, junk mail, cereal boxes, and other household packaging items. A comprehensive analysis of Washington State's solid waste stream showed that during 1988, Washington citizens generated approximately 460,000 tons of mixed waste paper. No small amount, this is equivalent to more than 10% of the total solid waste generated in the state, and is expected to increase. Current projections of MWP generation rates indicated that Washington citizens could discard as much as 960,000 tons of MWP by the year 2010 making it one of the single largest components of the state's solid waste stream. This paper reports on the use of MWP as fuel source

  8. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: A DOE technology demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is a national demonstration test bed that will be used to evaluate, at pilot scale, emerging technologies for the effective treatment of low-level radioactive, organic mixed wastes. The treatment technologies will be selected from candidates of advanced processes that have been sufficiently demonstrated in laboratory and bench-scale tests, and most closely meet suitable criteria for demonstration. The primary and initial goal will be to demonstrate technologies that have the potential to effectively treat a selection of organic-based mixed waste streams, currently in storage within the DOE, that list incineration as the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT). In future operations, the facility may also be used to demonstrate technology that addresses a broader range of government, university, medical, and industry needs. The primary objective of the MWMF is to demonstrate integrated mixed-waste processing technologies. While primary treatment processes are an essential component of integrated treatment trains, they are only a part of a fully integrated demonstration

  9. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  10. Processing of Oak Ridge Mixed Waste Labpacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Site Treatment Plan (STP) issued under a Tennessee Commissioner's Order includes a compliance milestone related to treatment of mixed waste labpacks on the Oak Ridge sites. The treatment plan was written and approved in Fiscal Year 1997. The plan involved approximately 1,100 labpacks and 7,400 on-the-shelf labpackable items stored at three Department of Energy (DOE) sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The labpacks and labpack items consist of liquids and solids with various chemical constituents and radiological concerns. The waste must be processed for shipment to a commercial hazardous waste treatment facility or treatment utilizing a Broad Spectrum mixed waste treatment contract. This paper will describe the labpack treatment plan that was developed as required by the Site Treatment Plan and the operations implemented to process the labpack waste. The paper will discuss the labpack inventory in the treatment plan, treatment and disposal options, processing strategies, project risk assessment, and current project status

  11. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-02-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator.

  12. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1997, eleven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  14. Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that, in the future, mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) may be used for the ambient temperature destruction of hazardous waste and for the conversion of mixed waste to low-level radioactive waste. The authors have studied the MEO of ethylene glycol and benzene, two model compounds, in an electrochemical reactor. The reactor had a rotating-cylinder anode that was operated both well below the limiting current for Ag(II) generation. Rates of CO2 generation were measured and used to calculate both destruction and current efficiencies for the process. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify several reaction intermediates. A simple model was developed to predict the time dependence of CO2 evolution

  15. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified

  16. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste stream analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 requires that the US Department of Energy (DOE) provide technical assistance to host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States to fulfill their responsibilities under the Act. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) operated for DOE by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. provides technical assistance in the development of new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. The NLLWMP has been requested by the Appalachian Compact to help the biomedical community become better acquainted with its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community, and to provide applicable treatment technologies to those particular mixed waste streams. Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) and contains hazardous waste that either (a) is listed as a hazardous waste in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, or (b) causes the LLW to exhibit any of the hazardous waste characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261. The purpose of this report is to clearly define and characterize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community so that an identification can be made of the waste streams that can and cannot be minimized and treated by current options. An understanding of the processes and complexities of generation of mixed waste in the biomedical community may encourage more treatment and storage options to become available

  17. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000 degrees C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700 degrees C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Laboratory analysis of mixed waste oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste oils are generated in the normal process of operating a nuclear power plant. These oils accumulate during operation and maintenance. The most common sources are from pumps and turbines. Other sources are from valves, motors, snubbers and other miscellaneous components. The oils may be contaminated with hazardous substances, as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), or with radioactivity, or both. Levels of activity are in the 0.04Bq/mL level. Used oils are regulated by the EPA under RCRA, section 1004(36). Any massively contaminated adulterated used oils are classified as hazardous waste. Alternatives, such as continued use of some oils, incineration, disposal and non hazardous waste or hazardous mixed waste depends on the results of laboratory analysis. Oil samples which have been received from nuclear utilities require analytical information in order to make the appropriate procedural or disposal determination. This paper discusses how a broad array of chemical, radiochemical, and physical tests are run on these samples

  19. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Technical Support Program; Owens, C.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  1. Mixed waste removal from a hazardous waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel transfer canal at the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was found to be leaking 400 gallons of water per day into the surrounding soil. Sampling of the sediment layer on the floor of the canal to determine the environmental impact of the leak identified significant radiological contamination and elevated levels of cadmium and lead which are hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under RCRA regulations and Rules of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the canal was considered a hazardous waste storage tank. This paper describes elements of the radiological control program established in support of a fast-track RCRA closure plan that involved underwater mapping of the radiation fields, vacuuming, and ultra-filtration techniques that were successfully used to remove the mixed waste sediments and close the canal in a method compliant with state and federal regulations

  2. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste

  3. Prospects for vitrification of mixed wastes at ANL-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes a study evaluating the prospects for vitrification of some of the mixed wastes at ANL-E. This project can be justified on the following basis: Some of ANL-E's mixed waste streams will be stabilized such that they can be treated as a low-level radioactive waste. The expected volume reduction that results during vitrification will significantly reduce the overall waste volume requiring disposal. Mixed-waste disposal options currently used by ANL-E may not be permissible in the near future without treatment technologies such as vitrification

  4. Prospects for vitrification of mixed wastes at ANL-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, J.; No, Hyo

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes a study evaluating the prospects for vitrification of some of the mixed wastes at ANL-E. This project can be justified on the following basis: Some of ANL-E`s mixed waste streams will be stabilized such that they can be treated as a low-level radioactive waste. The expected volume reduction that results during vitrification will significantly reduce the overall waste volume requiring disposal. Mixed-waste disposal options currently used by ANL-E may not be permissible in the near future without treatment technologies such as vitrification.

  5. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well

  6. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) process was studied for destroying low-level combustible mixed wastes at Rocky Flats Plant. Tests were performed with non-radioactive surrogate materials: Trimsol for contaminated cutting oils, and reagent-grade cellulose for contaminated cellulosic wastes. Extensive testing was carried out on Trimsol in both small laboratory-scale apparatus and on a large-scale system incorporating an industrial-size electrochemical cell. Preliminary tests were also carried out in the small-scale system with cellulose. Operating and system parameters that were studied were: use of a silver-nitric acid versus a cobalt-sulfuric acid system, effect of electrolyte temperature, effect of acid concentration, and effect of current density. Destruction and coulombic efficiencies were calculated using data obtained from continuous carbon dioxide monitors and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of electrolyte samples. For Trimsol, the best performance was achieved with the silver-nitrate system at high acid concentrations, temperatures, and current densities. Destruction efficiencies of 99% or greater, and coulombic efficiencies up to 70% were obtained. For the cellulose, high destruction efficiencies and reasonable coulombic efficiencies were obtained for both silver-nitrate and cobalt-sulfate systems

  7. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission

  8. Characterization of radioactive mixed wastes: The industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical and chemical characterization of Radioactive Mixed Wastes (RMW) is necessary for determination of appropriate treatment options and to satisfy environmental regulations. Radioactive mixed waste can be classified as two main categories; contact-handled (low level) RMW and remote-handled RMW. Ibis discussion will focus mainly on characterization of contact handled RMW. The characterization of wastes usually follows one of two pathways: (1) characterization to determine necessary parameters for treatment or (2) characterization to determine if the material is a hazardous waste. Sometimes, however, wastes can be declared as hazardous waste without testing and then treated as hazardous waste. Characterization of radioactive mixed wastes pose some unique issues, however, that will require special solutions. Below, five issues affecting sampling and analysis of RMW will be discussed

  9. Radioactive and mixed waste management plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Plan for the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is written to meet the requirements for an annual report of radioactive and mixed waste management activities outlined in DOE Order 5820.2A. Radioactive and mixed waste management activities during FY 1994 listed here include principal regulatory and environmental issues and the degree to which planned activities were accomplished

  10. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  11. Argonne National Laboratory's photooxidation organic mixed-waste treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) photo-oxidation organic mixed-waste treatment system. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the waste management facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois

  12. Evaluation of Secondary Streams in Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have generated waste containing radioactive and hazardous chemical components (mixed wastes) for over 50 years. Facilities and processes generating these wastes as well as the regulations governing their management have changed. Now, DOE has 49 sites where mixed waste streams exist. The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (1) required DOE to prepare and obtain regulatory approval of plans for treating these mixed waste streams. Each of the involved DOE sites submitted its respective plan to regulators in April 1995 (2). Most of the individual plans were approved by the respective regulatory agencies in October 1995. The implementation of these plans has begun accordance with compliance instruments (orders) issued by the cognizant regulatory authority. Most of these orders include milestones that are fixed, firm and enforceable as defined in each compliance order. In many cases, mixed waste treatment that was already being carried out and survived the alternative selection process is being used now to treat selected mixed waste streams. For other waste streams at sites throughout the DOE complex treatment methods and schedules are subject to negotiation as the realties of ever decreasing budgets begin to drive the available options. Secondary wastes generated by individual waste treatment systems are also mixed wastes that require treatment in the appropriate treatment system. These secondary wastes may be solid or liquid waste (or both). For example debris washing will generate wastewater requiring treatment; wastewater treatment, in turn, will generate sludge or other residuals requiring treatment; liquid effluents must meet applicable limits of discharge permits. At large DOE sites, secondary waste streams will be a major influence in optimizing design for primary treatment. Understanding these impacts is important not only foe system design, but also for assurances that radiation releases and

  13. Mixed waste study, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document addresses the generation and storage of mixed waste at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from 1984 to 1990. Additionally, an estimate of remaining storage capacity based on the current inventory of low-level mixed waste and an approximation of current generation rates is provided. Section 2 of this study presents a narrative description of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE) requirements as they apply to mixed waste in storage at LLNL's Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on information collected from the HWM non-TRU radioactive waste database, Section 3 presents a data consolidation -- by year of storage, location, LLNL generator, EPA code, and DHS code -- of the quantities of low-level mixed waste in storage. Related figures provide the distribution of mixed waste according to each of these variables. A historical review follows in Section 4. The trends in type and quantity of mixed waste managed by HWM during the past five years are delineated and graphically illustrated. Section 5 provides an estimate of remaining low-level mixed waste storage capacity at HWM. The estimate of remaining mixed waste storage capacity is based on operational storage capacity of HWM facilities and the volume of all waste currently in storage. An estimate of the time remaining to reach maximum storage capacity is based on waste generation rates inferred from the HWM database and recent HWM documents. 14 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  14. EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is directed to develop treatment plans for their stockpile of wastes generated at their various sites. As a result, DOE is facing the monumental problem associated with the treatment and ultimate disposal of their mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste. Meanwhile, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final open-quotes Hazardous Waste Combustion Strategyclose quotes in November 1994. Under the Combustion Strategy, EPA permit writers have been given the authority to use the Omnibus Provision of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to impose more stringent emission limits for waste combustors prior to the development of new regulations. EPA and DOE established a multi-year Interagency Agreement (IAG) in 1991. The main objective of the IAG (and of the second IAG that was added in 1993) is to conduct a research program on thermal technologies for treating mixed waste and to establish permit procedures for these technologies particularly under the new requirements of the above-mentioned EPA Combustion Strategy. The objective of this Paper is to summarize the results of the EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment since the establishment of the original Interagency Agreement. Specifically, this Paper will discuss six activities that have been underway; namely: (1) National Technical Workgroup (NTW) on Mixed Waste Treatment, (2) State-of-the-Art Assessment of APC (Air Pollution Control) and Monitoring Technologies for the Rocky Flats Fluidized Bed Unit, (3) Initial Study of Permit open-quotes Roadmapclose quotes Development for Mixed Waste Treatment, (4) Risk Assessment Approach for a Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment Facility, (5) Development and Application of Technology Selection Criteria for Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment, and (6) Performance Testing of Mixed Waste Incineration: In-Situ Chlorine Capture in a Fluidized Bed Unit

  15. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    As part of its overall program, the MWFA uses a national mixed waste data set to develop approaches for treating mixed waste that cannot be treated using existing capabilities at DOE or commercial facilities. The current data set was originally compiled under the auspices of the 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report. The data set has been updated over the past two years based on Site Treatment Plan revisions and clarifications provided by individual sites. The current data set is maintained by the MWFA staff and is known as MWFA97. In 1996, the MWFA developed waste groupings, process flow diagrams, and treatment train diagrams to systematically model the treatment of all mixed waste in the DOE complex. The purpose of the modeling process was to identify treatment gaps and corresponding technology development needs for the DOE complex. Each diagram provides the general steps needed to treat a specific type of waste. The NWFA categorized each MWFA97 waste stream by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. Appendices B through F provide the complete listing of waste streams by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. The MWFA97 waste strewn information provided in the appendices is defined in Table A-1.

  16. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its overall program, the MWFA uses a national mixed waste data set to develop approaches for treating mixed waste that cannot be treated using existing capabilities at DOE or commercial facilities. The current data set was originally compiled under the auspices of the 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report. The data set has been updated over the past two years based on Site Treatment Plan revisions and clarifications provided by individual sites. The current data set is maintained by the MWFA staff and is known as MWFA97. In 1996, the MWFA developed waste groupings, process flow diagrams, and treatment train diagrams to systematically model the treatment of all mixed waste in the DOE complex. The purpose of the modeling process was to identify treatment gaps and corresponding technology development needs for the DOE complex. Each diagram provides the general steps needed to treat a specific type of waste. The NWFA categorized each MWFA97 waste stream by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. Appendices B through F provide the complete listing of waste streams by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. The MWFA97 waste strewn information provided in the appendices is defined in Table A-1

  17. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  18. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones

  19. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  20. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE's Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP's charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program

  1. Assessment of LANL transuranic mixed waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to present findings from the evaluation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria to determine its compliance with applicable DOE requirements. The driving requirements for s TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria are essentially those contained in the ''TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' or WIPP WAC (DOE Report WIPP-DOE-069), 40 CFR 261-270, and DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management), specifically Chapter II which is entitled ''Management of Transuranic Waste''. The primary purpose of the LANL WAC is the establishment of those criteria that must be met by generators of TRU mixed waste before such waste can be accepted by the Waste Management Group. An annotated outline of a genetic TRU mixed waste acceptance criteria document was prepared from those requirements contained in the WIPP WAC, 40 CFR 261-270, and 5820.2A, and is based solely upon those requirements

  2. Preliminary plan for treating mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Conner, C.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A.; Nunez, L.; Sedlet, J.; Wygmans, D.G.

    1993-06-01

    A preliminary waste treatment plan was developed for disposing of radioactive inorganic liquid wastes that contain hazardous metals and/or hazardous acid concentrations at Argonne National Laboratory. This plan, which involves neutralization and sulfide precipitation followed by filtration, reduces the concentration of hazardous metals and the acidity so that the filtrate liquid is simply a low-level radioactive waste that can be fed to a low-level waste evaporator.

  3. Preliminary plan for treating mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary waste treatment plan was developed for disposing of radioactive inorganic liquid wastes that contain hazardous metals and/or hazardous acid concentrations at Argonne National Laboratory. This plan, which involves neutralization and sulfide precipitation followed by filtration, reduces the concentration of hazardous metals and the acidity so that the filtrate liquid is simply a low-level radioactive waste that can be fed to a low-level waste evaporator

  4. Recycling of mixed wastes using Quantum-CEP{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameski, B.

    1997-02-01

    The author describes the process that M4 Environmental Management, Inc., is commercializing for the treatment of mixed wastes. He summarizes the types of wastes which the process can be applied to, the products which come out of the process, and examples of various waste streams which have been processed. The process is presently licensed to treat mixed wastes and the company has in place contracts for such services. The process uses a molten metal bath to catalyze reactions which break the incoming products down to an atomic level, and allow different process steams to be tapped at the output end.

  5. An Economic Analysis of Mixing Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.T. Aalbers (Rob); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUsing a general equilibrium model with heterogeneous waste, this paper studies optimal waste policy when households have to exert separation effort to produce near-homogeneous waste streams suitable for recycling. Our model explicitly allows for changes in the composition (quality) of wa

  6. Identification of permit and waste acceptance criteria provisions requiring modification for acceptance of commercial mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1990, representatives of States and compact regions requested that the US Department of Energy (DOE) explore an agreement with host States and compact regions under which DOE would accept commercial mixed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at DOE's own treatment and disposal facilities. A program for DOE management of commercial mixed waste is made potentially more attractive in light of the low commercial mixed waste volumes, high regulatory burdens, public opposition to new disposal sites, and relatively high cost of constructing commercial disposal facilities. Several studies were identified as essential in determining the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste for disposal. The purpose of this report is to identify any current or proposed waste acceptance criteria (WAC) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) provisions that would have to be modified for commercial mixed waste acceptance at specified DOE facilities. Following the introduction, Section 2 of this report (a) provides a background summary of existing and proposed mixed waste disposal facilities at each DOE site, and (b) summarizes the status of any RCRA Part B permit and WAC provisions relating to the disposal of mixed waste, including provisions relating to acceptance of offsite waste. Section 3 provides overall conclusions regarding the current status and permit modifications that must be implemented in order to grant DOE sites authority under their permits to accept commercial mixed waste for disposal. Section 4 contains a list of references

  7. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene

  8. Requirements for shipment of DOE radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several sources of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the past, were collected at waste tanks and/or sludge tanks. They were eventually pumped out by special pumps and processed in an evaporator located in the waste operations area in Building No. 306. Some of this radioactive mixed waste represents pure elementary mercury. These cleaning tanks must be manually cleaned up because the RMW material was too dense to pump with the equipment in use. The four tanks being discussed in this report are located in Building No. 306. They are the Acid Waste Tank, IMOX/FLOC Tanks, Evaporation Feed Tanks, and Waste Storage Tanks. All of these tanks are characterized and handled separately. This paper discusses the process and the requirements for characterization and the associated paperwork for Argonne Waste to be shipped to Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage

  9. Waste Quantity, Mix and Throughput Study Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the impact that waste stream parameters have on repository design, including surface, subsurface and waste package designs. Two design basis waste streams and corresponding design levels are established for two documented inventories of wastes: (a) Mined Geologic Design System (MGDS) Baseline (Viability Assessment) (VA) and (b) Extended Baseline. The MGDS Baseline VA inventory is currently used as the basis for the VA design of the repository, and is limited by statutes to a total of 70,000 MTU. The Extended Baseline includes the total documented inventories of commercial spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste and US Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel. Impacts of the two design bases on surface, subsurface and waste package designs are projected. The impact of potential disposal of additional commercial and Department of Energy miscellaneous wastes on design is assessed qualitatively

  10. Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL's Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented

  11. Overview of the mixed low-level radioactive waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has jurisdiction over the disposal of solid wastes with the exception of source, byproduct, and special nuclear material, which are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). These low-level hazardous wastes (LLW) can also contain chemical constituents which are hazardous under EPA regulations 40 CFR Part 261. Such wastes are commonly referred to as Mixed Low-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Waste (Mixed LLW). NRC regulations exist to control the byproduct, source, and special nuclear material components of the Mixed LLW; EPA has the authority and continues to develop regulations to control the hazardous component of the Mixed LLW. Thus, all of the individual constituents of Mixed LLW are subject to either NRC or EPA regulations. However, when the components are combined to become Mixed LLW, neither agency has exclusive jurisdiction. This has led to a situation of dual regulation where both agencies, NRC and EPA, regulate the same waste. This paper discusses the jurisdiction issue, NRC's efforts to date, and NRC's present approach to develop guidance to reduce the volume of mixed LLW and to develop alternatives concerning statutory and regulatory differences affecting mixed LLW disposal. 6 references

  12. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal

  13. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present

  14. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  15. Mixed Waste Management Facility closure at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility of the Savannah River Plant received hazardous and solid low level radioactive wastes from 1972 until 1986. Because this facility did not have a permit to receive hazardous wastes, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure was performed between 1987 and 1990. This closure consisted of dynamic compaction of the waste trenches and placement of a 3-foot clay cap, a 2-foot soil cover, and a vegetative layer. Operations of the waste disposal facility, tests performed to complete the closure design, and the construction of the closure cap are discussed herein

  16. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies

  17. Pilot process waste assessment: Polyurethane foam mixing and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a comprehensive assessment of the process waste streams for a polyurethane foam mixing and curing process in a rigid foam molding facility. The assessment includes profiles of waste streams, mass balances, pollution prevention options, benefit analysis of the options, and recommendations

  18. Mixed waste treatment model: Basis and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) required treatment system capacities for risk and cost calculation. Los Alamos was tasked with providing these capacities to the PEIS team. This involved understanding the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste, making the necessary changes to correct for problems, categorizing the waste for treatment, and determining the treatment system requirements. The treatment system requirements depended on the incoming waste, which varied for each PEIS case. The treatment system requirements also depended on the type of treatment that was desired. Because different groups contributing to the PEIS needed specific types of results, we provided the treatment system requirements in a variety of forms. In total, some 40 data files were created for the TRU cases, and for the MLLW case, there were 105 separate data files. Each data file represents one treatment case consisting of the selected waste from various sites, a selected treatment system, and the reporting requirements for such a case. The treatment system requirements in their most basic form are the treatment process rates for unit operations in the desired treatment system, based on a 10-year working life and 20-year accumulation of the waste. These results were reported in cubic meters and for the MLLW case, in kilograms as well. The treatment system model consisted of unit operations that are linked together. Each unit operation's function depended on the input waste streams, waste matrix, and contaminants. Each unit operation outputs one or more waste streams whose matrix, contaminants, and volume/mass may have changed as a result of the treatment. These output streams are then routed to the appropriate unit operation for additional treatment until the output waste stream meets the treatment requirements for disposal. The total waste for each unit operation was calculated as well as the waste for each matrix treated by the unit

  19. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  20. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning

  1. Permitting and licensing of a commercial mixed waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal and state regulations applicable to the Envirocare commercial mixed waste facility in Utah are discussed, with particular emphasis on Utah State Waste Policy. Waste acceptance standards of the facility are detailed. Design conflicts, due to differences between the U.S. Environmental Protection and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and their subsequent resolution are outlined. Other multi-jurisdictional problems and resolutions are discussed in some detail

  2. Mercury separation from mixed wastes. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an assessment of new sorbents for removing Hg from wastes at US DOE sites. Four aqueous wastes were used for the laboratory tests: a simulant of a high-salt, acidic waste currently stored at INEL, a simulant of a high-salt, alkaline waste stored at Savannah River (SRS), a dilute LiOH solution stored at Y-12, and a low-salt, neutral groundwater generated at Y-12. Eight adsorbents covering a wide range of cost and capability were tested. Screening tests identified the most promising adsorbents, and column tests were performed using at least two adsorbents for each waste stream. No one adsorbent is effective in all of these waste streams. Based on loading capacity and compatibility, the most effect adsorbents to date are SuperLig 618 for the INEL tank waste simulant, Mersorb and Ionac SR-3 for the SRS tank waste simulant, Durasil 70 and Ionac SR-3 for the LiOH solution, and Ionac SR-3, followed by Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb, for the Y-12 groundwater

  3. Effect of Mix Parameters on the Strength Performance of Waste Plastics Incorporated Concrete Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh M. Malkapur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of solid wastes has been a major problem all over the world. Out of all the different types of solid wastes, the major challenge of disposal is posed by the ever increasing volumes of plastic wastes. While several methods are in practice, producing newer useful materials by recycling of such plastic wastes is, by far, the best method of their disposal. One such possible method is to use the waste plastics as an ingredient in the production of the concrete mixes in the construction industry. The present study aims to investigate the relative contributions of the various mix parameters to the mechanical properties of concrete mixes produced with waste plastics as partial replacement (10–30% by volume to coarse aggregates. Initially, strength test results of a set of trial mixes, selected based on Taguchi’s design of experiments (DOE method are obtained. A detailed analysis of the experimental results is carried out to study the effect of using waste plastics as a partial replacement to coarse aggregates on the strength parameters of these concrete mixes. It is found that all these trial mixes have performed satisfactorily in terms of workability in the fresh state and strength properties in their hardened state.

  4. Microbial Transformation of TRU and Mixed Waste: Actinide Speciation and Waste Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halada, Gary P

    2008-04-10

    In order to understand the susceptibility of transuranic and mixed waste to microbial degradation (as well as any mechanism which depends upon either complexation and/or redox of metal ions), it is essential to understand the association of metal ions with organic ligands present in mixed wastes. These ligands have been found in our previous EMSP study to limit electron transfer reactions and strongly affect transport and the eventual fate of radionuclides in the environment. As transuranic waste (and especially mixed waste) will be retained in burial sites and in legacy containment for (potentially) many years while awaiting treatment and removal (or remaining in place under stewardship agreements at government subsurface waste sites), it is also essential to understand the aging of mixed wastes and its implications for remediation and fate of radionuclides. Mixed waste containing actinides and organic materials are especially complex and require extensive study. The EMSP program described in this report is part of a joint program with the Environmental Sciences Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Stony Brook University portion of this award has focused on the association of uranium (U(VI)) and transuranic analogs (Ce(III) and Eu(III)) with cellulosic materials and related compounds, with development of implications for microbial transformation of mixed wastes. The elucidation of the chemical nature of mixed waste is essential for the formulation of remediation and encapsulation technologies, for understanding the fate of contaminant exposed to the environment, and for development of meaningful models for contaminant storage and recovery.

  5. Permitting mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities: A mixed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (FFCAct) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to make a comprehensive national inventory of its mixed wastes (i.e., wastes that contain both a hazardous component that meets the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) definition of hazardous waste and a radioactive component consisting of source, special nuclear, or byproduct material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA)), and of its mixed waste treatment technologies and facilities. It also requires each DOE facility that stores or generates mixed waste to develop a treatment plan that includes, in part, a schedule for constructing units to treat those wastes that can be treated using existing technologies. Inherent in constructing treatment units for mixed wastes is, of course, permitting. This paper identifies Federal regulatory program requirements that are likely to apply to new DOE mixed waste treatment units. The paper concentrates on showing how RCRA permitting requirements interrelate with the permitting or licensing requirements of such other laws as the Atomic Energy Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Clean Air Act. Documentation needed to support permit applications under these laws are compared with RCRA permit application documentation. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements are also addressed, and throughout the paper, suggestions are made for managing the permitting process

  6. Innovative technologies for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes incur significant costs for Department of Energy (DOE) installations. These wastes must be managed under strict environmental controls and regulations to prevent the possibility of migration of hazardous materials to the biosphere. Through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, the DOE is seeking to develop innovative ways of improving current treatment technologies to eliminate the hazardous components of wastes, reduce waste management costs, and minimize the volume requiring disposal as hazardous or mixed waste. Sponsored projects progress from research and development to field demonstration. Among the innovative technologies under development are supercritical water oxidation of hazardous chemicals, microwave-assisted destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, paramagnetic separation of metals from waste, detoxification and reclamation of waste acid, nitrate destruction through calcination, treatment/disposal of reactive metals, and methodologies for encapsulation. Technologies at a demonstration phase include detoxification of mixed waste sludge, microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil, and the remediation process for a hydrocarbon spill. 14 refs

  7. Mixed waste: An alternative solution. The utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of mixed waste is one of significant interest to the utility industry. The interest is focused on the current regulatory scheme of dual regulation. A fundamental concern of the commercial nuclear utilities resulting from dual regulation is that there are currently no facilities in the US to dispose of mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste. The lack of available sites renders mixed waste an orphan, requiring generators of such material to store the waste on-site. This in turn causes commercial nuclear power plants to be subjected to the full gamut of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation in addition to the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Superimposing dual regulatory schemes will have impacts which extend far beyond the mere management of mixed waste. Certainly the burdens, complexities and costs of complying with the overlapping regulatory schemes will not have a commensurate increase in protection from the real risks being addressed. For these reasons, the commercial nuclear utility industry is working toward an alternative solution which will protect the public health and the environment from all hazards of mixed waste and will minimize the impacts on both the regulators and the regulated community

  8. Risk assessments of innovative technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop complete and appropriate technologies for the treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste and transuranic wastes in order to ensure that all affected DOE installations and projects can come into compliance with environmental law and meet DOE's 30-yr cleanup and operational goals. The MWIP will achieve its goal by developing technologies that are in compliance with regulatory requirements, are socially and politically viable, and are cost beneficial and effective in disposed waste source term and volume reduction. The project management plan for MWIP requires that technologies be evaluated in accordance with criteria that rank technologies with regard to performance, risk, and cost-effectiveness. This paper addresses the methodology used to rank alternative mixed-water treatment technologies with regard to relative risk

  9. R ampersand D activities at DOE applicable to mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Within the new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Because of US governmental activities dating back to the Manhattan project, mixed radioactive and hazardous waste is an area of particular concern to DOE. The OTD is responsible for a number of R ampersand D activities aimed at improving capabilities to characterize, control, and properly dispose of mixed waste. These activities and their progress to date will be reviewed. In addition, needs for additional R ampersand D on managing mixed waste will be presented. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Mixed waste certification plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of mixed waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan is composed to meet the requirements found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and follows the suggested outline provided by WHC in the letter of April 26, 1990, to Dr. R.H. Thomas, Occupational Health Division, LBL. Mixed waste is to be transferred to the WHC Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington

  11. Computer modeling of forced mixing in waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation results of fluid dynamic and physical processes in radioactive waste storage tanks are presented. Investigations include simulation of jet mixing pump induced flows intended to mix and maintain particulate material uniformly distributed throughout the liquid volume. Physical effects of solids are included in the code. These are particle size through a settling velocity and mixture properties through density and viscosity. Calculations have been accomplished for a centrally located, rotationally-oscillating, horizontally-directed jet mixing pump for two cases. One case is with low jet velocity and high settling velocity. It results in nonuniform distribution. The other case is with high jet velocity and low settling velocity. It results in uniform conditions. Results are being used to aid in experiment design and to understand mixing in the waste tanks. These results are to be used in conjunction with scaled experiments to define limits of pump operation to maintain uniformity of the mixture in the storage tanks during waste retrieval operations

  12. Chemical treatment of mixed waste at the FEMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams

  13. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration currently is the best demonstrated available technology for the large inventory of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste. However, molten salt oxidation (MSO) is an alternative thermal treatment technology with the potential to treat a number of these wastes. Of concern for both technologies is the final waste forms, or residuals, that are generated by the treatment process. An evaluation of the two technologies focuses on 10 existing DOE waste streams and current hazardous-waste regulations, specifically for the delisting of ''derived-from'' residuals. Major findings include that final disposal options are more significantly impacted by the type of waste treated and existing regulations than by the type of treatment technology; typical DOE waste streams are not good candidates for delisting; and mass balance calculations indicate that MSO and incineration generate similar quantities (dry) and types of residuals

  14. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference #117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  15. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  16. Effect of Mix Parameters on the Strength Performance of Waste Plastics Incorporated Concrete Mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh M. Malkapur; Ashish Anand; Amit Prakash Pandey; Alok Ojha; Nimesh Mani; Narasimhan Chandrashekara Mattur

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of solid wastes has been a major problem all over the world. Out of all the different types of solid wastes, the major challenge of disposal is posed by the ever increasing volumes of plastic wastes. While several methods are in practice, producing newer useful materials by recycling of such plastic wastes is, by far, the best method of their disposal. One such possible method is to use the waste plastics as an ingredient in the production of the concrete mixes in the construction in...

  17. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and product lubricated canned

  18. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  19. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  20. Photochemical oxidation: A solution for the mixed waste dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prellberg, J.W.; Thornton, L.M.; Cheuvront, D.A. [Vulcan Peroxidation Systems, Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Numerous technologies are available to remove organic contamination from water or wastewater. A variety of techniques also exist that are used to neutralize radioactive waste. However, few technologies can satisfactorily address the treatment of mixed organic/radioactive waste without creating unacceptable secondary waste products or resulting in extremely high treatment costs. An innovative solution to the mixed waste problem is on-site photochemical oxidation. Liquid-phase photochemical oxidation has a long- standing history of successful application to the destruction of organic compounds. By using photochemical oxidation, the organic contaminants are destroyed on-site leaving the water, with radionuclides, that can be reused or disposed of as appropriate. This technology offers advantages that include zero air emissions, no solid or liquid waste formation, and relatively low treatment cost. Discussion of the photochemical process will be described, and several case histories from recent design testing, including cost analyses for the resulting full-scale installations, will be presented as examples.

  1. Gamma radiolysis of EDTA in a simulated, mixed nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of γ-irradiation on EDTA degradation have been studied. A simulant of Hanford's complex concentrate was prepared by adding EDTA to an inorganic matrix which was formulated based on past analyses of the actual Hanford complex concentrate waste. For the radiolysis study, aliquots of the simulated waste were then γ-irradiated. Each waste sample was analyzed to monitor the appearance of degradation products. Based on the results of this study, an assessment of the impact of EDTA degradation on the management of mixed wastes is offered. (author)

  2. Dangerous Waste Characteristics of Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed Wastes from the Hanford Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Bryan, Garry H.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.

    2004-08-31

    This report summarizes existing analytical data from samples taken from the Hanford tanks designated as potentially containing transuranic mixed process wastes. Process knowledge of the wastes transferred to these tanks has been reviewed to determine whether the dangerous waste characteristics now assigned to all Hanford underground storage tanks are applicable to these particular wastes. Supplemental technologies are being examined to accelerate the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission and accomplish waste treatment safely and efficiently. To date, 11 Hanford waste tanks have been designated as potentially containing contact-handled (CH) transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes. The CH-TRUM wastes are found in single-shell tanks B-201 through B-204, T-201 through T-204, T-104, T-110, and T-111. Methods and equipment to solidify and package the CH-TRUM wastes are part of the supplemental technologies being evaluated. The resulting packages and wastes must be acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The dangerous waste characteristics being considered include ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity arising from the presence of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol at levels above the dangerous waste threshold. The analytical data reviewed include concentrations of sulfur, sulfate, cyanide, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, total organic carbon, and oxalate; the composition of the tank headspace, pH, and mercury. Differential scanning calorimetry results were used to determine the energetics of the wastes as a function of temperature.

  3. Polyethylene encapsulation of mixed wastes: Scale-up feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polyethylene process for the improved encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Improvements in waste loading and waste form performance have been demonstrated through bench-scale development and testing. Maximum waste loadings of up to 70 dry wt% mixed waste nitrate salt were achieved, compared with 13-20 dry wt% using conventional cement processes. Stability under anticipated storage and disposal conditions and compliance with applicable hazardous waste regulations were demonstrated through a series of tab-scale waste form performance tests. Full-scale demonstration of this process using actual or surrogate waste is currently planned. A scale-up feasibility test was successfully conducted, demonstrating the ability to process nitrate salts at production rates (up to 450 kg/hr) and the close agreement between bench- and full-scale process parameters. Cored samples from the resulting pilot-scale (114 liter) waste form were used to verify homogeneity and to provide additional specimens for confirmatory performance testing. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Material Handling Technologies for Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned a study of technologies and equipment for sorting, size reduction, and handling (SSH) of mixed wastes. The primary purposes of the study are to define the existing technical baseline for accomplishing SSH functions, identify technology development needs, and recommend a 'path forward' to ensure timely provision of required SSH capability. A general 'systems engineering' approach is used to identify candidate SSH technologies for description and evaluation. Candidate SSH technologies are described and evaluated to determine their relative suitability for application in radioactive service in the four major functional areas: (1) conveying and feeding; (2) picking, placing, and opening; (3) sorting and separating; and (4) size reduction. The evaluation shows that most existing and commercially available SSH technologies and equipment are ill-suited for application in technologies for radioactive service . Recommendations of the study include priority development of techniques for: (1) automated, effective, dry separation of soft (primarily organic) waste solids from hard (primarily inorganic) waste solids; (2) clean (non-dusting); automated separation of nonmagnetic tramp metals from dry waste solids, (3) rapid, automated debagging of bagged and taped wastes; (4) identification, for removal, and handling of glass subcontainers or otherwise fragile or unacceptable items from waste containers or waste piles; (5) bin transport of wastes and storage/process vessel interfacing; and (6) reliable, continuous transfer of wet or damp, compactable solids or sludges over distances of tens of meters

  5. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  6. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies, developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. This technical baseline is revised on an annual basis to reflect changes in the DOE Mixed Waste Management strategies, changes in the MWFA technical baseline development process, and MWFA accomplishments. This report presents the first revision to the technical baseline and the resulting prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. This report also reflects a higher level of stakeholder involvement in the prioritization of the deficiencies. This document summarizes the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs

  7. Demonstration of Mixed Waste Debris Macroencapsulation Using Sulfur Polymer Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, C.H.

    1998-07-01

    This report covers work performed during FY 1997 as part of the Evaluation of Sulfur Polymer Cement Fast-Track System Project. The project is in support of the ``Mercury Working Group/Mercury Treatment Demonstrations - Oak Ridge`` and is described in technical task plan (TTP) OR-16MW-61. Macroencapsulation is the treatment technology required for debris by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Based upon the results of previous work performed at Oak Ridge, the concept of using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) for this purpose was submitted to the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). Because of the promising properties of the material, the MWFA accepted this Quick Win project, which was to demonstrate the feasibility of macroencapsulation of actual mixed waste debris stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The waste acceptance criteria from Envirocare, Utah, were chosen as a standard for the determination of the final waste form produced. During this demonstration, it was shown that SPC was a good candidate for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris, especially when the debris pieces were dry. The matrix was found to be quite easy to use and, once the optimum operating conditions were identified, very straightforward to replicate for batch treatment. The demonstration was able to render LDR compliant more than 400 kg of mixed wastes stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ross, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nakaoka, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schumacher, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Cunnane, J.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  9. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available

  10. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs

  11. EVALUATION OF HDPE CONTAINERS FOR MACROENCAPSULATION OF MIXED WASTE DEBRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, David; Carlson, Tim; Gardner, Brad; Bushmaker, Robert; Battleson, Dan; Shaw, Mark; Bierce, Lawrence

    2003-02-27

    Macroencapsulation is currently available at facilities permitted by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for the treatment of radioactively contaminated hazardous waste. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the use of high-density polyethylene containers to provide a simpler means of meeting macroencapsulation requirements. Macroencapsulation is used for the purpose of isolating waste from the disposal environment in order to meet the Land Disposal Restriction treatment standards for debris-like waste. The containers being evaluated have the potential of providing a long-term reduction in the leachability and subsequent mobility of both the hazardous and radioactive contaminants in this waste while at the same allowing treatment by the generator as the waste is being generated. While the testing discussed in this paper shows that further developmental work is necessary, these tests also indicate that these containers have the potential to reduce the cost, schedule, and complexity of meeting the treatment standard for mixed waste debris.

  12. Regulatory implications of mixed waste management and the Federal Facilities Compliance Act of 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous waste regulation is one of the most complicated areas of environmental regulation. Jointly regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), mixed waste generators have to comply with both programs, deal with storage and disposal problems, and try to weather the public relations nightmare associated with radioactive materials. In order for mixed waste generators to properly manage their waste, both Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations governing hazardous waste and NRC requirements for radioactive waste must be understood. This paper summarizes the current state of mixed waste regulation, describes typical mixed waste scenarios, and examines in detail the components of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act of 1992 that address mixed waste. The results of the national inventory of mixed wastes required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Act are discussed. Finally, future trends and implications in mixed waste management are addressed

  13. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability

  14. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: ORNL; Y-12 Plant; K-25 Plant; Pantex Plant; Norfolk Naval Shipyard; Hanford Site; and Puget Sound Naval Shipyard

  15. Electrochemical treatment of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical treatment technologies for mixed hazardous waste are currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For a mixed waste containing toxic components such as heavy metals and cyanides in addition to a radioactive component, the toxic components can be removed or destroyed by electrochemical technologies allowing for recovery of the radioactive component prior to disposal of the solution. Mixed wastes with an organic component can be treated by oxidizing the organic compound to carbon dioxide and then recovering the radioactive component. The oxidation can be done directly at the anode or indirectly using an electron transfer mediator. This work describes the destruction of isopropanol, acetone and acetic acid at greater than 90% current efficiency using cobalt +3 or silver +2 as the electron transfer mediator. Also described is the destruction of cellulose based cheesecloth rags with electrochemically generated cobalt +3, at an overall efficiency of approximately 20%

  16. Characterization of mixed waste for shipment to TSD Facilities Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is striving to ship its low-level mixed waste (LLMW) off-site for treatment and disposal. In order to ship LLMW off site to a commercial facility, LANL must request exemption from the DOE Order 5820.2A requirement that LLMW be shipped only to Department of Energy facilities. Because the process of obtaining the required information and approvals for a mixed waste shipment campaign can be very expensive, time consuming, and frustrating, a well-planned program is necessary to ensure that the elements for the exemption request package are completed successfully the first time. LANL has developed such a program, which is cost- effective, quality-driven, and compliance-based. This program encompasses selecting a qualified analytical laboratory, developing a quality project-specific sampling plan, properly sampling liquid and solid wastes, validating analytical data, documenting the waste characterization and decision processes, and maintaining quality records. The products of the program are containers of waste that meet the off-site facility's waste acceptance criteria, a quality exemption request package, documentation supporting waste characterization, and overall quality assurance for the process. The primary goal of the program is to provide an avenue for documenting decisions, procedures, and data pertinent to characterizing waste and preparing it for off-site treatment or disposal

  17. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. 303-K Radioactive mixed-waste storage facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials. The 303-K Radioactive Mixed-Waste Storage Facility (303-K Facility) has been used since 1943 to store various radioactive and dangerous process materials and wastes generated by the fuel manufacturing processes in the 300 Area. The 303-K Radioactive Mixed-Waste Storage Facility is used for the storage of mixed wastes. The north end of the building was used for containers of liquid waste and the outside storage areas were used for containers of solid waste. From 1977 to 1982, the north room was used to cure concreted billets of recyclable scrap uranium with Zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy chips and fines. The concretion process was discontinued in 1982, and these materials are now calcinated in the 303-M Oxide Facility. Other drummed materials have been stored on outside storage areas near the 303-K Facility on concrete, asphalt, and gravel pads. The 303-K Facility will be closed as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 303-K Facility as a greater that 90-day storage facility. Clean closure of the 303-K Building and associated storage areas is the proposed method for final closure of the facility. After this facility is clean closed, it will be used for the storage of radioactive mixed waste for less than 90 days. 15 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis of the multistage mixed refrigerant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is performed for mixed refrigerant systems. • Cost of investment is divided into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous. • Results show that interactions between the components is not considerable. - Abstract: Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is applied on three multi stage mixed refrigerant liquefaction processes. They are propane precooled mixed refrigerant, dual mixed refrigerant and mixed fluid cascade. Cost of investment and exergy destruction for the components with high inefficiencies are divided into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. According to the avoidable exergy destruction cost in propane precooled mixed refrigerant process, C-2 compressor with 455.5 ($/h), in dual mixed refrigerant process, C-1 compressor with 510.8 ($/h) and in mixed fluid cascade process, C-2/1 compressor with 338.8 ($/h) should be considered first. A comparison between the conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analysis is done by three important parameters: Exergy efficiency, exergoeconomic factor and total costs. Results show that interactions between the process components are not considerable because cost of investment and exergy destruction in most of them are endogenous. Exergy destruction cost of the compressors is avoidable while heat exchangers and air coolers destruction cost are unavoidable. Investment cost of heat exchangers and air coolers are avoidable while compressor’s are unavoidable

  20. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to section 3021(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). DOE has prepared this report for submission to EPA and the States in which DOE stores, generates, or treats mixed wastes. As required by the FFCA, this report contains: a national inventory of all mixed wastes in the DOE system that are currently stored or will be generated over the next five years, including waste stream name, description, EPA waste codes, basis for characterization (i.e., sampling and analysis or process knowledge), effect of radionuclides on treatment, quantity stored that is subject to the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) storage prohibition, quantity stored that is not subject to the LDRS, expected generation over the next five years, Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) used for developing the LDR requirements, and waste minimization activities; and a national inventory of mixed waste treatment capacities and technologies, including information such as the descriptions, capacities, and locations of all existing and proposed treatment facilities, explanations for not including certain existing facilities in capacity evaluations, information to support decisions on unavailability of treatment technologies for certain mixed wastes, and the planned technology development activities

  1. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental ampersand Regulatory Planning ampersand Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria

  2. Tritated mixed waste: how can we deal with it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a disposal route exists for radioactive aqueous waste, free of hazardous materials, one solution to the problem could be efficient conversion of the hazardous organic components to water and CO2. A number of traditional methods exist for converting organic solvents to water and CO2, and the processes should be adaptable to use with chemicals containing tritium or carbon-24. We have embarked on a study of the treatability of tritiated mixed waste by catalytic chemical oxidation (CCO), which will yield the products HTO and CO2. Catalytic chemical oxidation technology has been successfully applied to destroy hazardous organic chemicals for many remediation projects. With a mature waste treatment technology, the major roadblock to the widespread use of such processes is regulatory; specifically, materials derived from a listed waste are listed in perpetuity. These types of legal problems need to be squarely addressed by groups such as the DOE Tritium Focus Group, the International isotope Society, and other professional societies whose members feel the negative impact of such unproductive and restrictive legislation. At the very least, catalytic oxidation technology can reduce or eliminate the hazardous nature of mixed wastes (ie. their 'characteristic'), thereby allowing more flexible management of these materials. With some thought, planning and co-operation between institutions, some tritiated mixed waste streams might cease to exist, and the tritium they contained could be made available for recycling

  3. INEEL HEPA Filter Leach System: A Mixed Waste Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyle, Mark Don; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Archibald, Kip Ernest; Brewer, Ken Neal; Pierson, Kenneth Alan; Shackelford, Kimberlee Rene; Kline, Kelli Suzanne

    1999-03-01

    Calciner operations and the fuel dissolution process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have generated many mixed waste high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The HEPA Filter Leach System located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center lowers radiation contamination levels and reduces cadmium, chromium, and mercury concentrations on spent HEPA filter media to below disposal limits set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The treated HEPA filters are disposed as low-level radioactive waste. The technical basis for the existing system was established and optimized in initial studies using simulants in 1992. The treatment concept was validated for EPA approval in 1994 by leaching six New Waste Calcining Facility spent HEPA filters. Post-leach filter media sampling results for all six filters showed that both hazardous and radiological constituent levels were reduced so the filters could be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Since the validation tests the HEPA Filter Leach System has processed 78 filters in 1997 and 1998. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory HEPA Filter Leach System is the only mixed waste HEPA treatment system in the DOE complex. This process is of interest to many of the other DOE facilities and commercial companies that have generated mixed waste HEPA filters but currently do not have a treatment option available.

  4. INEEL HEPA Filter Leach System: A Mixed Waste Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calciner operations and the fuel dissolution process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have generated many mixed waste high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The HEPA Filter Leach System located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center lowers radiation contamination levels and reduces cadmium, chromium, and mercury concentrations on spent HEPA filter media to below disposal limits set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The treated HEPA filters are disposed as low-level radioactive waste. The technical basis for the existing system was established and optimized in initial studies using simulants in 1992. The treatment concept was validated for EPA approval in 1994 by leaching six New Waste Calcining Facility spent HEPA filters. Post-leach filter media sampling results for all six filters showed that both hazardous and radiological constituent levels were reduced so the filters could be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Since the validation tests the HEPA Filter Leach System has processed 78 filters in 1997 and 1998. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory HEPA Filter Leach System is the only mixed waste HEPA treatment system in the DOE complex. This process is of interest to many of the other DOE facilities and commercial companies that have generated mixed waste HEPA filters but currently do not have a treatment option available

  5. INEEL HEPA Filter Leach System: A Mixed Waste Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Archibald; K. Brewer; K. Kline; K. Pierson; K. Shackelford; M. Argyle; R. Demmer

    1999-02-01

    Calciner operations and the fuel dissolution process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have generated many mixed waste high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)filters. The HEPA Filter Leach System located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center lowers radiation contamination levels and reduces cadmium, chromium, and mercury concentrations on spent HEPA filter media to below disposal limits set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The treated HEPA filters are disposed as low-level radioactive waste. The technical basis for the existing system was established and optimized in initial studies using simulants in 1992. The treatment concept was validated for EPA approval in 1994 by leaching six New Waste Calcining Facility spent HEPA filters. Post-leach filter media sampling results for all six filters showed that both hazardous and radiological constituent levels were reduced so the filters could be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Since the validation tests the HEPA Filter Leach System has processed 78 filters in 1997 and 1998. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory HEPA Filter Leach System is the only mixed waste HEPA treatment system in the DOE complex. This process is of interest to many of the other DOE facilities and commercial companies that have generated mixed waste HEPA filters but currently do not have a treatment option available.

  6. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies

  7. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments

  8. Physical/chemical treatment of mixed waste soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the results and findings of the demonstration testing of a physical/chemical treatment technology for mixed wastes. The principal objective of the tests was to demonstrate the capability of the low temperature thermal separation (LTTS) technology for rendering PCB-contaminated mixed waste soils as nonhazardous and acceptable for low level radioactive waste disposal. The demonstration testing of this technology was a jointly-conducted project by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) Waste Management Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and IT Corporation. This pilot-scale demonstration program testing of IT's thermal separator technology in Oak Ridge was conducted as part of the DOE Model Program. This program has private industry, regulators, and universities helping to solve DOE waste management problems. Information gained from the DOE Model is shared with the participating organizations, other federal agencies, and regulatory agencies. The following represent the most significant findings from these demonstration tests: Thermal separation effectively separated PCB contamination from a mixed waste to enable the treated soil to be managed as low level radioactive waste. At the same operating conditions, mercury contamination of 0.8 ppM was reduced to less than 0.1 ppM. The majority of uranium and technetium in the waste feeds oil remained in the treated soil. Radionuclide concentration in cyclone solids is due to carry-over of entrained particles in the exit gas and not due to volatilization/condensation. Thermal separation also effectively treated all identified semi-volatile contaminants in the waste soil to below detection limits with the exception of di-n-butylphthalate in one of the two runs. 4 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  9. RCRA closure of mixed waste impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, F.J. [Doty and Associates (United States); Greengard, T.C.; Arndt, M.B. [Rockwell International (United States)

    1989-11-01

    A case study of a RCRA closure action at the Rocky Flats Plant is presented. Closure of the solar evaporation ponds involves removal and immobilization of a mixed hazardous/radioactive sludge, treatment of impounded water, groundwater monitoring, plume delineation, and collection and treatment of contaminated groundwater. The site closure is described within the context of regulatory negotiations, project schedules, risk assessment, clean versus dirty closure, cleanup levels, and approval of closure plans and reports. Lessons learned at Rocky Flats are summarized.

  10. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB's, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives

  11. Vitrification development for sludge and ash mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary glass development was carried out on four surrogate wastes. The surrogate wastes evaluated were ash and sludge from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sludge from Rocky Flats, and sludge from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The work involved numerous melting trails followed by visual homogeneity examination and short-duration leach testing on glass specimens. Melter testing on selected compositions was performed with a laboratory-scale joule-heated furnace. With proper formulations and melter operating parameters, these mixed wastes appear to be readily adaptable to available vitrification technology

  12. Mixed wastes treatment in Atucha I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During decontamination works of the fueling machine of Atucha I nuclear power plant (AINPP), a liquid waste with special characteristics was generated, which needed the development of a treatment method. The waste consisted of an emulsion designed for the cleaning of mechanical components and was formed by an organic solvent dispersed in water with aid of an emulsifier additive. After several cleaning operations, the emulsion contained an important quantity of lubricants and radioactive dirt. The treatment had the objective of recycling a toxic waste such as the organic solvent and reducing the volume of the residual mass. Laboratory tests were made tending to the emulsion separation in their components. Ionic force and ionic mobility were modified for join the emulsion micelles and produce their coalescence. Different salts and working temperatures were tried and it was stated that the combination of 1% of Na2SO4 added and 40 degree C temperature were the optimum taking into account the available equipment in AINPP and cost considerations. The process was carried out in batch mode and 3 residual streams were obtained, an aqueous one which was sent to Residual Water System of AINPP, an organic liquid consisting of decontaminated hydrocarbons, useful for other cleaning tasks and finally a solid one, sited in the in-between interface of the other two liquids, consisting of insoluble soaps used as lubricant thickness, containing the principal proportion of radioactivity. As a result of this process we have achieved a volume reduction higher than 90%, the recycling of the organic solvent and concentration of radioactivity in a solid greasy mass with low water solubility. (author)

  13. Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-28

    This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

  14. Stabilization of a mixed waste sludge for land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solidification and stabilization technique was developed for a chemically complex mixed waste sludge containing nitrate processing wastes, sewage sludge and electroplating wastewaters, among other wastes. The sludge is originally from a solar evaporation pond and has high concentrations of nitrate salts; cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations of concern; and low levels of organic constituents and alpha and beta emitters. Sulfide reduction of nitrate and precipitation of metallic species, followed by evaporation to dryness and solidification of the dry sludge in recycled high density polyethylene with added lime was determined to be a satisfactory preparation for land disposal in a mixed waste repository. The application of post-consumer polyethylene has the added benefit of utilizing another problem-causing waste product. A modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure was used to determine required treatment chemical dosages and treatment effectiveness. The waste complexity prohibited use of standard chemical equilibrium methods for prediction of reaction products during treatment. Waste characterization followed by determination of thermodynamic feasibility of oxidation and reduction products. These calculations were shown to be accurate in laboratory testing. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Treatability study of aqueous, land disposal restricted mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment studies have been completed on two aqueous waste streams at the Mixed Waste Storage Facility that are classified as land disposal restricted. Both wastes had mercury and lead as characteristic hazardous constituents. Samples from one of these wastes, composed of mercury and lead sulfide particles along with dissolved mercury and lead, was successfully treated by decanting, filtering, and ion exchanging. The effluent water had an average level of 0.003 and 0.025 mg/L of mercury and lead, respectively. These values are well below the targeted RCRA limits of 0.2 mg/L mercury and 5.0 mg/L lead. An acidic stream, containing the same hazardous metals, was also successfully treated using a treatment process of precipitation, filtering, and then ion exchange. Treatment of another waste was not completely successful, presumably because of the interference of a chelating agent

  16. The mixed waste dilemma - regulatory issues and treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many respects, the legacy of the Manhattan Project has continued beyond the end of the Cold War. The proliferation of nuclear weapons in the last 40 years has resulted in a buildup of radioactive waste in the United States and other countries. Adding to this is waste from domestic nuclear power generation, academia and medical research, and some industrial processes - more consequences of the twentieth century boom in atomic physics. In some cases, this waste is problematic to human health and the environment purely as a result of its radioactivity. In other cases, radioactive components have come into contact with hazardous materials, creating waste that is both hazardous and radioactive - or so-called open-quotes mixed waste.close quotes

  17. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project (RWMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste (MW). The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B Permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  18. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  19. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs

  20. Treatability Variance for Containerised Liquids in Mixed Debris Waste - 12101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRU Waste Processing Center (TWPC) is a Department of Energy facility whose mission is to receive and process for appropriate disposal legacy Contact Handled (CH) and Remote Handled (RH) waste, including debris waste stored at various DOE Oak Ridge facilities. Acceptable Knowledge (AK) prepared for the waste characterizes the waste as mixed waste, meaning it is both radioactive and regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The AK also indicates that a number of the debris waste packages contain small amounts of containerised liquids. The documentation indicates liquid wastes generated in routine lab operations were typically collected for potential recovery of valuable isotopes. However, during activities associated with decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), some containers with small amounts of liquids were placed into the waste containers with debris waste. Many of these containers now hold from 2.5 milliliters (ml) to 237 ml of liquid; a few contain larger volumes. At least some of these containers were likely empty at the time of generation, but documentation of this condition is lacking. Since WIPP compliant AK is developed on a waste stream basis, rather than an individual container basis, and includes every potential RCRA hazardous constituent within the waste stream, it is insufficient for the purpose of characterizing individual containers of liquid. Debris waste is defined in 40 CFR 268.2(g) as 'solid material exceeding a 60 mm particle size that is intended for disposal and that is: a manufactured object; or plant or animal matter; or natural geologic material'. The definition further states that intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured and that retain at least 75% of their original volume are not debris. The prescribed treatment is removal of intact containers from the debris waste, and treatment of their contents to meet specific Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) standards. This is true for

  1. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-09-01

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  2. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2012-07-10

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  3. MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS IN WASTE TANKS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents onsite radiological, onsite toxicological, and offsite toxicological consequences, risk binning, and control decision results for the mixing of incompatible materials in waste tanks representative accident. Revision 4 updates the analysis to consider bulk chemical additions to single shell tanks (SSTs)

  4. The mixed waste management facility, FY95 plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, R.

    1994-12-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1995 Plan for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Major objectives to be completed during FY 1995 for the MWMF project are listed and described. This report also contains a budget plan, project task summaries, a milestone control log, and a responsibility assignment matrix for the MWMF project.

  5. Environmental Protection Agency update on mixed waste regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A. [Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1989-11-01

    This paper is divided into discussion of the following four basic areas: (1) dual regulation; (2) the state role; (3) an overview of current agency activities; and (4) current issues. The first area, dual regulation of mixed waste, requires the cooperation between regulatory agencies, whether federal or state, for managing the chemical and radioactive aspects of mixed waste. Dual or joint regulation of mixed waste is now a well established fact. The second area is state involvement. Dual regulation involves not only the EPA, DOE, and NRC, but also state authorities. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is implemented for the most part by the individual states. Congress intended that the states be the primary implementers of RCRA and created provisions in the Act to authorize state programs. The third area discussed in this paper is concerned with EPA`s progress on current issues. EPA has progressed on several promises to create strong centralized guidance. Fourth and finally, there are many issues outstanding and some may have direct specific significant impact on DOE facility operations. Perhaps the biggest outstanding issue is how the land disposal restrictions will affect the treatment, storage, and disposal of mixed waste at DOE facilities.

  6. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  7. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this three-phase program is to develop an integrated process for treating asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The integrated process will attempt to minimize processing and disposal costs. The objectives of Phase 1 were to establish the technical feasibility of asbestos decomposition, inorganic radionuclide nd heavy metal removal, and organic volatilization. Phase 1 resulted in the successful bench-scale demonstration of the elements required to develop a mixed waste treatment process for asbestos-containing material (ACM) contaminated with radioactive metals, heavy metals, and organics. Using the Phase 1 data, a conceptual process was developed. The Phase 2 program, currently in progress, is developing an integrated system design for ACM waste processing. The Phase 3 program will target demonstration of the mixed waste processing system at a DOE facility. The electromagnetic mixed waste processing system employs patented technologies to convert DOE asbestos to a non-hazardous, radionuclide-free, stable waste. The dry, contaminated asbestos is initially heated with radiofrequency energy to remove organic volatiles. Second,the radionuclides are removed by solvent extraction coupled with ion exchange solution treatment. Third, the ABCOV method converts the asbestos to an amorphous silica suspension at low temperature (100 degrees C). Finally the amorphous silica is solidified for disposal

  8. Mixed Waste Integrated Program Quality Assurance requirements plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, Waste Management Division. The strategic objectives of MWIP are defined in the Mixed Waste Integrated Program Strategic Plan, and expanded upon in the MWIP Program Management Plan. This MWIP Quality Assurance Requirement Plan (QARP) applies to mixed waste treatment technologies involving both hazardous and radioactive constituents. As a DOE organization, MWIP is required to develop, implement, and maintain a written Quality Assurance Program in accordance with DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System, DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management, ASME NQA-1 Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities and ANSI/ASQC E4-19xx Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data Collection and Environmental Technology Programs. The purpose of the MWIP QA program is to establish controls which address the requirements in 5700.6C, with the intent to minimize risks and potential environmental impacts; and to maximize environmental protection, health, safety, reliability, and performance in all program activities. QA program controls are established to assure that each participating organization conducts its activities in a manner consistent with risks posed by those activities

  9. Computer modeling of jet mixing in INEL waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of using submerged jet mixing pumps to mobilize and suspend settled sludge materials in INEL High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks. Scenarios include removing the heel (a shallow liquid and sludge layer remaining after tank emptying processes) and mobilizing and suspending solids in full or partially full tanks. The approach used was to (1) briefly review jet mixing theory, (2) review erosion literature in order to identify and estimate important sludge characterization parameters (3) perform computer modeling of submerged liquid mixing jets in INEL tank geometries, (4) develop analytical models from which pump operating conditions and mixing times can be estimated, and (5) analyze model results to determine overall feasibility of using jet mixing pumps and make design recommendations.

  10. Treatment of radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management options for three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which a large number of generators were surveyed for information on potentially hazardous low-level wastes. The general management targets adopted for mixed wastes are immobilization, destruction, and reclamation. It is possible that these targets may not be practical for some wastes, and for these, goals of stabilization or reduction of hazard are addressed. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, segregation, and substitution have been considered for organic liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, and decontamination and re-use have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, containment, substitution, chemical reduction, and biological removal have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has necessarily included assessment/estimation of the effect of the treatment on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present. 10 refs

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies

  12. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates

  13. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  14. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1993, 10 constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloroethane (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone 2B2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone 2B1, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in two Aquifer Unit 2A (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow direction and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters

  15. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste

  16. Sandia National Laboratories Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. The mission of the MWLID is to assess, implement and transfer technologies and systems that lead to quicker, safer, and more efficient remediation of buried chemical and mixed-waste sites. The MWLID focus is on two landfills at SNL in Albuquerque, New Mexico: The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed-Waste Landfill (MWL). These landfills received chemical, radioactive and mixed wastes from various SNL nuclear research programs. A characterization system has been designed for the definition of the extent and concentration of contamination. This system includes historical records, directional drilling, and emplacement membrane, sensors, geophysics, sampling strategy, and on site sample analysis. In the remediation task, in-situ remediation systems are being designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and heavy metals from soils. The VOC remediation includes vacuum extraction with electrical and radio-frequency heating. For heavy metal contamination, electrokinetic processes are being considered. The MWLID utilizes a phased, parallel approach. Initial testing is performed at an uncontaminated site adjacent to the CWL. Once characterization is underway at the CWL, lessons learned can be directly transferred to the more challenging problem of radioactive waste in the MWL. The MWL characterization can proceed in parallel with the remediation work at CWL. The technologies and systems demonstrated in the MWLID are to be evaluated based on their performance and cost in the real remediation environment of the landfills

  17. Feasibility study for a plasma system to process mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of waste material that contains both hazardous and radioactive components, referred to as mixed waste, is hindered by a complex regulatory climate and a lack of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The objectives of this research were to examine the feasibility of a laboratory-scale plasma system to process this waste, specifically to destroy the hazardous component, and to recommend an approach to research in this area for researchers at the University of Florida. The destruction of the primary components of liquid scintillation waste -- pseudocumene, toluene, and xylene -- using a radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma was examined. The computer code microCOMPACT-E was used to model the fluid dynamics and destruction reactions occurring in the plasma chamber. With a plasma temperature of 7000 K and an inlet velocity of 0.4 m/s or the organic material complete destruction of all three materials was achieved. A throughput of approximately 2 x 10-6 kg/s of scintillation material was predicted using the code. This value corresponds to a generator power of approximately 700 W. Based on the computer modeling results obtained and an examination of the regulatory requirements, it was determined that a laboratory-scale plasma system to process mixed waste is feasible. It was recommended that researchers at the University of Florida collaborate with a current research project in this field, providing radioactive waste, radiation, and shielding expertise. If independent research is to be undertaken, it is recommended that experimental work be begun

  18. Evaluation of Weldon Spring mixed waste placement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1,000,000 yd3 of radioactively- and chemically-contaminated (mixed) wastes are currently present at the Weldon Spring Site near St. Charles, Missouri. The site is to be remediated to protect human health and the environment. Highly contaminated sludges and soils may be treated by vitrification or chemical stabilization/solidification (CSS). Other major waste forms include soils, gravels, rock rubble, structural materials (steel, concrete and roofing), chemical processing equipment and piping. These materials will be placed intact, size-reduced or shredded/crushed. The vitrified and CSS waste products will be placed together with the other waste forms in one or two disposal cells on the site. Care is needed to construct a stable disposal cell

  19. Experimental Studies on Combustion Characteristics of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Jiang; Zhonggang Pan; Shi Liu; Haigang Wang

    2003-01-01

    In our country, municipal solid wastes (MSW) are always burnt in their original forms and only a few pretreatments are taken. Therefore it is vital to study the combustion characteristics of mixed waste. In this paper,thermogravimetric analysis and a lab scale fluidized bed facility were used as experimental means. The data in two different experimental systems were introduced and compared. It took MSW 3~3.5 rain to burn out in FB, but in thermogravimetric analyzer, the time is 20~25 min. It can be concluded that, in general, the behavior of a mixture of waste in TGA can be expressed by simple combination of individual components of the waste mixtures.Only minor deviations from the rule were observed. Yet, in Fluidized Bed, it was found that, for some mixtures,there was interference among the components during fluidized bed combustion.

  20. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste

  1. Development of a Transportable Vitrification System for Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program, has identified a need to move mixed waste vitrification technology from the laboratory to the field as rapidly as possible. A great deal of work over the last few years has shown the feasibility of immobilizing selected hazardous waste streams in a vitrified product. Lab-scale work has been extended to pilot-scale tests, usually with surrogates of the actual waste. DOE felt that the technology was mature enough to allow demonstration in the field, on actual wastes, with units that would be prototypic of full sized waste treatment equipment. To this end, DOE's Office of Technology Development sponsored the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to specify, procure, test, and operate a field scale demonstration using mobile equipment. Oak Ridge Reservation was chosen as the initial location for the field demonstration and Martin Marietta Reservation was chosen as the initial location for the field demonstration and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) tasked with all permitting, site preparation, and field support activities. During September 1993, WSRC used a ''Vendor Forum'' to solicit preliminary proposals for the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS). A number of quality proposals were received and evaluated. A vendor was selected and detailed negotiations were completed in August 1994, at which time a contract was signed for the TVS. In parallel, WSRC opened a dialogue with MMES to explore candidate waste streams at the Oak Ridge Reservation for the first TVS vitrification campaign. After some preliminary work, a group of waste water sludges were selected. The first of these to be demonstrated with the TVS will be the West End Treatment Facility (WETF) sludge. This paper describes the development of the specification for the TVS, the design and construction activities to date, and ongoing efforts for permitting and site support. The schedule for field application is also discussed

  2. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Quantum-CEP trademark for mixed waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No commercially available technology exists to effectively treat the hundreds of thousands of tons of mixed waste stored and generated in the United States and worldwide. Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) is an innovative flexible recycling technology which has inherent advantages for processing mixed wastes in a wide variety of chemical and physical forms. CEP uses a molten metal bath to completely dissociate feeds and recombine them with selected reactants to form useful products. Dissolved carbon in the metal bath creates a reducing atmosphere, readily converting hydrocarbons to synthesis gas, metals to alloys in their reduced state, and inorganics to an engineered ceramic phase. Process conditions can be manipulated to strongly favor partitioning of select radionuclides to a nonleachable vitreous phase, ready for final form disposal. Molten Metal Technology has adapted its CEP technology for radioactive processing and has delivered Quantum-CEP trademark units to customers for demonstration of mixed waste processing leading to commercial scale installations for reducing both private and government inventories. Agreements have also been reached to build commercial CEP facilities to recycle hazardous and industrial wastes

  4. Treatment of mixed wastes by thermal plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has as purpose to apply the technology of thermal plasma in the destruction of certain type of waste generated in the ININ. As first instance, origin, classification and disposition of the radioactive waste generated in the ININ is identified. Once identified the waste, the waste to treat is determined based on: the easiness of treating him with plasma, classification and importance. Later on, a substance or compound settles down (sample model) that serves as indicative of the waste for its physical-chemical characteristics, this is made because in the Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory is not had the license to work with radioactive material. The sample model and the material to form the vitreous matrix are characterized before and after the treatment in order to evaluating their degradation and vitrification. During the treatment by means of the thermal plasma, the appropriate conditions are determined for the degradation and vitrification of the waste. Also, it is carried out an energy balance in the system to know the capacity to fuse the material depending the transfer of existent heat between the plasma and the material to treat. Obtaining favorable results, it thought about to climb in the project and by this way to help to solve one of the environmental problems in Mexico, as they are it the mixed wastes. (Author)

  5. VAC*TRAX - Thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 260 degrees C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost. This paper describes the VAC*TRAX thermal desorption process, as well as results from the pilot testing program. Also, the design and application of the full-scale treatment system is presented. Materials tested to date include spiked soil and debris, power plant trash and sludge contaminated with solvents, PCB contaminated soil, solvent-contaminated uranium mill-tailings, and solvent and PCB-contaminated sludge and trash. Over 70 test runs have been performed using the pilot VAC*TRAX system, with more than 80% of the tests using mixed waste as the feed material

  6. Applying the de minimis concept to mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, a concept of de minimis, below regulatory concern, threshold, or negligible levels of radiation dose and risk from low level waste has begun to be accepted by standard setting and regulatory bodies throughout the world, including ICRP, NCRP, IAEA, USNRC, USDOE, USEPA, and UKNRPB. Moreover, the de minimus principle has long been recognized by the courts and has been applied in the area of environmental health and industrial hygiene law. This paper reviews the precidence in these areas and addresses the reasonableness of establishing BRC levels for chemical, as well as radiological constituents of mixed wastes, in order to minimize the quantity of true mixed wastes that must be disposed of under a duel regulatory system. A two-tiered BRC approach is proposed, which would recognize that since waste deregulated for one of the constituents would still be strictly controlled, there could be conditional BRC levels established higher than those that would apply to cases where disposal of deregulated waste is essentially uncontrolled. This paper discusses some of the technical and trans-scientific concerns involved in implementing the BRC approach in the high profile world of environmental regulation

  7. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE's commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex

  8. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-11-16

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE`s commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex.

  9. VAC*TRAX - thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R. [RUST-Clemson Technical Center, Anderson, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 2600{degrees}C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost.

  10. Disposal of low-level mixed waste in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created to provide disposal capacity for all low-level radioactive waste generated within the state of Texas. In the opinion of the Authority staff this legislative directive as well as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act require that the Authority provide capacity for the disposal of low-level mixed waste. To accomplish this the Authority has met with representatives of the Bureau of Radiation Control, the Agreement State agency in Texas, and the Texas Water Commission, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-delegated agency for the state of Texas. These meetings have served to alert both agency's to some of the conflicting administrative procedures and to obtain guidance regarding an acceptable disposal unit design. The Authority used as a starting point the conceptual design which was agreed to by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency. This paper presents the results of the preliminary design effort for a mixed waste disposal unit for the Texas facility. This proposed design has not been reviewed by either of the licensing agencies involved and should not be considered as being approved by either agency

  11. Plastic scintillators: a powerful tool to reduce mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastes containing radioactive and organic compounds (mixed wastes) are difficult to dispose because of the regulations established for nuclear and hazardous wastes. Mixed wastes originate mainly in the emulsions generated in beta emitter determinations by Liquid Scintillation techniques. The use of plastic scintillators instead of liquid cocktails may facilitate the segregation, after measurement, of sample and scintillator without introducing additional wastes in the measurement step. In this study, we compare the capability of Plastic Scintillation (PS) versus Liquid Scintillation (LS) and Cerenkov (C) techniques to determine beta emitters in routine measurements. Results obtained show that high and medium energy beta emitters (Sr-90/Y-90 and C-14) can be quantified in aqueous samples by using PS with similar relative errors (< 5%) as those obtained by LS or C, for any activity level considered. For low energy emitters (H-3), best results using PS are achieved for medium activity levels. Additionally, measurements performed in solutions including alpha (Pu-238) and beta-gamma (Cs-134) emitters confirm the capability of PS to extent the application of this technique to the determination of these types of isotopes. (authors)

  12. Mixed waste treatment with a mediated electrochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process described in this paper is intended to convert mixed waste containing toxic organic compounds (not heavy metals) to ordinary radioactive waste, which is treatable. The process achieves its goal by oxidizing hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O. Other atoms that may be present in the toxic organic generally are converted to nonhazardous anions such as sulfate and phosphate. This electro chemical conversion is performed at conditions of temperature and pressure that are just moderately above ambient conditions. Gaseous hydroxides and oxyhydroxides that are formed by many radionuclides during incineration cannot form in this process. 1 ref., 3 figs

  13. Closure of a mixed waste landfill: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much experience has been gained during the closure of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and many lessons were learned. This knowledge was applied to other closures at SRS yielding decreased costs, schedule enhancement, and increased overall project efficiency. The next major area of experience to be gained at SRS in the field of waste site closures will be in the upkeep, maintenance, and monitoring of clay caps. Further test programs will be required to address these requirements

  14. Immobilization in ceramic waste forms of the residues from treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Applied Technology Program at LLNL is developing a Mixed Waste Management Facility to demonstrate treatment technologies that provide an alternative to incineration. As part of that program, we are developing final waste forms using ceramic processing methods for the immobilization of the treatment process residues. The ceramic phase assemblages are based on using Synroc D as a starting point and varying the phase assemblage to accommodate the differences in chemistry between the treatment process residues and the defense waste for which Synroc D was developed. Two basic formulations are used, one for low ash residues resulting from treatment of organic materials contaminated with RCRA metals, and one for high ash residues generated from the treatment of plastics and paper products. Treatment process residues are mixed with ceramic precursor materials, dried, calcined, formed into pellets at room temperature, and sintered at 1150 to 1200 degrees C to produce the final waste form. This paper discusses the chemical composition of the waste streams and waste forms, the phase assemblages that serve as hosts for inorganic waste elements, and the changes in waste form characteristics as a function of variation in process parameters

  15. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600-m-thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope--amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level--represent only 0.11% of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible

  16. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible

  17. Effect of advanced fuel cycles on waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at analysing a range of future fuel cycle options from the perspective of their impact on waste repository demand and specification. The study would focus on: Assessment of the characteristics of radioactive wastes arising from advanced nuclear fuel cycle options, repository performance analysis studies using source terms for waste arising from such advanced nuclear fuel cycles, identification of new options for waste management and disposal. Three families of fuel cycles having increasing recycling capabilities are assessed. Each cycle is composed of waste generating and management processes. Examples of waste generating processes are fuel factories (7 types) and reprocessing plants (7 types). Packaging and conditioning plants (7) and disposal facilities are examples of waste management processes. The characteristic of all these processes have been described and then total waste flows are summarised. In order to simplify the situation, three waste categories have been defined based on the IAEA definitions in order to emphasize the major effects of different types of waste. These categories are: short-life waste for surface or sub-surface disposal, long-life low heat producing waste for geological disposal, high-level waste for geological disposal. The feasibilities of the fuel cycles are compared in terms of economics, primary resource consumption and amount of waste generated. The effect of high-level waste composition for the repository performance is one of the tools in these comparisons. The results of this will be published as an NEA publication before the end of 2005. (authors)

  18. The Hybrid Treatment Process for treatment of mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process

  19. The mixed waste management facility: Cost-benefit for the Mixed Waste Management Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility, or MWMF, has been proposed as a national testbed facility for the demonstration and evaluation of technologies that are alternatives to incineration for the treatment of mixed low-level waste. The facility design will enable evaluation of technologies at pilot scale, including all aspects of the processes, from receiving and feed preparation to the preparation of final forms for disposal. The MWMF will reduce the risk of deploying such technologies by addressing the following: (1) Engineering development and scale-up. (2) Process integration and activation of the treatment systems. (3) Permitting and stakeholder issues. In light of the severe financial constraints imposed on the DOE and federal programs, DOE/HQ requested a study to assess the cost benefit for the MWMF given other potential alternatives to meet waste treatment needs. The MVVMF Project was asked to consider alternatives specifically associated with commercialization and privatization of the DOE site waste treatment operations and the acceptability (or lack of acceptability) of incineration as a waste treatment process. The result of this study will be one of the key elements for a DOE decision on proceeding with the MWMF into Final Design (KD-2) vs. proceeding with other options

  20. Vitrification development plan for US Department of Energy mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a general plan for conducting vitrification development for application to mixed wastes owned by the US Department of Energy. The emphasis is a description and discussion of the data needs to proceed through various stages of development. These stages are (1) screening at a waste site to determine which streams should be vitrified, (2) waste characterization and analysis, (3) waste form development and treatability studies, (4) process engineering development, (5) flowsheet and technical specifications for treatment processes, and (6) integrated pilot-scale demonstration. Appendices provide sample test plans for various stages of the vitrification development process. This plan is directed at thermal treatments which produce waste glass. However, the study is still applicable to the broader realm of thermal treatment since it deals with issues such as off-gas characterization and waste characterization that are not necessarily specific to vitrification. The purpose is to provide those exploring or considering vitrification with information concerning the kinds of data that are needed, the way the data are obtained, and the way the data are used. This will provide guidance to those who need to prioritize data needs to fit schedules and budgets. Knowledge of data needs also permits managers and planners to estimate resource requirements for vitrification development

  1. Advanced Waste-To-Energy Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Branchini, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The increase in environmental and healthy concerns, combined with the possibility to exploit waste as a valuable energy resource, has led to explore alternative methods for waste final disposal. In this context, the energy conversion of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Waste-To-Energy (WTE) power plant is increasing throughout Europe, both in terms of plants number and capacity, furthered by legislative directives. Due to the heterogeneous nature of waste, some differences with respect to a...

  2. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Portsmouth, NH (United States); Vaux, W.G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nocito, T. [Ohio DSI Corp., New York (United States)

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  3. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies

  4. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  5. Preparations for Mixed Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is preparing for the receipt and disposal of low-level mixed waste (MV) generated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The NTS maintains and develops disposal locations to accommodate various waste forms, and is engaged in developing verification and handling processes to ensure proper acceptance and disposal. Operations at the RWMC are focused on ensuring future disposal needs can be accommodated with a maximum benefit to risk ratio. This paper addresses the programmatic developments implemented at the NTS to accommodate the receipt, verification, and disposal of MW. The Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP) has incorporated aspects of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) into the Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The verification program includes statistical sampling components that take into account waste form, program reliability, and other factors. The WAP allows for a conglomerate of verification techniques including visual examination, non-destructive examination, and chemical screening ensuring compliance with the NTSWAC. The WAP also provides for the acceptance of MW with most U.S. Environmental Protection Agency waste codes. The MW sent to the NTS for disposal must meet Land-Disposal Restriction standards. To support the verification processes outlined in the WAP, a Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) facility was constructed. Using a 450 keV, 5-mA tube-head system with a bridge and manipulator assembly, MW packages can undergo non-destructive examination (x-ray) at the RWMC. Prior to the NTS accepting the waste shipment, standard waste boxes, drums, and nominally sized bulk items can be manipulated on a cart and examined directly or skewed in real-time to ensure compliance with NTSWAC requirement s An existing MW disposal cell at the RWMC has been tailored to meet the requirements of a Category 2 non-reactor Nuclear Facility. In retrofitting an existing

  6. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases

  7. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  8. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  9. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report.

  10. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report

  11. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  12. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation`s allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered.

  13. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation's allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered

  14. Chemical recycling of mixed waste plastics by selective pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumoto, K.; Meglen, R.; Evans, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this work is to use selective pyrolysis to produce high-value chemicals from waste plastics mixtures. Selectivity is achieved by exploiting differences in reaction rates, catalysis, and coreactants. Target wastes are molecular mixtures such as; blends or composites, or mixtures from manufactured products such as; carpets and post-consumer mixed-plastic wastes. The experimental approach has been to use small-scale experiments using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), which provides rapid analysis of reaction products and permits rapid screening of process parameters. Rapid screening experiments permit exploration of many potential waste stream applications for the selective pyrolysis process. After initial screening, small-scale, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are used to provide products for conventional chemical analysis, to determine material balances, and to test the concept under conditions that will be used at a larger scale. Computer assisted data interpretation and intelligent chemical processing are used to extract process-relevant information from these experiments. An important element of this project employs technoeconomic assessments and market analyses of durables, the availability of other wastes, and end-product uses to identify target applications that have the potential for economic success.

  15. Case studies of corrosion of mixed waste and transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents three case studies of corrosion of waste drums at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Corrosion was not anticipated by the waste generators, but occurred because of subtle chemical or physical mechanisms. In one case, drums of a cemented transuranic (TRU) sludge experienced general and pitting corrosion. In the second instance, a chemical from a commercial paint stripper migrated from its primary containment drums to chemically attack overpack drums made of mild carbon steel. In the third case, drums of mixed low level waste (MLLW) soil corroded drum packaging even though the waste appeared to be dry when it was placed in the drums. These case studies are jointly discussed as ''lessons learned'' to enhance awareness of subtle mechanisms that can contribute to the corrosion of radioactive waste drums during interim storage

  16. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for

  17. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES and H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES and H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction

  18. Development of treatment technologies of the processing of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to mixed-waste technology development, the Office of Technology Development of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The program is identifying and evaluating treatment technologies to treat present and estimated future mixed wastes at DOE sites. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  19. Italian low-level radioactive waste management regulation, with special regard to mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastes are produced in all human activities, and their management becomes more difficult and urgent. In fact the increase of the life standards, based on widespread production and consumption of a large variety of products, especially in the developed countries has led the problem of managing and disposing wastes to sometimes dramatic levels. In addition to, the increasing number of different production processes and of the resources used implies specific treatment for each type of waste. Therefore specific treatment technologies and regulations have to be applied to the various waste categories. A particular emphasis is devoted to the radioactive wastes, owing to their particular characteristics, i. e. the electromagnetic energy of the contained radionuclides. Low level radioactive wastes are currently produced in many research and medical activities. From a technological point of view, such wastes pose much smaller management problems than those from nuclear power plants, owing to their relatively small amounts and low radioactivity levels. However their management and disposal rise some important problems, in terms of the correct radiation protection procedure, in relation to the specific health risks and to their being often 'mixed', i. e. contaminated with other chemical, biological, toxic, noxious and even infected substances. The authors review the European and Italian regulations about the management of radioactive, chemical and biological, toxic and noxious wastes, with special emphasis on the problem of mixed wastes. Moreover the authors present a summary of the results of the recent workshop, held in Italy, about this problem. In this work the high and medium level radioactive wastes are not been taken into account

  20. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy's anticipated mixed waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE's waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE's mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters

  1. RE-USE OF WASTE TIRES RUBBER AS FINE AGGREGATE REPLACEMENT IN CONCRETE MIX APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Falak O. Abas; Enass A. Abdul Ghafoor; Mohammed U.Abass

    2015-01-01

    Discarded waste tires are one of the important parts of solid waste which had historically been disposed of in to landfills also causing a serious environmental problem. Then this study explores the possibility of reusing discarded waste tires in concrete engineering applications through enhancing the properties of concrete mix as partial replacement with fine aggregate to produce ideal concrete mix. The percent of discarded waste tires substituted in to the concrete mix by weight...

  2. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  3. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste is defined as ''waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species.'' The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was established in response to the need for a unified, DOE complexwide solution to issues of mixed waste treatment that meets regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing treatment technologies that reduce risk, minimize life-cycle cost, and improve process performance as compared to existing technologies. Treatment for waste streams for which no current technology exists, and suitable waste forms for disposal, will be provided to improve operations of the DOE Office of Waste Management. MWIP is composed of six technical areas within a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas are described in this paper

  4. Thermoplastic encapsulation of waste surrogates by high-shear mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a robust, extrusion-based polyethylene encapsulation process applicable to a wide range of solid and aqueous low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. However, due to the broad range of physical and chemical properties of waste materials, pretreatment of these wastes is often required to make them amenable to processing with polyethylene. As part of the scope of work identified in FY95 open-quotes Removal and Encapsulation of Heavy Metals from Ground Water,close quotes EPA SERDP No. 387, that specifies a review of potential thermoplastic processing techniques, and in order to investigate possible pretreatment alternatives, BNL conducted a vendor test of the Draiswerke Gelimat (thermokinetic) mixer on April 25, 1995 at their test facility in Mahwah, NJ. The Gelimat is a batch operated, high-shear, high-intensity fluxing mixer that is often used for mixing various materials and specifically in the plastics industry for compounding additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers

  5. Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper.

  6. Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper

  7. An effective waste management process for segregation and disposal of legacy mixed waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2,500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well-defined, properly characterized, and accurately inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this report is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal

  8. An Effective Waste Management Process for Segregation and Disposal of Legacy Mixed Waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well- defined, properly characterized, and precisely inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried through this process. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this paper is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal

  9. Advance on the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by mixed cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Yaoping

    2007-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs)are the polymers of hydroxyalkanoates that accumulate as carbon/energy or reducing-power storage material in various microorganisms.PHAs have attracted considerable attention as biodegradable substitutes for conventional polymers.Until now,however,industrial production of PHAs has encountered only limited success.The main barrier to the replacement of synthetic plastics by PHAs has been the higher cost.The use of mixed cultures and renewable sources obtained from waste organic carbon can substantially decrease the cost of PHA and increase their market potential.This work reviews two main methods of PHA production by mixed cultures,anaerobicaerobic processing and aerobic transient feeding processing,and analyzed the metabolic and effective factors.

  10. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  12. An approach to regulatory compliance with radioactive mixed waste regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 7, 1990, radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) became subject to the State Of New York hazardous waste regulations. The facility was required to be in full compliance by June 6, 1990. Achievement of this goal was difficult because of the short implementation time frame. Compliance with the hazardous waste regulations also presented some potential conflicts between the hazardous waste requirements and other regulatory requirements specifically applicable to nuclear facilities. The potential conflicts involved construction, operation, and control measures. However, the facility had been working extensively with EPA Region 2 and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) on the application of the hazardous waste regulations to the facility. During these preliminary contacts, WVDP identified three issues that related to the potential conflicts: 1. Equivalency of Design and Equipment, 2. Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), and 3. The Principle of As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Radiation Exposure. The equivalency of nuclear facility design and equipment to the hazardous waste requirements is based in part on the increased construction criteria for nuclear facilities, the use of remote radiological monitoring for leak detection, and testing of system components that are not accessible to personnel due to high levels of radiation. This paper discusses in detail: 1. The implementation and results of the WVDP's interaction with its regulators, 2. How the regulators were helped to understand the different situations and conditions of nuclear and chemical facilities, and 3. How, by working together, the result was not only mutually advantageous to the NWDP and the agencies, but it also assured that the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment were protected

  13. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-08-15

    'The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hall (2008) includes WTP acceptance criteria that describe physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be certified as acceptable before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST. The objectives of Washington River Protection Solutions' (WRPS) Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project are to understand and demonstrate the DST sampling and batch transfer performance at multiple scales using slurry simulants comprised of UDS particles and liquid (Townson 2009). The SSMD project utilizes geometrically scaled DST feed tanks to generate mixing, sampling, and transfer test data. In Phase 2 of the testing, RPP-49740, the 5-part simulant defined in RPP-48358 was used as the waste slurry simulant. The Phase 2 test data are being used to estimate the expected performance of the prototypic systems in the full-scale DSTs. As such, understanding of the how the small-scale systems as well as the simulant relate to the full-scale DSTs and actual waste is required. The focus of this report is comparison of the size and density of the 5-part SSMD simulant to that of the Hanford waste. This is accomplished by computing metrics for particle mobilization, suspension, settling, transfer line intake, and pipeline transfer from the characterization of the 5-part SSMD simulant and characterizations of the Hanford waste. In addition, the effects of the suspending fluid characteristics on the test results are considered, and a computational fluid dynamics tool useful to quantify uncertainties from simulant selections is discussed.'

  14. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hall (2008) includes WTP acceptance criteria that describe physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be certified as acceptable before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST. The objectives of Washington River Protection Solutions' (WRPS) Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project are to understand and demonstrate the DST sampling and batch transfer performance at multiple scales using slurry simulants comprised of UDS particles and liquid (Townson 2009). The SSMD project utilizes geometrically scaled DST feed tanks to generate mixing, sampling, and transfer test data. In Phase 2 of the testing, RPP-49740, the 5-part simulant defined in RPP-48358 was used as the waste slurry simulant. The Phase 2 test data are being used to estimate the expected performance of the prototypic systems in the full-scale DSTs. As such, understanding of the how the small-scale systems as well as the simulant relate to the full-scale DSTs and actual waste is required. The focus of this report is comparison of the size and density of the 5-part SSMD simulant to that of the Hanford waste. This is accomplished by computing metrics for particle mobilization, suspension, settling, transfer line intake, and pipeline transfer from the characterization of the 5-part SSMD simulant and characterizations of the Hanford waste. In addition, the effects of the suspending fluid characteristics on the test results are considered, and a computational fluid dynamics tool useful to quantify uncertainties from simulant selections is discussed.'

  15. Radioactive waste management and advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2007 ENEA's Department of Nuclear Fusion and Fission, and Related Technologies acted according to national policy and the role assigned to ENEA FPN by Law 257/2003 regarding radioactive waste management and advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies

  16. A process for treatment of mixed waste containing chemical plating wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Treatment and Minimization Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and will be constructing a transportable treatment system to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste generated during plating operations. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is composed of two modules with six submodules, which can be trucked to user sites to treat a wide variety of aqueous waste solutions. The process is designed to remove the hazardous components from the waste stream, generating chemically benign, disposable liquids and solids with low level radioactivity. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is designed as a multifunctional process capable of treating several different types of wastes. At this time, the unit has been the designated treatment process for these wastes: Destruction of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes from spent plating solutions; destruction of ammonia in solution from spent plating solutions; reduction of CrVI to CrIII from spent plating solutions, precipitation, solids separation, and immobilization; heavy metal precipitation from spent plating solutions, solids separation, and immobilization, and acid or base neutralization from unspecified solutions

  17. The use of chemical and radionuclide risk estimates in site performance evaluation of mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radioactive waste sites contain not only radioactive material but also varying amounts of chemical waste. The use of such procedures implies some risk at any exposure level, and thus requires that an exposure level be determined that corresponds to an acceptable risk to an individual or a population. Although the uncertainties and limitations of these methods are of concern, the assumption has been generally adopted that the human dose response for all carcinogens is linear, with no threshold occurring at low levels of exposure. With the move toward decontamination programs and clean-up of various mixed waste sites throughout the US, there is interest in the possibility that risk estimates calculated individually for radionuclides and for chemicals may be combined to reflect the total risk for each site. The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of combining risk estimates during risk/benefit analyses. For a variety of reasons, the state of radiation risk assessment is more advanced than that of chemical risk assessment. The reasons for this disparity are summarized in this paper. Quantitative radiation risk assessment is currently being performed, but involves a high degree of uncertainty. Chemical risk assessment in general does not allow quantitative results bracketed by uncertainty analysis. Therefore, it is concluded that it is currently not possible to develop a useful, quantitative combined risk assessment for a mixed waste site, but that it may be possible to develop such a capability in the future

  18. Effects of mixed waste simulants on transportation packaging plastic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to, enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified. The design requirements for both hazardous and radioactive materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging and any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A and Type B packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program, supported by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Transportation Management Division, EM-261 provides the means to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, we describe the general elements of the testing program and the experimental results of the screening tests. The implications of the results of this testing are discussed in the general context of packaging development. Additionally, we present the results of the first phase of this experimental program. This phase involved the screening of five candidate liner and six seal materials against four simulant mixed wastes

  19. Evaluation of actinide volatilities in mixed waste processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an interim status report on a study of uranium, plutonium and americium volatilities in mixed waste oxidation processors. Both thermodynamic modeling methods and experimental measurements (incinerator ashes) are being used to assess the actinide volatilities. The volatile species of greatest importance is expected to be the actinide oxyhydroxide, MO2(OH)2(g). Based on early measurements, the volatility of PuO2(OH)2(g) from PuO2(s) in the presence of 0.9 atm O2 and 0.1 atm H2O at 1330 K is found to be about 4 x 10-10 atm

  20. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  1. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  2. Development of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. Management of mixed waste requires treatment which must meet the standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous constituents while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. Technology has not been developed, demonstrated, or tested to produce a low-risk final waste form specifically for mixed waste. Throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex, mixed waste is a problem because definitive treatment standards have not been established and few disposal facilities are available. Treatment capability and capacity are also limited. Site-specific solutions to the management of mixed waste have been initiated; however, site-specific programs result in duplication of technology development between various sites. Significant progress is being made in developing technology for mixed waste under the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  3. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organizers of this Symposium divided the complex issue into six topics: (1) Definition of the problem, which included the nature and characteristics of the wastes and the present regulatory situation; (2) The biology of risk: How do the wastes potentially affect the health of people? (3) Assessment of risk: What tools are available? (4) Concepts of risk management: differences between current practices for radioactive and chemically toxic wastes. (5) Social and political considerations: Why risk may not be an acceptable basis. (6) Case study: One state's attempt to classify mixed wastes. The proceedings also contains the discussions after the presentations and a summary by a rapporteur. Most of the speakers recognized that the real world consists of regulations and politics rather than technically best solutions. The examples given and the compromises or simplifications suggested reflect that. As a result, this publication may be of more value to decision-makers than if it were more rigorous in its treatment of the subject

  4. Industrial waste recycling strategies optimization problem: mixed integer programming model and heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiafu; Liu, Yang; Fung, Richard; Luo, Xinggang

    2008-12-01

    Manufacturers have a legal accountability to deal with industrial waste generated from their production processes in order to avoid pollution. Along with advances in waste recovery techniques, manufacturers may adopt various recycling strategies in dealing with industrial waste. With reuse strategies and technologies, byproducts or wastes will be returned to production processes in the iron and steel industry, and some waste can be recycled back to base material for reuse in other industries. This article focuses on a recovery strategies optimization problem for a typical class of industrial waste recycling process in order to maximize profit. There are multiple strategies for waste recycling available to generate multiple byproducts; these byproducts are then further transformed into several types of chemical products via different production patterns. A mixed integer programming model is developed to determine which recycling strategy and which production pattern should be selected with what quantity of chemical products corresponding to this strategy and pattern in order to yield maximum marginal profits. The sales profits of chemical products and the set-up costs of these strategies, patterns and operation costs of production are considered. A simulated annealing (SA) based heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the problem. Finally, an experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. By comparing a single strategy to multiple strategies in an example, it is shown that the total sales profit of chemical products can be increased by around 25% through the simultaneous use of multiple strategies. This illustrates the superiority of combinatorial multiple strategies. Furthermore, the effects of the model parameters on profit are discussed to help manufacturers organize their waste recycling network.

  5. Development of advanced mixed oxide fuels for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of advanced Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel forms are currently being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory that have the potential to be effective plutonium management tools. Evolutionary Mixed Oxide (EMOX) fuel is a slight perturbation on standard MOX fuel, but achieves greater plutonium destruction rates by employing a fractional nonfertile component. A pure nonfertile fuel is also being studied. Initial calculations show that the fuel can be utilized in existing light water reactors and tailored to address different plutonium management goals (i.e., stabilization or reduction of plutonium inventories residing in spent nuclear fuel). In parallel, experiments are being performed to determine the feasibility of fabrication of such fuels. Initial EMOX pellets have successfully been fabricated using weapons-grade plutonium

  6. Sulfur polymer cement stabilization of elemental mercury mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, is a problem throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report describes the development and testing of a process to immobilize elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, in a form that is non-dispersible, will meet EPA leaching criteria, and has low mercury vapor pressure. In this stabilization and solidification process (patent pending) elemental mercury is mixed with an excess of powdered sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and additives in a vessel and heated to ∼35 C, for several hours, until all of the mercury is converted into mercuric sulfide (HgS). Additional SPC is then added and the mixture raised to 135 C, resulting in a homogeneous molten liquid which is poured into a suitable mold where is cools and solidifies. The final stabilized and solidified waste forms were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, as well as tested for leaching behavior and mercury vapor pressure. During this study the authors have processed the entire inventory of mixed mercury waste stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

  7. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  8. Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško

    OpenAIRE

    Kortnik, Jože; Leskovar, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Review paper Received: October 25, 2013 Accepted: November 7, 2013 Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Ravnanje z mešanimi komunalnimi odpadki v Zbirnem centru Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Jože Kortnik1'*, Jože Leskovar2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Mining and Geotechnology, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Kostak, d. d., Leskovška cesta 2a, 8270 Krško, Slovenia Correspo...

  9. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  10. The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years

  11. Quantum-catalytic extraction process application to mixed waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Catalytic Extraction Process (CEP) is a flexible and innovative technology which can process hazardous waste streams in a wide range of chemical and physical forms. The capabilities of CEP technology have been demonstrated on a commercial-scale prototype on RCRA listed hazardous waste streams. The results indicate that CEP can achieve almost 100% recycling of feed to commercially valuable products while maintaining high environmental performance. Specifically, CEP achieves Destruction Removal Efficiencies (DREs) ≥ 99.9999% with no detectable amounts of trace components. Furthermore, any solid products are non-leachable. Quantum-CEPTM, a technology that has evolved from CEP, allows processing of mixed waste streams and preparation for final form disposal. This paper discusses the theoretically achievable and experimentally demonstrated radionuclide partitioning achieved by Quantum-CEP. It also discusses the theoretical foundations and experimental evidence of Quantum-CEP's flexibility to drive partitioning to the desired phase by manipulating operating conditions, hence significantly improving volume reduction. Specifically, this paper focuses on (i) processing contaminated scrap metal and (ii) processing contaminated ion exchange resins using Quantum-CEP. Radionuclide surrogate demonstrations using CEP outlined in this paper indicate decontamination of metal to greater that 99% (limited by the lower detection limit (LDL)) while achieving stabilization of the vitreous phase. Processing of ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive cobalt and cesium using CEP indicate complete recovery and concentration of the cobalt in the metal phase and condensation and capture of the cesium from the gaseous phase

  12. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF POLYMER MICROENCAPSULATION OF MIXED WASTE USING KINETIC MIXER PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAGERAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.; MILIAN,L.W.; ADAMS,J.W.

    1997-11-01

    Thermokinetic mixing was investigated as an alternative processing method for polyethylene microencapsulation, a technology well demonstrated for treatment of hazardous, low-level radioactive and low-level mixed wastes. Polyethylene encapsulation by extrusion has been previously shown to be applicable to a wide range of waste types but often pretreatment of the wastes is necessary due to process limitations regarding the maximum waste moisture content and particle size distribution. Development testing was conducted with kinetic mixing in order to demonstrate technology viability and show improved process applicability in these areas. Testing to establish process capabilities and relevant operating parameters was performed with waste surrogates including an aqueous evaporator concentrate and soil. Using a pilot-scale kinetic mixer which was installed and modified for this program, the maximum waste moisture content and particle size was determined. Following process development with surrogate wastes, the technology was successfully demonstrated at BNL using actual mixed waste.

  14. ANNUAL REPORT. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF A RADIATION-RESISTANT BACTERIUM FOR BIODEGRADATION OF MIXED WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes is to genetica...

  15. PROGRESS REPORT. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF A RADIATION-RESISTANT BACTERIUM FOR BIODEGRADATION OF MIXED WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approachfor dealing with mixed wastes is to genet...

  16. Low-level mixed waste: An RCRA perspective for NRC licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication presents an overview of RCRA requirements for commercially-generated low-level mixed waste. It is designed for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees who may not be familiar with EPA regulations that apply to their waste products

  17. Information requirements for the Department of Energy Defense Programs' hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains viewgraphs from a presentation made to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Conference in Denver, Colorado. The presentation described information and data base systems that describe hazardous and mixed waste treatment, storage, and disposal

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  19. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    OpenAIRE

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been propo...

  20. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  1. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  2. Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A zero-release off-gas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotary kiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release off-gas cleaning system is to recycle the bulk of the off-gas stream to the thermal treatment process. A slip stream is taken off the off-gas recycle to separate and purge benign constituents that may build up in the gas, such as water vapor, argon, nitrogen, and CO2. Contaminants are separated from the slip stream and returned to the thermal unit for eventual destruction or incorporation into the waste immobilization media. In the current study, a standard packed-bed scrubber, followed by gas separation membranes, is proposed for removal of contaminants from the off-gas recycle slipstream. The scrub solution is continuously regenerated by cooling and precipitating sulfate, nitrate, and other salts that reach a solubility limit in the scrub solution. Mercury is also separated by the scrubber. A miscible chemical oxidizing agent was shown to effectively oxidize mercury and also NO, thus increasing their removal efficiency. The current study indicates that the proposed process is a viable option for reducing off-gas emissions. Consideration of the proposed closed-system off-gas cleaning loop is warranted when emissions limits are stringent, or when a reduction in the total gas emissions volume is desired. Although the current closed-loop appears to be technically feasible, economical considerations must be also be evaluated on a case-by-case basis

  3. Clearing a path for regulatory compliance: An update of NRC mixed waste activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-1980's, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have cooperated in seeking solutions to issues associated with the joint regulation of radioactive mixed waste. To date, these efforts have produced joint guidance documents on the definition and identification of mixed waste, siting guidelines for mixed waste disposal facilities, and conceptual design guidance for mixed waste disposal facilities. More recent efforts have concentrated on the development of joint guidance documents associated with mixed waste testing and storage. These documents are intended to provide acceptable procedures that can be used by the regulated community in complying with both agencies' requirements, while maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable. In addition to guidance development, the agencies are jointly sponsoring the National Mixed Waste Profile. Through Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the agencies solicited information on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of mixed waste from about 1300 commercial generators nationwide through a voluntary questionnaire. The profile should provide information needed by States, compact officials, private developers, and Federal agencies to help plan and develop adequate treatment and disposal facilities for commercial mixed waste. The same information will also be useful to the Department of Energy as it considers accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment and disposal. (author)

  4. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ''blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste

  5. LSV waste disposal: A successful commercial mixed waste treatment license and permit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US EPA began regulating mixed wastes in the mid-1980s but clear guidance between the US NRC and EPA was not available for liquid scintillation media at that time. Liquid scintillation media consisted of 14C and 3H in a toluene/xylene liquid mixture which was earlier rules a mixed waste due to its Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxicity. The Company wished to engage in the recycle or disposal of the media with licenses and permits by the State of Florida. There was considerable confusion in the regulatory process leading to a permit for a Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) facility in Florida. The Company's application for permit was granted in July 1988 and has been renewed through 1995. From a radiological standpoint, the public safety had to be demonstrated via quarterly monitoring of the cement kiln used for incineration of the low activity media and the Southeast Compact had to allow the unencumbered import of the media to Florida for disposal purposes. In 1985, 70 percent of the media was disposed of in Florida, in 1990 a maximum was reached in media processing. The TSD service for the media disposal continues uninterrupted because of careful handling by the facility and the cooperation of the regulations, generators and brokers of this material. The TSD facility has made an important contribution to the national scene for disposal of the media as mixed wastes and demonstrates the level of cooperation needed to achieve such a result

  6. Concrete disposal vaults - An alternative to hazardous waste/mixed waste earthen landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste (HW/MW) Disposal Facility is a new facility planned for on site processing and disposal of existing and future solid hazardous and/or mixed wastes generated at Savannah River Site (SRS). The first phase of the project is the completion of engineered above grade concrete disposal vaults which are to be permitted as hazardous waste disposal facilities and designed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and appropriate U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The RCRA minimum performance standards promulgated in 40 CFR 264 and 265 are based on double lined earthen landfills. The regulations allow for alternative design and operational practices provided that the alternative design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituents into the groundwater or surface water at least as effectively as the specified double lined earthen system. The engineered concrete vault structure for SRS is designed to comply and/or exceed the performance standards of the RCRA regulations and the associated RCRA technical guidance documents issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (author)

  7. Designing chemical soil characterization programs for mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is a remedial action effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Weldon Spring Site, a former uranium processing facility, is located in east-central Missouri on a portion of a former ordnance works facility which produced trinitrotoluene during World War II. As a result of both uranium and ordnance production, the soils have become both radiologically and chemically contaminated. As a part of site characterization efforts in support of the environmental documentation process, a chemical soil characterization program was developed. This program consisted of biased and unbiased sampling program which maximized areal coverage, provided a statistically sound data base and maintained cost effectiveness. This paper discusses how the general rationale and processes used at the Weldon Spring Site can be applied to other mixed and hazardous waste sites

  8. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  10. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated

  11. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 1] (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  12. Mixed wastes management at Fernald: Making it happen quickly, economically and compliantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of calender year 1992, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) had approximately 12,500 drums of mixed low-level waste in storage and the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) had just begun to develop an aggressive project based program to treat and dispose of this mixed waste. By 1996 the FERMCO mixed waste management program had reduced the aforementioned 12,500 drums of waste once in inventory to approximately 5800 drums. Projects are currently in progress to completely eliminate the FEMP inventory of mixed waste. As a result of these initiatives and aggressive project management, the FEMP has become a model for mixed waste handling, treatment and disposal for DOE facilities. Mixed waste management has traditionally been viewed as a singular and complex environmental problem. FERMCO has adopted the viewpoint that treatment and disposal of mixed waste is an engineering project, to be executed in a disciplined fashion with timely and economic results. This approach allows the larger mixed waste management problem to be divided into manageable fractions and managed by project. Each project is managed by problem solving experts, project managers, in lieu of environmental experts. In the project approach, environmental regulations become project requirements for individual resolution, as opposed to what had formerly been viewed as technically unachievable environmental standards

  13. French programs for advanced waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several organizations (CEA, CNRS, EdF, etc.) are cooperating in France on accelerator-driven systems. The major motivation is the investigation of innovative options for the radioactive waste management. The paper describes the ongoing activities and future directions of the cooperative efforts. 11 refs., 3 figs

  14. Treatment of mixed wastes by thermal plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) uses an ion exchange resin: IRN 150 (copolymer styrene Divynilbencene) in the TRIGA Mark III reactor to absorb polluted particles with heavy metals and radioactive particles of low level. Once the capacity of filtrate of the resin is exceeded, it is replaced and considered with a mixed waste. This work is based on taking advantage of the advantages of the technique of the thermal plasma in a unique process: (high energy density 105W/cm3 high enthalpy, high reactivity chemical, high operation temperatures 6000-11500K and quick quenching 106K/s) for the degradation and vitrification of the resin IRN 150. The reactor of plasma is compact and it works to atmospheric pressure and reduced thermal inertia. Therefore, the main parameters involved during the degradation tests and vitrification are: plasma current, voltage, gas flow and distance among the electrodes. The used vitreous matrix, is obtained from a ceramic clay composed by an oxides mixture which are characterized by their good resistance to mechanical impacts and erosion caused by the water. The ceramic clay and the resin IRN 150 were analyzed before the treatment by Scanning Electron Microscopy (MEB), X-ray Diffraction (DRX), Thermal gravimetry (TGA) once vitrified the materials were also analyzed by MEB and DRX. It is obtained as a result that the material more appropriate to be used as vitreous matrix it is a ceramic clay formed by several oxides, being operated the plasma system with a current of 115A, voltage of 25V, flow of the argon gas of 5 l/m and a distance among electrodes of 10mm. With the development of the proposed technology and the material for the vitreous matrix, be rotted to try in a future a great variety of mixed waste. (Author)

  15. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants

  16. DOE Land Disposal Restrictions Strategy Report for Radioactive Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an effort by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors to develop a strategy for achieving radioactive mixed waste (RMW) compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). Preliminary information provided by the Operations Offices has been reviewed to formulate an overall strategy that will enable DOE operations to comply with the Land Disposal Restrictions. The effort has concluded that all DOE Operations Offices are impacted by LDR due to the inability to meet existing and future LDR storage prohibition requirements or treatment standards for RMW. A total of 178 RMW streams subject to LDR are identified in this report. Quantities of RMW impacted by LDR have been estimated at approximately 710,785 cubic meters. DOE must place a high priority on resolving LDR compliance issues. Failure to resolve these issues could result in the curtailment of waste generating operations at DOE facilities. Actions will be required from both DOE (Headquarters and Operations Offices) and EPA in order to achieve DOE complex-wide compliance. Specific recommendations are included. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  17. Thermal desorption of some PCB-contaminated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To optimize the thermal desorption process, it is necessary to determine the composition of the off-gassing stream as a function of time and temperature and to ensure that no deleterious thermal decomposition products are produced. This paper describes the use of a small-scale thermal desorption (TD) cell closely coupled to a Fourrier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for analysis of the main off-gassing constituents, such as carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen oxides, and which also has a silica fiber located in the off-gas stream to absorb trace organic material. The silica fiber is periodically removed and injected into a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) system for analysis of absorbed organic materials such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. The system was used to determine the composition profile as a function of time and temperature for a PCB-contaminated mixed waste from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. The FTIR showed the appearance of a number of phenols beginning when the sample reached about 125 C and ending at about 350 C. Analysis of the silica fiber indicated that considerable quantities of PCBs were initially evolved, but that these were completely desorbed by the time the sample reached 500 C. The results have several implications for the treatment of this waste stream by thermal desorption. It appears that a temperature of 500 C and a residence time of several minutes will be adequate to evolve the hazardous components from the solid. The off-gas collection system must be capable of handling a large quantity since approximately 36 wt% of the waste will be condensed as phenol and phosphate oil in the gas collection system

  18. Task 1.6 - mixed waste. Topical report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    For fifty years, the United States was involved in a nuclear arms race of immense proportions. During the majority of this period, the push was always to design new weapons, produce more weapons, and increase the size of the arsenal, maintaining an advantage over the opposition in order to protect U.S. interests. Now that the {open_quotes}Cold War{close_quotes} is over, we are faced with the imposing tasks of dismantling, cleaning up, and remediating the wide variety of problems created by this arms race. An overview of the current status of the total remediation effort within the DOE is presented in the DOE publication {open_quotes}ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 1995{close_quotes} (EM 1995). Not all radioactive waste is the same though; therefore, a system was devised to categorize the different types of radioactive waste. These categories are as follows: spent fuel; high-level waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; mixed waste; and uranium-mill tailings. Mixed waste is defined to be material contaminated with any of these categories of radioactive material plus an organic or heavy metal component. However, for this discussion, {open_quotes}mixed waste{close_quote} will pertain only to low-level mixed waste which consists of low-level radioactive waste mixed with organic solvents and or heavy metals. The area of {open_quotes}mixed-waste characterization, treatment, and disposal{close_quotes} is listed on page 6 of the EM 1995 publication as one of five focus areas for technological development, and while no more important than the others, it has become an area of critical concern for DOE. Lacking adequate technologies for treatment and disposal, the DOE stockpiled large quantities of mixed waste during the 1970s and 1980s. Legislative changes and the need for regulatory compliance have now made it expedient to develop methods of achieving final disposition for this stockpiled mixed waste.

  19. Testing and evaluation of alternative process systems for immobilizing radioactive mixed particulate waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Wastes have accumulated at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Ongoing operations and planned facilities at Hanford will also contribute to this waste stream. To meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions most of this waste will need to be treated to permit disposal. In general this treatment will need to include stabilization/solidification either as a sole method or as part of a treatment train. A planned DOE facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A, is scoped to provide this required treatment for containerized contact-handled (CH), mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at Hanford. An engineering development program has been conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to select the best system for utilizing a cement based process in WRAP Module 2A. Three mixing processes were developed for analysis and testing; in-drum mixing, continuous mixing, and batch mixing. Some full scale tests were conducted and 55 gallon drums of solidified product were produced. These drums were core sampled and examined to evaluate mixing effectiveness. Total solids loading and the order of addition of waste and binder constituents were also varied. The highest confidence approach to meet the WRAP Module 2A waste immobilization system needs appears to be the out-of-drum batch mixing concept. This system is believed to offer the most flexibility and efficiency, given the highly variable and troublesome waste streams feeding the facility

  20. First Delisting Approval by the US EPA for a Vitrified Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delisting of a vitrified hazardous and radioactive (mixed) waste stored at the Savannah River Site has been approved by Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4. This is the first approval of a delisting petition for a vitrified waste, listed or mixed, in the United States

  1. Nondestructive Waste Assay Using Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    This project was supported by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and the Federal Environmental Technology Center (FETC) to develop an improved nondestructive assay (NDA) capability that uses gamma-ray computed tomography and gamma-energy spectral analysis techniques to perform waste assay measurements. It was the intent of the Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) development and demonstration project to enhance the overall utility of waste assay through the implementation of techniques that can accommodate known measurement complications, e.g., waste matrix and radioactive material distribution heterogeneities. This technology can measure the radionuclide content in all types of waste regardless of their classification as low level (LLW), transuranic (TRU) or mixed (MLLW or MTRU). The nondestructive waste assay capability needed to support Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste characterization needs is necessarily a function of the waste form configurations in inventory. These waste form configurations exhibit a number of variables impacting assay system response that must be accounted for to ensure valid measurement data. Such variables include: matrix density, matrix elemental composition, matrix density distribution, radioactive material radionuclidic/isotopic composition, radioactive material physical/chemical form, and physical distribution in the waste matrix. Existing nondestructive assay technologies have identified capability limits with respect to these variables. Certain combinations of these variables result in waste configurations within the capability of one or more of the existing systems. Other combinations that are prevalent in the inventory are outside of the capability of such systems.

  2. Impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD/NEA has performed a study on the impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies with 33 experts from 12 member countries, 1 non-member country and 2 international organizations. The study extends a series of previous ones on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) issues, focusing on the performance assessments for repositories of high-level waste (HLW) arising from advanced fuel cycles. This study covers a broader spectrum than previous studies, from present industrial practice to fully closed cycles via partially closed cycles (in terms of transuranic elements); 9 fuel cycle schemes and 4 variants. Elements of fuel cycles are considered primarily as sources of waste, the internal mass flows of each scheme being kept for the sake of mass conservation. The compositions, activities and heat loads of all waste flows are also tracked. Their impact is finally assessed on the waste repository concepts. The study result confirms the findings from the previous NEA studies on P and T on maximal reduction of the waste source term and maximal use of uranium resources. In advanced fuel cycle schemes the activity of the waste is reduced by burning first plutonium and then minor actinides and also the uranium consumption is reduced, as the fraction of fast reactors in the park is increased to 100%. The result of the repository performance assessments, analysing the effect of different HLW isotopic composition on repository performance and on repository capacity, shows that the maximum dose released to biosphere at any time in normal conditions remains, for all schemes and for all the repository concepts examined, well below accepted radiation protection thresholds. The major impact is on the detailed concept of the repositories, through heat load and waste volume. Advanced fuel cycles could allow a repository to cover waste produced from 5 to 20 times more electricity generation than PWR once-through cycle. Given the flexibility of the advanced fuel

  3. Preliminary assessment of disposal limits for vitrified low-level-mixed-wastes in RCRA landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Integrated Program includes development of a generic delisting petition for mixed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and low level radioactive wastes. Thus, a generic modified RCRA landfill is being evaluated for disposal of both hazardous and mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes that have been vitrified to pass the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). The landfill would include multiple barriers to restrict and limit the release of hazardous and radioactive substances to and hazardous chemical inventories which could be allowed in the landfill. Thus, the work presented here will aid in the development of both Waste Acceptance Criteria and Operating Limits for mixed Waste RCRA landfills. Forty Isotopes and nineteen hazardous chemicals which are typical of DOE waste streams are considered. Preliminary limits for those constituents which impact groundwater are recommended, as well as those radioactive species which could affect intruders. 28 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Role of disposal in developing Federal Facility Compliance Act mixed waste treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was enacted on October 6, 1992. This act amends the Solid Waste Disposal Act, which was previously amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The FFCA set in place a process for managing the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed low-level radioactive wastes (MLLW), wastes that contain both hazardous and low-level radioactive constituents, with full participation of the affected states. The FFCA provides the framework for the development of treatment capacity for DOE's mixed waste. Disposal of the treatment residues is not addressed by the FFCA. DOE has initiated efforts in concert with the states in the development of a disposal strategy for the treated mixed wastes. This paper outlines DOE efforts in development of a mixed waste disposal strategy which is integrated with the FFCA Site Treatment Planning process

  5. Simulant Development for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Mixing and Waste Feed Delivery Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Tran, Diana N.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2012-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Projection manages the River Protection Project, which has the mission to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms (Certa et al. 2011). Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) is responsible for a primary objective of this mission which is to retrieve and transfer tank waste to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). A mixing and sampling program with four separate demonstrations is currently being conducted to support this objective and also to support activities in a plan for addressing safety concerns identified by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board related to the ability of the WTP to mix, sample, and transfer fast settling particles. Previous studies have documented the objectives, criteria, and selection of non-radioactive simulants for these four demonstrations. The identified simulants include Newtonian suspending liquids with densities and viscosities that span the range expected in waste feed tanks. The identified simulants also include non-Newtonian slurries with Bingham yield stress values that span a range that is expected to bound the Bingham yield stress in the feed delivery tanks. The previous studies identified candidate materials for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian suspending fluids, but did not provide specific recipes for obtaining the target properties and information was not available to evaluate the compatibility of the fluids and particles or the potential for salt precipitation at lower temperatures. The purpose of this study is to prepare small batches of simulants in advance of the demonstrations to determine specific simulant recipes, to evaluate the compatibility of the liquids and particles, and to determine if the simulants are stable for the potential range of test temperatures. The objective of the testing, which is focused primarily on the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, is to determine the composition of

  6. Advanced characterisation of municipal solid waste ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte Pedersen, Randi

    2002-12-15

    This report deals with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant Maebjergvaerket, Holstebro. MSW has been used as a fuel since the mid 1960's and since then, the MSW incineration plants have experienced operational problems due to deposit formation and corrosion. Inorganic elements tightly or loosely bound in the waste are the main cause of these problems. The tightly bound elements will mainly stay on the grate during combustion, whereas the loosely bound elements are volatilised and recondensed elsewhere in the furnace. Many of the heavy metals form volatile chlorides during the incineration, and the fly ash fraction thus show enrichment in these elements. Presence of chlorides and heavy metals in deposits may cause severe corrosion due to formation of low-melting eutectics. Chlorine gas in the flue gas is also of major concern with respect to corrosion, due to formation of volatile chlorides when chlorine comes in contact with the tube material. Four different ash fractions (bottom ash, super heater ash, economiser ash and fly ash) taken from Maebjergvaerket have been analysed with respect to particle sizes, structures, shapes and composition. The applied methods were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX) and mapping, which were used in order to determine sizes, chemical composition and structure of the particles. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to provide information about crystallography and mineral phases. Chemical analysis was also performed along with a particle size distribution for the fine-grained fractions (economiser and fly ash). The amount of silicates consisting of Ca, Al and Si, were found to decrease through the furnace, whereas the amount of alkali (Na, K) chlorides and heavy metals (Pb, Zn) increased. The bonding in the waste before incineration is the direct cause of this, since silicates are tightly bound and chlorides are loosely bound. There was a

  7. Development of asphaltic mix with waste products use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trend of high growth of the vehicle fleet in Russia along with the positive impact on the socio-economic development of the country has a number of adverse consequences, one of which is the high accident rate on the roads. The paper considers modern way to provide the safe vehicles flow with the use of colored asphalt, which is a kind of hot asphalt and can have a variety of colors, which consists of coloring pigments. The conventional method of coloring the asphalt mix is produced by adding color rubble or pigmenting additives. The task, which was put forward, was the establishment of such road concrete mix, from which, without the use of primary materials and without increasing the consumption of bitumen, asphalt concrete road surfaces of acceptable strength could be obtained. As a pigment the dust of gas purification system of electrical furnace DSP - 60 of «Kamastal» plant, Perm, was used. The composition of the dust waste from the furnace consists of metal oxides and silicates. Dust-gas-cleaning is a fine powder with a high specific surface (1.2…2.5 thousand cm /g and bulk density of 3.7…4.2 g/cm . The powder color is dark brown. The density of the ready colored asphalt samples is 2.47...2.49 g/cm , and water saturation is 3.50…3.55 %. As a result of the research the diagrams of the dependence of road concrete mix’s water saturation from dust percentage and a diagram of dependence of concrete mixes’ durability from dust percentage at t = 20° and 50° C were built. After analyzing the obtained curves it can be concluded that the increase of the percentage of dust leads to increase of water saturation of road concrete mix and reduced strength. Thus, the developed asphalt concrete mix allows visually separating the lanes on the road, it has the relevant regulatory requirements durability and water resistance. This mixture corresponds to the type B mark III and can be used in regions I, II, and partly III of road-climatic zones

  8. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment ''systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs

  9. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals

  10. Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-07-18

    These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations.

  11. Mixed waste treatment options for wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has generated mixed wastes (MWs) during its daily operations. MWs contain both radioactive and hazardous components, as defined by the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency. Treatment and disposal of stored MWs, as well as future generated MWs, are required to meet all regulations specified by the regulating agencies. This report reviews proven and emerging technologies that can treat MWs. It also provides a method for selection of the appropriate technology for treatment of a particular waste stream. The report selects for further consideration various treatments that can be used to treat MWs that fall under Land Disposal Restrictions. The selection methodology was used to arrive at these treatments. 63 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  12. Project report for the commercial disposal of mixed low-level waste debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, G.; Balls, V.; Shea, T.; Thiesen, T.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the basis for the commercial disposal of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) debris and the associated activities. Mixed waste is radioactive waste plus hazardous waste as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The critical factors for this project were DOE 5820.2A exemption, contracting mechanism, NEPA documentation, sampling and analysis, time limitation and transportation of waste. This report also will provide a guide or a starting place for future use of Envirocare of Utah or other private sector disposal/treatment facilities, and the lessons learned during this project.

  13. Project report for the commercial disposal of mixed low-level waste debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the basis for the commercial disposal of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) mixed low-level waste (MLLW) debris and the associated activities. Mixed waste is radioactive waste plus hazardous waste as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The critical factors for this project were DOE 5820.2A exemption, contracting mechanism, NEPA documentation, sampling and analysis, time limitation and transportation of waste. This report also will provide a guide or a starting place for future use of Envirocare of Utah or other private sector disposal/treatment facilities, and the lessons learned during this project

  14. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues

  15. Degradation of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed human and swine wastes.

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, M.Y.; Cliver, D. O.

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the persistence of Giardia lamblia cysts in mixed septic tank effluent and swine manure slurry and to correlate fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide staining of G. lamblia cysts with their morphology under low-voltage scanning electron microscopy. Under field conditions, G. lamblia cysts were degraded more rapidly in the mixed waste than in the control Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For total and viable cysts, the mixed waste had D values (...

  16. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to ∼3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of ∼1 g/m2/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  17. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  18. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  19. Migration barrier covers for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration barrier cover technology will likely serve as the remediation alternative of choice for most of DOE's radioactive and mixed waste landfills simply because human and ecological risks can be effectively managed without the use of more expensive alternatives. However, very little testing and evaluation has been done, either before or after installation, to monitor how effective they are in isolating waste or to develop data that can be used to evaluate model predictions of long term performance. Los Alamos National Laboratory has investigated the performance of a variety of landfill capping alternatives since 1981 using large field lysimeters to monitor the fate of precipitation falling on the cap surface. The objective of these studies is to provide the risk manager with a variety of field tested capping designs, of various complexities and costs, so that design alternatives can be matched to the need for hydrologic control at the site. Four different landfill cap designs, representing different complexities and costs, were constructed at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) in October and November, 1989. The designs were constructed in large lysimeters and instrumented to provide estimates of all components of water balance including precipitation, runoff (and soil erosion), infiltration, leachate production, evapotranspiration, and capillary/hydraulic barrier flow. The designs consisted of a typical soil cover to serve as a baseline, a modified EPA RCRA cover, and two versions of a Los Alamos design that contained erosion control measures, an improved vegetation cover to enhance evapotranspiration, and a capillary barrier to divert downward flow of soil water. A comprehensive summary of the Hill AFB demonstration will be available in October 1993, when the project is scheduled to terminate

  20. Mixed waste: A proposed solution that focuses on the underlying problem rather than on its symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viewed critically, it is apparent that the current mixed waste stream is the result of conflicting regulatory regimes. The current mixed waste system is neither functional nor rational. Despite numerous and elaborate attempts by NRC, EPA, and DOE to minimize and avoid conflicts between the existing regulatory schemes for radioactive and hazardous waste, the fundamental conflict between Atomic Energy Act and Resource Conservative and Recovery Act requirements remains obvious and unabated. Regulatory paralysis is the result. In this article, the authors outline some of the key inconsistencies between hazardous and radioactive waste management and disposal requirements and trace the effect these conflicts have had on the existing mixed waste system. The authors argue that mixed waste is of two primary types: Waste that is either primarily radioactively hazardous or primarily chemically hazardous and that regulatory requirements should reflect this fact. Hence, where a mixed waste contains only low levels of radioactivity and is primarily chemically hazardous, RCRA controls should predominate. Where a mixed waste contains any significant amount of radioactivity, however, AEA requirements, not RCRA should control

  1. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  2. An evaluation of vitrification technology: Application to mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is evaluating the feasibility of using vitrification to treat mixed wastes. This program is in the process of identifying glass compositions that can be produced from mixed wastes and additives, with an emphasis on maximizing the waste loading in the glass, and the overall waste volume reduction. Preliminary crucible glass studies with surrogate mixed waste streams have produced a glass composition that could be produced in commercially available melters. This same glass composition, spiked with Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metals, pass the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Thus, the final waste form is a low-level radioactive waste. Additional crucible melts with actual mixed waste streams are in progress and will define a compositional envelope of acceptable glasses that will eventually be produced during full-scale melter operations. Evaluations of the likely off-gases from vitrification indicate that the primary off-gases produced during vitrification will include compounds of SOx, NOx and CO2. These compounds are routinely treated in the off-gas portion of vitrification systems. The composition of the melter feed can be adjusted to control some of the off-gases produced, if necessary. The economics suggest that annual cost savings resulting from volume reduction and conversion of mixed waste to low-level waste may be substantial

  3. Mixed waste: The treatment of organic radioactive waste by means of adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The work described in this paper has been carried in the radioactive waste treatment facilities of the Nuclear Research Center Lo Aguirre, CEN LA, which are operated by Radioactive Waste Management Unit, UGDR. This last, centralizes its activities in order to manage all radioactive waste generated in the country due to the nuclear development. Features of danger and risks presented by organic radioactive liquid waste, make the need to develop a practicable alternative for its treatment and to allow the conditioning towards a suitable final disposal The raw material for this work, is an organic liquid waste arising from scintillation techniques, contaminated with Tritium. This mixed waste has to be treated and then conditioned in a solid form within a 200 I container, according with actual acceptance criteria for our temporary store for radioactive waste. The best formulation which allows to immobilize the liquid waste was determined. The first step consists in the adsorption treatment that waste is humbled. From the available adsorbents, two types were studied: adsorption granulat and diatomaceous earth. From the waste management standpoint, results with diatomaceous earth present physical characteristics better than the other Following, the second stage is the immobilization, which is achieved in a cement matrix made with puzzolanic cement (Polpaico 400) made in Chile. Later, due to cost and availability in the country, the diatomaceous earth is selected for the study, in the form of celite which is comparatively economic. The best mixture, with regard to physical feature, has the following composition: a 0.35 (w/w) water/cement ratio, which represents the needed quantity to obtain workability in the mixture, and it is the minimum amount of water to hydrating the cement; a waste/adsorbent ratio of 0.5 (v/v), in which the organic liquid is completely adsorbed and it is incorporated into the crystalline system of the solid form; and an adsorbed waste

  4. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE's needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities

  5. Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste characterization for each treatment unit or process is based on treatment records from LLNL's computerized Hazardous Waste Management Inventory System (HWMIS). In 1990, these data were compiled into a single database comprising both hazardous waste and mixed waste data. Even though these data originate from the same source used in the previous HRA, the database was modified to set quantities and concentrations to a consistent set of units. This allowed an analysis of waste types by Hazardous Waste Management unit that was more accurate and did not rely upon many of the conservative assumptions used in the Phase II HRA waste characterization. Finally, the current waste characterizations are considered more representative of potential long-term wastes because they were developed by combining all wastes that could be treated in each unit, as opposed to the wastes treated only during 1988 to 1989. This final step more appropriately accounts for the variability in waste types likely to be seen by the Hazardous Waste Management Division. The quantities of each waste listed in the characterization tables represent the sum of all chemical quantities belonging to hazardous and mixed waste types potentially handled by each area

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste: Multi-input versus multi-output perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, G; Ripa, M; Protano, G; Hornsby, C; Ulgiati, S

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyses four strategies for managing the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW) in terms of their environmental impacts and potential advantages by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. To this aim, both a multi-input and a multi-output approach are applied to evaluate the effect of these perspectives on selected impact categories. The analyzed management options include direct landfilling with energy recovery (S-1), Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) followed by Waste-to-Energy (WtE) conversion (S-2), a combination of an innovative MBT/MARSS (Material Advanced Recovery Sustainable Systems) process and landfill disposal (S-3), and finally a combination of the MBT/MARSS process with WtE conversion (S-4). The MARSS technology, developed within an European LIFE PLUS framework and currently implemented at pilot plant scale, is an innovative MBT plant having the main goal to yield a Renewable Refined Biomass Fuel (RRBF) to be used for combined heat and power production (CHP) under the regulations enforced for biomass-based plants instead of Waste-to-Energy systems, for increased environmental performance. The four scenarios are characterized by different resource investment for plant and infrastructure construction and different quantities of matter, heat and electricity recovery and recycling. Results, calculated per unit mass of waste treated and per unit exergy delivered, under both multi-input and multi-output LCA perspectives, point out improved performance for scenarios characterized by increased matter and energy recovery. Although none of the investigated scenarios is capable to provide the best performance in all the analyzed impact categories, the scenario S-4 shows the best LCA results in the human toxicity and freshwater eutrophication categories, i.e. the ones with highest impacts in all waste management processes. PMID:26257056

  7. Low-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics for low-level mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBCs) were investigated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of DOE mixed wastes where conventional high-temperature treatments cannot be used due to presence of volatiles and pyrophorics in the wastes. This article deals with stabilization of chemical contaminants. Phosphate ceramics of Mg, Mg-Na and Zr are being investigated as candidate materials. The authors discuss the basic properties of the phosphate waste forms made with surrogates of typical DOE mixed wastes with an emphasis on ash waste stream. The performance of the final waste forms, including leachability of the contaminants durability of the final waste forms in aqueous environment, and strength of the waste forms are discussed in detail. Based on the results, the authors present possible economic applications of these materials

  8. Locations, volumes, and characteristics of DOE's mixed low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) has collected and analyzed mixed low-level waste data to assist in developing treatment capability for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) wastes. Initial data on the characteristics of mixed waste was obtained from the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) data base, and has been updated based on visits to DOE sites where most of the wastes are generated and stored. The streams of interest have a current inventory of about 70,000 m and a generation rate of about 7,700 m3/yr. The twelve sites with the most significant processing needs are Fernald, Hanford, K-25 (Oak Ridge), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Savannah River Site (SRS), and Y-12 (Oak Ridge). These twelve sites account for about 98% of the mixed waste volumes. The wastes have been assigned to specific waste characterization categories. The largest category in current interim storage is inorganic solids, with sludges, filter cakes, and residues the largest specific subcategory. Aqueous liquids are the largest currently generated stream. The other large categories are solid organics, metals wastes, and heterogenous wastes. Organic liquids, which have been a major focus, are the smallest of the categories. (author)

  9. Locations, volumes, and characteristics of DOE's mixed low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) has collected and analyzed mixed low-level waste data to assist in developing treatment capability for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) wastes. Initial data on the characteristics of mixed waste was obtained from the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) data base, and has been updated based on visits to DOE sites where most of the wastes are generated and stored. The streams of interest have a current inventory of about 70,000 m3 and a generation rate of about 7,700 m3/yr. The twelve sites with the most significant processing needs are Fernald, Hanford, K-25 (Oak Ridge), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Savannah River Site (SRS), and Y-12 (Oak Ridge). These twelve sites account for about 98% of the mixed waste volumes. The wastes have been assigned to specific waste characterization categories. The largest category in current interim storage is inorganic solids, with sludges, filter cakes, and residues the largest specific subcategory. Aqueous liquids are the largest currently generated stream. The other large categories are solid organics, metals wastes, and heterogeneous wastes. Organic liquids, which have been a major focus, are the smallest of the categories

  10. OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES IN MIXING AND TRANSFER OF HIGH YIELD STRESS SLUDGE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.; Bhatt, P.

    2009-12-07

    The ability to mobilize and transport non-Newtonian waste is essential to advance the closure of highly radioactive storage tanks. Recent waste removal operations from Tank 12H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) encountered sludge mixtures with a yield stress too high to pump. The waste removal equipment for Tank 12H was designed to mobilize and transport a diluted slurry mixture through an underground 550m long (1800 ft) 0.075m diameter (3 inch) pipeline. The transfer pump was positioned in a well casing submerged in the sludge slurry. The design allowed for mobilized sludge to enter the pump suction while keeping out larger tank debris. Data from a similar tank with known rheological properties were used to size the equipment. However, after installation and startup, field data from Tank 12H confirmed the yield stress of the slurry to exceed 40 Pa, whereas the system is designed for 10 Pa. A revision to the removal strategy was required, which involved metered dilution, blending, and mixing to ensure effective and safe transfer performance. The strategy resulted in the removal of over 255,000 kgs of insoluble solids with four discrete transfer evolutions for a total transfer volume of 2400 m{sup 3} (634,000 gallons) of sludge slurry.

  11. Operational Challenges In Mixing And Transfer Of High Yield Stress Sludge Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to mobilize and transport non-Newtonian waste is essential to advance the closure of highly radioactive storage tanks. Recent waste removal operations from Tank 12H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) encountered sludge mixtures with a yield stress too high to pump. The waste removal equipment for Tank 12H was designed to mobilize and transport a diluted slurry mixture through an underground 550m long (1800 ft) 0.075m diameter (3 inch) pipeline. The transfer pump was positioned in a well casing submerged in the sludge slurry. The design allowed for mobilized sludge to enter the pump suction while keeping out larger tank debris. Data from a similar tank with known rheological properties were used to size the equipment. However, after installation and startup, field data from Tank 12H confirmed the yield stress of the slurry to exceed 40 Pa, whereas the system is designed for 10 Pa. A revision to the removal strategy was required, which involved metered dilution, blending, and mixing to ensure effective and safe transfer performance. The strategy resulted in the removal of over 255,000 kgs of insoluble solids with four discrete transfer evolutions for a total transfer volume of 2400 m3 (634,000 gallons) of sludge slurry.

  12. Fire hazard analysis of the radioactive mixed waste trenchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) is intended to assess comprehensively the risk from fire associated with the disposal of low level radioactive mixed waste in trenches within the lined landfills, provided by Project W-025, designated Trench 31 and 34 of the Burial Ground 218-W-5. Elements within the FHA make recommendations for minimizing risk to workers, the public, and the environment from fire during the course of the operation's activity. Transient flammables and combustibles present that support the operation's activity are considered and included in the analysis. The graded FHA contains the following elements: description of construction, protection of essential safety class equipment, fire protection features, description of fire hazards, life safety considerations, critical process equipment, high value property, damage potential--maximum credible fire loss (MCFL) and maximum possible fire loss (MPFL), fire department/brigade response, recovery potential, potential for a toxic, biological and/or radiation incident due to a fire, emergency planning, security considerations related to fire protection, natural hazards (earthquake, flood, wind) impact on fire safety, and exposure fire potential, including the potential for fire spread between fire areas. Recommendations for limiting risk are made in the text of this report and printed in bold type. All recommendations are repeated in a list in Section 18.0

  13. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  14. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system

  15. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retreival And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated since it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans and methods. WRPS and the DOE are therefore developing, testing, and deploying technologies to ensure that they can meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  16. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for radioactive and mixed waste solidification and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Singh, D.; Reed, D.T.; Armstrong, S.; Subhan, W.; Chawla, N.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial investigation of low temperature setting chemically bonded magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) ceramics as waste form materials, for solidification and stabilization of radioactive and mixed waste, are reported. The suitability of MAP for solidifying and encapsulating waste materials was tested by encapsulating zeolites at loadings up to {approximately}50 wt%. The resulting composites exhibited very good compressive strength characteristics. Microstructure studies show that zeolite grains remain unreacted in the matrix. Potential uses for solidifying and stab wastes are discussed.

  17. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for radioactive and mixed waste solidification and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Singh, D.; Reed, D.T.; Armstrong, S.; Subhan, W.; Chawla, N.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial investigation of low temperature setting chemically bonded magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) ceramics as waste form materials, for solidification and stabilization of radioactive and mixed waste, are reported. The suitability of MAP for solidifying and encapsulating waste materials was tested by encapsulating zeolites at loadings up to [approximately]50 wt%. The resulting composites exhibited very good compressive strength characteristics. Microstructure studies show that zeolite grains remain unreacted in the matrix. Potential uses for solidifying and stab wastes are discussed.

  18. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers' Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided

  19. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  20. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  2. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  3. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel

  4. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  5. Regulation of radioactive mixed waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (1) compliance issues pertinent to the placement of radioactive mixed waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The discussion focuses on the mixed waste issue, the WIPP as an interim status facility, effects of RCRA land disposal prohibitions on the WIPP, regulation of geologic repositories as Subpart X miscellaneous units, and various inconsistencies between U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for the WIPP and the RCRA regulations. An approach to permitting the WIPP as a RCRA compliance facility is also addressed

  6. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  7. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  8. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  9. Advanced waste forms research and development. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities on advanced (alternatives to glass) nuclear waste forms are reported. The emphasis is on two phases of the work to give essential background information on supercalcine development. The first is a report of the data obtained in the study of cesium aluminosilicate for Cs and Ru fixation. Research on the compatibility of the phases formed in the complex oxide system made up of waste and additive cations is reported. The phase stability in a number of proposed formulations was determined

  10. Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of 'Envelopes,' each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward

  11. Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2007-10-01

    The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of “Envelopes,” each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward.

  12. FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control

  13. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  14. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  15. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We modeled material, substance, energy, and cost flows of a waste refinery process. • Ca. 56% of 1 Mg dry waste input can be recovered as bioliquid yielding 6.2 GJ biogas. • Nutrients and carbon recovery in the bioliquid was estimated to 81–89%. • The biogenic carbon in the input waste was 63% of total carbon based on 14C analyses. • The quality of the digestate may be critical with respect to use on land. - Abstract: Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials are offered by waste refineries where a bioliquid is produced from enzymatic treatment of mixed waste. In this study, potential flows of materials, energy, and substances within a waste refinery were investigated by combining sampling, analyses, and modeling. Existing material, substance, and energy flow analysis was further advanced by development of a mathematical optimization model for determination of the theoretical recovery potential. The results highlighted that the waste refinery may recover ca. 56% of the dry matter input as bioliquid, yielding 6.2 GJ biogas-energy. The potential for nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and biogenic carbon recovery was estimated to be between 81% and 89% of the input. Biogenic and fossil carbon in the mixed household waste input was determined to 63% and 37% of total carbon based on 14C analyses. Additional recovery of metals and plastic was possible based on further process optimization. A challenge for the process may be digestate quality, as digestate may represent an emission pathway when applied on land. Considering the potential variability of local revenues for energy outputs, the costs for the waste refinery solution appeared comparable with alternatives such as direct incineration

  16. Recent advances in cement solidification of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced cement solidification processes and systems have been developed by SGN to meet changing requirements in radioactive waste processing and packaging and to avoid the difficulties often encountered in waste concreting on an industrial scale. SGN applies a strict development methodology to ensure integration of the most recent information on chemical behavior of solidified wastes plus compliance with the precise needs of waste producers and evolving regulatory requirements concerning waste package storage and disposal. Based on a hierarchical definition of objectives, this methodology was implemented following an overall study on radwaste concreting performed in 1983 and 1984 for Electricite de France (EdF), France's national electric power utility. It ensures that industrial and regulatory factors are fully considered from the start of development work. It also constrains development in the direction of true process optimization and guarantees compliance with defined objectives. The methodology has helped SGN develop concreting processes adapted to various types of radioactive waste. The most widely employed processes are first briefly described in this paper. It then presents continuous and batch systems using these processes, focusing on technological features chosen at a very early stage in development

  17. Comparison of scientific and engineering approaches to the treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses two approaches to the treatment of mixed waste. (Mixed waste, defined as radioactive waste that is co-contaminated with hazardous waste as defined in the Resource Conservation and Conservation Act, is presently stored throughout the United States awaiting the establishment of treatment capability.)The first approach employs conventional engineering that focuses on low risk technology which has been proven in other industries in similar applications and is adaptable for waste treatment use. The term ''low risk'' means that implementation success is relatively certain, and the major uncertainty is the degree of success. Technologies under consideration include centrifugation, evaporation, microfiltration and stabilization. Process offgases are treated with traditional scrubbers and carbon absorption units.For the scientific approach, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is in the conceptual design phase of a project to demonstrate incinerator alternatives to destroy organic contaminants in radioactive waste streams without the use of incineration. This Mixed Waste Management Facility will use approximately 15000 square feet of an existing facility to demonstrate an integrated waste management system. Robotic and telerobotic systems will be employed for waste segregation, characterization and feed preparation. Waste feeds will be treated using molten salt oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation and wet oxidation. Residues, which can be managed as radioactive-only waste, will be immobilized in an organic matrix prior to shipment to an authorized disposal site

  18. Proposed research and development plan for mixed low-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to recommend a waste form program plan that addresses waste form issues for mixed low-level waste (MLLW). The report compares the suitability of proposed waste forms for immobilizing MLLW in preparation for permanent near-surface disposal and relates them to their impact on the U.S. Department of Energy's mixed waste mission. Waste forms are classified into four categories: high-temperature waste forms, hydraulic cements, encapsulants, and specialty waste forms. Waste forms are evaluated concerning their ability to immobilize MLLW under certain test conditions established by regulatory agencies and research institutions. The tests focused mainly on leach rate and compressive strength. Results indicate that all of the waste forms considered can be tailored to give satisfactory performance immobilizing large fractions of the Department's MLLW inventory. Final waste form selection will ultimately be determined by the interaction of other, often nontechnical factors, such as economics and politics. As a result of this report, three top-level programmatic needs have been identified: (1) a basic set of requirements for waste package performance and disposal; (2) standardized tests for determining waste form performance and suitability for disposal; and (3) engineering experience operating production-scale treatment and disposal systems for MLLW

  19. Proposed research and development plan for mixed low-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Holleran, T.O.; Feng, X.; Kalb, P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this report is to recommend a waste form program plan that addresses waste form issues for mixed low-level waste (MLLW). The report compares the suitability of proposed waste forms for immobilizing MLLW in preparation for permanent near-surface disposal and relates them to their impact on the U.S. Department of Energy`s mixed waste mission. Waste forms are classified into four categories: high-temperature waste forms, hydraulic cements, encapsulants, and specialty waste forms. Waste forms are evaluated concerning their ability to immobilize MLLW under certain test conditions established by regulatory agencies and research institutions. The tests focused mainly on leach rate and compressive strength. Results indicate that all of the waste forms considered can be tailored to give satisfactory performance immobilizing large fractions of the Department`s MLLW inventory. Final waste form selection will ultimately be determined by the interaction of other, often nontechnical factors, such as economics and politics. As a result of this report, three top-level programmatic needs have been identified: (1) a basic set of requirements for waste package performance and disposal; (2) standardized tests for determining waste form performance and suitability for disposal; and (3) engineering experience operating production-scale treatment and disposal systems for MLLW.

  20. Assessment of Tank 241-S-112 Liquid Waste Mixing in Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate mixing of liquid waste from Tank 241-S-112 with waste in Tank 241-SY-101 and to determine the properties of the resulting waste for the cross-site transfer to avoid potential double-shell tank corrosion and pipeline plugging. We applied the time-varying, three-dimensional computer code TEMPEST to Tank SY-101 as it received the S-112 liquid waste. The model predicts that temperature variations in Tank SY-101 generate a natural convection flow that is very slow, varying from about 7 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-3 ft/sec (0.3 to about 4 ft/hr) in most areas. Thus, natural convection would eventually mix the liquid waste in SY-101 but would be very slow to achieve nearly complete mixing. These simulations indicate that the mixing of S-112 and SY-101 wastes in Tank SY-101 is a very slow process, and the density difference between the two wastes would further limit mixing. It is expected to take days or weeks to achieve relatively complete mixing in Tank SY-101

  1. Assessment of Tank 241-S-112 Liquid Waste Mixing in Tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Trent, Donald S.; Wells, Beric E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate mixing of liquid waste from Tank 241-S-112 with waste in Tank 241-SY-101 and to determine the properties of the resulting waste for the cross-site transfer to avoid potential double-shell tank corrosion and pipeline plugging. We applied the time-varying, three-dimensional computer code TEMPEST to Tank SY-101 as it received the S-112 liquid waste. The model predicts that temperature variations in Tank SY-101 generate a natural convection flow that is very slow, varying from about 7 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -3} ft/sec (0.3 to about 4 ft/hr) in most areas. Thus, natural convection would eventually mix the liquid waste in SY-101 but would be very slow to achieve nearly complete mixing. These simulations indicate that the mixing of S-112 and SY-101 wastes in Tank SY-101 is a very slow process, and the density difference between the two wastes would further limit mixing. It is expected to take days or weeks to achieve relatively complete mixing in Tank SY-101.

  2. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retrieval And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated, developed, and deployed by WRPS to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Transformational technologies are needed to complete Hanford tank waste retrieval and treatment by 12/31/2047. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated because it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans, and methods. WRPS and the DOE are developing, testing, and deploying technologies to meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) identifies the environmental management technology needs and the activities necessary to address them. The U.S. Congress then funds these activities through EM or the DOE field offices. Finally, an array of entities that include DOE site prime contractors and

  3. The Mixed Waste Management Facility, monthly report, February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical progress continued in general accordance with the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) FY95 Plan. Engineering development and design continued in support of preliminary design of MWMF major subsystems. Peer reviews have begun in preparation for system preliminary design reviews. Procurements in support of engineering design/development have continued to increase. Significant effort to provide technical and cost trade-off information for the Project Baseline Revision 1.2 (PB1.2) and FY97 Validation was completed. Management focus during February centered upon addressing the rebaseline for MWMF for the FY97 Validation in March, and upon completing the permitting strategy. We completed a consistent baseline plan for Validation that satisfied the DOE constraints of integration with DWTF, schedule stretchout, overall Project cost, and FY cost profiles. The revised permitting strategy was completed and reviewed by a number of stakeholders (LLNL, DOE, State). The proposed strategy involves no RCRA RD ampersand D permit, since all technology demonstrations can be done with surrogates and using limited treatability studies. The expenses for February continue to run somewhat below the plan due to the limited new hiring. This is a result of uncertain DOE funding and guidance to keep personnel to a minimum. However, the spending rate is picking up due to initiation of procurements for engineering development and a minimum of essential new hires. A significant imbalance in the OPEX/CENRTC funding split for FY95 exists (about $2.1M); DOE/OAK began to seek resolution this month. Critical-path items are DWTF construction, NEPA, and permitting (for both MWMF and DWTF). Contractual issues have delayed award of the A ampersand E contract for DWTF, but work-arounds are in progress to avoid schedule impact. NEPA and permitting issues are discussed below. Progress on preliminary design for MWMF is close to schedule

  4. 'Eight years of dual regulation for mixed waste -- where do we go from here?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive/hazardous mixed waste ('mixed waste') has been subject to dual regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ('RCRA') and the Atomic Energy Act ('AEA') since July, 1986. In these eight years, commercial NRC licensees have established a strong case that dual regulation is unnecessarily burdensome and redundant and that a tailored program combining select elements of RCRA and the AEA is the most appropriate course of regulatory action for these unique materials. Despite sympathetic acknowledgement from regulators that this strategy makes sense, mixed waste remains subject to dual regulation with little prospect for substantial relief in the immediate future. Recognizing that amending the regulatory status quo is a slow and tedious process, the paper will focus on management options available under the current RCRA and AEA programs for removing mixed waste from the most onerous elements of the present regime. This discussion will explore methods available under the existing hazardous waste rules for avoiding the most draconian elements of RCRA's hazardous waste program, including management options that are exempt from RCRA's permitting program and treatment options that are available to remove certain mixed wastes from hazardous waste regulation. The paper also will discuss potential options available under the NRC program for removing certain byproducts from the requirement that they be managed at NRC licensed facilities, thus creating new alternatives for off-site treatment and disposal

  5. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ''National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.'' The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities

  6. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  7. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  8. Waste Quantity, Mix and Throughput Study Report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the impact that waste stream parameters have on repository design, including surface, subsurface and waste package designs. Two design basis waste streams and corresponding design levels are established for two documented inventories of wastes: (a) Mined Geologic Design System (MGDS) Baseline (Viability Assessment) (VA) and (b) Extended Baseline. The MGDS Baseline VA inventory is currently used as the basis for the VA design of the repository, and is limited by statutes to a total of 70,000 MTU. The Extended Baseline includes the total documented inventories of commercial spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste and US Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel. Impacts of the two design bases on surface, subsurface and waste package designs are projected. The impact of potential disposal of additional commercial and Department of Energy miscellaneous wastes on design is assessed qualitatively

  9. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-29

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells.

  10. Issues and viewpoints concerning the application of RCRA to radioactive mixed waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper traces the origin and evolution of the controversy over whether the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its attendant federal and state regulations apply to defense installations authorized under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), particularly those managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The focus of the inquiry is on the application of RCRA to mixtures of high-level, transuranic (TRU), and low-level radioactive waste containing source, special nuclear, or byproduct material as defined by the AEA and hazardous chemical waste as identified under RCRA Subtitle C (i.e., mixed waste). The paper examines the mixed waste issue from an historical perspective, reviews the RCRA exclusions for nuclear material, compares AEA and the proposed DOE definition of ''byproduct material,'' and analyzes various agency viewpoints on the regulation of mixed waste

  11. Transportation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes: Material identification is the key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss how material identification and classification will result in an accurate determination of regulatory requirements, and will assure safe and compliant shipment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The primary focus of the paper is a discussion of lessons learned by the Department of Energy in making waste shipments, and how this can be applied to future mixed waste shipments. There will be a brief discussion of the Department's regulatory compliance program, including a presentation of compliance audit results, and how regulatory issues are addressed through effective information exchange, technical assistance, and compliance training. A detailed discussion will follow, which describes cases involving material identification and classification problems. Examples will include both RCRA waste and uranium mill tailings shipments. The paper will conclude with a discussion concerning the application of these lessons to future mixed waste shipments proposed by the Department. (author)

  12. Integrated municipal solid waste scenario model using advanced pretreatment and waste to energy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Appropriate solution for MSW management in new and future EU countries. • Decrease of landfill disposal applying an Integrated MSW approach. • Technological impediments and environmental assessment. - Abstract: In this paper an Integrated Municipal Solid Waste scenario model (IMSW-SM) with a potential practical application in the waste management sector is analyzed. The model takes into account quantification and characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) streams from different sources, selective collection (SC), advanced mechanical sorting, material recovery and advanced thermal treatment. The paper provides a unique chain of advanced waste pretreatment stages of fully commingled waste streams, leading to an original set of suggestions and future contributions to a sustainable IMSWS, taking into account real data and EU principles. The selection of the input data was made on MSW management real case studies from two European regions. Four scenarios were developed varying mainly SC strategies and thermal treatment options. The results offer useful directions for decision makers in order to calibrate modern strategies in different realities

  13. Evaluation of potential mixed wastes containing lead, chromium, or used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of follow-on studies conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on certain kinds of low-level waste (LLW) which could also be classified as hazardous waste subject to regulation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such LLW is termed ''mixed waste.'' Additional data have been collected and evaluated on two categories of potential mixed waste, namely LLW containing metallic lead and LLW containing chromium. Additionally, LLW with organic liquids, especially liquid scintillation wastes, are reviewed. In light of a proposed EPA rule to list used oil as hazardous waste, the potential mixed waste hazard of used oil contaminated with radionuclides is discussed. It is concluded that the EPA test for determining whether a solid waste exhibits the hazardous characteristic of extraction procedure toxicity does not adequately simulate the burial environment at LLW disposal sites, and in particular, does not adequately assess the potential for dissolution and transport of buried metallic lead. Also, although chromates are, in general, not a normal or routine constitutent in commercial LLW (with the possible exception of chemical decontamination wastes), light water reactors which do use chromates might find it beneficial to consider alternative corrosion inhibitors. In addition, it is noted that if used oil is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste, LLW oil may be managed by a scheme including one or more of the following processes: incineration, immobilization, sorption, aqueous extraction and glass furnace processing

  14. Mixing Performance of a Suspended Stirrer for Homogenizing Biodegradable Food Waste from Eatery Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Babarinsa; Emmanuel O.B. Ogedengbe; Marc A. Rosen

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulation of a suspended stirrer within a homogenizing system is performed towards determining the mixing performance of a homogenizer. A two-dimensional finite volume formulation is developed for the cylindrical system that is used for the storage and stirring of biodegradable food waste from eatery centers. The numerical solver incorporates an analysis of the property distribution for viscous food waste in a storage tank, while coupling the impact of mixing on the slurry fluid. P...

  15. Plasma technology for treating hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste: Critical technology issues and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma processing technology is currently being considered for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. The paper reviews the technology and proposes critical issues to be addressed in applying plasma to waste treatment. Preliminary results from a small scale plasma arcjet experiment with acetone were compared with predictions from ASPEN, a chemical equilibrium code. Preliminary results indicate that proper mixing and models describing the high temperature plasma chemical kinetics are needed to adequately predict the composition of the offgases

  16. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D. [Mirage Systems, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. This report describes the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process. The process is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of mixed wastes to a synthesis gas, while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganics on a carbon-based char.

  17. ASPEN computer simulations of the mixed waste treatment project baseline flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment and disposal of mixed waste (i.e., waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) is a challenging waste- management problem of particular concern to Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for destroying hazardous wastes must be re- evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and, in some cases, new technologies must be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP), a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), was established by the DOE's Waste Operations Program (EM-30) to develop and analyze alternative mixed waste treatment approaches. One of the MWTP's initiatives, and the objective of this study, was to develop flowsheets for prototype, integrated, mixed-waste treatment facilities that can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modeling. The objectives of the flowsheet simulations are to compare process effectiveness and costs of alternative flowsheets and to determine if commercial process-simulation software could be used on the large, complex process of an integrated mixed waste processing facility. Flowsheet modeling is needed to evaluate many aspects of proposed flowsheet designs. A major advantage of modeling the complete flowsheet is the ability to define the internal recycle streams, thereby making it possible to evaluate the impact of one operation on the whole plant. Many effects that can be seen only in this way. Modeling also can be used to evaluate sensitivity and range of operating conditions, radioactive criticality, and relative costs of different flowsheet designs. Further, the modeled flowsheets must be easily modified so that one can examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams affect the overall integrated process

  18. Mixed-signal methodology guide advanced methodology for AMS IP and SOC design, verification and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jess; Mar, Monte F; Nizic, Mladen; Bailey, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This Book, The Mixed-Signal Methodology Guide: Advanced Methodology For Ams Ip And Soc Design, Verification, And Implementation Provides A Broad Overview Of The Design, Verification And Implementation Methodologies Required For Today's Mixed-Signal Designs. The Book Covers Mixed-Signal Design Trends And Challenges, Abstraction Of Analog Using Behavioral Models, Assertion-Based Metric-Driven Verification Methodology Applied On Analog And Mixed-Signal And Verification Of Low Power Intent In Mixed-Signal Design. It Also Describes Methodology For Physical Implementation In Context Of Concurrent Mixed-Signal Design And For Handling Advanced Node Physical Effects. The Book Contains Many Practical Examples Of Models And Techniques. The Authors Believe It Should Serve As A Reference To Many Analog, Digital And Mixed-Signal Designers, Verification, Physical Implementation Engineers And Managers In Their Pursuit Of Information For A Better Methodology Required To Address The Challenges Of Modern Mixed-Signal Design.

  19. Integrated chemical/biological treatment of paint stripper mixed waste: Metals toxicity and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE complex has generated vast quantities of complex heterogeneous mixed wastes. Paint stripper waste (PSW) is a complex waste that arose from decontamination and decommissioning activities. It contains paint stripper, cheesecloth, cellulose-based paints with Pb and Cr, and suspect Pu. Los Alamos National Laboratory has 150--200 barrels of PSW and other national laboratories such as Rocky Flats Plant have many more barrels of heterogeneous waste. Few technologies exist that can treat this complex waste. Our approach to solving this problem is the integration of two established technologies: biodegradation and metals chelation

  20. Updating and testing of a Finnish method for mixed municipal solid waste composition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liikanen, M; Sahimaa, O; Hupponen, M; Havukainen, J; Sorvari, J; Horttanainen, M

    2016-06-01

    More efficient recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an essential precondition for turning Europe into a circular economy. Thus, the recycling of MSW must increase significantly in several member states, including Finland. This has increased the interest in the composition of mixed MSW. Due to increased information needs, a method for mixed MSW composition studies was introduced in Finland in order to improve the national comparability of composition study results. The aim of this study was to further develop the method so that it corresponds to the information needed about the composition of mixed MSW and still works in practice. A survey and two mixed MSW composition studies were carried out in the study. According to the responses of the survey, the intensification of recycling, the landfill ban on organic waste and the producer responsibility for packaging waste have particularly influenced the need for information about the composition of mixed MSW. The share of biowaste in mixed MSW interested the respondents most. Additionally, biowaste proved to be the largest waste fraction in mixed MSW in the composition studies. It constituted over 40% of mixed MSW in both composition studies. For these reasons, the classification system of the method was updated by further defining the classifications of biowaste. The classifications of paper as well as paperboard and cardboard were also updated. The updated classification system provides more information on the share of avoidable food waste and waste materials suitable for recycling in mixed MSW. The updated method and the information gained from the composition studies are important in ensuring that the method will be adopted by municipal waste management companies and thus used widely in Finland. PMID:27021698

  1. Utilization of Recycled Wastes as Ingredients in Concrete Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Nitish Puri,; Er. Brijesh Kumar; Er. Himanshu Tyagi,

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experimentation was carried out to analyze the performance of M25 concrete made by partially replacing aggregates with waste materials like construction debris, PVC scrap and leather waste. The resultant concrete was tested for parameters like weight, compressive strength, slump and workability and compared with conventional plain cement concrete. It has been observed that the use of waste materials results in the formation of light weight concrete. There is a considerable increase...

  2. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility's response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences

  3. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  4. A Survey of Mixed-Waste HEPA Filters in the DOE Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicione, F. S.; Barber, D. B.; Carney, K. P.

    2002-02-28

    A brief investigation was made to determine the quantities of spent, mixed-waste HEPA filters within the DOE Complex. The quantities of both the mixed-waste filters that are currently being generated, as well as the legacy mixed-waste filters being stored and awaiting disposition were evaluated. Seven DOE sites representing over 89% of the recent HEPA filter usage were identified. These sites were then contacted to determine the number of these filters that were likely destined to become mixed waste and to survey the legacy-filter quantities. Inquiries into the disposition plans for the filters were also made. It was determined that the seven sites surveyed possess approximately 500 m3 of legacy mixed-waste HEPA filters that will require processing, with an annual generation rate of approximately 25 m3. No attempt was made to extrapolate the results of this survey to the entire DOE Complex. These results were simply considered to be the lower bound of the totality of mixed-waste HEPA filters throughout the Complex. The quantities determined encourage the development of new treatment technologies for these filters, and provide initial data on which an appropriate capacity for a treatment process may be based.

  5. A Survey of Mixed-Waste HEPA Filters in the DOE Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief investigation was made to determine the quantities of spent, mixed-waste HEPA filters within the DOE Complex. The quantities of both the mixed-waste filters that are currently being generated, as well as the legacy mixed-waste filters being stored and awaiting disposition were evaluated. Seven DOE sites representing over 89% of the recent HEPA filter usage were identified. These sites were then contacted to determine the number of these filters that were likely destined to become mixed waste and to survey the legacy-filter quantities. Inquiries into the disposition plans for the filters were also made. It was determined that the seven sites surveyed possess approximately 500 m3 of legacy mixed-waste HEPA filters that will require processing, with an annual generation rate of approximately 25 m3. No attempt was made to extrapolate the results of this survey to the entire DOE Complex. These results were simply considered to be the lower bound of the totality of mixed-waste HEPA filters throughout the Complex. The quantities determined encourage the development of new treatment technologies for these filters, and provide initial data on which an appropriate capacity for a treatment process may be based

  6. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells

  7. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams

  8. B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

  9. Chromium leaching from a silicone foam-encapsulated mixed waste surrogate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed chromium leaching from silicone foam-encapsulated salt waste, using a surrogate formulated after Department of Energy complex mixed waste. Two commercial formulations of silicone foam (Wacker ELEKTROGUARD 2100 and General Electric RTV-664) were evaluated as a function of waste load (28--48 wt%). Chromium leaching was formulation specific and increased with increasing waste load as measured by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Chromium release followed transport controlled dissolution at all waste loads under TCLP (cut samples) and Accelerated Leach Test (ALT) (molded samples) conditions. Aqueous and surface complexation modeling was also used to describe reduced chromium effective diffusivity due to iron oxide addition. Comparison of modeling and measured diffusivities as a function of waste load demonstrated that the total available iron surface site concentration increased with increasing waste load, consistent with pore differences measured by image analysis. These results provide a basis for further work on modeling and engineering waste encapsulation using silicone foam

  10. Analysis and stabilization of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s multiphase mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, B.A.

    1995-05-19

    Five drums of mixed waste were accepted from LBL during FY 1994; they contain inorganic acids and compounds, as well as organic reagents and radioactive materials. This document defines the work plan for stabilization and characterization of the waste in three of these 5 drums.

  11. Vitrification of low-level radioactive mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is proceeding with plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated on-site. The objective is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the entire annual generation of selected LLMW streams. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced sodium borosilicate glasses under conditions achievable in commercially available melters. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals above the expected levels in actual wastes, pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Earlier evaluations of the likely off-gases that will result from vitrification indicated that the primary off-gases will include compounds of SOx, NOx, and CO2. These evaluations are being experimentally confirmed with a mass spectrometer analysis of the gases evolved from samples of the ANL-E wastes. The composition of the melter feed can be adjusted to minimize volatilization of some components, if necessary. The full-scale melter will be designed to handle the annual generation of at least three LLMW waste streams: evaporator concentrator bottoms sludge (ECB), storage tank sludge (STS), and HEPA filter media. Each waste stream is mixed waste by virtue of its failure to pass the TCLP test with respect to toxic metal leaching. Additional LLMW streams under consideration for vitrification include historical mixed waste glass from past operations and spent abrasive from a planned decontamination facility

  12. Degradation of hazardous chemicals in liquid radioactive wastes from biomedical research using a mixed microbial population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the costs associated with treatment of mixed wastes by conventional methods increase, new technologies will be investigated as alternatives. This study examines the potential of using a selected mixed population of microorganisms to treat hazardous chemical compounds in liquid low level radioactive wastes from biomedical research procedures. Microorganisms were isolated from various waste samples and enriched against compounds known to occur in the wastes. Individual isolates were tested for their ability to degrade methanol, ethanol, phenol, toluene, phthalates, acetonitrile, chloroform, and trichloroacetic acid. Following these tests, the organisms were combined in a media with a mixture of the different compounds. Three compounds: methanol, acetonitrile, and pseudocumene, were combined at 500 microliter/liter each. Degradation of each compound was shown to occur (75% or greater) under batch conditions with the mixed population. Actual wastes were tested by adding an aliquot to the media, determining the biomass increase, and monitoring the disappearance of the compounds. The compounds in actual waste were degraded, but at different rates than the batch cultures that did not have waste added. The potential of using bioprocessing methods for treating mixed wastes from biomedical research is discussed

  13. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF A RADIATION-RESISTANT BACTERIUM FOR BIODEGRADATION OF MIXED WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mixture of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, halogenated solvents and radionuclides in many DOE waste materials presents a challenging problem for separating the different species and disposing of individual contaminants. One approach for dealing with mixed wastes would be to se...

  14. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations (±10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample

  15. Plasma Hearth Process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE's mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. This project is structured to ensure that the plasma technology can be successfully employed in radioactive service. The PHP technology will be developed into a production system through a sequence of tests on several test units, both non-radioactive and radioactive. As the final step, a prototype PHP system will be constructed for full-scale radioactive waste treatment demonstration

  16. Degradation of hazardous chemicals in liquid radioactive wastes from biomedical research using a mixed microbial population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Radtke, M.; Wey, J.E.; Rogers, R.D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Rau, E.H. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Div. of Safety

    1997-10-01

    As the costs associated with treatment of mixed wastes by conventional methods increase, new technologies will be investigated as alternatives. This study examines the potential of using a selected mixed population of microorganisms to treat hazardous chemical compounds in liquid low level radioactive wastes from biomedical research procedures. Microorganisms were isolated from various waste samples and enriched against compounds known to occur in the wastes. Individual isolates were tested for their ability to degrade methanol, ethanol, phenol, toluene, phthalates, acetonitrile, chloroform, and trichloroacetic acid. Following these tests, the organisms were combined in a media with a mixture of the different compounds. Three compounds: methanol, acetonitrile, and pseudocumene, were combined at 500 microliter/liter each. Degradation of each compound was shown to occur (75% or greater) under batch conditions with the mixed population. Actual wastes were tested by adding an aliquot to the media, determining the biomass increase, and monitoring the disappearance of the compounds. The compounds in actual waste were degraded, but at different rates than the batch cultures that did not have waste added. The potential of using bioprocessing methods for treating mixed wastes from biomedical research is discussed.

  17. The WIPP RCRA Part B permit application for TRU mixed waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.; Snider, C.A. [USDOE Carlsbad Area Office, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In August 1993, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a draft permit for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to begin experiments with transuranic (TRU) mixed waste. Subsequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to cancel the on-site test program, opting instead for laboratory testing. The Secretary of the NMED withdrew the draft permit in 1994, ordering the State`s Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Bureau to work with the DOE on submittal of a revised permit application. Revision 5 of the WIPP`s Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application was submitted to the NMED in May 1995, focusing on disposal of 175,600 m{sup 3} of TRU mixed waste over a 25 year span plus ten years for closure. A key portion of the application, the Waste Analysis Plan, shifted from requirements to characterize a relatively small volume of TRU mixed waste for on-site experiments, to describing a complete program that would apply to all DOE TRU waste generating facilities and meet the appropriate RCRA regulations. Waste characterization will be conducted on a waste stream basis, fitting into three broad categories: (1) homogeneous solids, (2) soil/gravel, and (3) debris wastes. Techniques used include radiography, visually examining waste from opened containers, radioassay, headspace gas sampling, physical sampling and analysis of homogeneous wastes, and review of documented acceptable knowledge. Acceptable knowledge of the original organics and metals used, and the operations that generated these waste streams is sufficient in most cases to determine if the waste has toxicity characteristics, hazardous constituents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs), or RCRA regulated metals.

  18. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas, systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of off gas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option

  19. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of offgas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option

  20. Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes

  1. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas, systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of off gas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  2. Vitrification of low level and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes: Lessons learned from high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borosilicate glasses will be used in the USA and in Europe immobilize radioactive high level liquid wastes (HLLW) for ultimate geologic disposal. Simultaneously, tehnologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to immobilize low-level and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes (LLMW) in durable glass formulations for permanent disposal or long-term storage. Vitrification of LLMW achieves large volume reductions (86--97 %) which minimize the associated long-term storage costs. Vitrification of LLMW also ensures that mixed wastes are stabilized to the highest level reasonably possible, e.g. equivalent to HLLW, in order to meet both current and future regulatory waste disposal specifications The tehnologies being developed for vitrification of LLMW rely heavily on the technologies developed for HLLW and the lessons learned about process and product control

  3. Vitrification of low level and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes: Lessons learned from high level waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1994-07-01

    Borosilicate glasses will be used in the USA and in Europe immobilize radioactive high level liquid wastes (HLLW) for ultimate geologic disposal. Simultaneously, tehnologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to immobilize low-level and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes (LLMW) in durable glass formulations for permanent disposal or long-term storage. Vitrification of LLMW achieves large volume reductions (86--97 %) which minimize the associated long-term storage costs. Vitrification of LLMW also ensures that mixed wastes are stabilized to the highest level reasonably possible, e.g. equivalent to HLLW, in order to meet both current and future regulatory waste disposal specifications The tehnologies being developed for vitrification of LLMW rely heavily on the technologies developed for HLLW and the lessons learned about process and product control.

  4. Understanding hydrothermal carbonization of mixed feedstocks for waste conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowei

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an environmentally beneficial means to convert waste materials to value-added solid and liquid products with minimal greenhouse gas emission. Research is lacking on understanding the influence of critical process conditions on product formation and environmental implication associated with HTC of waste streams. This work was conducted to determine how reaction conditions and heterogeneous compound mixtures (representative of municipal wastes) influence hydrothermal carbonization processes. The specific experiments include: (1) determine how carbonization product properties are manipulated by controlling feedstock composition, process conditions, and catalyst addition; (2) determine if carbonization of heterogeneous mixtures follows similar pathways as that with pure feedstocks; and (3) evaluate and compare the carbon and energy-related implications associated with carbonization products with those associated with other common waste management processes for solid waste.

  5. Los Alamos controlled air incinerator upgrade for TRU/mixed waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) is undergoing a major process upgrade to accept Laboratory-generated transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed wastes on a production basis. In the interim,prior to the scheduled 1992 operation of a new on-site LLW/mixed waste incinerator, the CAI will also be accepting solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. This paper describes major modifications that have been made to the process to enhance safety and ensure reliability for long-term, routine waste incineration operations. The regulatory requirements leading to operational status of the system are also briefly described. The CAI was developed in the mid-1970s as a demonstration system for volume reduction of TRU combustible solid wastes. It continues as a successful R and D system well into the 1980s during which incineration tests on a wide variety of radioactive and chemical waste forms were performed. In 1985, a DOE directive required Los Alamos to reduce the volume of its TRU waste prior to ultimate placement in the geological repository at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). With only minor modifications to the original process flowsheet, the Los Alamos CAI was judged capable of conversion to a TRU waste operations mode. 9 refs., 1 fig

  6. Stability High Salt Content Waste Using Sol Gel Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 0236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mixed waste sludges, soils, and homogeneous solids containing high levels of salt ( ~ greater than 15% by weight ) have proven to be difficult to stabilize due to the soluble nature of the salts. The current stabilization technique for high salt waste, grouting with Portland cement, is limited to low waste loadings. The presence of salts interfere with the hydration and curing of the cement, cause waste form deteriorating mineral expansions, or result in an undesirable separate phase altogether. Improved technologies for the stabilization of salt waste must be able to accommodate higher salt loadings, while maintaining structural integrity, chemical durability, and leach resistance. In a joint collaboration supported by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Arizona Materials Laboratory (AML) at the University of Arizona have developed a sol-gel (wet-chemical) based, low-temperature-processing route for the stabilization of salt-containing mixed wastes. By blending and reacting liquid precursors at room temperature with salt waste, strong, impermeable “polyceram” matrices have been formed that encapsulate the environmentally hazardous waste components. As depicted by Figure 1, polycerams are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with unique properties derived from the chemical combination of polymer (organic) and ceramic (inorganic) components. For this application, the stabilizing polyceram matrices contain polybutadiene-based polymer components and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the inorganic component. Polybutadiene (PBD) is a strong, tough, waterresistant plastic and its use in the polyceram promotes these same characteristics in the waste form. The PBD polymer component is modified to increase its reactivity with the SiO2 precursor during sol-gel processing. When combined, the polymer and SiO2 precursors react, gel, solidify, and encapsulate the

  7. MWIR-1995 DOE national mixed and TRU waste database users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-1995) Database Users Guide provides information on computer system requirements and describes installation, operation, and navigation through the database. The MWIR-1995 database contains a detailed, nationwide compilation of information on DOE mixed waste streams and treatment systems. In addition, the 1995 version includes data on non- mixed, transuranic (TRU) waste streams. These were added to the data set as a result of coordination of the 1995 update with the National Transuranic Program Office's (NTPO's) data needs to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) TRU Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR). However, the information on the TRU waste streams is limited to that associated with the core mixed waste data requirements. The additional, non-core data on TRU streams collected specifically to support the WTWBIR is not included in the MWIR-1995 database. With respect to both the mixed and TRU waste stream data, the data set addresses open-quotes storedclose quotes streams. In this instance, open-quotes storedclose quotes streams are defined as (a) streams currently in storage at both EM-30 and EM-40 sites and (b) streams that have yet to be generated but are anticipated within the next five years from sources other than environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (ER/D ampersand D) activities. Information on future ER/D ampersand D streams is maintained in the EM-40 core database. The MWIR-1995 database also contains limited information for both waste streams and treatment systems that have been removed or deleted since the 1994 MWIR. Data on these is maintained only through Section 2, Waste Stream Identification/Tracking/Source, to document the reason for removal from the data set

  8. Application of pyrolysis process in processing of mixed food wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Grycová Barbora; Koutník Ivan; Pryszcz Adrian; Kaloč Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The food industry produces large amounts of solid and also liquid wastes. Different waste materials and their mixtures were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to a final temperature of 800°C with a 10 minute delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process of the selected wastes a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The highest concentration of methane, hydrogen and carb...

  9. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: Demonstrating technologies to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste is defined as ''waste contaminated with chemically hazardous [governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)] and radioactive species [governed by US Department of energy (DOE) orders].'' The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed-waste treatment technologies tat meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations of fixed-hearth plasma arc and vitrification systems will be used to determine whether these processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. MWIP also provides a forum for stakeholder and customer involvement in the technology development process

  10. Radioactive mixed-waste management issues at Department of Energy defense installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Defense Programs (DOE-DP) operate 16 major installations located throughout the country. These facilities generate approximately ∼4.7 x 106 m3 of radioactive mixed wastes from research, development, demonstrations, and production activities each year. Stored inventories represent significant volumes as well. Under the current regulatory framework, radioactive mixed wastes are under the joint jurisdiction of the DOE (the radioactive component) and the EPA (the hazardous component) and, as such, are regulated by both agencies. The unavailability of permitted treatment and/or disposal facilities has forced the DOE installations into a storage mode of operation. The paper provides an overview of the current situation including generating processes and waste characteristics, treatment and disposal technologies, and directions of future radioactive mixed-waste management activities

  11. Opportunities for artificial intelligence application in computer- aided management of mixed waste incinerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. It is designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This facility, known as the TSCA Incinerator, services seven DOE/OR installations. This incinerator was recently authorized for production operation in the United States for the processing of mixed (radioactively contaminated-chemically hazardous) wastes as regulated under TSCA and RCRA. Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. These requirements impact the characteristics and disposition of incinerator residues, limits the quality of liquid and gaseous effluents, limit the characteristics and rates of waste feeds and operating conditions, and restrict the handling of the waste feed inventories. This incinerator facility presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. Demonstrated computer-aided management systems could be transferred to future mixed waste incinerator facilities

  12. Validating CFD Models of Multiphase Mixing in the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Columbia River in Washington State is threatened by the radioactive legacy of the cold war. Two hundred thousand cubic meters (fifty-three million US gallons) of radioactive waste is stored in 177 underground tanks (60% of the Nation's radioactive waste). A vast complex of waste treatment facilities is being built to convert this waste into stable glass (vitrification). The waste in these underground tanks is a combination of sludge, slurry, and liquid. The waste will be transported to a pre-treatment facility where it will be processed before vitrification. It is necessary to keep the solids in suspension during processing. The mixing devices selected for this task are known as pulse-jet mixers (PJMs). PJMs cyclically empty and refill with the contents of the vessel to keep it mixed. The transient operation of the PJMs has been proven successful in a number of applications, but needs additional evaluation to be proven effective for the slurries and requirements at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of mixing vessels have been developed to demonstrate the ability of the PJMs to meet mixing criteria. Experimental studies have been performed to validate these models. These tests show good agreement with the transient multiphase CFD models developed for this engineering challenge. (authors)

  13. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste is defined as waste contaminated with chemically hazardous (governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and radioactive species [governed by US Department of Energy (DOE) orders]. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. The Program also provides a forum for stakeholder and customer involvement in the technology development process. MWIP is composed of six technical areas that support a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas is described in this paper

  14. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 / Fe+2) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H2O2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH)2 and the CO2 from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe+2 /H2O2 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  15. Chemical treatment of mixed waste can be done.....Today exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the FEMP to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams

  16. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wells, Beric E.

    2000-08-09

    This report evaluates how two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102. It also assesses and confirms the adequacy of a 3-inch pipeline to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and ultimately to a planned waste treatment/vitrification plant on the Hanford Site.

  17. Hydrocracking of mixed polymer waste, NovaCrack

    OpenAIRE

    Garforth A., Akah A., Hernández-Martínez J.,

    2013-01-01

    Since plastics are extremely stable, decomposition in a landfill occurs over extended periods, and with the introduction of more stringent environmental regulation and rising landfill costs there is an increasing need to redirect plastic waste from landfill towards recycling options, enhancing recovery of raw materials.There are two major routes for the recycling of plastic waste; mechanical and feedstock. The most widespread approach to feedstock recycling is the pyrolysis (or cracking) of t...

  18. A testing program to evaluate the effects of simulant mixed wastes on plastic transportation packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on regulatory requirements for Type A and B radioactive material packaging, a Testing Program was developed to evaluate the effects of mixed wastes on plastic materials which could be used as liners and seals in transportation containers. The plastics evaluated in this program were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile rubber), cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbons, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), butyl rubber, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). These plastics were first screened in four simulant mixed wastes. The liner materials were screened using specific gravity measurements and seal materials by vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements. For the screening of liner materials, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals. The tests also indicated that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. Those materials which passed the screening tests were subjected to further comprehensive testing in each of the simulant wastes. The materials were exposed to four different radiation doses followed by exposure to a simulant mixed waste at three temperatures and four different exposure times (7, 14, 28, 180 days). Materials were tested by measuring specific gravity, dimensional, hardness, stress cracking, VTR, compression set, and tensile properties. The second phase of this Testing Program involving the comprehensive testing of plastic liner has been completed and for seal materials is currently in progress

  19. Survey of commercial firms with mixed-waste treatability study capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the data developed for the Proposed Site Treatment Plans, the US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 230,000 m3 and embodied in approximately 2,000 waste streams. Many of these streams are unique and may require new technologies to facilitate compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act disposal requirements. Because most waste streams are unique, a demonstration of the selected technologies is justified. Evaluation of commercially available or innovative technologies in a treatability study is a cost-effective method of providing a demonstration of the technology and supporting decisions on technology selection. This paper summarizes a document being prepared by the Mixed Waste Focus Area of the DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50). The document will provide DOE waste managers with a list of commercial firms (and universities) that have mixed-waste treatability study capabilities and with the specifics regarding the technologies available at those facilities. In addition, the document will provide a short summary of key points of the relevant regulations affecting treatability studies and will compile recommendations for successfully conducting an off-site treatability study. Interim results of the supplier survey are tabulated in this paper. The tabulation demonstrates that treatment technologies in 17 of the US Environmental Protection Agency's technology categories are available at commercial facilities. These technologies include straightforward application of standard technologies, such as pyrolysis, as well as proprietary technologies developed specifically for mixed waste. The paper also discusses the key points of the management of commercial mixed-waste treatability studies

  20. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report

  1. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report.

  2. Advanced Waste Retrieval System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At West Valley, following the baseline removal operations, bulk waste retrieval methods may be augmented if required, with the deployment of the Advanced Waste Retrieval System (AWRS). The AWRS is a hydraulic boom mounted on a trolley on the Mast-Mounted Tool Delivery System. The boom is about 15 ft long with a pan and tilt mechanism at the end. On the end is a steam jet with a suction tool that can reach down around the tank internal structure and vacuum up zeolite or sludge off the bottom of the tank from a thirty-foot diameter reach. A grinder is included topside in the discharge path to pulverize the zeolite so it can be readily retrieved from the destination tank

  3. Elimination of organic contamination in mixed waste without by-product generation using photochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous technologies are available to successfully remove organic contamination from water and wastewater. A variety of techniques also exist that are used to treat radioactive waste. However, few technologies can satisfactorily address the treatment of mixed organic/radioactive waste without creating unacceptable waste products or resulting in extremely high treatment costs. An innovative solution to the mixed waste problem is photochemical oxidation. Liquid-phase photochemical oxidation has a long-standing history of successful application to the destruction of organic compounds. With the application of this technology, the organic contaminants are destroyed on-site leaving the water, with radionuclides, that can be reused or disposed of as appropriate. Photochemical oxidation offers process advantages that include zero air emissions, no solid or liquid waste formation, and relatively low treatment cost. Case histories from design testing, including full-scale cost analyses, are presented

  4. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: LLNL and LANL computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer simulations of mixed waste processing flowsheets using ASPEN PLUS process simulation software were completed by a joint Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/Los National Laboratory (LLNL/LANL) effort for the US Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project. The LLNL model used relatively detailed synthesized chemical ''cocktails'' to simulate waste streams. The LANL approach used less detail but made extensive use of simple steam splitters and thermodynamic coal models for combustible waste compositions. The two modeling approaches agreed within 16% for the product streams and within 25% for the auxiliary fuel rate. The discrepancy between the auxiliary fuel rates was traced to different methods of handling organics in lab packs and scintillation vials with the process models. The ASPEN models are valuable tools for evaluating waste processing flowsheets

  5. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory hazardous and radioactive mixed waste identification and characterization report for CY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides updated tabulations of the hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes generated and/or handled during CY 1986 at each INEL facility operated by EG and G, or any other operating contractor at the Site. These wastes are described in tabular form, providing information such as composition, generating process, contact person, EPA hazardous waste designation, quantity shipped off site (if applicable), and quantity in storage. Waste generation projections for the next ten years are also included for all INEL facilities. Finally, since many of EG and G's inactive disposal sites may prove to be significant sources of either hazardous or radioactive mixed wastes as remedial action activities under RCRA or CERCLA progress, information on these sites is provided. 2 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  6. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  7. Proceedings of the Department of Energy Defense Programs hazardous and mixed waste minimization workshop: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first workshop on hazardous and mixed waste minimization was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, on July 26--28, 1988. The objective of this workshop was to establish an interchange between DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) DP, Operations Offices, and contractors of waste minimization strategies and successes. The first day of the workshop began with presentations stressing the importance of establishing a waste minimization program at each site as required by RCRA, the land ban restrictions, and the decrease in potential liabilities associated with waste disposal. Discussions were also centered on pending legislation which would create an Office of Waste Reduction in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Waste Minimization and Avoidance Study was initiated by DOE as an addition to the long-term productivity study to address the issues of evolving requirements facing RCRA waste management activities at the DP sites, to determine how major operations will be affected by these requirements, and to determine the available strategies and options for waste minimization and avoidance. Waste minimization was defined in this study as source reduction and recycling

  8. SEPARATION AND EXTRACTION OF PLUTONIUM IN MIXED WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur E. Desrosiers, ScD, CHP; Robert Kaiser, ScD; Jason Antkowiak; Justin Desrosiers; Josh Jondro; Adam Kulczyk

    2002-12-13

    The Sonatol process uses ultrasonic agitation in fluorinated surfactant solutions to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. The current work applies the Sonatol process to the decontamination of heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibits excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents transportation of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Bartlett Services, Inc. (BSI) designed and fabricated a prototype decontamination system within a replica of a Savannah River Site glovebox. In Phase I, BSI conducted cold testing with surrogate waste material to verify that the equipment, operating procedures, and test protocols would support testing with Pu-238 in Phase II. The surrogate waste material is representative of known constituents of legacy job control waste. Two sub-micron sized Pu-238 simulants were added to the surrogate waste so that decontamination could be tested. The first simulant was an Osram Sylvania Phosphor 2284C powder that fluoresces under ultraviolet light. The use of the fluorescent simulant allows rapid, inexpensive system startup testing because residuals can be assayed using a digital camera. The results of digital pixel analysis (DPA) are available immediately and do not require use of licensed material. The second simulant, which was used for integrated cold testing, was a cerium oxide powder that was activated in a research reactor neutron flux and assayed by photon spectroscopy. The surrogate transuranic (TRU) waste material was contaminated with Pu-238 simulants and loaded into the cleaning chamber, where the surrogates were ultrasonically agitated and rinsed. The decontaminated materials were then assayed for surface contamination by DPA to establish optimum operating parameters and provide process quality control. Selected samples were sent to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for neutron activation analysis (NAA). NAA testing

  9. SEPARATION AND EXTRACTION OF PLUTONIUM IN MIXED WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sonatol process uses ultrasonic agitation in fluorinated surfactant solutions to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. The current work applies the Sonatol process to the decontamination of heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibits excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents transportation of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Bartlett Services, Inc. (BSI) designed and fabricated a prototype decontamination system within a replica of a Savannah River Site glovebox. In Phase I, BSI conducted cold testing with surrogate waste material to verify that the equipment, operating procedures, and test protocols would support testing with Pu-238 in Phase II. The surrogate waste material is representative of known constituents of legacy job control waste. Two sub-micron sized Pu-238 simulants were added to the surrogate waste so that decontamination could be tested. The first simulant was an Osram Sylvania Phosphor 2284C powder that fluoresces under ultraviolet light. The use of the fluorescent simulant allows rapid, inexpensive system startup testing because residuals can be assayed using a digital camera. The results of digital pixel analysis (DPA) are available immediately and do not require use of licensed material. The second simulant, which was used for integrated cold testing, was a cerium oxide powder that was activated in a research reactor neutron flux and assayed by photon spectroscopy. The surrogate transuranic (TRU) waste material was contaminated with Pu-238 simulants and loaded into the cleaning chamber, where the surrogates were ultrasonically agitated and rinsed. The decontaminated materials were then assayed for surface contamination by DPA to establish optimum operating parameters and provide process quality control. Selected samples were sent to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for neutron activation analysis (NAA). NAA testing

  10. Nevada test site low-level and mixed waste repository design in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is used for shallow land disposal of Low-Level Radioactive (LLW) and for retrievable disposal of Mixed Wastes (MW) from various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The site is situated in southern Nevada, one of the most arid regions of the United States. Design considerations include vadose zone monitoring in lieu of groundwater monitoring, stringent waste acceptance and packaging criteria, a waste examination and real-time radiography facility, and trench design. 4 refs

  11. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting

  12. Mixed waste landfill cell construction at energy solutions LLC: a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small percentage of the property that EnergySolutions' (formerly Envirocare) operates at Clive, Utah is permitted by the State of Utah as a treatment, storage and disposal facility for mixed waste. Mixed Waste is defined as a hazardous waste (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 261.3) that also has a radioactive component. Typically, the waste EnergySolutions receives at its mixed waste facility is contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds while also contaminated with radioactivity. For EnergySolutions, the largest generator of mixed waste is the United States Department of Energy. However, EnergySolutions also accepts a wide variety of mixed waste from other generators. For many wastes, EnergySolutions goes through the process of characterization and acceptance (if appropriate) of the waste, treating the waste (if necessary), confirmation that the waste meets Land Disposal Restriction, and disposal of the waste in its mixed waste landfill cell (MWLC). EnergySolutions originally received its State-issued Part B (RCRA) permit in 1990. The Permit allows a mixed waste landfill cell footprint that covers roughly 10 hectares and includes 20 individual 'sumps'. EnergySolutions chose to build small segments of the landfill cell as waste receipts dictated. Nearly 16 years later, EnergySolutions has just completed its Phase V construction project. 18 of the 20 sumps in the original design have been constructed. The last two sumps are anticipated to be its Phase VI construction project. Further expansion of its mixed waste disposal landfill capacity beyond the current design would require a permit modification request and approval by the Executive Secretary of the Utah Solid and Hazardous Waste Control Board. Construction of the landfill cell is governed by the Construction Quality Assurance/Quality Control manual of its State-issued Permit. The construction of each sump is made up of (from the bottom up): a foundation; three feet of engineered clay

  13. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  14. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150 degrees C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150 degrees C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150 degrees C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs

  15. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-07-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150{degrees}C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs.

  17. Environmental Management Integration Project/Mixed Waste Focus Area Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 16, 1998, the Assistant Secretary for the Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Department of Energy, issued DOE-Idaho the Program Integration and Systems Engineering Guidance for Fiscal Year 1998, herein called Guidance, which directed that program integration tasks be performed for all EM program areas. This guidance directed the EM Integration team, as part of the Task 1, to develop baseline waste and material disposition maps which are owned by the site Project Baseline Summary (PBS) manager. With these baselines in place Task 2 gave direction to link Science and Technology activities to the waste and material stream supported by that technology. This linkage of EM Program needs with the OST activities supports the DOE goal of maximizing cleanup at DOE sites by 2006 and provides a defensible science and technology program. Additionally, this linkage is a valuable tool in the integration of the waste and material disposition efforts for the DOE complex

  18. A portable system for the treatment of water-reactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category. Besides their tendency to react with water, the wastes also produce alkaline hydroxides and hydrogen gas as products of the reactions. If in aqueous form and if the pH exceeds 12.5, the alkaline hydroxides must be further processed to lower the pH to the range of 2--12.5 to remove the corrosive hazardous characteristic. The hydrogen gas formed during treatment is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste, but the hydrogen poses a substantial safety hazard because it can form explosive mixtures with air. Tritium may also be substituted for hydrogen in the LiH. If tritium is present, special processing may be necessary to avoid exhausting tritium into the environment. Because of the requirement to control environmental exposure to radioactivity contained in the wastes, the process design requires a reaction within enclosed vessels. These vessels require inert gas purging with subsequent off-gas scrubbing and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration before discharge to the atmosphere. The process described involves directly immersing the water-reactive waste in a volume of water, controlling the reaction rate by the rate of addition of the waste to the reactor. The possibility of explosion is avoided by excluding oxygen

  19. Demonstration of Macroencapusulation of Mixed Waste Debris Using Sulfur Polymer Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers work performed during FY 1997 as part of the Evaluation of Sulfur Polymer Cement Fast-Track System Project. The project is in support of the ''Mercury Working Group/Mercury Treatment Demonstrations - Oak Ridge'' and is described in technical task plan (TTP) OR-16MW-61. Macroencapsulation is the treatment technology required for debris by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Based upon the results of previous work performed at Oak Ridge, the concept of using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) for this purpose was submitted to the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). Because of the promising properties of the material, the MWFA accepted this Quick Win project, which was to demonstrate the feasibility of macroencapsulation of actual mixed waste debris stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The waste acceptance criteria from Envirocare, Utah, were chosen as a standard for the determination of the final waste form produced. During this demonstration, it was shown that SPC was a good candidate for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris, especially when the debris pieces were dry. The matrix was found to be quite easy to use and, once the optimum operating conditions were identified, very straightforward to replicate for batch treatment. The demonstration was able to render LDR compliant more than 400 kg of mixed wastes stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  20. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact

  1. Use of risk to resolve conflicts in assessing hazards at mixed-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main issues contribute to the assessment of health hazard from mixed waste: the scientific methods to assess these materials and the legislative and regulatory control of these materials. This paper is primarily concerned with the scientific method of assessing hazards from mixed waste (i.e., carcinogenic chemicals, noncarcinogenic chemicals, and radioactive material). This paper discusses SRS, a Site Ranking System, and its use of risk concepts to avoid introducing new inconsistencies when ranking mixed-waste sites. SRS ranks each site by scoring factors that influence the human health risk. The factors are (1) the potentially exposed population, (2) the average amount of exposure to the waste, and (3) the toxicity of the waste. The relative risk of a release is measured as the product of these three factors. The third factor, toxicity, is indexed with a single score, but because methods of measuring toxicity differ for carcinogenic chemicals, noncarcinogenic chemicals, and radionuclides, comparison can be difficult; hence, this paper also summarizes the logic and assumptions used to make toxicity comparisons in SRS. As may be expected, results from a ranking scheme based on risk are different from results generated by the original Hazard Ranking System (HRS), used by the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper briefly discusses these differences for five Superfund sites (no mixed waste). The legislative and regulatory control of these materials to protect human health is also discussed. 37 refs., 1 tab

  2. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  3. US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, Mixed-Waste Treatment Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both chemically hazardous and radioactive species contaminate mixed waste. Historically, technology has been developed to treat either hazardous or radioactive waste. Technology specifically designed to produce a low-risk final waste form for mixed low-level waste has not been developed, demonstrated, or tested. Site-specific solutions to management of mixed waste have been initiated; however, site-specific programs result in duplication of technology development effort between various sites. There is a clear need for technology designed to meet the unique requirements for mixed-waste processing and a system-wide integrated strategy for developing technology and managing mixed waste. This paper discusses the US Department of Energy (DOE) approach to addressing these unique requirements through a national technology development effort

  4. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site's centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million

  5. Demonstration of GTS Duratek Process for Stabilizing Mercury Contaminated (<260 ppm) Mixed Wastes. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2409

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury-contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities, totaling approximately 6,000 m3. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris, as well as in different chemical species of mercury. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards. They must also be proven feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. This report summarizes the findings from a stabilization technology demonstration conducted by GTS Duratek, Inc. Phase I of the study involved receipt and repackaging of the material, followed by preparations for waste tracking. Phase II examined the bench-scale performance of grouting at two different loadings of waste to grouted mass. Phase III demonstrated in-drum mixing and solidification using repackaged drums of sludge. Phase IV initially intended to ship final residues to Envirocare for disposal. The key results of the demonstration are as follows: (1) Solidification tests were performed at low and high waste loading, resulting in stabilization of mercury to meet the Universal Treatment Standard of 0.025 mg/L at the low loading and for two of the three runs at the high loading. The third high-loading run had a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of 0.0314 mg/L. (2) Full-drum stabilization using the low loading formula was demonstrated. (3) Organic compound levels were discovered to be higher than originally reported, including the presence of some pesticides. Levels of some radionuclides were much higher than initially reported. (4) Compliance

  6. Demonstration of GTS Duratek Process for Stabilizing Mercury Contaminated (<260 ppm) Mixed Wastes. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2409

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities, totaling approximately 6,000 m3. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris, as well as in different chemical species of mercury. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards. They must also be proven feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. This report summarizes the findings from a stabilization technology demonstration conducted by GTS Duratek, Inc. Phase I of the study involved receipt and repackaging of the material, followed by preparations for waste tracking. Phase II examined the bench-scale performance of grouting at two different loadings of waste to grouted mass. Phase III demonstrated in-drum mixing and solidification using repackaged drums of sludge. Phase IV initially intended to ship final residues to Envirocare for disposal. The key results of the demonstration are as follows: (1) Solidification tests were performed at low and high waste loading, resulting in stabilization of mercury to meet the Universal Treatment Standard of 0.025 mg/L at the low loading and for two of the three runs at the high loading. The third high-loading run had a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of 0.0314 mg/L. (2) Full-drum stabilization using the low loading formula was demonstrated. (3) Organic compound levels were discovered to be higher than originally reported, including the presence of some pesticides. Levels of some radionuclides were much higher than initially reported. (4

  7. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for In-situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuehe Lin; Glen E. Fryxell; Wassana Yantasee; Guodong Liu; Zheming Wang

    2006-06-01

    Required characterizations of the DOE's transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes (MW) before disposing and treatment of the wastes are currently costly and have lengthy turnaround. Research toward developing faster and more sensitive characterization and analysis tools to reduce costs and accelerate throughputs is therefore desirable. This project is aimed at the development of electrochemical sensors, specific to toxic transition metals, uranium, and technetium, that can be integrated into the portable sensor systems. This system development will include fabrication and performance evaluation of electrodes as well as understanding of electrochemically active sites on the electrodes specifically designed for toxic metals, uranium and technetium detection. Subsequently, these advanced measurement units will be incorporated into a microfluidic prototype specifically designed and fabricated for field-deployable characterizations of such species.

  8. An assessment of thermal destruction technologies for application to Department of Energy mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As evidenced by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, the Department is committing to a long-range waste management program. A category of waste that represents a sizable portion of the total DOE waste picture and also presents significant complications in management is waste that contains both hazardous and radioactive components. This category of wastes, referred to as mixed waste (MW), is present at all but a few of the Department's sites. The presence of radioactive constituents in this waste category implies that it be managed, like radioactive-only wastes, on DOE-owned property. Thermal treatment of MW's offers a variety of benefits in the final disposition of the waste. One obvious benefit is volume reduction of the waste if it contains organics because most of the organics are converted to gases and water, leaving only the inert material or ash. Another benefit is the destruction of hazardous materials by thermal conversion to simple, nonhazardous gases water. A third benefit, for some thermal technologies, is that the thermal process yields a process residue that meets disposal requirements for both hazardous and radioactive constituents without further processing. 2 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs

  9. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ''no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections

  10. Technology needs for treatment of DOE's low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) stores and generates significant amounts of low-level mixed wastes (LLMW) consisting of radioactive materials mixed with hazardous chemical substances. Many of these wastes are regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Land Disposal Restrictions and must be treated and disposed in compliance with applicable state and federal requirements. In general, treatment requirements include elimination of organic hazardous constituents and stabilization of inorganic hazardous constituents. Final waste forms must meet both EPA leach testing and DOE disposal acceptance criteria. The DOE currently does not have an adequate capability to meet these treatment objectives. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project has been established by the DOE to define needed LLMW treatment capabilities as a basis for either a prototype plant design or an existing facility modifications. Existing DOE mixed waste data bases were analyzed to identify the range of waste quantities and types and to define broad treatment categories needed to bring these wastes into compliance. Using these treatment categories as a starting point, we constructed a baseline flow sheet defining process steps from receipt through final form. From this baseline flow sheet, we developed functional and operational requirements (F ampersand ORs) for each process train. An initial set of near-term technologies was identified for each process step, and alternative near- and long-term options were listed. Based on these analyses, we identified technology gaps and improvement needs in the areas of characterization, waste handling, segregation and sorting, size reduction, decontamination, materials recycle, primary and secondary treatment for RCRA compliance, offgas treatment, and final waste forms

  11. Technology needs for treatment of DOE's low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) stores and generates significant amounts of low-level mixed wastes (LLMW) consisting of radioactive materials mixed with hazardous chemical substances. Many of these wastes are regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency (BPA) Land Disposal Restrictions and must be treated and disposed in compliance with applicable state and federal requirements. In general treatment requirements include elimination of organic hazardous constituents and stabilization of inorganic hazardous constituents. Final waste forms must meet both EPA leach testing and DOE disposal acceptance criteria. The DOE currently does not have an adequate capability to meet these treatment objectives. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project has been established by the DOE to define needed LLMW treatment capabilities as a basis for either a prototype plant design or an existing facility modification. Existing DOE mixed waste data bases were analyzed to identify the range of waste quantities and types and to define broad treatment categories needed to bring these wastes into compliance. Using these treatment categories as a starting point, we constructed a baseline flow sheet defining process steps from receipt through final form. From this baseline flow sheet, we developed functional and operational requirements (F and ORs) for each process train. An initial set of near-term technologies was identified for each process step, and alternative near- and long-term options were listed. Based on these analyses, we identified technology gaps and improvement needs in the areas of characterization, waste handling, segregation and sorting, size reduction, decontamination, materials recycle, primary and secondary treatment for RCRA compliance, offgas treatment, and final waste forms. (author)

  12. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-02-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}4} curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095).

  13. Delisting efforts for mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous waste at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, there are four hazardous wastes at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are candidates for the delisting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations. These candidates are the sludges from K-1407-B and C ponds, Central Neutralization Facility sludges, mixed sludges from Y-12 and the ash generated by the RCRA/Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. All of these hazardous wastes contain radioactive constituents as well as hazardous constituents. The delisting will be based upon the nonradioactive constituents. Whether the delisting petition is granted or not, the wastes will be handled according to the Department of Energy guidelines for radioactive wastes. The presentation discusses the methodologies for delisting these wastes and the rationale behind the processes

  14. USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined

  15. Homogenizer of cement mix with liquid and bulk radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lid of the homogenizer vessel with a stirrer and with bulk and liquid inlets is firmly attached to the homogenizer frame. The mixing vessel is screwed onto the lid and is connected to the frame with two moving arms. This allows to separate the mixing vessel from the lid without having to disconnect the supplies of bulk and liquid materials. The vessel is attached to swing arms pivoted in joints, which allows servicing, turning and tipping the vessel, thereby facilitating its emptying. This facilitates cleaning and reduces the maintenance time, thus increasing the safety of personnel. (J.B.). 2 figs

  16. Treatment of low level liquid waste by modified advanced liquid waste distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes are generated mostly during mining and processing of ores, nuclear fuel cycle operation and production. Classification of these wastes is very helpful throughout their management phases from generation through collection, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, transportation to final disposal. Treatment is an important phase in the management of radioactive wastes, it aims to reduce the volume of generated wastes to enhance the safety and to reduce the costs of further management phases. A distillation unit is being installed for the treatment of low level liquid waste treatment at AFFF. Distillation rate must be high to treat such a large amount of liquid waste. The output rate of existing distillation unit is very slow due to natural cooling of condensing coil. For fast distillation rate a new system has been designed, fabricated and installed inside the glove box. The high output rate, air cooling condensation, high decontamination factor and inherently safe operation makes system an advanced one. This paper highlights the design aspects, optimization of operating parameters, safety considerations and the operational experience of the same. Approximately 400 liters of low level liquid waste having radioactivity level ∼ 10-1μCi/ml was treated and discharged into sump tanks after monitoring activity (gross alpha) and pH (Technical Specification Document, AFFF, BARC (T), 2013). The concentrate ∼ 3-4 liters has been solidified and de-nitrated in a glove box adapted muffle furnace. The solidified mass could be analyzed for Pu content by neutron well coincidence counting (NWCC) system or by WD-XRF method

  17. Comparison of modified sulfur cement and hydraulic cement for encapsulation of radioactive and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of solidification/stabilization systems for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste, both in the commercial sector and at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, utilize hydraulic cement (such as portland cement) to encapsulate waste materials and yield a monolithic solid waste form for disposal. A new and innovative process utilizing modified sulfur cement developed by the US Bureau of Mines has been applied at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the encapsulation of many of these ''problem'' wastes. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material, and as such, it can be heated above it's melting point (120 degree C), combined with dry waste products to form a homogeneous mixture, and cooled to form a monolithic solid product. Under sponsorship of the DOE, research and development efforts at BNL have successfully applied the modified sulfur cement process for treatment of a range of LLWs including sodium sulfate salts, boric acid salts, and incinerator bottom ash and for mixed waste contaminated incinerator fly ash. Process development studies were conducted to determine optimal waste loadings for each waste type. Property evaluation studies were conducted to test waste form behavior under disposal conditions by applying relevant performance testing criteria established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (for LLW) and the Environmental Protection Agency (for hazardous wastes). Based on both processing and performance considerations, significantly greater waste loadings were achieved using modified sulfur cement when compared with hydraulic cement. Technology demonstration of the modified sulfur cement encapsulation system using production-scale equipment is scheduled for FY 1991. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Conversion of Mixed Plastic Wastes (High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene) into Liquid Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, mixed plastic wastes were converted into liquid fuels. Mixed plastic wastes used were high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). The pyrolysis of mixed plastic waste to liquid fuel was carried out with and without prepared zeolite catalyst.The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This catalyst was pre-treated for activation. The experiments were carried out at temperature range of 350-410C.Physical properties (density, kinematic, viscosity,refractive index)of prepared liquid fuel samples were measured. From this study, yields of liquid fuel and gas fuel were found to be 41-64% and 15-35% respectively. As for by products, char was obtained as the yield percentages from 9 to 14% and wax (yield% - 1 to 14) was formed during pyrolysis.

  19. Tritium in surface soils at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessment and remediation of the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The Mixed Waste Landfill is an inactive, low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. The Mixed Waste Landfill was subject to an extensive surface soil sampling program for tritium in July 1993. Results indicate that surface soils at the landfill contain significant levels of tritium. The classified area of the landfill contains the highest levels of tritium. Results also indicate that tritium has migrated beyond the fenced boundary of the classified area of the landfill

  20. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P

    1998-11-06

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that

  1. Natural Stone Waste Powders Applied to SCC Mix Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    In order to comply with current trends concerning sustainability, saving of primary materials and energy savings, this paper addresses Eco-concrete. The major focus thereby is on the increased efficiency of cement use. Applying a new mix design method for concrete, cement contents can be decreased a

  2. Results of detailed characterization on CH-TRU mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-West and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have jointly participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Experimental Test Program since 1990. A new facility at Argonne was developed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of contact-handled transuranic mixed waste characterization and to decrease the potential for facility contamination and personnel exposures. This new facility, the Waste Characterization Area, was approved for radioactive operations in March 1994. Between April and September 1994, forty-two waste drums containing mixed debris waste were characterized to support a study being performed to evaluate volatile organic compound concentrations in the void volume headspaces of waste drums. This paper presents the results of characterization performed at Argonne, emphasizing parameters important from a facility standpoint. Specifically, information is presented on drum surface dose rate, fissile content, number and type of gas samples, volatile organic compound concentration, and facility contamination levels. Actual values are compared to enveloping conditions assumed in the safety assessment for the characterization facility. Argonne-West is one of the first DOE sites to perform detailed waste characterization under the DOE's Transuranic Waste Characterization Program. The information presented herein could aid other storage and generator sites in developing characterization procedures and facilities

  3. Evaluation of Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Single and Mixed Fruit Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Julius Akinbomi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    The economic viability of employing dark fermentative hydrogen from whole fruit wastes as a green alternative to fossil fuels is limited by low hydrogen yield due to the inhibitory effect of some metabolites in the fermentation medium. In exploring means of increasing hydrogen production from fruit wastes, including orange, apple, banana, grape and melon, the present study assessed the hydrogen production potential of singly-fermented fruits as compared to the fermentation of mixed fruits. Th...

  4. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, G P

    1998-08-19

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed waste low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) is developing the Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of .their classification; low level, transuranic or provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non

  5. Application of pyrolysis process in processing of mixed food wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The food industry produces large amounts of solid and also liquid wastes. Different waste materials and their mixtures were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to a final temperature of 800°C with a 10 minute delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process of the selected wastes a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The highest concentration of methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide were analyzed during the 4th gas sampling at a temperature of approx. 720–780°C. The concentration of hydrogen was measured in the range from 22 to 40 vol.%. The resulting iodine numbers of samples CHFO, DS, DSFW reach values that indicate the possibility of using them to produce the so-called “disposable sorbents” in wastewater treatment. The WC condensate can be directed to further processing and upgrading for energy use.

  6. Cementation and solidification of miscellaneous mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site produces a variety of wastes which are amenable to micro-encapsulation in cement Portland cement is an inexpensive and readily available material for this application. The Waste Projects (WP) group at Rocky Flats evaluated cementation to determine its effectiveness in encapsulating several wastes. These included waste analytical laboratory solutions, incinerator ash, hydroxide precipitation sludge, and an acidic solution from the Delphi process (a chemical oxidation technology being evaluated as an alternative to incineration). WP prepared surrogate wastes and conducted designed experiments to optimize the cement formulation for the waste streams. These experiments used a Taguchi or factorial experimental design, interactions between the variables were also considered in the testing. Surrogate waste samples were spiked with various levels of each of six Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed metals (Cd, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Ag), cemented using the optimized formulation, and analyzed for leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The metal spike levels chosen were based on characterization data, and also based on an estimate of the highest levels of contaminants suspected in the waste. This paper includes laboratory test results for each waste studied. These include qualitative observations as well as quantitative data from TCLP analyses and environmental cycling studies. The results from these experiments show that cement stabilization of the different wastes can produce final waste forms which meet the current RCRA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements. Formulations that resulted in LDR compliant waste forms are provided. The volume increases associated with cementation are also lower than anticipated. Future work will include verification studies with actual mixed radioactive waste as well as additional formulation development studies on other waste streams

  7. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  8. Engineering development and demonstration of DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation for mixed waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhooge, P.M.; Goldblatt, S.D.; Moslander, J.E.; Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Zigmond, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    DETOX{sup SM}, a catalyzed chemical oxidation process, is under development for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites. To support this effort, developmental engineering studies have been formed for aspects of the process to help ensure safe and effective operation. Subscale agitation studies have been preformed to identify a suitable mixing head and speed for the primary reaction vessel agitator. Mechanisms for feeding solid waste materials to the primary reaction vessel have been investigated. Filtration to remove solid field process residue, and the use of various filtration aids, has been studied. Extended compatibility studies on the materials of construction have been performed. Due to a change to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) for the mixed waste portion of the demonstration, types of wastes suitable and appropriate for treatment at RFETS had to be chosen. A Prototype unit has been fabricated and will be demonstrated on hazardous and mixed wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS) and RFETS during 1997 and 1998. The unit is in shakedown testing at present. Data validation and an engineering evaluation will be performed during the demonstration.

  9. Mixed waste focus area integrated master schedule (current as of May 6, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with the participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) mixed wastes. In support of this mission, the MWTA produced the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report, Phase I Volume 1, January 16, 1996, which identified a prioritized list of 30 national mixed waste technology deficiencies. The MWFA is targeting funding toward technology development projects that address the current list of deficiencies. A clear connection between the technology development projects and the EM-30 and EM-40 treatment systems that they support is essential for optimizing the MWFA efforts. The purpose of the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) is to establish and document these connections and to ensure that all technology development activities performed by the MWFA are developed for timely use in those treatment systems. The IMS is a list of treatment systems from the Site Treatment Plans (STPs)/Consent Orders that have been assigned technology development needs with associated time-driven schedules, Technology deficiencies and associated technology development (TD) needs have been identified for each treatment system based on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste targeted for the treatment system. The schedule, the technology development activities, and the treatment system have been verified through the operations contact from the EM-30 organization at the site.

  10. 324 Radiochemical engineering cells and high level vault tanks mixed waste compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 324 Building in the Hanford 300 Area contains Radiochemical Engineering Cells and High Level Vault tanks (the open-quotes REC/HLVclose quotes) for research and development activities involving radioactive materials. Radioactive mixed waste within this research installation, found primarily in B-Cell and three of the high level vault tanks, is subject to RCRA/DWR (open-quotes RCRAclose quotes) regulations for storage. This white paper provides a baseline RCRA compliance summary of MW management in the REC/HLV, based on best available knowledge. The REC/HLV compliance project, of which this paper is a part, is intended to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable given the special technical difficulties of managing high activity radioactive materials, and to assure protection of human health and safety and the environment. The REC/HLV was constructed in 1965 to strict standards for the safe management of highly radioactive materials. Mixed waste in the REC/HLV consists of discarded tools and equipment, dried feed stock from nuclear waste melting experiments, contaminated particulate matter, and liquid feed stock from various experimental programs in the vault tanks. B-Cell contains most of these materials. Total radiological inventory in B-Cell is estimated at 3 MCi, about half of which is potentially open-quotes dispersibleclose quotes, that is, it is in small pieces or mobile particles. Most of the mixed waste currently in the REC/HLV was generated or introduced before mixed wastes were subjected to RCRA in 1987

  11. Mixed waste focus area integrated master schedule (current as of May 6, 1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with the participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating the Department of Energy's (DOE's) mixed wastes. In support of this mission, the MWTA produced the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report, Phase I Volume 1, January 16, 1996, which identified a prioritized list of 30 national mixed waste technology deficiencies. The MWFA is targeting funding toward technology development projects that address the current list of deficiencies. A clear connection between the technology development projects and the EM-30 and EM-40 treatment systems that they support is essential for optimizing the MWFA efforts. The purpose of the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) is to establish and document these connections and to ensure that all technology development activities performed by the MWFA are developed for timely use in those treatment systems. The IMS is a list of treatment systems from the Site Treatment Plans (STPs)/Consent Orders that have been assigned technology development needs with associated time-driven schedules, Technology deficiencies and associated technology development (TD) needs have been identified for each treatment system based on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste targeted for the treatment system. The schedule, the technology development activities, and the treatment system have been verified through the operations contact from the EM-30 organization at the site

  12. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site

  13. Engineering development and demonstration of DETOXSM wet oxidation for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DETOXSM, a catalyzed chemical oxidation process, is under development for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites. To support this effort, developmental engineering studies have been formed for aspects of the process to help ensure safe and effective operation. Subscale agitation studies have been preformed to identify a suitable mixing head and speed for the primary reaction vessel agitator. Mechanisms for feeding solid waste materials to the primary reaction vessel have been investigated. Filtration to remove solid field process residue, and the use of various filtration aids, has been studied. Extended compatibility studies on the materials of construction have been performed. Due to a change to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) for the mixed waste portion of the demonstration, types of wastes suitable and appropriate for treatment at RFETS had to be chosen. A Prototype unit has been fabricated and will be demonstrated on hazardous and mixed wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS) and RFETS during 1997 and 1998. The unit is in shakedown testing at present. Data validation and an engineering evaluation will be performed during the demonstration

  14. Safety evaluation of the Mixed Waste Storage Building (Building 643-43E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.M.

    1992-01-27

    A safety evaluation has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Storage Building (MWSB) at the Savannah River Site. The results of this evaluation are compared with those contained in the Burial Ground Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The MWSB will function as an interim storage facility for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated mixed waste. It will meet all applicable standards set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the South Carolina Department of Health and Environment Control (SCDHEC), and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders.

  15. Safety evaluation of the Mixed Waste Storage Building (Building 643-43E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safety evaluation has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Storage Building (MWSB) at the Savannah River Site. The results of this evaluation are compared with those contained in the Burial Ground Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The MWSB will function as an interim storage facility for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated mixed waste. It will meet all applicable standards set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the South Carolina Department of Health and Environment Control (SCDHEC), and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders

  16. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE's analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992)

  17. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE