WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced light source

  1. The Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is a third-generation synchrotron light source designed to produce extremely bright beams of synchrotron radiation in the energy range from a few eV to 10 keV. The design is based on a 1--1.9-GeV electron storage ring (optimized at 1.5 GeV), and utilizes special magnets, known as undulators and wigglers (collectively referred to as insertion devices), to generate the radiation. The facility is scheduled to begin operating in April 1993. In this paper we describe the progress in the design, construction, and commissioning of the accelerator systems, insertion devices, and beamlines. Companion presentations at this conference give more detail of specific components in the ALS, and describe the activities towards establishing an exciting user program. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Advanced light source master oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Master Oscillator of the Advanced Light Source operates at a frequency of 499.654 MHz which is the 328th harmonic of the storage ring. The oscillator is capable of providing up to a maximum of ± 500 KHz frequency deviation for various experimental purposes. Provisions for external signal injection as well as using an external signal source have been designed into the unit. A power distribution system has also been included to provide signals for various parts of the ALS machine and user requirements. The Master Oscillator is made up with modules housed in a Euro chassis. 4 refs., 7 figs

  3. Advanced Light Source elliptical wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3.5m long elliptical wiggler, optimized to produce elliptically polarized light in the 50 eV to 10 keV range, is currently under design and construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Calculations of spectral performance show that the flux of circularly polarized photons exceeds 1013 photons/sec over the 50 eV to 10 keV operating range for current of 0.4 amps and 1.5 GeV electron energy. This device features vertical and horizontal magnetic structures of 14 and 14 1/2 periods respectively. The period length is 20.0 cm. The vertical structure is a hybrid permanent magnet design with tapered pole tips that produce a peak field of 2.0 T. The horizontal structure is an iron core electromagnetic design, shifted longitudinally 1/4 period, that is tucked between the upper and lower vertical magnetic structure sections. A maximum peak oscillating field of 0.095 T at a frequency up to 1 Hz will be achieved by excitation of the horizontal poles with a trapezoidal current waveform. The vacuum chamber is an unconventional design that is removable from the magnetic structure, after magnetic measurements, for UHV processing. The chamber is fabricated from non-magnetic stainless steel to minimize the effects of eddy currents. Device design is presented

  4. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the Advanced Light Source details science highlights and facility improvements during the year. It also offers information on events sponsored by the facility, technical specifications, and staff and publication information

  5. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Duque editor, Theresa; Greiner editor, Annette; Moxon editor, Elizabeth; Robinson editor, Arthur; Tamura editor, Lori

    2003-01-01

    This annual report of the Advanced Light Source details science highlights and facility improvements during the year. It also offers information on events sponsored by the facility, technical specifications, and staff and publication information.

  6. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, A.; Moxon, L.; Robinson, A.; Tamura, L.

    2001-01-01

    This is an annual report, detailing activities at the Advanced Light Source for the year 2000. It includes highlights of scientific research by users of the facility as well as information about the development of the facility itself.

  7. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an annual report, detailing activities at the Advanced Light Source for the year 2000. It includes highlights of scientific research by users of the facility as well as information about the development of the facility itself

  8. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, A.; Moxon, L.; Robinson, A.; Tamura, L.

    2001-04-01

    This is an annual report, detailing activities at the Advanced Light Source for the year 2000. It includes highlights of scientific research by users of the facility as well as information about the development of the facility itself.

  9. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Theresa; Greiner, Annette; Moxon, Elizabeth; Robinson, Arthur; Tamura, Lori (Editors)

    2003-06-12

    This annual report of the Advanced Light Source details science highlights and facility improvements during the year. It also offers information on events sponsored by the facility, technical specifications, and staff and publication information.

  10. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei advanced light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm · rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.

  11. Monitoring performance of the Advanced Light Source

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Warren E.; Lampo, Edward J.; Samuelson, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Providing high quality light to users in a consistent and reliable manner is one of the main goals of the accelerator physics group at the Advanced Light source (ALS). To meet this goal considerable time is spent monitoring the performance of the machine. At the Group's weekly meeting the performance of the accelerator over the previous week's run is reviewed. This paper describes the parameters that are monitored to optimize the performance of the ALS.

  12. Advanced Light Source: Activity report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces the world's brightest light in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The first low-energy third-generation synchrotron source in the world, the ALS provides unprecedented opportunities for research in science and technology not possible anywhere else. This year marked the beginning of operations and the start of the user research program at the ALS, which has already produced numerous high quality results. A national user facility located at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California, the ALS is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. This report contains the following: (1) director's message; (2) operations overview; (3) user program; (4) users' executive committee; (5) industrial outreach; (6) accelerator operations; (7) beamline control system; (8) insertion devices; (9) experimental systems; (10) beamline engineering; (11) first results from user beamlines; (12) beamlines for 1994--1995; (13) special events; (14) publications; (15) advisory panels; and (16) ALS staff

  13. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed

  14. Research opportunities at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility based on a low-emittance, 1.5-GeV electron storage ring with 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports. Undulators will provide high-brightness radiation at photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes to above 10 keV. Scheduled to begin operations as a US Department of Energy national user facility in the spring of 1993, the ALS will support an extensive research program in which soft x-ray and ultraviolet radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. Participating research teams to implement the initial scientific program have been selected. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Performance of the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is the first of the lower energy (1--2 GeV) third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities to come into operation. Designed with very small electron beam emittances to operate with long insertion devices producing very high brightness beams of synchrotron radiation in the VUV and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum, these facilities are complementary to the higher energy (6--9 GeV) facilities designed for harder x-radiation. The ALS storage ring began operation in October 1993. In this paper, we will review the operational performance of the ALS, including the effects of the 4.5 m long undulators (period 5 cm), and discuss the overall performance of the facility

  16. Operational experience at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been operational for users since October 1993 when white light from a bend magnet was delivered to the Center for X-Ray Optic close-quote s (CXRO) x-ray microprobe end station. Since then, the ALS has installed and commissioned three undulators and their beamlines (including monochromators and post-monochromator focusing optics), and eight bend-magnet beamlines, including one dedicated to machine diagnostics. Apart from one serious outage, when scheduled beam was not available to users for 17 days, the ALS has enjoyed remarkable operating statistics, with typically 95% of scheduled beam time delivered to the users. Beam quality has also been very good. With a vertical emittance measured at 0.06 nm-rad, the electron beam is kept stable to about one-tenth of its transverse dimensions, in the face of changing error fields in the insertion devices (as their main fields are varied), temperature variations, and floor vibration. The longitudinal motion of the beam, which leads to an increase in the electron beam energy spread and thence to a degradation of the undulator spectra, has recently been brought under control by the addition of an innovative feedback system. This paper focuses on those aspects of electron beam stability that we find most affect the ALS users: beam size and position, and energy spread. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Operational experiences at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been operational for users since October 1993 when white light from a bend magnet was delivered to the Center for X-Ray Optic's (CXRO) x-ray microprobe end-station. Since then, the ALS has installed and commissioned three undulators and their beamlines (including monochrornators and post-monochromator focusing optics), and eight bend magnet beamlines, including one dedicated to machine diagnostics. Apart from one serious outage, when scheduled beam was not available to users for 17 days, the ALS has enjoyed remarkable operating statistics, with typically 95% of scheduled beam-time delivered to the users. Beam quality has also been very good. With a vertical emittance measured at 0.06 nm-rad, the electron beam is kept stable to about one-tenth of it's transverse dimensions, in the face of changing error fields in the insertion devices (as their main fields are varied), temperature variations and floor vibration. The longitudinal motion of the beam, which leads to an increase in the electron beam energy spread, and thence, to a degradation of the undulator spectra, has recently been brought under control by the addition of an innovative feedback system. This paper focuses on those aspects of electron beam stability that we find most affect the ALS users: beam size and position, and energy spread

  18. New results in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source is the world's first low-energy third-generation synchrotron radiation source. It has been running reliably and exceeding design specifications since it began operation in October 1993. It is available to a wide community of researchers in many scientific fields, including atomic and molecular science and chemistry. Here, new results in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source demonstrate the opportunities available in atomic and molecular physics at this synchrotron light source. The unprecedented brightness allows experiments with high flux, high spectral resolution, and nearly 100% linear polarization

  19. Photoionization of multiply charged ions at the advanced light source

    OpenAIRE

    Schlachter, A. S.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Gharaibeh, M. F.; Emmons, E. D.; Scully., S. W. J.; Phaneuf, R A; Muller, A.; Schippers, S.; I. Alvarez; Cisneros, C.; Hinojosa, G.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2004-01-01

    Photoionization of multiply charged ions is studied using the merged-beams technique at the Advanced Light Source. Absolute photoionization cross sections have been measured for a variety of ions along both isoelectronic and isonuclear sequences.

  20. Advanced light source, User`s Handbook, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a national facility for scientific research and development located at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) of the University of California. Its purpose is to generate beams of very bright light in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The facility is open to researchers from industry, universities, and government laboratories.

  1. Survey, alignment, and beam stability at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1997. The ALS is a third generation light source requiring magnet alignment to within 150 microns. To accomplish this, a network of monuments was established and maintained. Monthly elevation surveys show the movement of the floor over time. Inclinometers have recently been employed to give real time information about magnet, vacuum tank and magnet girder motion in the ALS storage ring

  2. Measurement of storage ring motion at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical stability of the Advanced Light Source storage ring is examined over a period of 1.5 years from the point of view of floor motion. The storage ring beam position monitor stability is examined under various operating conditions

  3. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 1997/1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source (ALS) activity report for 1997/98 discusses the following topics: Introduction and Overview; Science Highlights; Facility Report; Special Events; ALS Advisory Panels 1997/98; ALS Staff 1997/98 and Facts and Figures for the year

  4. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 1997/1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Annette (ed.)

    1999-03-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source (ALS) activity report for 1997/98 discusses the following topics: Introduction and Overview; Science Highlights; Facility Report; Special Events; ALS Advisory Panels 1997/98; ALS Staff 1997/98 and Facts and Figures for the year.

  5. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei Advanced Light Source (HALS) injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Wu, Cong-Feng; Li, Wei-Min; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The Hefei Advanced Light Source(HALS) is a super low emittance storage ring and has a very short beam life time. In order to run the ring stablely, top-up injection will be necessary. The injection system will greatly affect the quality of beam. This article first gives a physics design of the injecting system. Then the injecting system is tracked under different errors. The responses of storage beam and injecting beam are given in the article.

  6. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies

  7. Elliptically polarizing undulator beamlines at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circular polarization insertion devices and beamlines at the Advanced Light Source are described. The facility will consist of multiple undulators feeding two independent beamlines, one optimized for microscopy and the other for spectroscopy. The energy range of the beamlines will go from below 100 eV to 1,800 eV, enabling studies of the magnetically important L2,3 edges of transition metals and the M4,5 edges of rare earths

  8. Elliptically polarizing undulator beamlines at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circular polarization insertion devices and beamlines at the Advanced Light Source are described. The facility will consist of multiple undulators feeding two independent beamlines, one optimized for microscopy and the other for spectroscopy. The energy range of the beamlines will go from below 100 eV to 1800 eV, enabling studies of the magnetically important L2,3 edges of transition metals and the M4,5 edges of rare earths. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Harmonic sextupoles for the Advanced Light Source low emittance upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madur, A., E-mail: amadur@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arbelaez, D.; Marks, S.; Prestemon, S.; Robin, D.; Schlueter, R.; Steier, C.; Wan, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source is a 3rd generation light source in operation since 1993. This light source is providing state of the art performance to more than 40 beamlines and their users thanks to the upgrades that have been completed over the last few years. Higher photon beam brightness is expected to become available to users in the near future through a new upgrade with the introduction of 48 sextupoles in the ALS lattice. Introducing new combined function magnets in an existing storage ring is a challenge due to the limited space available and a balance had to be found between magnet performance and spatial constraints. Moreover, the existing steering magnets will be replaced by the harmonic sextupoles. Therefore predicting the hysteresis behavior of the harmonic sextupole steering functions became critical for those included in the fast-orbit feedback loop (22 of them). After a brief introduction to the motivation for the upgrade and the scope of the project, we develop in this paper the different constraints driving the three required combined function magnet designs as well as their expected performance.

  11. Optical Beam Timing Monitor Experiments at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the initial results of an experimental study of a beam timing monitor based on an optoelectronic technique. This technique uses the electrical signal from a beam position monitor to modulate the amplitude of a train of laser pulses, converting timing jitter into an amplitude jitter. This modulation is then measured with a photodetector and sampled by a fast ADC. This approach has already demonstrated sub-100fs resolution and promises even better results. Additionally, we are planning to use the technique as a way to extract the maximum possible bandwidth from a BPM, avoiding the dispersion typical of long RF cables. We show our initial results using signals from the Advanced Light Source storage ring

  12. Design of the Advanced Light Source timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation synchrotron radiation facility, and as such, has several unique timing requirements. Arbitrary Storage Ring filling patterns and high single bunch purity requirements demand a highly stable, low jitter timing system with the flexibility to reconfigure on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This modular system utilizes a highly linear Gauss Clock with ''on the fly'' programmable setpoints to track a free-running Booster ramping magnet and provides digitally programmable sequencing and delay for Electron Gun, Linac, Booster Ring, and Storage Ring RF, Pulsed Magnet, and Instrumentation systems. It has proven itself over the last year of accelerator operation to be reliable and rock solid

  13. Performance of Advanced Light Source particle beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, is complete. The particle beam diagnostics have been installed and tested. The beam injection systems have been running for two years. We have performance data on beam position monitors, beam intensity monitors, scintillators, beam collimators, a 50 Ω Faraday cup, and broad-band striplines and kickers used in the linac, transport lines, and the booster synchrotron. The single-turn monitoring capability of the booster beam position monitoring system has been particularly useful for studying beam dynamics. Beam diagnostics for the storage ring are being commissioned. In this paper we describe each instrument, show its performance, and outline how the instruments are controlled and their output data displayed

  14. Insertion device magnet measurements for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allowable magnetic field errors for the 4.6 m long insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) are extremely small and are driven by electron beam and radiation requirements. Detailed measurements and adjustments of each insertion device are performed to qualify them for installation in the ALS. To accomplish this, a high speed, precision magnetic measurement facility has been designed and built. Hall probe mapping equipment, capable of completing a 2500 sample, 6 m scan with precision axial position monitoring using a laser interferometer in under one minute, is used to obtain both local and integrated field information. A 5.5 m long, 1 cm wide coil is used to measure the field integral through an entire insertion device. This paper describes magnetic measurement equipment, and results of measurements on IDA, the first of the ALS insertion devices

  15. The advanced light source: America's brightest light for science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's brightest light comes from the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national facility for scientific research, product development, and manufacturing. Completed in 1993, the ALS produces light in the ultraviolet and x-ray regions of the spectrum. Its extreme brightness provides opportunities for scientific and technical progress not possible anywhere else. Technology is poised on the brink of a major revolution - one in which vital machine components and industrial processes will be drastically miniaturized. Industrialized nations are vying for leadership in this revolution - and the huge economic rewards the leaders will reap

  16. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously

  17. Vacuum design of advanced and compact synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains papers dealing with the following main topics: Vacuum considerations for synchrotron radiation sources; Machine design; Compact light sources for x-ray lithography; Surface cleaning and conditioning; Ion trapping, gas desorption, lifetime; Wigglers, undulators chamber design; and General conditioning of pumps, machines and gauges

  18. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverlag, Marco; Kroesen, Gerrit; Ferguson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    -based light sources. However, the progress in the last few years in LED and OLED sources has been even greater. In the editorial for the LS-11 conference by previous guest editor David Wharmby, it was stated that most LED lighting was still mostly used for signalling and decorative sources. In the three years that have passed, things have changed considerably and we now see LED light sources entering every application, ranging from street lighting and parking lots to shop lighting and even greenhouses. Currently LED prices for traditional lighting applications are high, but they are dropping rapidly. The papers published in this special issue give some indications of things to come. The paper by Jamil et al deals with the possibility of using silicon wafers as substrate material instead of the now commonly used (but more expensive) sapphire substrates. This is attractive from a cost price point of view, but leads to an increased lattice mismatch and therefore strain-induced defects. In this paper it is shown that when using intermediate matching layers it is possible to retain the same electrical and optical properties as with structures on sapphire. Another aspect that directly relates to cost is efficiency and droop in green InGaN devices, which is addressed in the paper by Lee et al. They show that by providing a flow of trymethylindium prior to the growth of the quantum wells it is possible to significantly increase the internal quantum efficiency of green LEDs. Improvement of the optical out-coupling of InGaN LEDs is discussed by Mak et al, and it is found that localized plasmon resonance of metallic nanoparticles (and especially silver) can help to increase the optical out-coupling in the wavelength region of interest. Nanoparticles in the form of ZnO nanorods are described by Willander et al as a possibility for phosphor-free wavelength conversion on polymer (O)LEDs. More advanced functions besides light emission can be achieved with OLEDs and this is demonstrated in

  19. Advanced Light Source activity report 1996/97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Ten years ago, the Advanced Light Source (ALS) existed as a set of drawings, calculations, and ideas. Four years ago, it stored an electron beam for the first time. Today, the ALS has moved from those ideas and beginnings to a robust, third-generation synchrotron user facility, with eighteen beam lines in use, many more in planning or construction phases, and hundreds of users from around the world. Progress from concepts to realities is continuous as the scientific program, already strong in many diverse areas, moves in new directions to meet the needs of researchers into the next century. ALS staff members who develop and maintain the infrastructure for this research are similarly unwilling to rest on their laurels. As a result, the quality of the photon beams the authors deliver, as well as the support they provide to users, continues to improve. The ALS Activity Report is designed to share the results of these efforts in an accessible form for a broad audience. The Scientific Program section, while not comprehensive, shares the breadth, variety, and interest of recent research at the ALS. (The Compendium of User Abstracts and Technical Reports provides a more comprehensive and more technical view.) The Facility Report highlights progress in operations, ongoing accelerator research and development, and beamline instrumentation efforts. Although these Activity Report sections are separate, in practice the achievements of staff and users at the ALS are inseparable. User-staff collaboration is essential as they strive to meet the needs of the user community and to continue the ALS's success as a premier research facility.

  20. Imaging spectroscopic analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major advances at the high brightness third generation synchrotrons is the dramatic improvement of imaging capability. There is a large multi-disciplinary effort underway at the ALS to develop imaging X-ray, UV and Infra-red spectroscopic analysis on a spatial scale from. a few microns to 10nm. These developments make use of light that varies in energy from 6meV to 15KeV. Imaging and spectroscopy are finding applications in surface science, bulk materials analysis, semiconductor structures, particulate contaminants, magnetic thin films, biology and environmental science. This article is an overview and status report from the developers of some of these techniques at the ALS. The following table lists all the currently available microscopes at the. ALS. This article will describe some of the microscopes and some of the early applications

  1. Development of a microsecond X-ray protein footprinting facility at the Advanced Light Source

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sayan; Celestre, Richard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Chance, Mark R.; Ralston, Corie

    2014-01-01

    Radiolytic labeling is established as a collaborative program at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Results indicate that white-light bend-magnet beamlines at the ALS produce flux densities high enough to allow microsecond exposures yielding sufficient modification to conduct footprinting experiments, representing a significant advance for the footprinting experiment.

  2. X-ray micro-Tomography at the Advanced Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    The X-ray micro-Tomography Facility at the Advanced Light Source has been in operation since 2004. The source is a superconducting bend magnet of critical energy 10.5KeV; photon energy coverage is 8-45 KeV in monochromatic mode, and a filtered white light option yields useful photons up to 50 KeV. A...

  3. Annual meeting of the Advanced Light Source Users` Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: ALS Director`s Report; ALS Operations Update; Recent Results in Machine Physics; Progress in Beamline Commissioning and Overview of New Projects; The ALS Scientific Program; First Results from the SpectroMicroscopy Beamline; Soft X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Solids; Soft X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Molecules; Microstructures and Micromachining at the ALS; High-Resolution Photoemission from Simple Atoms and Molecules; X-Ray Diffraction at the ALS; Utilizing Synchrotron Radiation in Advanced Materials Industries; Polymer Microscopy: About Balls, Rocks and Other ``Stuff``; Infrared Research and Applications; and ALS User Program.

  4. Annual meeting of the Advanced Light Source Users' Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers on the following topics: ALS Director's Report; ALS Operations Update; Recent Results in Machine Physics; Progress in Beamline Commissioning and Overview of New Projects; The ALS Scientific Program; First Results from the SpectroMicroscopy Beamline; Soft X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Solids; Soft X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Molecules; Microstructures and Micromachining at the ALS; High-Resolution Photoemission from Simple Atoms and Molecules; X-Ray Diffraction at the ALS; Utilizing Synchrotron Radiation in Advanced Materials Industries; Polymer Microscopy: About Balls, Rocks and Other ''Stuff''; Infrared Research and Applications; and ALS User Program

  5. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: spectromicroscopy and fast timing

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    1999-01-01

    Two recently commissioned infrared beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides three primary advantages: increased brightness, very fast light pulses, and enhanced far-IRflux. The considerable brightness advantage manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated FTIR spectromicroscopy beamline, where a diffraction-l...

  6. Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  7. The Advanced Light Source Accelerator Control System at Ten Years from Commissioning

    OpenAIRE

    Biocca, A.; Brown, W.; Domning, E.; Fowler, K; Jacobson, S; McDonald, J.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A; Shalz, L.; Spring, J; Timossi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source was commissioned 10 years ago using the newly constructed control system. Further experience with the control system was reported in 1993. In this publication, we report on recent experience with the operation and especially growth of the computer control system and expansion to accommodate the new superconducting bend magnets and fast orbit feedback for the ALS electron storage ring.

  8. Advanced light source's approach to ensure conditions for safe top-off operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to outline the Advanced Light Source (ALS) approach for preventing a radiation accident scenario on the ALS experimental floor due to top-off operation. The document will describe the potential risks, the analysis, and the resulting specifications for the controls.

  9. Thermophysical properties of saturated light and heavy water for Advanced Neutron Source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, A.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source is an experimental facility being developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As a new nuclear fission research reactor of unprecedented flux, the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor will provide the most intense steady-state beams of neutrons in the world. The high heat fluxes generated in the reactor [303 MW(t) with an average power density of 4.5 MW/L] will be accommodated by a flow of heavy water through the core at high velocities. In support of this experimental and analytical effort, a reliable, highly accurate, and uniform source of thermodynamic and transport property correlations for saturated light and heavy water were developed. In order to attain high accuracy in the correlations, the range of these correlations was limited to the proposed Advanced Neutron Source Reactor`s nominal operating conditions. The temperature and corresponding saturation pressure ranges used for light water were 20--300{degrees}C and 0.0025--8.5 MPa, respectively, while those for heavy water were 50--250{degrees}C and 0.012--3.9 MPa. Deviations between the correlation predictions and data from the various sources did not exceed 1.0%. Light water vapor density was the only exception, with an error of 1.76%. The physical property package consists of analytical correlations, SAS codes, and FORTRAN subroutines incorporating these correlations, as well as an interactive, easy-to-use program entitled QuikProp.

  10. Thermophysical properties of saturated light and heavy water for advanced neutron source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, A.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source is an experimental facility being developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As a new nuclear fission research reactor of unprecedented flux, the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor will provide the most intense steady-state beams of neutrons in the world. The high heat fluxes generated in the reactor [303 MW(t) with an average power density of 4.5 MW/L] will be accommodated by a flow of heavy water through the core at high velocities. In support of this experimental and analytical effort, a reliable, highly accurate, and uniform source of thermodynamic and transport property correlations for saturated light and heavy water were developed. In order to attain high accuracy in the correlations, the range of these correlations was limited to the proposed Advanced Neutron Source Reactor's nominal operating conditions. The temperature and corresponding saturation pressure ranges used for light water were 20--300[degrees]C and 0.0025--8.5 MPa, respectively, while those for heavy water were 50--250[degrees]C and 0.012--3.9 MPa. Deviations between the correlation predictions and data from the various sources did not exceed 1.0%. Light water vapor density was the only exception, with an error of 1.76%. The physical property package consists of analytical correlations, SAS codes, and FORTRAN subroutines incorporating these correlations, as well as an interactive, easy-to-use program entitled QuikProp.

  11. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    OpenAIRE

    Tamura, Nobumichi

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings i...

  12. New ambient pressure photoemission endstation at Advanced Light Source beamline 9.3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade, the application of ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy (APPES) has been recognized as an important in situ tool to study environmental and materials science, energy related science, and many other fields. Several APPES endstations are currently under planning or development at the USA and international light sources, which will lead to a rapid expansion of this technique. The present work describes the design and performance of a new APPES instrument at the Advanced Light Source beamline 9.3.2 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This new instrument, Scienta R4000 HiPP, is a result of collaboration between Advanced Light Source and its industrial partner VG-Scienta. The R4000 HiPP provides superior electron transmission as well as spectromicroscopy modes with 16 μm spatial resolution in one dimension and angle-resolved modes with simulated 0.5 deg. angular resolution at 24 deg. acceptance. Under maximum transmission mode, the electron detection efficiency is more than an order of magnitude better than the previous endstation at beamline 9.3.2. Herein we describe the design and performance of the system, which has been utilized to record spectra above 2 mbar.

  13. New ambient pressure photoemission endstation at Advanced Light Source beamline 9.3.2

    KAUST Repository

    Grass, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the application of ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy (APPES) has been recognized as an important in situ tool to study environmental and materials science, energy related science, and many other fields. Several APPES endstations are currently under planning or development at the USA and international light sources, which will lead to a rapid expansion of this technique. The present work describes the design and performance of a new APPES instrument at the Advanced Light Source beamline 9.3.2 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This new instrument, Scienta R4000 HiPP, is a result of collaboration between Advanced Light Source and its industrial partner VG-Scienta. The R4000 HiPP provides superior electron transmission as well as spectromicroscopy modes with 16 μm spatial resolution in one dimension and angle-resolved modes with simulated 0.5° angular resolution at 24° acceptance. Under maximum transmission mode, the electron detection efficiency is more than an order of magnitude better than the previous endstation at beamline 9.3.2. Herein we describe the design and performance of the system, which has been utilized to record spectra above 2 mbar. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  14. High-Brightness Beams from a Light Source Injector The Advanced Photon Source Low-Energy Undulator Test Line Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Travish, G; Borland, M; Hahne, M; Harkay, K C; Lewellen, J W; Lumpkin, Alex H; Milton, S V; Sereno, N S

    2000-01-01

    The use of existing linacs, and in particular light source injectors, for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments is becoming more common due to the desire to test FELs at ever shorter wavelengths. The high-brightness, high-current beams required by high-gain FELs impose technical specifications that most existing linacs were not designed to meet. Moreover, the need for specialized diagnostics, especially shot-to-shot data acquisition, demands substantial modification and upgrade of conventional linacs. Improvements have been made to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector linac in order to produce and characterize high-brightness beams. Specifically, effort has been directed at generating beams suitable for use in the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) FEL in support of fourth-generation light source research. The enhancements to the linac technical and diagnostic capabilities that allowed for self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) operation of the FEL at 530 nm are described. Recent results, includi...

  15. Advanced light source technologies that enable high-volume manufacturing of DUV lithography extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacouris, Theodore; Rao, Rajasekhar; Rokitski, Rostislav; Jiang, Rui; Melchior, John; Burfeindt, Bernd; O'Brien, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Deep UV (DUV) lithography is being applied to pattern increasingly finer geometries, leading to solutions like double- and multiple-patterning. Such process complexities lead to higher costs due to the increasing number of steps required to produce the desired results. One of the consequences is that the lithography equipment needs to provide higher operating efficiencies to minimize the cost increases, especially for producers of memory devices that experience a rapid decline in sales prices of these products over time. In addition to having introduced higher power 193nm light sources to enable higher throughput, we previously described technologies that also enable: higher tool availability via advanced discharge chamber gas management algorithms; improved process monitoring via enhanced on-board beam metrology; and increased depth of focus (DOF) via light source bandwidth modulation. In this paper we will report on the field performance of these technologies with data that supports the desired improvements in on-wafer performance and operational efficiencies.

  16. Development of scanning X-ray microscopes for materials science spectromicroscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third generation synchrotron sources of soft x-rays provide an excellent opportunity to apply established x-ray spectroscopic materials analysis techniques to surface imaging on a sub-micron scale. This paper describes an effort underway at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to pursue this development using Fresnel zone plate lenses. These are used to produce a sub-micron spot of x-rays for use in scanning microscopy. Several groups have developed microscopes using this technique. A specimen is rastered in the focused x-ray spot and a detector signal is acquired as a function of position to generate an image. Spectroscopic capability is added by holding the small spot on a feature of interest and scanning through the spectrum. The authors are pursuing two spectroscopic techniques: Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) which together provide a powerful capability for light element analysis in materials science

  17. Enhanced Performance of the Advanced Light Source Through Periodicity Restoration of the Linear Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential feature of third generation storage ring based light sources is the magnetic lattice is designed with a high degree of periodicity. Tracking simulations show that if the periodicity is perturbed (by focusing errors for example), non-linear resonances become excited, which causes a reduction in the dynamic aperture. Therefore it is important to have a method to measure and correct perturbed periodicity. In this paper we study the effect of broken and restored periodicity at an actual third generation light source: the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. First we show that it is possible to accurately determine the storage ring optic and thus the perturbation of the periodicity by fitting measured orbit response matrices. This method allows us to determine individual field gradient errors in quadrupoles and closed orbit errors in sextupoles. By varying individual quadrupole field strengths it is possible to correct the optic, largely restoring the lattice periodicity. A comparison is made of the performance of the ALS before and after the optic is corrected. Measurements of the electron beam tails and the synchrotron light image reveal a large suppression in resonance excitation after the optic is corrected. Correcting the optic also improves the injection efficiency and lifetime

  18. Advanced Light Source Compendium of User Abstracts andTechnical Reports 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Devereaux, M.K.; Dixon, D.J.; Greiner, A.; editors

    1998-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility located at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. Operation of the ALS is funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. This Compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress during 1997, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998.

  19. Engineering for high heat loads on ALS [Advanced Light Source] beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed general thermal engineering problems and specific categories of thermal design issues for high photon flux beam lines at the LBL Advanced Light Source: thermal distortion of optical surfaces and elevated temperatures of thermal absorbers receiving synchrotron radiation. A generic design for water-cooled heat absorbers is described for use with ALS photon shutters, beam defining apertures, and heat absorbing masks. Also, results of in- situ measurements of thermal distortion of a water-cooled mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam line are compared with calculated performance estimates. 17 refs., 2 figs

  20. Successful Completion of the Top-off Upgrade of the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, C.; Bailey, B.; Baptiste, K.; Barry, W.; Biocca, A.; Byrne, W.; Casey, P.; Chin, M.; Donahue, R.; Duarte, R.; Fahmie, M.; Gath, B.; Jacobson, S.; Julian, J.; Jung, J.Y.; Kritscher, M.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Marks, S.; McKean, P.; Mueller, R.; Nishimura, H.; ONeill, J.; Portmann, G.; Prestemon, S.; Robin, D.; Rossi, S.; Sannibale, F.; Scarvie, T.; Schlueter, R.; Shuman, D.; Smith-Baumann, A.; Stover, G.; Timossi, C.; Wan, W.; Warwick, T.; Wells, R.; Weber, J.; Williams, E.

    2010-01-31

    An upgrade of the Advanced Light Source to enable top-off operation has been completed during the last four years. The final work centered around radiation safety aspects, culminating in a systematic proof that top-off operation is equally safe as decaying beam operation. Commissioning and transition to full user operations happened in late 2008 and early 2009. Top-off operation at the ALS provides a very large increase in time-averaged brightness (by about a factor of 10) as well as improvements in beam stability. The following sections provide an overview of the radiation safety rationale, commissioning results, as well as experience in user operations.

  1. Advanced Light Source. Compendium of User Abstracts and Technical Reports 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility located at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. Operation of the ALS is funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. This Compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress during 1997, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998

  2. A Beamline for High-Pressure Studies at the Advanced Light Source with a Superconducting Bending Magnet as the Source

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Martin; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Cambie, Daniella; Celestre, Richard S.; Domning, Edward E; Duarte, Robert M.; Gleason, Arianna E.; Glossinger, James M.; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W.; Yu, Tony; Zaug, Joeseph M.; Padmore, Howard A.; Jeanloz, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are compr...

  3. Trace element analysis using the fluorescence microprobe at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluorescence microprobe beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a unique instrument for analysis of trace elements. The beamline is on a bending magnet port of the synchrotron and uses a pair of multilayer-coated mirrors to focus the x-ray source to a spot size of 1 endash 5 μm2. Since the multilayer mirrors limit the energy bandpass of the system to 5 endash 10%, the trace element sensitivity is significantly improved compared to the use of grazing incidence mirrors. Different pairs of mirrors have been used to operate at 8.5, 10, and 12.5 keV. The detection limits for elements from Si to As will be presented for operation at both 1.5 GeV and 1.9 GeV. Results that illustrate the features of the instrument will be presented from the many samples that have been studies. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  5. A Superbend X-Ray Microdiffraction Beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, N.; Kunz, M.; Chen, K.; Celestre, R.S.; MacDowell, A.A.; Warwick, T.

    2009-03-10

    Beamline 12.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source is a newly commissioned beamline dedicated to x-ray microdiffraction. It operates in both monochromatic and polychromatic radiation mode. The facility uses a superconducting bending magnet source to deliver an X-ray spectrum ranging from 5 to 22 keV. The beam is focused down to {approx} 1 um size at the sample position using a pair of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors enclosed in a vacuum box. The sample placed on high precision stages can be raster-scanned under the microbeam while a diffraction pattern is taken at each step. The arrays of diffraction patterns are then analyzed to derive distribution maps of phases, strain/stress and/or plastic deformation inside the sample.

  6. A superbend X-ray microdiffraction beamline at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamline 12.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a newly commissioned beamline dedicated to X-ray microdiffraction. It operates in both monochromatic and polychromatic radiation mode. The facility uses a superconducting bending magnet source to deliver an X-ray spectrum ranging from 5 to 22 keV. The beam is focused down to ∼1 μm size at the sample position using a pair of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors enclosed in a vacuum box. The sample placed on high precision stages can be raster-scanned under the microbeam while a diffraction pattern is taken at each step. The arrays of diffraction patterns are then analyzed to derive distribution maps of phases, strain/stress and/or plastic deformation inside the sample.

  7. Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy development for materials science at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several third generation synchrotron radiation facilities are now operational and the high brightness of these photon sources offers new opportunities for x-ray microscopy. Well developed synchrotron radiation spectroscopy techniques are being applied in new instruments capable of imaging the surface of a material with a spatial resolution smaller than one micron. There are two aspects to this. One is to further the field of surface science by exploring the effects of spatial variations across a surface on a scale not previously accessible to x-ray measurements. The other is to open up new analytical techniques in materials science using x-rays, on a spatial scale comparable to that of the processes or devices to be studied. The development of the spectromicroscopy program at the Advanced Light Source will employ a variety of instruments, some are already operational. Their development and use will be discussed, and recent results will be presented to illustrate their capabilities

  8. Licensing design basis source term update for the Evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the technical basis for a licensing source term update for the Evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) which will make the source term more physically realistic. While TID [Technical Information Document] 14844 and related regulatory guidance have served the industry well, much has been learned about source term over the last 30 years, and the ALWR Requirements Document provides an opportunity to incorporate this experience by updating the licensing source term. Further, the source term update will provide an improved basis for evolutionary ALWR accident mitigation design. Results of this work indicate that the fission product release magnitude to containment is slightly less than TID 14844 for noble gas, iodine, and semi and low volatiles, but somewhat higher for cesium and tellurium. Release timing is delayed by one hour or more after the accident initiation. The chemical form of iodine is largely aerosol with significantly less organic iodine compared to regulatory guidance which specifies mostly elemental and a relatively large fraction of organic. Containment spray aerosol removal rate was determined to be significantly higher than specified in regulatory guidance. Finally, BWR suppression pool decontamination factor was determined to be less effective than allowed by regulatory guidance early in the accident (due to the delayed release noted above) and more effective than that allowed by regulatory guidance later in the accident. It is recognized by the ALWR program that the source term update could be taken further in the direction of a physically-based source term. 47 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs

  9. A closed-loop photon beam control study for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) will produce extremely bright photon beams using undulators and wigglers. In order to position the photon beams accurate to the micron level, a closed-loop feedback system is being developed. Using photon position monitors and dipole corrector magnets, a closed-loop system can automatically compensate for modeling uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The following paper will present a dynamics model for the perturbations of the closed orbit of the electron beam in the ALS storage ring including the vacuum chamber magnetic field penetration effects. Using this reference model, two closed-loop feedback algorithms will be compared -- a classical PI controller and a two degree-of-freedom approach. The two degree-of-freedom method provides superior disturbance rejection while maintaining the desired performance goals. Both methods will address the need to gain schedule the controller due to the time varying dynamics introduced by changing field strengths when scanning the insertion devices

  10. Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

  11. An Aberration Corrected Photoemission Electron Microscope at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of a new aberration corrected Photoemission electron microscope PEEM3 at the Advanced Light Source is outlined. PEEM3 will be installed on an elliptically polarized undulator beamline and will be used for the study of complex materials at high spatial and spectral resolution. The critical components of PEEM3 are the electron mirror aberration corrector and aberration-free magnetic beam separator. The models to calculate the optical properties of the electron mirror are discussed. The goal of the PEEM3 project is to achieve the highest possible transmission of the system at resolutions comparable to our present PEEM2 system (50 nm) and to enable significantly higher resolution, albeit at the sacrifice of intensity. We have left open the possibility to add an energy filter at a later date, if it becomes necessary driven by scientific need to improve the resolution further

  12. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature.

  13. Toward Femtosecond X-ray Spectroscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Henry Herng Wei

    2004-04-16

    The realization of tunable, ultrashort pulse x-ray sources promises to open new venues of science and to shed new light on long-standing problems in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Fundamentally new information can now be accessed. Used in a pump-probe spectroscopy, ultrashort x-ray pulses provide a means to monitor atomic rearrangement and changes in electronic structure in condensed-matter and chemical systems on the physically-limiting time-scales of atomic motion. This opens the way for the study of fast structural dynamics and the role they play in phase transitions, chemical reactions and the emergence of exotic properties in materials with strongly interacting degrees of freedom. The ultrashort pulse x-ray source developed at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is based on electron slicing in storage rings, and generates {approx}100 femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation spanning wavelengths from the far-infrared to the hard x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The tunability of the source allows for the adaptation of a broad range of static x-ray spectroscopies to useful pump-probe measurements. Initial experiments are attempted on transition metal complexes that exhibit relatively large structural changes upon photo-excitation and which have excited-state evolution determined by strongly interacting structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. Specifically, iron(II) complexes undergo a spin-crossover transition upon optical irradiation. The dynamics of the transition involve a metal-to-ligand charge transfer, a {Delta}S=2 change in magnetic moment and 10% bond dilation in the first coordination shell of the iron. Studies of the electronic dynamics are studied with time-resolved optical absorption measurements. The current progress of time-resolved structural studies to complete the picture of the spin-crossover transition is presented.

  14. Toward Femtosecond X-ray Spectroscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of tunable, ultrashort pulse x-ray sources promises to open new venues of science and to shed new light on long-standing problems in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Fundamentally new information can now be accessed. Used in a pump-probe spectroscopy, ultrashort x-ray pulses provide a means to monitor atomic rearrangement and changes in electronic structure in condensed-matter and chemical systems on the physically-limiting time-scales of atomic motion. This opens the way for the study of fast structural dynamics and the role they play in phase transitions, chemical reactions and the emergence of exotic properties in materials with strongly interacting degrees of freedom. The ultrashort pulse x-ray source developed at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is based on electron slicing in storage rings, and generates ∼100 femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation spanning wavelengths from the far-infrared to the hard x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The tunability of the source allows for the adaptation of a broad range of static x-ray spectroscopies to useful pump-probe measurements. Initial experiments are attempted on transition metal complexes that exhibit relatively large structural changes upon photo-excitation and which have excited-state evolution determined by strongly interacting structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. Specifically, iron(II) complexes undergo a spin-crossover transition upon optical irradiation. The dynamics of the transition involve a metal-to-ligand charge transfer, a ΔS = 2 change in magnetic moment and 10% bond dilation in the first coordination shell of the iron. Studies of the electronic dynamics are studied with time-resolved optical absorption measurements. The current progress of time-resolved structural studies to complete the picture of the spin-crossover transition is presented

  15. High-brightness beamline for X-ray spectroscopy at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, high flux, and high brightness at the sample. When completed later this year, it will be the first ALS monochromatic hard-x-ray beamline, and its brightness will be an order-of-magnitude higher than presently available in this energy range. In addition, it will provide flux and resolution comparable to any other beamline now in operation. To achieve these goals, two technical improvements, relative to existing x-ray beamlines, were incorporated. First, a somewhat novel optical design for x-rays, in which matched toroidal mirrors are positioned before and after the double-crystal monochromator, was adopted. This configuration allows for high resolution by passing a collimated beam through the monochromator, and for high brightness by focusing the ALS source on the sample with unit magnification. Second, a new open-quotes Cowan typeclose quotes double-crystal monochromator based on the design used at NSLS beamline X-24A was developed. The measured mechanical precision of this new monochromator shows significant improvement over existing designs, without using positional feedback available with piezoelectric devices. Such precision is essential because of the high brightness of the radiation and the long distance (12m) from the source (sample) to the collimating (focusing) mirror. This combination of features will provide a bright, high resolution, and stable x-ray beam for use in the x-ray spectroscopy program at the ALS

  16. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user's risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly

  17. Preparation and characterization of B4C coatings for advanced research light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Sinn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    X-ray optical elements are required for beam transport at the current and upcoming free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. An X-ray mirror is a combination of a substrate and a coating. The demand for large mirrors with single layers consisting of light or heavy elements has increased during the last few decades; surface finishing technology is currently able to process mirror lengths up to 1 m with microroughness at the sub-nanometre level. Additionally, thin-film fabrication is able to deposit a suitable single-layer material, such as boron carbide (B4C), some tens of nanometres thick. After deposition, the mirror should provide excellent X-ray optical properties with respect to coating thickness errors, microroughness values and slope errors; thereby enabling the mirror to transport the X-ray beam with high reflectivity, high beam flux and an undistorted wavefront to an experimental station. At the European XFEL, the technical specifications of the future mirrors are extraordinarily challenging. The acceptable shape error of the mirrors is below 2 nm along the whole length of 1 m. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), amorphous layers of boron carbide with thicknesses in the range 30-60 nm were fabricated using the HZG sputtering facility, which is able to cover areas up to 1500 mm long by 120 mm wide in one step using rectangular B4C sputtering targets. The available deposition area is suitable for the specified X-ray mirror dimensions of upcoming advanced research light sources such as the European XFEL. The coatings produced were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The experimental results for the B4C layers are discussed according to thickness uniformity, density, microroughness and thermal stability. The variation of layer thickness in the tangential and sagittal directions was investigated in order to estimate the achieved level of uniformity over the whole deposition area, which is considerably

  18. Automated tune measurements in the Advanced Light Source storage ring using a LabVIEW application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horizontal and vertical betatron tunes and the synchrotron tune are measured frequently during storage ring commissioning. The measurements are tedious and subject to human errors. Automating this kind of repetitive measurement is underway using LabVIEW for Windows, a software application supplied by National Instruments Corporation, that provides acquisition, graphing, and analysis of data as well as instrument control through the General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). We have added LabVIEW access to the Advanced Light Source (ALS) data base and control system. LabVIEW is a fast and efficient tool for accelerator commissioning and beam physics studies. Hardware used to perform tune measurements include a tracking generator (or a white noise generator), strip line electrodes for external ''citation of the beam, button monitors, and a spectrum analyzer. All three tunes are displayed simultaneously on the spectrum analyzer. Our program automatically identifies three tunes by applying and analyzing small variations and reports the results. This routine can be encapsulated in other applications, for instance, in a chromaticity measurement and correction program

  19. The U5.0 undulator design for the advanced light source at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U5.0 undulator, currently under design, is the first in a series of insertion devices planned for the Advanced Light Source at LBL. U5.0 parameters include a 5 cm period, 5 m length with a 0.837 T maximum field at a 14 mm gap. A hybrid configuration utilizing Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material and Vanadium Permendur poles is used for the magnetic structure. Construction is modular with many pole assemblies attached to a pole mount, which in turn is fastened onto one of the backing beams. Vertical field integral correction at the ends is with permanent magnet rotators. The supports structure features a 4-post configuration, a rigid base with 3 kinematic floor supports and 2 rigid 5 m long backing beams that fit within the 2.4 m high accelerator enclosure. The drive system is computer controlled utilizing a stepper motor and shaft encode coupled to a roller-screw/nut and chain drive train. Vacuum chamber design is a rigid configuration with a 10 mm vertical by 218 mm horizontal aperture of 5.5 m length. Chamber fabrication features a two-piece welded chamber of 5083 H321 aluminum. Pumping is with ion and titanium sublimation pumps. 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Studies of transverse coherent bunch instabilities for the Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the transverse coherent bunch instabilities for the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We have in particular applied a Hamiltonian formalism to obtain the linearized averaged equations of motion (i.e. the one turn map) for the resistive wall effect to obtain the corresponding localized kick when the beta function is varying along the lattice. We have also included a 2-dimensional model for the transverse higher order cavity modes. In addition, we have used power series maps to represent the lattice which enabled us to include non-linear effects. These models have been implemented in a computer code and numerical simulations have been carried out for ALS. The model was successfully verified against analytical calculations in cases where they overlap. The non-linear effects from the lattice proved to be important, since they led to a qualitative change of the dynamics for the stored beam. We also studied the injection process in some detail and found that the non-linear effects also fundamentally change the injection dynamics

  1. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature. This paper presents an overview of the principal results obtained from X-ray microdiffraction studies of electromigration effects on aluminum and copper interconnects at the ALS throughout continuous efforts that spanned over a decade (1998-2008) from approximately 40 weeks of combined beamtime.

  2. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature. This paper presents an overview of the principal results obtained from X-ray microdiffraction studies of electromigration effects on aluminum and copper interconnects at the ALS throughout continuous efforts that spanned over a decade (1998-2008) from approximately 40 weeks of combined beamtime.

  3. Applications of the Advanced Light Source to problems in the earth, soil, and environmental sciences report of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS status and research opportunities; advanced light source applications to geological materials; applications in the soil and environmental sciences; x-ray microprobe analysis; potential applications of the ALS in soil and environmental sciences; and x-ray spectroscopy using soft x-rays: applications to earth materials

  4. The U5.0 Undulator for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U5.0 Undulator, an 89 period, 5 cm period length, 4.6 m long insertion device has been designed, is being fabricated, and is scheduled for completion in early 1992. This undulator will be the first high brightness source, in the 50 to 1,500 eV range, for the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A hybrid magnetic configuration using Nd--Fe--B permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur poles has been selected to achieve the field quality needed to meet performance requirements. The magnetic structure is modular with each half consisting of five assembly sections, which provide the periodic structure, and end structures, for entrance and exit correction, mounted on a steel backing beam. Each assembly section consists of 35 half-period pole assemblies bolted to a mount. The required 0.837 T effective peak field at a 1.4 cm gap has been verified with model measurements. Vertical field integral correction is accomplished with the end structures, each having an arrangement of permanent magnet rotors which will be adjusted to minimize electron beam missteering over the undulator operating field range. To reduce the effect of environmental fields, the steel backing beams are connected through parallel, low-reluctance, Ni--Fe hinges. The magnetic structure is connected through four rollernuts to the drive system that provides gap adjustment with an arrangement of roller screws, chain drives, a gear reduction unit, and a stepper motor driven by a closed loop control system. Magnetic structure and drive system support are from a 2.4 m high structure which includes a support base with four vertical supports. The vacuum chamber design is a two-piece machined and welded 5083-H321 aluminum construction of 5.1 m length. Pumping is with a combination of ion, titanium sublimation pump and nonevaporable getter pumps. Magnetic design, subsystem design, and fabrication progress are presented

  5. A beamline for high-pressure studies at the Advanced Light Source with a superconducting bending magnet as the source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Martin; MacDowell, Alastair A; Caldwell, Wendel A; Cambie, Daniella; Celestre, Richard S; Domning, Edward E; Duarte, Robert M; Gleason, Arianna E; Glossinger, James M; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W; Yu, Tony; Zaug, Joeseph M; Padmore, Howard A; Jeanloz, Raymond; Alivisatos, A Paul; Clark, Simon M

    2005-09-01

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 T superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful X-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness-preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of a plane parabola collimating mirror, followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with Si(111) crystals (E/DeltaE approximately equal 7000) and W/B4C multilayers (E/DeltaE approximately equal 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam-positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detector (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second endstation dedicated to in situ laser heating and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic and polychromatic techniques. PMID:16120990

  6. A BEAMLINE FOR HIGH PRESSURE STUDIES AT THE ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE WITH A SUPERCONDUCTING BENDING MAGNET AS THE SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/ΔE ∼ 7000) and a W/B4C multilayer (E/ΔE ∼ 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques

  7. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  8. Flame experiments at the advanced light source: new insights into soot formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nils; Skeen, Scott A; Michelsen, Hope A; Wilson, Kevin R; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The following experimental protocols and the accompanying video are concerned with the flame experiments that are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(1-4). This video demonstrates how the complex chemical structures of laboratory-based model flames are analyzed using flame-sampling mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. This experimental approach combines isomer-resolving capabilities with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range(5,6). The first part of the video describes experiments involving burner-stabilized, reduced-pressure (20-80 mbar) laminar premixed flames. A small hydrocarbon fuel was used for the selected flame to demonstrate the general experimental approach. It is shown how species' profiles are acquired as a function of distance from the burner surface and how the tunability of the VUV photon energy is used advantageously to identify many combustion intermediates based on their ionization energies. For example, this technique has been used to study gas-phase aspects of the soot-formation processes, and the video shows how the resonance-stabilized radicals, such as C3H3, C3H5, and i-C4H5, are identified as important intermediates(7). The work has been focused on soot formation processes, and, from the chemical point of view, this process is very intriguing because chemical structures containing millions of carbon atoms are assembled from a fuel molecule possessing only a few carbon atoms in just milliseconds. The second part of the video highlights a new experiment, in which an opposed-flow diffusion flame and synchrotron-based aerosol mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of the combustion-generated soot particles(4). The experimental results indicate that the widely accepted H-abstraction-C2H2-addition (HACA) mechanism is not the sole molecular growth process responsible for the formation

  9. Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Femtosecond Laser Modulation of the Electron Beam at the Advanced Light Source

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, John M.; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Robin, David S.; Sannibale, Fernando; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Zholents, Alexander A.; Zolotorev, Max S.

    2005-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the 'femtoslicing' beamline is in operation since 1999 for the production of x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses with femtosecond duration. The mechanism used for generating the short x-ray pulses induces at the same time temporary structures in the electron bunch longitudinal distribution with very short characteristic length. Such structures emit intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range. These CSR pulses were first...

  10. Design of end magnetic structures for the Advanced Light Source wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical magnetic structures for the Advanced Light planar wiggler and 20 cm period elliptical hybrid permanent magnet design. The ends of these structures are characterized by diminishing scalar potential distributions the poles which control beam trajectories. They incorporate electromagnetic correction coils to dynamically correct for variations in the first integral of the field as a function of gap. A permanent magnet trim mechanism is incorporated to minimize the transverse integrated error field distribution. The ends were designed using analytic and computer modeling techniques. The design and modeling results are presented

  11. A dedicated superbend x-ray microdiffraction beamline for materials, geo-, and environmental sciences at the advanced light source

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Martin; Advanced Light Source

    2009-01-01

    A new facility for microdiffraction strain measurements and microfluorescence mapping has been built on beamline 12.3.2 at the advanced light source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This beamline benefits from the hard x-radiation generated by a 6 T superconducting bending magnet (superbend) This provides a hard x-ray spectrum from 5 to 22 keV and a flux within a 1 mu m spot of ~;;5x109 photons/ s (0.1percent bandwidth at 8 keV). The radiation is relayed from the superbend source...

  12. High-Brightness Beams from a Light Source Injector: The Advanced Photon Source Low-Energy Undulator Test Line Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Travish, G.; Biedron, S; Borland, M.; Hahne, M.; Harkay, K.; Lewellen, J.W.; Lumpkin, A.; Milton, S.; Sereno, N.

    2000-01-01

    The use of existing linacs, and in particular light source injectors, for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments is becoming more common due to the desire to test FELs at ever shorter wavelengths. The high-brightness, high-current beams required by high-gain FELs impose technical specifications that most existing linacs were not designed to meet. Moreover, the need for specialized diagnostics, especially shot-to-shot data acquisition, demands substantial modification and upgrade of conventiona...

  13. SciDAC Advances in Beam Dynamics Simulation: From Light Sources to Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC). Particle accelerators are some of most important tools of scientific discovery. They are widely used in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and other basic and applied sciences to study the interaction of elementary particles, to probe the internal structure of matter, and to generate high-brightness radiation for research in materials science, chemistry, biology, and other fields. Modern accelerators are complex and expensive devices that may be several kilometers long and may consist of thousands of beamline elements. An accelerator may transport trillions of charged particles that interact electromagnetically among themselves, that interact with fields produced by the accelerator components, and that interact with beam-induced fields. Large-scale beam dynamics simulations on massively parallel computers can help provide understanding of these complex physical phenomena, help minimize design cost, and help optimize machine operation. In this paper, we report on beam dynamics simulations in a variety of accelerators ranging from next generation light sources to high-energy ring colliders that have been studied during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project.

  14. Light sources and light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)

  15. ALS-II, a potential soft X-ray, diffraction limited upgrade of the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab has seen many upgrades over the years, keeping it one of the brightest sources for soft x-rays worldwide. Recent developments in magnet technology and lattice design appear to open the door for very large further increases in brightness [1], particularly by reducing the horizontal emittance, even within the space constraints of the existing tunnel. Initial studies for possible lattices will be presented that could approach the soft x-ray diffraction limit around 2 keV in both planes within the ALS footprint. Emerging scientific applications and experimental methods that would greatly benefit from ring based sources having much higher brightness and transverse coherence than present or near future storage ring facilities include nanometer imaging applications, X-ray correlation spectroscopy, diffraction microscopy, holography, ptychography, and resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering at high resolution.

  16. Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bending magnet beamline has been in operation since February 1995 for the characterization of optical elements (mirrors, gratings, multilayers, detectors, etc.) in the energy range 50 endash 1000 eV. Although it was designed primarily for precision reflectometry of multilayer reflecting optics for EUV projection lithography, it has capabilities for a wide range of measurements. The optics consist of a monochromator, a reflectometer, and refocusing mirrors to provide a small spot on the sample. The monochromator is a very compact, entrance-slitless, varied-line-spacing plane-grating design in which the mechanically ruled grating operates in the converging light from a spherical mirror working at high demagnification. Aberrations of the mirror are corrected by the line spacing variation, so that the spectral resolving power λ/Δλ is limited by the ALS source size to about 7000. Wavelength is scanned by simple rotation of the grating with a fixed exit slit. The reflectometer has the capability of positioning the sample to within 10 μm and setting its angular position to 0.002 degree. LABVIEWTM based software provides a convenient interface to the user. The reflectometer is separated from the beamline by a differential pump and can be pumped down in 1/2 hour. Auxiliary experimental stations can be mounted behind the reflectometer. Results are shown that demonstrate the performance and operational convenience of the beamline copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. A new bend magnet beam line for scanning transmission x-ray microscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, Tony; Ade, Harald; Kilcoyne, A.L. David; Kritscher, Michael; Tylisczcak, Tolek; Fakra, Sirine; Hitchcock, Adam P.; Hitchcock, Peter; Padmore, Howard A.

    2001-12-12

    The high brightness of the bend magnets at the Advanced Light Source has been exploited to illuminate a Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM). This is the first diffraction-limited scanning x-ray microscope to operate with useful count rate on a synchrotron bend magnet source. A simple, dedicated beam line has been built covering the range of photon energy from 250 eV to 600 eV. Ease of use and operational availability are radically improved compared to previous installations using undulator beams. This facility provides radiation for C 1s, N 1s and O 1s near edge x-ray absorption spectro-microscopy with a spectral resolution up to about 1:5000 and with STXM count rates in excess of 1 MHz.

  18. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-12-12

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

  19. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron

  20. Lithographic measurement of EUV flare in the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool optic at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of flare present in a 0.3-NA EUV optic (the MET optic) at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is measured using a lithographic method. Photoresist behavior at high exposure doses makes analysis difficult. Flare measurement analysis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy is compared, and optical microscopy is found to be a more reliable technique. In addition, the measured results are compared with predictions based on surface roughness measurement of the MET optical elements. When the fields in the exposure matrix are spaced far enough apart to avoid influence from surrounding fields and the data is corrected for imperfect mask contrast and aerial image proximity effects, the results match predicted values quite well. The amount of flare present in this optic ranges from 4.7% for 2 (micro)m features to 6.8% for 500 nm features

  1. The Advanced Light Source: A new 1.5 GeV synchrotron radiation facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent x-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bend-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams, from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV, will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in materials and surface science, biology, atomic physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bend magnets will provide high-flux, broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Monte Carlo calculation of ''skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS [Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics on ''skyshine'' neutron dose from ALS: Sources of radiation; ALS modeling for skyshine calculations; MORSE Monte-Carlo; Implementation of MORSE; Results of skyshine calculations from storage ring; and Comparison of MORSE shielding calculations

  3. Performance of photon position monitors and stability of undulator beams at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Position monitors are implemented in three undulator beamlines at the ALS. Their performance has been studied carefully on one of these lines and is reviewed. The monitors work as expected and show the ALS to be an exceptionally stable source of synchrotron radiation

  4. Reconciling FTIR Spectroscopy with Top-off Operations at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Top-off operations is a quasi-continuous injection mode that increases the flux and brightness of a synchrotron source and improves thermal stability of optical components by maintaining a constant current in the storage ring. Although the increased and constant flux is advantageous for FTIR measurements, the frequent injections (about one every 30 seconds in the ALS case) introduce artifacts into the spectrum by creating spikes in the interferogram data. These spikes are caused by brief beam motion during the injection event. Here, we describe our efforts to minimize the effects of top-off generated interferogram spikes on several FTIR spectrometers. They include using a fast feedback mirror system to correct for beam motion and a gating signal to inhibit interferogram collection during a top-off injection.

  5. An assessment of the effects of radiation on permanent magnet material in the ALS [Advanced Light Source] insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons that are lost from the beam during normal operation of a synchrotron radiation source and during a beam dump at the end of a run produce both ionizing radiation and neutrons. This radiation has the potential for damaging sensitive materials, in particular those that need to be very close to the beam. The wigglers and undulators for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL will use magnetic materials such as the very high performance neodymium-iron-boron, which will be as close as 1 cm away from the electron beam during operation. This material, which is preferred because of its high remanence, is known to be more sensitive to radiation than some other magnetic materials. Simple energy loss estimates and the EGS4 code were used to estimate the radiation levels in the ALS insertion devices in the regions of the magnetic materials. The radiation levels were estimated for both aluminum and stainless steel vacuum chambers to determine if one would provide significantly better shielding. We conclude that Nd-Fe-B can be used in the ALS insertion devices and that there is little difference in the radiation levels for aluminum and stainless vacuum vessels. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  7. Thermoelectricity Light Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYongji

    1997-01-01

    A thermoelectricity light source in a gaseous plasma discharge between two electrodes is described,one of which emits electrons thermoionically.The analytical model describing basic physical phenomena is developed.The results are excellent agreement with simulated test.

  8. The Advanced Light Source: A new 1.5 GeV synchrotron radiation facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), presently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, will be the world's brightest synchrotron-radiation source of ultraviolet and soft x-ray photons when it opens its doors to users in April 1993. The ALS is a third-generation source that is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring, optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV, with long straight sections for insertion devices. Its naturally short pulses are ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will produce high-brightness beams from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wigglers will produce high fluxes of harder x-rays to energies above 10 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in a broad spectrum of scientific and technological areas. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy). Biological applications will include x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity in the water window of the spectrum where water is much more transparent than protein. The ALS will be an excellent research tool for atomic physics and chemistry because the high flux will allow measurements to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. Undulator radiation can excite the K shell of elements up to silicon and the L shell of elements up to krypton, and wiggler radiation can excite the L shell of nearly every element. The ALS will operate as a national user facility; interested scientists are encouraged to contact the ALS Scientific Program Coordinator to explore their scientific and technological research interests

  9. A dedicated superbend x-ray microdiffraction beamline for materials, geo-, and environmental sciences at the advanced light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Church, Matthew M.; Fakra, Sirine; Domning, Edward E.; Glossinger, James M.; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Plate, Dave W.; Smith, Brian V.; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.; Ustundag, Ersan; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-03-24

    A new facility for microdiffraction strain measurements and microfluorescence mapping has been built on beamline 12.3.2 at the advanced light source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This beamline benefits from the hard x-radiation generated by a 6 T superconducting bending magnet (superbend) This provides a hard x-ray spectrum from 5 to 22 keV and a flux within a 1 mu m spot of ~;;5x109 photons/ s (0.1percent bandwidth at 8 keV). The radiation is relayed from the superbend source to a focus in the experimental hutch by a toroidal mirror. The focus spot is tailored bytwo pairs of adjustable slits, which serve as secondary source point. Inside the lead hutch, a pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors placed in a vacuum tank refocuses the secondary slit source onto the sample position. A new KB-bending mechanism with active temperature stabilization allows for more reproducible and stable mirror bending and thus mirror focusing. Focus spots around 1 um are routinely achieved and allow a variety of experiments, which have in common the need of spatial resolution. The effective spatial resolution (~;;0.2 mu m) is limited by a convolution of beam size, scan-stage resolution, and stage stability. A four-bounce monochromator consisting of two channel-cut Si(111) crystals placed between the secondary source and KB-mirrors allows for easy changes between white-beam and monochromatic experiments while maintaining a fixed beam position. High resolution stage scans are performed while recording a fluorescence emission signal or an x-ray diffraction signal coming from either a monochromatic or a white focused beam. The former allows for elemental mapping, whereas the latter is used to produce two-dimensional maps of crystal-phases, -orientation, -texture, and -strain/stress. Typically achieved strain resolution is in the order of 5x10-5 strain units. Accurate sample positioning in the x-ray focus spot is achieved with a commercial laser-triangulation unit. A Si

  10. Precision alignment of the Advanced Light Source U5.0 and U8.0 undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U5.0 and U8.0 undulators for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) incorporate 4.6-m-long, hybrid-configuration magnetic structures. The structures consist of modules with half-period pole assemblies mounted on 0.8-m-long aluminum mounts, which are in turn attached to continuous steel backing beams. The vertical and longitudinal alignment tolerances for the poles of these structures are 25 microns and 50 microns, respectively, over the entire 4.6-m length of the devices. To meet these tolerances, the modules were first aligned individually using an automated coordinate measurement machine and shimming techniques. Several adjustment iterations were required for each module. Averaging and three-dimensional linear least-squares fitting techniques were employed to establish statistically based error reference planes. Graphical spread sheets were used to create representations of vertical and longitudinal pole position errors for alignment. The adjusted modules were installed on the backing beams and aligned relative to each other using laser interferometer techniques. The longitudinal positions of all poles of each module were measured using a simple linear interferometer and associated optics. Because of the differential expansion coefficient between the aluminum modules and steel backing beam, a bilinear temperature-compensation function was applied to the position data to predict periodicity errors at a predetermined operating temperature, which is generally higher than temperatures in assembly and measurement areas. Vertical alignment of the periodic modules was performed by generating vertical pole position error profiles of the full 4.6-m structures. Least-squares-fit planes for each module were calculated and used in making differential vertical and angular adjustments. Repeatability error for these measurements was typically less than 3 microns. In addition, by using difference techniques, systematic profile variations of 1 micron have been resolved

  11. The Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory: A high-brightness soft x-ray synchrotron-radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) and 24 high-quality bend-magnet ports. The short pulse width (30--50 ns) will be ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will generate high-brightness soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 20 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will extend the spectrum by generating high fluxes of hard x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy). Biological applications will include x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity in the water window of the spectrum where water is much more transparent than protein. The ALS will be an excellent research tool for atomic physics and chemistry because the high flux will allow measurements to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Analysis of stray radiation produced by the advanced light source (1.9 GeV synchrotron radiation source) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yearly environmental dose equivalent likely to result at the closest site boundary from the Advanced Light Source was determined by generating multiple linear regressions. The independent variables comprised quantified accelerator operating parameters and measurements from synchronized, in-close (outside shielding prior to significant atmospheric scattering), state-of-the-art neutron remmeters and photon G-M tubes. Neutron regression models were more successful than photon models due to lower relative background radiation and redundant detectors at the site boundary. As expected, Storage Ring Beam Fill and Beam Crashes produced radiation at a higher rate than gradual Beam Decay; however, only the latter did not include zero in its 95% confidence interval. By summing for all three accelerator operating modes, a combined yearly DE of 4.3 mRem/yr with a 90% CI of (0.04-8.63) was obtained. These results fall below the DOE reporting level of 10 mRem/yr and suggest repeating the study with improved experimental conditions

  13. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source] Booster Dipole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs

  14. Study of transverse coupled bunch instabilities by using non-linear Taylor maps for the Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study coherent bunch instabilities for the third generation light source, ALS, it is insufficient to rely on a linear map with radiation damping for the lattice to obtain the correct dynamics. We have implemented a code for transverse bunch instabilities, using a 4-dimensional map for the lattice and wake field expansions for cavities and resistive wall effects. This model has been used to study the injection process and to determine the needed performance of the proposed feedback system for the storage ring

  15. Advanced process characterization of a 10nm Metal 1 Logic layer using light source modulation and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Paolo; Zurita, Omar; Timoshkov, Vadim; Wong, Patrick; Rechtsteiner, Greg; Baselmans, Jan; Mailfert, Julien; Conley, Will; Hsieh, Simon

    2015-09-01

    As ArF immersion lithography continues to be extended by adopting multi-patterning techniques, imaging requirements continue to become more stringent [1-3]. For multiple patterning based logic devices, the optimal printability is not only driven by the optimization of the optical proximity correction (OPC), but also by complex process factors, such as resist, exposure tool, and mask-related error performance levels. In addition the light source plays a crucial role; it has been widely demonstrated [4-8] how changes in the E95 bandwidth can significantly lead to changes in on wafer patterning due image contrast changes. Cymer has developed novel computational and experimental approaches to enable process characterization studies [9-11]. Using these techniques, simulations were used to assess how E95 bandwidth changes can erode the CDU budget on ≤ 20 nm logic features. Using the results of these simulations, experimental conditions were defined to study the on wafer impact of light source performance on an imec N10 Logic-type test vehicle via six different Metal 1 Logic features. The imaging metrics used to track patterning response are process window (PW), line width roughness (LWR), and local critical dimension uniformity (LCDU).

  16. The advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996

  17. Advanced Maya texturing and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Level up your skills with powerful texturing and lighting techniques Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting, Third Edition leads you through the latest advanced techniques for adding realistic detail to your models. This new edition is up-to-date with the latest Maya texturing, lighting, and rendering features, including an exploration of the Node Editor, new Maya utility nodes and expanded coverage of mental ray shaders, and render settings. The proven tutorials are culled from real-world experience and refined to give you the ultimate in practical skills. You'll learn workflow t

  18. Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  19. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  20. Radioisotope powered light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, F. N.; Remini, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used for a number of years to excite phosphors to produce visible light. The advent of the nuclear age, however, made possible the preparation of radionuclides in larger quantities at relatively low prices, and with radiation properties that greatly expanded the potential applications for such lights. Current energy conservation needs and inflation leading to even higher costs for maintenance and capital equipment has provided the incentive for development of illuminators for air field markers using both byproduct krypton-85 and processed tritium. Background and current status of these developments are discussed.

  1. Radioisotope powered light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have been used for a number of years to excite phosphors to produce visible light. The advent of the nuclear age, however, made possible the preparation of radionuclides in larger quantities at relatively low prices, and with radiation properties that greatly expanded the potential applications for such lights. Current energy conservation needs and inflation leading to even higher costs for maintenance and capital equipment has provided the incentive for development of illuminators for air field markers using both byproduct krypton-85 and processed tritium. Background and current status of these developments are discussed

  2. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  3. Lithographic measurement of EUV flare in the 0.3-NA Micro ExposureTool optic at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-01

    The level of flare present in a 0.3-NA EUV optic (the MET optic) at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is measured using a lithographic method. Photoresist behavior at high exposure doses makes analysis difficult. Flare measurement analysis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy is compared, and optical microscopy is found to be a more reliable technique. In addition, the measured results are compared with predictions based on surface roughness measurement of the MET optical elements. When the fields in the exposure matrix are spaced far enough apart to avoid influence from surrounding fields and the data is corrected for imperfect mask contrast and aerial image proximity effects, the results match predicted values quite well. The amount of flare present in this optic ranges from 4.7% for 2 {micro}m features to 6.8% for 500 nm features.

  4. Global sourcing of advanced services

    OpenAIRE

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory study we take a strategic management approach to global sourcing of advanced services. We discuss in which ways conventional sourcing differs from strategic sourcing and what impels firms to aim for the latter (or, prevent them from doing so). Potentially, strategic global sourcing of services has high returns, but is also associated with high risks and needs for organizational changes. Strategic global sourcing may therefore be outside firms’ “comfort zone”...

  5. Third-generation synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X rays are a powerful probe of matter because they interact with electrons in atoms, molecules, and solids. They are commonly produced by relativistic electrons or positrons stored in a synchrotron. Recent advances in technology are leading to the development of a new third generation of synchrotron radiation sources that produce vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray beams of unprecedented brightness. These new sources are characterized by a very low electron-beam emittance and by long straight sections to accommodate permanent-magnet undulators and wigglers. Several new low-energy light sources, including the Advanced Light Source, presently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and ELETTRA, presently being constructed in Trieste, will deliver the world's brightest synchrotron radiation in the VUV and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. Applications include atomic and molecular physics and chemistry, surface and materials science, microscopy, and life sciences

  6. Advanced light water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power to be competitive with the other methods of electrical power generation the economic performance should be significantly improved by increasing the time spent on line generating electricity relative to time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Maintenance includes planned actions (surveillances) and unplanned actions (corrective maintenance) to respond to component degradation or failure. A methodology is described which is used to resolve maintenance related operating cycle length barriers. Advanced light water nuclear power plant is designed with the purpose to maximize online generating time by increasing operating cycle length. (author)

  7. The Advanced Photon Source main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source built in the 1990s. Like the machine itself, the Main Control Room (MCR) employs design concepts based on today's requirements. The discussion will center on ideas used in the design of the MCR, the comfort of personnel using the design, and safety concerns integrated into the control room layout

  8. High-resolution beamline 9.3.2 in the energy range 30 endash 1500 eV at the Advanced Light Source: Design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) was designed for high resolution spectroscopy with the capability for delivering circularly polarized light in the soft x-ray energy region using three gratings. The monochromator is a fixed included-angle spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and was originally used at SSRL as a prototype for later insertion-device-based monochromators for the ALS. For operation at the ALS, the toroidal pre-mirror used at SSRL was replaced by a horizontally focusing and a vertically focusing mirror in the Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration. Circularly polarized radiation is obtained by inserting a water-cooled movable aperture in front of the vertically focusing mirror to allow selecting the beam either above or below the horizontal plane. To maintain a stable beam intensity through the entrance slit, the photocurrent signals from the upper and lower jaws of the entrance slit are utilized to set a feedback loop with the vertically deflecting mirror piezoelectric drive. The beamline end station has a movable platform that accommodates two experimental chambers enabling the synchrotron radiation to be directed to either one of the two experimental chambers without breaking the vacuum. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Surface-micromachined magnetic undulator with period length between 10μm and 1 mm for advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jere; Joshi, Abhijeet; Lake, Jonathan; Candler, Rob; Musumeci, Pietro

    2012-07-01

    A technological gap exists between the μm-scale wiggling periods achieved using electromagnetic waves of high intensity laser pulses and the mm scale of permanent-magnet and superconducting undulators. In the sub-mm range, surface-micromachined soft-magnetic micro-electro-mechanical system inductors with integrated solenoidal coils have already experimentally demonstrated 100 to 500 mT field amplitude across air gaps as large as 15μm. Simulations indicate that magnetic fields as large as 1.5 T across 50μm inductor gaps are feasible. A simple rearranging of the yoke and pole geometry allows for fabrication of 10+ cm long undulator structures with period lengths between 12.5μm and 1 mm. Such undulators find application both in high average power spontaneous emission sources and, if used in combination with ultrahigh-brightness electron beams, could lead to the realization of low energy compact free-electron lasers. Challenges include electron energy broadening due to wakefields and Joule heating in the electromagnet.

  10. Solid-State Spectral Light Source System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffione, Robert; Dana, David

    2011-01-01

    A solid-state light source combines an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with advanced electronic control and stabilization over both the spectrum and overall level of the light output. The use of LEDs provides efficient operation over a wide range of wavelengths and power levels, while electronic control permits extremely stable output and dynamic control over the output. In this innovation, LEDs are used instead of incandescent bulbs. Optical feedback and digital control are used to monitor and regulate the output of each LED. Because individual LEDs generate light within narrower ranges of wavelengths than incandescent bulbs, multiple LEDs are combined to provide a broad, continuous spectrum, or to produce light within discrete wavebands that are suitable for specific radiometric sensors.

  11. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  12. Advanced Light Source instrumentation overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator instrumentation played a vital role in commissioning the ALS injector accelerator. It helped us to see whether electron dynamics agreed with our theoretical predictions and important beam parameters met the design specifications. It helped us to see where beam losses occurred and why. In this paper we will start with a brief description of the ALS accelerator complex and the expected performance of it. Then we will describe each diagnostics instrument by its construction, operational principle, requirements, and our experiences with it. We will describe the wall current monitor, the scintillator, the Faraday cup, the beam collimator, the beam position monitor, the direct-current current transformer (DCCT), the traveling wave electrodes the Sabersky finger, and other special instruments. Finally, we will go into some detail on how we measured the beam emittances, the closed orbit, and the betatron tunes

  13. The Advanced Light Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Advanced Light Water Reactor Program is a forward-looking program designed to produce viable nuclear generating system candidates to meet the very real, and perhaps imminent, need for new power generation capacity in the U. S. and around the world. The ALRR Program is an opportunity to move ahead with confidence, to confront problems today which must be confronted if the U. S. electrical utilities are to continue to meet their commitment to provide safe, reliable, economical electrical power to the nation in the years ahead. Light water reactor technology is today playing a vital role in the production of electricity to meet the world's needs. At present about 13% of the world's electricity is supplied by nuclear power plants, most of those light water reactors. Nevertheless, there is a clear need for expanded use of nuclear generation. Here in Korea and elsewhere in Asia, demand for electricity has continued to increase at a very high rate. In the United States demand growth has been more moderate, but a large number of existing stations will be ready for replacement in the next two decades, and all countries face the problem of dwindling fuel supplies and growing environmental impact of fossil-fired power plants. Despite the evident need for expanded nuclear generation capacity in the United States, there have been no new plants ordered in the past ten years and at present there are no immediate prospects for new plant orders. Concerns about safety, the high cost of recent nuclear stations, and the current excess of electrical generation capacity in the United States, have combined to interrupt completely the growth of this vital power supply system

  14. Present status and future development of the SAGA Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present status and future development of the SAGA Light Source were described. The dedication of the SAGA Light Source was performed in February 2006, and has been open to industry, government, and academia users in the field of synchrotron radiation application. Also, new three beamlines will be installed in parallel with an expansion of the facility building. It is expected that the SAGA Light Source will serve an excellent function for advanced research and development in Kyushu. (author)

  15. A Light Source for Testing CMOS Imagers

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Jed J.; Baker, Doran

    2003-01-01

    Testing the optical properties of complementary metal oxide (CMOS) imagers requires a light source. The light source must produce stable uniform light with calibrated wavelength and intensity. Available commercial light source units are costly and often unalterable to a custom test setup. The proposed light source is designed to be affordable and adaptable while maintaining the necessary optical quality. The design consists of an array of light emitting diodes (LED), an infrared (IR) cut-off ...

  16. Iranian Light Source Facility, A third generation light source laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rahighi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF project is the first large scale accelerator facility which is currently under planning in Iran. On the basis of the present design, circumference of the 3 GeV storage ring is 528 m. Beam current and natural beam emittance are 400 mA and 0.477 nm.rad, respectively. Some prototype accelerator components such as high power solid state radio frequency amplifiers, low level RF system, thermionic RF gun, H-type dipole and quadruple magnets, magnetic measurement laboratory and highly stable magnet power supplies have been constructed at ILSF R&D laboratory

  17. The linac coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is a self-amplified spontaneous emission based free electron laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre by a multi-laboratory collaboration. This facility will provide ultra-short pulses of coherent X-ray radiation with the fundamental harmonic energy tuneable over the energy range of 0.82 to 8.2 keV. In addition to the coherent X-ray radiation, which will have an extremely high peak and average brightness, a continuous spectrum of spontaneous synchrotron radiation (SR) of high brightness will also be produced. The characteristics of the LCLS and its associated radiological issues are discussed. (authors)

  18. Advanced lighting guidelines: 1993. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, C.; Tolen, T.M. [Eley Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Benya, J.R. [Luminae Souter Lighting Design, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 Advanced Lighting Guidelines document consists of twelve guidelines that provide an overview of specific lighting technologies and design application techniques utilizing energy-efficient lighting practice. Lighting Design Practice assesses energy-efficient lighting strategies, discusses lighting issues, and explains how to obtain quality lighting design and consulting services. Luminaires and Lighting Systems surveys luminaire equipment designed to take advantage of advanced technology lamp products and includes performance tables that allow for accurate estimation of luminaire light output and power input. The additional ten guidelines -- Computer-Aided Lighting Design, Energy-Efficient Fluorescent Ballasts, Full-Size Fluorescent Lamps, Compact Fluorescent Lamps, Tungsten-Halogen Lamps, Metal Halide and HPS Lamps, Daylighting and Lumen Maintenance, Occupant Sensors, Time Scheduling Systems, and Retrofit Control Technologies -- each provide a product technology overview, discuss current products on the lighting equipment market, and provide application techniques. This document is intended for use by electric utility personnel involved in lighting programs, lighting designers, electrical engineers, architects, lighting manufacturers` representatives, and other lighting professionals.

  19. Light pollution simulations for planar ground-based light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2008-02-20

    The light pollution model is employed to analyze spatial behavior of luminance at the night sky under cloudless and overcast conditions. Enhanced light excess is particularly identified at cloudy skies, because the clouds efficiently contribute to the downward luminous flux. It is evident that size of ground-based light sources can play an important role in the case of overcast sky conditions. Nevertheless, the realistically sized light sources are rarely embedded into light pollution modeling, and rather they are replaced by simple point sources. We discuss the discrepancies between sky luminance distributions when at first the planar light sources are considered and at second the point-source approximation is accepted. The found differences are noticeable if the size of the light source, distance to the observer, and altitude of a cloudy layer are comparable one to the other. Compared with point-source approximation, an inclusion of the size factor into modeling the light sources leads to partial elimination of the steep changes of sky luminance (typical for point sources of light). The narrow and sharp light pillars normally presented on the sky illuminated by point light sources can disappear or fuse together when two or more nearby light sources are considered with their real sizes. Sky elements situated close to the horizon will glow efficiently if luminous flux originates from two-dimensional ground-based entities (such as cities or villages). PMID:18288228

  20. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  1. Plant Growth Absorption Spectrum Mimicking Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Jwo-Huei Jou; Ching-Chiao Lin; Tsung-Han Li; Chieh-Ju Li; Shiang-Hau Peng; Fu-Chin Yang; Justin Thomas, K. R.; Dhirendra Kumar; Yun Chi; Ban-Dar Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Plant factories have attracted increasing attention because they can produce fresh fruits and vegetables free from pesticides in all weather. However, the emission spectra from current light sources significantly mismatch the spectra absorbed by plants. We demonstrate a concept of using multiple broad-band as well as narrow-band solid-state lighting technologies to design plant-growth light sources. Take an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), for example; the resulting light source shows an ...

  2. Advanced Neutron Source operating philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An operating philosophy and operations cost estimate were prepared to support the Conceptual Design Report for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), a new research reactor planned for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The operating philosophy was part of the initial effort of the ANS Human Factors Program, was integrated into the conceptual design, and addressed operational issues such as remote vs local operation; control room layout and responsibility issues; role of the operator; simulation and training; staffing levels; and plant computer systems. This paper will report on the overall plans and purpose for the operations work, the results of the work done for conceptual design, and plans for future effort

  3. Development of EUV light source for microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resolution of optical microlithography process becomes smaller and smaller. Wavelength of the light source for these optical lithography reduced from KrF, ArF to F2 to meet the resolution requirement. Recently EUV is spotlighted as promising candidate for next generation lithography light source. This paper summarizes the requirement and issue for the EUV lithography light source. (author)

  4. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  5. Recent Advance in Light Stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHIU; Chris

    2001-01-01

    In order to protect polymers or coatings from the damage by sun light, scientists have created the UV Absorber to complete the task. The first commercialized UV absorber (UVA) is based on a benzophenone structure and was developed by American Cyanamid (UV 531), circa 1955, and is still the leading UVA for flexible PVC. The most powerful UVA is of the triazine type, developed by American Cyanamid (UV 1164) and commercialized in 1987.  ……

  6. Recent Advance in Light Stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In order to protect polymers or coatings from the damage by sun light, scientists have created the UV Absorber to complete the task. The first commercialized UV absorber (UVA) is based on a benzophenone structure and was developed by American Cyanamid (UV 531), circa 1955, and is still the leading UVA for flexible PVC. The most powerful UVA is of the triazine type, developed by American Cyanamid (UV 1164) and commercialized in 1987.

  7. Environmental research at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the importance of probing molecular-scale chemical and physical structure of environmental samples in their natural and often hydrated state, synchrotron radiation has been a powerful tool for environmental scientists for decades. Thus, the crucial role that a highly coherent and high-brightness hard X-ray source such as the Advance Photon Source (APS) can play in addressing many of the outstanding questions in molecular environmental science (MES) was recognized even before 'first light' at the facility. No single synchrotron-based technique or experimental approach can adequately address the tremendous temporal and spatial heterogeneities of the chemistry, physics, and biology of natural environmental samples. Thus, it is common at the APS that multiple X-ray techniques and experimental systems are employed to investigate environmental samples, often chosen for their ability to focus on solute species, plants, microbes, organics, interfacial species, or solids.

  8. EDITORIAL: LED light sources (light for the future) LED light sources (light for the future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, N.

    2010-09-01

    comprehensive review of the different localization mechanisms and their implication for internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is proposed by Oliver and co-workers from Cambridge University. When discussing IQE in InGaN-based LEDs, the efficiency droop at high-current injection always emerges, which is a major concern for the future of SSL technology. Here, a collaborative work between Samsung and the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Korea) proves that a specific design of the active region can limit this detrimental effect. Once the issue of the IQE is solved, one still has to let the photons out of the chip. Matioli and Weisbuch from the University of California at Santa Barbara introduce the use of photonic crystals (PhCs) to improve light extraction efficiency. They describe different approaches to overcoming the main limitation of LEDs when implementing surface PhCs. The technology of SSL, and in particular of colour rendering, is tackled by Zukauskas et al who studied in detail different white light sources. They show that extreme colour-fidelity indices need to cover the entire spectrum, with a broad-band at 530-610 nm and a component beyond 610 nm. Then, the reliability of GaN-based LEDs is discussed in the paper of Meneghesso and co-workers. The authors consider the most important physical mechanisms that are (i) the degradation of the active layer of LEDs, (ii) the degradation of the package/phosphor system, (iii) the failure of GaN-based LEDs against electrostatic discharge. Finally, GaN LEDs on silicon developed in the group of Egawa at the Nagoya Institute of Technology are presented. This technology could allow a significant decrease in the fabrication cost of white LEDs.

  9. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaboration of scientists from SLAC, UCLA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory have proposed to build the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) facility, a free-electron laser (FEL) on the SLAC site, spanning photon energies 0.8-8 keV. The laser output will be 8-10 GW with pulse lengths 230 fsec or less. The LCLS will offer unprecedented experimental opportunities in the areas of atomic physics, chemical dynamics, plasma physics, nanoscale dynamics, and biomolecular imaging. SLAC has proposed to begin engineering design of the laser in 2003, leading to project completion in 2008. The laser produces x-rays by the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process: an intense, highly collimated pulse of 14.5 GeV electrons, traveling through a 122 m-long undulator magnet system, is induced by its own synchrotron radiation to form sub-nanometer-scale bunches. The bunching process enhances the coherence and hence the intensity of the emitted synchrotron radiation. The process is analogous to the instability of a high-gain amplifier; the ''noise'' signal that seeds the instability is the shot noise in the electron beam

  10. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling

    2006-11-16

    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  11. Isotropic light source for underwater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.; Honey, Richard C.; Maffione, Robert A.

    1991-12-01

    The design and construction of an isotropic light source is described. The instrument's design is well suited to underwater applications. Any combination of light sources (flashlamps, CW sources, or lasers) and spectral filters (absorption or interference) can be simultaneously incorporated to provide a single isotropic source with any desired temporal and spectral characteristics. This design was recently used in an underwater experiment that required a synchronously triggered isotropic flash to simultaneously measure absorption, scattering, and attenuation. The design of this particular isotropic source is presented along with data demonstrating the isotropy of the light field produced by the source.

  12. Overview of light sources powered by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their long lifespan and stable intensity, light sources initiated by tritium instead of electricity or batteries are suitable for low level lighting applications. Therefore, tritium-based radioluminescent (RL) light sources are widely used in both military and civil applications. However, traditional tritium lights with the gas tube structure have several shortcomings: (1) the phosphors are opaque; (2) the glass tube is fragile and easily broken; and (3) the beta kinetic energy is attenuated due to the sorption by the gas; etc. As a result, further application of the tritium lights is limited. In this paper, the lighting mechanism and radiation safety of tritium-based RL light sources are briefly reviewed. Besides, the history and prospects of the development of tritium-based RL light source are discussed. Due to their long lifespan and stable intensity, light sources initiated by tritium instead of electricity or batteries are suitable for low level lighting applications. Therefore, tritium- based radioluminescent (RL) light sources are widely used in both military and civil applications. However, traditional tritium lights with the gas tube structure have several short- comings: (1) the phosphors are opaque; (2) the glass tube is fragile and easily broken; and (3) the beta kinetic energy is attenuated due to the sorption by the gas; etc. As a result, further application of the tritium lights is limited. In this paper, the lighting mechanism and radiation safety of tritium-based RL, light sources are briefly reviewed. Besides, the history and prospects of the development of tritium-based RL light source are discussed. (authors)

  13. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  14. Advancement of light water reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese technology of light water reactors is based on the technology imported from abroad around 1970, and the experience has been accumulated by the construction, operation and repair of light water reactors as well as the countermeasures to various troubles, moreover, the improvement and standardization of light water reactors have been promoted. As the result, recently the high capacity ratio has been attained, and the LWR technology has firmly taken root in Japan. The Subcommittee for the Advancement of Light Water Reactor Technology of the Advisory Committee for Energy has examined the subjects of technical development and the way the development should be in order to decide the strategy to advance LWR technology, and drawn up the interim report. The change of situation around the LWRs in Japan and the necessity to advance the technology, the target of advancing LWR technology and the subjects of the technical development, the system for the technical development and the securement of fund, and international cooperation are reported. The subjects of development are the pursuit of higher reliability and economic efficiency, the extension of plant life, the improvement of repairability and the reduction of radiation exposure, the improvement of operational capability, the reduction of wastes, the techniques for reactor decommissioning and the diversified location. (Kako, I.)

  15. The Advanced Photon Source Metrology Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Metrology Laboratory is now operational in its permanent location in a cleanroom environment on the Experiment Hall floor of the APS site. The Metrology Laboratory will provide characterization of the figure and finish of x-ray optical surfaces for the user community using visible light instrumentation. Three noncontact instruments are now available for measuring surface features with lateral resolution from less than a micron to lengths of 2 meters and with a vertical resolution as small as an Angstrom. This paper gives a brief description of the three instruments used to cover this spatial frequency range and other associated issues, such as the environment and cleanliness of the laboratory. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. Light Sources Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsinelis, Spyridon

    2010-01-01

    From the dialogues of the ancient Greek philosophers right up through the physical laws of Newton, the experiments of Thomas Young and the quantum physics pioneers, the study of light was all about observing its characteristics and defining its behavior. At the end of the 19th century, wicks, wax, and oil gave way to electricity, filaments, and gases, and scientific minds began to focus on the technological creation of light, as well as its control and diverse uses. Yet, despite more than a century of profound research and development, until now, the most complete resources on lighting technol

  17. Advanced applications for 0.53 laser light

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, W. David

    2001-01-01

    Use of the National Ignition Facility with green light as the laser output is an intriguing option for advanced applications ranging from inertial fusion to production of compact x-ray sources. Particular attention is given to the potential use of 0.53 micrometers light to produce a high-energy x-ray source. This application requires the efficient generation of high-energy electrons which can subsequently produce high-energy x-rays as they transport into gold or other high Z wall. One- and tw...

  18. LED light source for hyperspectral fluorescence imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tendenes, Nils Ove

    2012-01-01

    This report deals with the possibility of creating a LED light source, to be used withhyperspectral fluorescence imaging. There are commercially available light sources thatcould be used, but they are expensive, they do not necessarily emit the right wavelength, the uniformity of the field is questionable and they are difficult to modify.First a batch of Light emitting diodes were acquired, these were subjected to a seriesof tests to classify their limitations and determine which diodes were ...

  19. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  20. Preliminary results from an advanced lighting controlstestbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Douglas; Jennings, Judity; Rubinstein, Francis

    1998-03-01

    Preliminary results from a large-scale testbed of advanced lighting control technologies at the Phillip Burton Federal Building at 450 Golden Gate Ave. in San Francisco are presented. The first year objective of this project is to determine the sustainable energy savings and cost-effectiveness of different lighting control technologies compared to a portion of the building where only minimal controls are installed. The paper presents the analyzed results from six months of tests focused on accurately characterizing the energy savings potential of one type of daylight-linked lighting controls compared to the lighting in similar open-planned areas without dimming controls. After analyzing a half year;s data, we determined that the annual energy savings for this type of daylight- linked controls was 41% and 30% for the outer rows of lights on the South and North sides of the building, respectively. The annual energy savings dropped to 22% and 16% for the second row of lights for the South and North, respectively, and was negligible for the third rows of lights.

  1. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  2. Light distribution through advanced fenestration systems

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Marilyne

    2002-01-01

    Most energy-saving applications of advanced fenestration systems, e.g. solar blinds, novel types of glazing and daylight redirecting devices, require a precise knowledge of their directional light-transmission features. These photometric properties are described by a Bi-directional Transmission Distribution Function (BTDF), which is experimentally assessed by a bi-directional photogoniometer. As such a function represents a heavy amount of data, there is a need for a synthetic and intuitive v...

  3. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharmby, D. O.

    2008-07-01

    The papers in this Special Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics originate from the 11th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources (LS:11) held at Fudan University, Shanghai, China, during 20 24 May 2007. Abstracts of all papers were published in the conference book Light Sources 2007 (Sheffield: FAST-LS) edited by Muqing Liu and R Devonshire. Special issues were produced after LS:9 and LS:10 and have proved to be well-cited and important sources of information for this community. The Symposia occur at three-year intervals. In this one over 200 papers were presented—the majority as posters—with ample time provided for active discussion. As all submitted papers had to be refereed in the normal way for J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., I was concerned that too many submissions would overwhelm the small number of referees available in this area. To ensure a broad spread of interests and opinions, I invited 10 senior colleagues to give me their recommendations about who should be asked to submit papers for this Special Issue. The criteria were that the work should be new, complete and within the scope of the journal. As a result of their suggestions 42 authors were asked to submit papers. Not all authors were able to submit a manuscript in time and some, at my request, combined their work into a single paper. The 28 papers published here are the result of that process. The issue starts with a comprehensive review by Benilov of the remarkable progress that has been made in the past 15 years in understanding the behaviour of cathode and anode terminations in arcs. It is fair to say that we now have a fundamental understanding of the formerly baffling behaviour of spot and diffuse terminations, at least in the quasi-steady state. A number of following papers cover applications of this theory, extensions to time dependence and examination of the effects of the different gaseous atmospheres in which lighting arcs operate. Mercury has very

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  5. Supercontinuum light sources for food analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis;

    2014-01-01

    factory. These solutions will combine bright and broadband infrared light sources, so-called supercontinuum light sources,with spectroscopy, chemometrics and processing expertise and thereby contribute to increased food quality through faster and more precise analysis of grains, soils and dairy products...... bandwidth,high brightness and portability of a supercontinuum laser are all required. DTU Fotonik has now demonstrated the first optical fiber based broadband supercontinuum light souce, which covers 1.4-13.3μm and thereby most of the molecular fingerprint region....

  6. GPC light shaping a supercontinuum source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopylov, Oleksii; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Villangca, Mark Jayson;

    2015-01-01

    both projection length scale and high efficiency over a range [0.75λ0; 1.5λ0] with λ0 as the characteristic design wavelength. With this performance across multiple wavelengths and the recent availability of tabletop supercontinuum lasers, GPC light shaping opens the possibility for creatively...... incorporating various multi-wavelength approaches into spatially shaped excitations that can enable new broadband light applications. We verify this new approach using a supercontinuum light source, interfaced with a compact GPC light shaper. Our experiments give ~70% efficiency, ~3x intensity gain, and ~85...

  7. Proposals for synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since it was first applied in the 1960's synchrotron radiation from an accelerating electron beam has been gaining popularity as a powerful tool for research and development in a wide variety of fields of science and technology. By now there are some 20 facilities operating either parasitically or dedicatedly for synchrotron radiation research in different parts of the world. In addition there are another 20 facilities either in construction or in various stages of proposal and design. The experiences gained from the operating facilities and the recent development of insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators as radiation sources led to a new set of requirements on the design of synchrotron radiation storage rings for optimum utility. The surprisingly uniform applicability and unanimous acceptance of these criteria give assurance that they are indeed valid criteria derived form mature considerations and experiences. Instead of describing the design of each of these new facilities it is, thus, more effective to discuss these desirable design features and indicate how they are incorporated in the design using machines listed as examples. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the progress made in 1993 in the following sections: (1) project management; (2) research and development; (3) design and (4) safety. The section on research and development covers the following: (1) reactor core development; (2) fuel development; (3) corrosion loop tests and analysis; (4) thermal-hydraulic loop tests; (5) reactor control and shutdown concepts; (6) critical and subcritical experiments; (7) material data, structure tests, and analysis; (8) cold source development; (9) beam tube, guide, and instrument development; (10) neutron transport and shielding; (11) I and C research and development; and (12) facility concepts

  9. Plant Growth Absorption Spectrum Mimicking Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwo-Huei Jou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant factories have attracted increasing attention because they can produce fresh fruits and vegetables free from pesticides in all weather. However, the emission spectra from current light sources significantly mismatch the spectra absorbed by plants. We demonstrate a concept of using multiple broad-band as well as narrow-band solid-state lighting technologies to design plant-growth light sources. Take an organic light-emitting diode (OLED, for example; the resulting light source shows an 84% resemblance with the photosynthetic action spectrum as a twin-peak blue dye and a diffused mono-peak red dye are employed. This OLED can also show a greater than 90% resemblance as an additional deeper red emitter is added. For a typical LED, the resemblance can be improved to 91% if two additional blue and red LEDs are incorporated. The approach may facilitate either an ideal use of the energy applied for plant growth and/or the design of better light sources for growing different plants.

  10. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics on the advanced neutron source: quality assurance (QA) program; reactor core development; fuel element specification; corrosion loop tests and analyses; thermal-hydraulic loop tests; reactor control concepts; critical and subcritical experiments; material data, structural tests, and analysis; cold source development; beam tube, guide, and instrument development; hot source development; neutron transport and shielding; I ampersand C research and development; facility concepts; design; and safety

  11. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBee, M.R.; Chance, C.M. (eds.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Peretz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the advanced neutron source: quality assurance (QA) program; reactor core development; fuel element specification; corrosion loop tests and analyses; thermal-hydraulic loop tests; reactor control concepts; critical and subcritical experiments; material data, structural tests, and analysis; cold source development; beam tube, guide, and instrument development; hot source development; neutron transport and shielding; I C research and development; facility concepts; design; and safety.

  12. IR microscopy utilizing intense supercontinuum light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune; Petersen, Christian; Thøgersen, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Combining the molecular specificity of the infrared spectral region with high resolution microscopy has been pursued by researchers for decades. Here we demonstrate infrared supercontinuum radiated from an optical fiber as a promising new light source for infrared microspectroscopy. The supercont......Combining the molecular specificity of the infrared spectral region with high resolution microscopy has been pursued by researchers for decades. Here we demonstrate infrared supercontinuum radiated from an optical fiber as a promising new light source for infrared microspectroscopy. The...... supercontinuum light source has a high brightness and spans the infrared region from 1400 nm to 4000 nm. This combination allows contact free high resolution hyper spectral infrared microscopy. The microscope is demonstrated by imaging an oil/water sample with 20 μm resolution....

  13. Behavior of Layers under Different Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BO Tavares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Light is an important factor in the management of laying poultry. The ideal lamp spectrum that provides the best welfare conditions still needs to be determined. Wavelength and light intensity influence poultry behavior and their welfare. This study evaluated the influence of four lamps types with different light spectra on the behavior of seventy 52-week laying hens. Incandescent, fluorescent, and sodium and mercury vapor lamps were set in a different poultry house each and supplied similar light intensities. Layer behavior was video-recorded three times weekly using video cameras installed on the ceiling. The effects of different wavelengths emitted by the light sources on layer behavior were evaluated by the Kruskal-Wallis median test. Results indicated that incandescent and sodium vapor lamps increased the occurrence of nesting, and of active behaviors, such as floor-scratching and pecking.

  14. Self-Advanced Propagation of Light Pulse in an Optical Fiber Based on Brillouin Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Sanghoon; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel; Thévenaz, Luc

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel method to realize self-induced fast light and signal advancement with no distinct pump source in optical fibers, based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. This scheme will be helpful for real application systems.

  15. Compact light sources: perspectives and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nowadays, due to drastic development of accelerator technology, new concepts of compact light sources become feasible. Currently three different types of compact sources are in commissioning or in the planning phase, which reach flux and brilliance values comparable to 2nd generation synchrotron light sources. The first one - MIRRORCLE - is based on a very compact synchrotron, which generate synchrotron radiation in the IR/UV range as well as hard x-ray 'Bremsstrahlung' by inserting different targets. On contrary the second LYNCEAN and the third concept MIT are both based on the relativistic Compton effect, which allows to produce hard x-rays up to 60 keV by using MeV synchrotron rings or only linear electron accelerators combined with a high power IR-laser. In this presentation an overview of these different concepts is given and the potential applications of such sources are discussed. (author)

  16. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Andrew R.; Georgia L. Mansell; Sheon S. Y. Chua; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass sy...

  17. National Synchrotron Light Source 2010 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.; Snyder, K. J.

    2010-12-29

    This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is also a time of unprecedented growth for the Photon Sciences Directorate, which operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing NSLS-II, both funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Reflecting the quick pace of our activities, we chose the theme 'Discovery at Light Speed' for the directorate's 2010 annual report, a fiscal year bookended by October 2009 and September 2010. The year began with the news that NSLS users Venki Ramakrishnan of Cambridge University (also a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department) and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University were sharing the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Every research project has the potential for accolades. In 2010, NSLS users and staff published close to 900 papers, with about 170 appearing in premiere journals. Those are impressive stats for a facility nearly three decades old, testament to the highly dedicated team keeping NSLS at peak performance and the high quality of its user community. Our NSLS users come from a worldwide community of scientists using photons, or light, to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. All are looking forward to the new capabilities enabled by NSLS-II, which will offer unprecedented resolution at the nanoscale. The new facility will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS and host a suite of sophisticated instruments for cutting-edge science. Some of the scientific discoveries we anticipate at NSLS-II will lead to major advances in alternative energy technologies, such as hydrogen and solar. These discoveries could pave the way to: (1) catalysts that split water with sunlight for hydrogen production; (2) materials that can reversibly store large quantities of

  18. Long-pulse Supercontinuum Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.

    A Supercontinuum (SC) is a broad spectrum generated from a narrow light source through non-linear effects. This thesis describes SC generation based on 1064 nm ps pulses in PCF fibres. We investigate how the SC spectrum can be modified and intensity noise reduced by feeding back part of the SC...

  19. Silicon-Based Light Sources for Silicon Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pavesi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon the material per excellence for electronics is not used for sourcing light due to the lack of efficient light emitters and lasers. In this review, after having introduced the basics on lasing, I will discuss the physical reasons why silicon is not a laser material and the approaches to make it lasing. I will start with bulk silicon, then I will discuss silicon nanocrystals and Er3+ coupled silicon nanocrystals where significant advances have been done in the past and can be expected in the near future. I will conclude with an optimistic note on silicon lasing.

  20. Penn State advanced light water reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Three Mile Island heightened concerns over the safety of nuclear power. In response to these concerns, a research group at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) undertook the conceptual design of an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) under sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE). The design builds on the literally hundreds of years worth of experience with light water reactor technology. The concept is a reconfigured pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capability of being shut down to a safe condition simply by removing all ac power, both off-site and on-site. Using additional passively activated heat sinks and replacing the pressurizer with a pressurizing pump system, the concept essentially eliminates the concerns of core damage associated with a total station blackout. Evaluation of the Penn State ALWR concept has been conducted using the EPRI Modular Modeling System (MMS). Results show that a superior response to normal operating transients can be achieved in comparison to the response with a conventional PWR pressurizer. The DOE-sponsored Penn State ALWR concept has evolved into a significant reconfiguration of a PWR leading to enhanced safety characteristics. The reconfiguration has touched a number of areas in overall plant design including a shutdown turbine in the secondary system, additional passively activated heat sinks, a unique primary side pressurizing concept, a low pressure cleanup system, reactor building layout, and a low power density core design

  1. Spectrally Tunable Sources for Advanced Radiometric Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S. W.; Rice, J. P; Neira, J. E.; Johnson, B. C.; Jackson, J D

    2006-01-01

    A common radiometric platform for the development of application-specific metrics to quantify the performance of sensors and systems is described. Using this platform, sensor and system performance may be quantified in terms of the accuracy of measurements of standardized sets of source distributions. The prototype platform consists of spectrally programmable light sources that can generate complex spectral distributions in the ultraviolet, visible and short-wave infrared regions for radiomet...

  2. Trends and opportunities in light source development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a decade of rather quiet growth for FELs there is now a lot of activity in the light-source community. This is the result of a combination of factors including successful operation of the third-generation light sources, the establishment of a very productive user community at both synchrotrons and FELs, and the continuing technical improvements of accelerators and related technology which allow even more challenging machines to be considered. There are a number of themes that carry this development including pushing wavelengths shorter, brightnesses higher, pulses shorter, increasing average power, and providing for multiple synchronized photon beams with multiple wavelengths. This talk will discuss some of the plans and proposals currently circulating and attempt to provide a glimpse into the near future of our field by illustrating the technologies that drive source development

  3. Trends and opportunities in light source development

    CERN Document Server

    Neil, G R

    2002-01-01

    After a decade of rather quiet growth for FELs there is now a lot of activity in the light-source community. This is the result of a combination of factors including successful operation of the third-generation light sources, the establishment of a very productive user community at both synchrotrons and FELs, and the continuing technical improvements of accelerators and related technology which allow even more challenging machines to be considered. There are a number of themes that carry this development including pushing wavelengths shorter, brightnesses higher, pulses shorter, increasing average power, and providing for multiple synchronized photon beams with multiple wavelengths. This talk will discuss some of the plans and proposals currently circulating and attempt to provide a glimpse into the near future of our field by illustrating the technologies that drive source development.

  4. Trends and Opportunities in Light Source Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a decade of rather quiet growth for FELs there is now a lot of activity in the light source community. This is the result of a combination of factors including successful operation of the third generation light sources, the establishment of a very productive user community at both synchrotrons and FELs, and the continuing technical improvements of accelerators and related technology which allow ever more challenging machines to be considered. There are a number of themes that carry this development including pushing wavelengths shorter, brightnesses higher, pulses shorter, increasing average power, and providing for multiple synchronized photon beams with multiple wavelengths. This talk will discuss some of the plans and proposals currently circulating and attempt to provide a glimpse into the near future of our field by illustrating the technologies that drive source development

  5. A directly phase-modulated light source

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Z L; Lucamarini, M; Roberts, G L; Dynes, J F; Shields, A J

    2016-01-01

    The art of imparting information onto a light wave by optical signal modulation is fundamental to all forms of optical communication. Among many schemes, direct modulation of laser diodes stands out as a simple, robust, and cost effective method. However, the simultaneous changes in intensity, frequency and phase are a drawback which has prevented its application in the field of secure quantum communication. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a directly phase-modulated light source which overcomes the main disadvantages associated with direct modulation and is suitable for diverse applications such as coherent communications and quantum cryptography. The source separates the tasks of phase preparation and pulse generation between a pair of semiconductor lasers leading to very pure phase states. Moreover, the cavity enhanced electro-optic effect enables the first example of sub-volt halfwave phase modulation at high signal rates. The source is compact, stable and versatile, and we show its potenti...

  6. Shape from Two Images under Point Light Source Illumination and Perspective Projection

    OpenAIRE

    岩堀, 祐之||イワホリ, ユウジ||Iwahori, Yuji; 藤吉, 弘亘||フジヨシ, ヒロノブ||Fujiyoshi, Hironobu; 福井, 真二 ||フクイ, シンジ||Shinji, Fukui; 河中, 治樹||カワナカ, ハルキ||Kawanaka, Haruki

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces one of the advanced researches of the research project 53-(b) in Information Science Research Institute, Chubu University. As a method to recover 3-D shape from shading images, Light Fall-off Stereo (LFS) has been proposed using the inverse square law for illuminance with point light source illumination. This paper extends the principle of light fall-off stereo and proposes a new approach under the assumption of both point light source illumination and perspective projec...

  7. Status of advanced light water reactor designs 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is intended to be a source of reference information for interested organizations and individuals. Among them are decision makers of countries considering implementation of nuclear power programmes. Further, the report is addressed to government officials with an appropriate technical background and to research institutes of countries with existing nuclear programmes that wish to be informed on the global status in order to plan their nuclear power programmes including both research and development efforts and means for meeting future. The future utilization of nuclear power worldwide depends primarily on the ability of the nuclear community to further improve the economic competitiveness of nuclear power plants while meeting stringent safety requirements. The IAEA's activities in nuclear power technology development include the preparation of status reports on advanced reactor designs to provide all interested IAEA Member States with balanced and objective information on advances in nuclear plant technology. In the field of light water reactors, the last status report published by the IAEA was 'Status of Advanced Light Water Cooled Reactor Designs: 1996' (IAEA-TECDOC-968). Since its publication, quite a lot has happened: some designs have been taken into commercial operation, others have achieved significant steps toward becoming commercial products, including certification from regulatory authorities, some are in a design optimization phase to reduce capital costs, development for other designs began after 1996, and a few designs are no longer pursued by their promoters. With this general progress in mind, on the advice and with the support of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (LWRs), the IAEA has prepared this new status report on advanced LWR designs that updates IAEA-TECDOC-968, presenting the various advanced LWR designs in a balanced way according to a common outline

  8. Status of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source optimized for production of high-brilliance undulator radiation in the hard x-ray portion of the spectrum. A user community representing all major centers of synchrotron research, including universities, industry, and federal laboratories, will utilize these x-ray beams for investigations across a diverse range of disciplines. All technical facilities and components required for operations have been completed and installed, and are well along in the commissioning process. Major design goals and Department of Energy milestones have been met or exceeded. Project funds have been maximized to construct a number of beamline components and user facilities over and above those called for in the original project scope. Research teams preparing experimental apparatus at the Advanced Photon Source have procured strong funding support. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Advanced light source. Activity report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The ALS Activity Report is designed to share the breadth, variety, and interest of the scientific program and ongoing R&D efforts in a form that is accessible to a broad audience. Recent research results are presented in six sections, each representing an important theme in ALS science. These results are designed to demonstrate the capabilities of the ALS, rather than to give a comprehensive review of 1995 experiments. Although the scientific program and facilities report are separate sections, in practice the achievements and accomplishments of users and ALS staff are interdependent. This user-staff collaboration is essential to help us direct our efforts toward meeting the needs of the user community, and to ensure the continued success of the ALS as a premier facility.

  10. Advanced light source. Activity report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Activity Report is designed to share the breadth, variety, and interest of the scientific program and ongoing R ampersand D efforts in a form that is accessible to a broad audience. Recent research results are presented in six sections, each representing an important theme in ALS science. These results are designed to demonstrate the capabilities of the ALS, rather than to give a comprehensive review of 1995 experiments. Although the scientific program and facilities report are separate sections, in practice the achievements and accomplishments of users and ALS staff are interdependent. This user-staff collaboration is essential to help us direct our efforts toward meeting the needs of the user community, and to ensure the continued success of the ALS as a premier facility

  11. Photoluminescence and Photonics: from miniaturised light sources to radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonics is the science of the harnessing of light. Photonics encompasses the generation of light, the detection of light, the management of light through guidance, manipulation, and amplification. Luminescence phenomena are widely used in solid state light sources and radiation detectors based on point defects in insulators. Among them, 2 ed F3+ aggregate colour centres are induced in lithium fluoride (LiF) by various kinds of ionizing radiation and are laser active in the visible spectral region. They have been studied and successfully used at Frascati ENEA Research Centre for realizing prototypes of both miniaturized light sources, in the form of waveguides and vertical optical micro cavities for integrated optics, and of novel X-ray imaging detectors, based on the optical reading of photoluminescence of the locally induced defects. The highest intrinsic spatial resolution on a wide field of view and their versatility, achieved by the growth of LiF thin films by thermal evaporation, allow using such detectors in the frameworks of nano photonics, life science and energy. Recently, they have been also used in the advanced diagnostics of proton beams, with promising results in imaging and dosimetry based on photoluminescence

  12. Linac for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nominally 100 MeV electron linear accelerator to be used as an injector for the booster synchrotron of the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. The machine utilizes a combination of Varian and SLAC accelerating guides and is interfaced by means of a microprocessor-based Intel Multibus system, to the Data General central control computer. Provision for emittance and momentum measurement is provided in the transport line between the linac and the booster synchrotron

  13. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Thomas Jan; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Sommers, Ricky; Goers, Uta-Barbara; Armstrong, Karla M.

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  14. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker,S.; Bergmann, U.; Corlett, J.; Dierker, S.; Falcone, R.; Galayda, J.; Gibson, M.; Hastings, J.; Hettel, B.; Hill, J.; Hussain, Z.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirx, J.; Long, G.; McCurdy, B.; Raubenheimer, T.; Sannibale, F.; Seeman, J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Shenoy, g.; Schoenlein, B.; Shen, Q.; Stephenson, B.; Stohr, J.; Zholents, A.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects. The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee [1]. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of

  15. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Dierker, Steve; Falcone, Roger; Galayda, John; Gibson, Murray; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hill, John; Hussain, Zahid; Kao, Chi-Chang; Kirz, Janos; Long, Danielle; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z. -X.; Schenoy, Gopal; Schoenlein, Bob; Shen, Qun; Stephenson, Brian; Stohr, Joachim; Zholents, Alexander

    2009-01-28

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of

  16. The advanced neutron source (ANS) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility for neutron research planned at Oak Ridge. The centerpiece of the facility will be a steady-state source of neutrons from a reactor of unprecedented flux. In addition, extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron research will be included. The scientific fields to be served include neutron scattering with cold, thermal, and hot neutrons (the most important scientific justification for the project); engineering materials irradiation; isotope production (including transuranium isotopes); materials analysis; and nuclear science

  17. The challenges of third-generation synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third-generation synchrotron light sources are specifically designed to operate with long insertion devices that produce very high brightness beams of synchrotron radiation. There are many such facilities now under construction, or in the design stage, all over the world. After a brief review of the main properties of the low emittance storage rings that form the heart of these facilities, we will discuss the particular challenges that accompany their design. These include: the effects of the strong sextupoles required for chromatic correction of the low emittance lattices; impact of machine imperfections on the dynamic aperture; the effects of the linear and nonlinear magnetic fields of the undulators; impedance consequences of long, narrow, undulator vacuum vessels; injection; and beam lifetime. As examples, we take the Advanced Light Source, currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, USA, and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility under construction in Grenoble, France. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Cathode R&D for Future Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, D.H.; /SLAC; Bazarov, I.; Dunham, B.; /Cornell U., CLASSE; Harkay, K.; /Argonne; Hernandez-Garcia; /Jefferson Lab; Legg, R.; /Wisconsin U., SRC; Padmore, H.; /LBL, Berkeley; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; /Brookhaven; Wan, W.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-26

    This paper reviews the requirements and current status of cathodes for accelerator applications, and proposes a research and development plan for advancing cathode technology. Accelerator cathodes need to have long operational lifetimes and produce electron beams with a very low emittance. The two principal emission processes to be considered are thermionic and photoemission with the photocathodes being further subdivided into metal and semi-conductors. Field emission cathodes are not included in this analysis. The thermal emittance is derived and the formulas used to compare the various cathode materials. To date, there is no cathode which provides all the requirements needed for the proposed future light sources. Therefore a three part research plan is described to develop cathodes for these future light source applications.

  19. RF Sources for 3rd & 4th Generation Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Lenci, Stephan; Bohlen, Heinz Peter; Mizuhara, Albert; Wright, Edward L

    2004-01-01

    The growing number of third and fourth generation light sources has resulted in an increase of the available rf sources to power them. Single beam klystrons are the traditional power source, but the development of IOT’s and multiple-beam klystrons (MBK’s) in L-Band have increased the options for these machines. The Eimac division of CPI has recently built and tested a prototype L-Band IOT, which delivered 30 kW CW at 1.3 GHz. Future work includes the building of an IOT at 1.5 GHz. Meanwhile the MPP division of CPI is currently testing the prototype 10 MW peak, 1.3 GHz MBK for the TESLA x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). Test results for these new products as well as information on all CPI products at 500 MHz, 1.3 GHz, and 1.5 GHz will be presented.

  20. The JLab high power ERL light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, G. R.; Behre, C.; Benson, S. V.; Bevins, M.; Biallas, G.; Boyce, J.; Coleman, J.; Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Douglas, D.; Dylla, H. F.; Evans, R.; Grippo, A.; Gruber, D.; Gubeli, J.; Hardy, D.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Jordan, K.; Kelley, M. J.; Merminga, L.; Mammosser, J.; Moore, W.; Nishimori, N.; Pozdeyev, E.; Preble, J.; Rimmer, R.; Shinn, M.; Siggins, T.; Tennant, C.; Walker, R.; Williams, G. P.; Zhang, S.

    2006-02-01

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz ˜ half cycle pulse whose average brightness is >5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted [Carr, et al., Nature 420 (2002) 153]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [Neil, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 662]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 μm in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 ms long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the

  1. The JLab high power ERL light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.R. Neil; C. Behre; S.V. Benson; M. Bevins; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; J. Coleman; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M.J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; W. Moore; N. Nishimori; E. Pozdeyev; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; C. Tennant; R. Walker; G.P. Williams and S. Zhang

    2005-03-19

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the discoveries we have made

  2. Injector Research at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, John

    2003-04-01

    During the past several years, various techniques for improving the operational capabilities of high-brightness electron beam sources have been explored at the Advanced Photon Source. Areas of particular emphasis include novel methods of longitudinal phase space control, reduced emittance via blunt-needle cathodes, and alternate cavity geometries for improved source reliability and fabrication. To date most of this work has been computationally based, and a sampling of the results is presented. The APS injector test stand, now undergoing commissioning, will allow the experimental exploration of these and other aspects of high-brightness beam production and preservation. The capabilities of the test stand, along with an initial experimental schedule, will also be presented.

  3. Status of the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents general information on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and then breaks down the APS project into three categories: accelerator systems, experimental facilities, and conventional facilities. The accelerator systems consist of the 7 GeV APS positron storage ring and a 7 GeV positron injector. The experimental facilities include 20 undulator radiation sources and the x-ray beamline components necessary to transport their extraordinarily intense x-ray beams outside the accelerator enclosure. Also included are x-ray beamline components for 20 bending magnet radiation sources. The conventional facilities consist of the accelerator enclosures, a 35,300 m2 experimental hall to house the x-ray beamlines, an office building for the APS staff and lab/office facilities for the research groups which will construct and operate the first 40 beamlines. APS users are described, and the properties of synchrotron radiation are discussed

  4. Plasma-based EUV light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  5. PREFACE: Diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources: pushing the limits Diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources: pushing the limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissis, Georges; Haverlag, Marco

    2010-06-01

    Light sources play an indispensable role in the daily life of any human being. Quality of life, health and urban security related to traffic and crime prevention depend on light and on its quality. In fact, every day approximately 30 billion electric light sources operate worldwide. These electric light sources consume almost 19% of worldwide electricity production. Finding new ways to light lamps is a challenge where the stakes are scientific, technological, economic and environmental. The production of more efficient light sources is a sustainable solution for humanity. There are many opportunities for not only enhancing the efficiency and reliability of lighting systems but also for improving the quality of light as seen by the end user. This is possible through intelligent use of new technologies, deep scientific understanding of the operating principles of light sources and knowledge of the varied human requirements for different types of lighting in different settings. A revolution in the domain of light source technology is on the way: high brightness light emitting diodes arriving in the general lighting market, together with organic LEDs (OLEDs), are producing spectacular advances. However, unlike incandescence, electrical discharge lamps are far from disappearing from the market. In addition, new generations of discharge lamps based on molecular radiators are becoming a reality. There are still many scientific and technological challenges to be raised in this direction. Diagnostics are important for understanding the fundamental mechanisms taking place in the discharge plasma. This understanding is an absolute necessity for system optimization leading to more efficient and high quality light sources. The studied medium is rather complex, but new diagnostic techniques coupled to innovative ideas and powerful tools have been developed in recent years. This cluster issue of seven papers illustrates these efforts. The selected papers cover all domains, from

  6. Light Source for Low-Coherence Interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Aachen : Shaker Verlag, 2011, s. 30-33. ISBN 978-3-8440-0058-0. [IMEKO TC2 Symposium on Photonics in Measurement /20./. Linz (AT), 16.05.2011-18.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GP102/09/P630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * phase-crossing algorithm * white-light source * CCD camera Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  7. Integrated source of broadband quadrature squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Nielsen, Bo Melholt; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    An integrated silicon nitride resonator is proposed as an ultracompact source of bright single-mode quadrature squeezed light at 850 nm. Optical properties of the device are investigated and tailored through numerical simulations, with particular attention paid to loss associated with interfacing...... the device. An asymmetric double layer stack waveguide geometry with inverse vertical tapers is proposed for efficient and robust fibre-chip coupling, yielding a simulated total loss of -0.75 dB/facet. We assess the feasibility of the device through a full quantum noise analysis and derive the output...

  8. Fundamentals of light sources and lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Csele, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the burgeoning field of photonicsThe field of photonics is finding increasing applications across a broad range of industries. While many other books provide an overview of the subject, Fundamentals of Light Sources and Lasers closes a clear gap in the current literature by concentrating on the principles of laser operation as well as providing coverage of important concepts necessary to fully understand the principles involved. The scope of the book includes everything a professional needs to get up to speed in the field, as well as all the material necessa

  9. Tolerances in diffraction limited synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PEP storage ring at Stanford can be operated to become a synchrotron light source of super-high brightness. Using a combination of a high-tune configuration and damping wigglers, the beam emittance can be reduced to less than 6 A rad at 6 GeV. For such small beam emittance, alignment and field tolerances as well as nonlinear fields in the wiggler magnets can significantly perturb the attainable low-emittance. This paper reports on studies to control and establish the tolerances required for the operation of a super-low-emittance storage ring. (orig.)

  10. The Advanced Photon Source: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently under construction at Argonne National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in early 1996. Both conventional facilities construction and technical fabrication is well underway. An update on the current state of civil construction as well as progress on storage ring and beamline technical component development will be presented. User activities have also proceeded at a rapid pace, particularly over the last year. In response to a call for Proposals for sectors, the APS received proposals for over twenty sectors from prospective Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). It is anticipated that beamline construction in the experiment hall could begin in approximately 18 months

  11. Beam Stability at the Advanced Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source has been in operation since 1996. Since that time, extensive incremental improvements to orbit stabilization systems have been made. This includes the addition of 80 channels of narrowband rf beam position monitors (bpm's), 40 channels of bending magnet photon bpm's, and most recently the inclusion of 36 insertion device photon bpm's into the orbit correction response matrix. In addition, considerable improvements have been made in the area of power supply regulation, both for the main multipole magnets and the steering corrector magnets. The present status of overall performance will be discussed, including long term pointing stability, reproducibility, and AC beam motion.

  12. Towards the reliable laser light source for future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long stable and high quality laser light sources for photocathode RF electric gun are studied. The principle of laser light source of SPring-8 and a plan of development, unstable factors of the laser light source system and its countermeasures, development history of laser light source of SPring-8 and development of fiber laser are stated. Laser light source construction, the stability conditions of laser light source of SPring-8, guideline of compensation of laser pulse for production of super bright electron beam, the unstable factors of oscillator and active measures to stabilization are described. On the development history of laser light source of SPring-8, control by human from 2001 to 2002, remodeling age of test bench in 2003, and stabilization age from 2004 are stated. The long period stable laser light source of SPring-8 is materialized. (S.Y.)

  13. Nanoscience at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Photon Source (APS), located at Argonne National Laboratory, is a 3rd-generation synchrotron radiation source of hard X-rays. Also sited at Argonne is the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), one of the five Nanoscience Research Centers that have been created by the DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The APS and CNM are closely connected, both physically and intellectually, as the CNM building is attached to the APS experiment hall, and the APS and CNM jointly operate the nanoprobe beamline at APS Sector 26 that was constructed as part of the CNM project. Both the APS and CNM are user facilities and their synergy provides the research community with a unique suite of tools for the fabrication and characterization of nanomaterials. This talk will summarize the capabilities of the nanoprobe beamline and some of the recent nanoscience results from data collected at the APS.

  14. 4th generation light source instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working group on 4th Generation Light Source (4GLS) Instrumentation was a follow-up to the opening-discussion on Challenges in Beam Profiling. It was in parallel with the Feedback Systems session. We filled the SSRL Conference Room with about 25 participants. The session opened with an introduction by Lumpkin. The target beam parameter values for a few-angstrom, self-amplified spontaneous emissions (SASE) experiment and for a diffraction-limited soft x-ray storage ring source were addressed. Instrument resolution would of course need to be 2-3 times better than the value measured, if possible. The nominal targeted performance parameters are emittance (1-2π mm mrad), bunch length (100 fs), peak-current (l-5 kA), beam size (10 microm), beam divergence (1 microrad), energy spread (2 x 10-4), and beam energy (10's of GeV). These are mostly the SASE values, and the possible parameters for a diffraction-limited soft x-ray source would be relaxed somewhat. Beam stability and alignment specifications in the sub-micron domain for either device are anticipated

  15. Performance of a nonlaser light source for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Colin; Byrne, Karen T.; Morton, Colin; Moore, James V.

    1995-03-01

    Advances in short arc technology and optical filter coatings led to the design and construction of a table-top light source in 1989; the first viable and cost-effective alternative to a laser. The device can deliver over 3 W within a 30 nm band centered at any wavelength from 200 nm to 1200 nm at fluence rates of over 1 W cm-2. Its relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in vitro has been proven alongside an argon pumped dye laser and a copper vapor pumped dye laser. These in vitro tests showed an efficiency of hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) induced cellular photoinactivation close to that of the argon/dye laser (RBE 100%), with a mean RBE for the lamp of 87 +/- 3% (p Bowen's disease and actinic keratosis using the same light fluences as costly PDT lasers.

  16. The Linac Cooherent Light Source (LCLS) Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; /SLAC

    2007-03-21

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) based on the final kilometer of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Such an FEL requires a high energy, high brightness electron beam to drive the FEL instability to saturation. When fed by an RF-photocathode gun, and modified to include two bunch compressor chicanes, the SLAC linac will provide such a high quality beam at 14 GeV and 1-{micro}m normalized emittance. In this paper, we report on recent linac studies, including beam stability and tolerances, longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, conventional and time-resolved diagnostics, and beam collimation systems. Construction and installation of the injector through first bunch compressor will be completed by December 2006, and electron commissioning is scheduled to begin in January of 2007.

  17. Energy Sources and Light Curves of Macronovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kisaka, Shota; Takami, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    A macronova (kilonova) was discovered with short gamma-ray burst, GRB 130603B, which is widely believed to be powered by the radioactivity of $r$-process elements synthesized in the ejecta of a neutron star binary merger. As an alternative, we propose that macronovae are energized by the central engine, i.e., a black hole or neutron star, and the injected energy is emitted after the adiabatic expansion of ejecta. This engine model is motivated by extended emission of short GRBs. In order to compare the theoretical models with observations, we analytically formulate the light curves of macronovae. The engine model allows a wider parameter range, especially smaller ejecta mass, and better fit to observations than the $r$-process model. Future observations of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves should distinguish energy sources and constrain the activity of central engine and $r$-process nucleosynthesis.

  18. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) based on the final kilometer of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Such an FEL requires a high energy, high brightness electron beam to drive the FEL instability to saturation. When fed by an RF-photocathode gun, and modified to include two bunch compressor chicanes, the SLAC linac will provide such a high quality beam at 14 GeV and 1-(micro)m normalized emittance. In this paper, we report on recent linac studies, including beam stability and tolerances, longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, conventional and time-resolved diagnostics, and beam collimation systems. Construction and installation of the injector through first bunch compressor will be completed by December 2006, and electron commissioning is scheduled to begin in January of 2007

  19. Operating experience with existing light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is instructive to consider what an explosive growth there has been in the development of light sources using synchrotron radiation. This is well illustrated by the list of facilities given in Table I. In many cases, synchrotron light facilities have been obtained by tacking on parasitic beam lines to rings that were built for high energy physics. Of the twenty-three facilities in this table, however, eleven were built explicitely for this synchrotron radiation. Another seven have by now been converted for use as dedicated facilities leaving only five that share time with high energy physics. These five parasitically operated facilities are still among our best sources of hard x-rays, however, and their importance to the fields of science where these x-rays are needed must be emphasized. While the number of facilities in this table is impressive, it is even more impressive to add up the total number of user beam lines. Most of these rings are absolutely surrounded by beam lines and finding real estate on the experimental floor of one of these facilities for adding a new experiment looks about as practical as adding a farm in the middle of Manhattan. Nonetheless, the managers of these rings seem to have an attitude of ''always room for one more'' and new experimental beam lines do appear. This situation is necessary because the demand for beam time has exploded at an even faster rate than the development of the facilities. The field is not only growing, it can be expected to continue to grow for some time. Some of the explicit plans for future development will be discussed in the companion paper by Lee Teng

  20. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  1. Status of the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerig, R. E.; Gibson, J. M.; Mills, D. M.; Ruzicka, W. G.; Young, L.; Zholents, A.

    2011-09-01

    In the fall of 2010, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will enter its fifteenth year of user operations. During fiscal year 2009, the APS delivered X-ray beam to the scientific community 97.7% of scheduled hours (availability) and with a mean time between faults of 77.5 h. The APS remains the most prolific source worldwide of structure deposits in the Protein Data Bank (1433 in 2009) and a leader in the field of high-pressure research, among others. However, to maintain its position as a state-of-the-art facility for hard X-ray science, it will be necessary to refresh and improve the APS X-ray source and beamlines. We are presently on the path to do that through the APS Upgrade Project. The US Department of Energy Office of Science has formally approved the start of this project with the issuance of Critical Decision-0, Approve of Mission Need. The APS staff, in collaboration with our user community, is now in the process of developing a Conceptual Design Report that documents the proposed scope of the APS Upgrade Project. Components of the Upgrade plan will be presented as well as science highlights from the past year.

  2. Status of the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 2010, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will enter its fifteenth year of user operations. During fiscal year 2009, the APS delivered X-ray beam to the scientific community 97.7% of scheduled hours (availability) and with a mean time between faults of 77.5 h. The APS remains the most prolific source worldwide of structure deposits in the Protein Data Bank (1433 in 2009) and a leader in the field of high-pressure research, among others. However, to maintain its position as a state-of-the-art facility for hard X-ray science, it will be necessary to refresh and improve the APS X-ray source and beamlines. We are presently on the path to do that through the APS Upgrade Project. The US Department of Energy Office of Science has formally approved the start of this project with the issuance of Critical Decision-0, Approve of Mission Need. The APS staff, in collaboration with our user community, is now in the process of developing a Conceptual Design Report that documents the proposed scope of the APS Upgrade Project. Components of the Upgrade plan will be presented as well as science highlights from the past year.

  3. The Advanced Photon Source list of parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that stores positrons in a storage ring. The choice of positrons as accelerating particles was motivated by the usual reason: to eliminate the degradation of the beam caused by trapping of positively charged dust particles or ions. The third-generation synchrotron radiation sources are designed to have low beam emittance and many straight sections for insertion devices. The parameter list is comprised of three basic systems: the injection system, the storage ring system, and the experimental facilities system. The components of the injection system are listed according to the causal flow of positrons. Below we briefly list the individual components of the injection system, with the names of people responsible for managing these machines in parentheses: the linac system; electron linac-target-positron linac (Marion White); low energy transport line from linac to the PAR (Michael Borland); positron accumulator ring or PAR (Michael Borland); low energy transport line from PAR to injector synchrotron (Michael Borland); injector synchrotron (Stephen Milton); high energy transport line from injector synchrotron to storage ring (Stephen Milton). The storage ring system, managed by Glenn Decker, uses the Chasman-Green lattice. The APS storage ring, 1104 m in circumference, has 40 periodic sectors. Six are used to house hardware and 34 serve as insertion devices. Another 34 beamlines emit radiation from bending magnets. The experimental facilities system's parameters include parameters for both an undulator and a wiggler

  4. Advanced light and heavy water reactors for improved fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26-29 November 1984 the Agency convened at its Headquarters in Vienna the Technical Committee and Workshop on Advanced Light and Heavy Water Reactor Technology in order to provide an opportunity to review and discuss the current status and recent development in the lay-out and design of advanced water reactor and to identify areas in which additional research and development are needed. The meeting was attended by 45 participants from 16 nations and 2 international organizations presenting 25 papers. The Conference presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Advanced light water reactor programmes (6 papers); Advanced light water design, technology and physics (12 papers); Advanced heavy water reactors (7 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  5. All fiber based supercontinuum light source utilized for IR microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune; Petersen, Christian; Thøgersen, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    An all fiber based supercontinuum light source is demonstrated for infrared microscopy. The high brightness and spatial coherence of the source facilitate fast high resolution measurements.......An all fiber based supercontinuum light source is demonstrated for infrared microscopy. The high brightness and spatial coherence of the source facilitate fast high resolution measurements....

  6. Spectral design of new dynamic LED light sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    The use of LED technology in lighting applications, termed Solid State Lighting, is increasing drastically these years due to increasing flux and efficiency of LED components. The advantages of using Solid State Lighting is not only energy savings but the possibility to create new dynamic light...... sources that can be varied in color temperature and achieving color rendering properties. New LED light sources are constructed as clusters of colored LEDs. Modeling and optimization of the control of the light from the individual LEDs is a necessity for the desired operation of the new dynamic light...... source. Detailed knowledge of the spectral power distribution as a function of operating current and temperature is required for the modeling and optimization. Examples of new high color quality dynamic white light sources that can be tuned from warm white light at 2700 K to cold white light at 6500 K...

  7. Introduction to special section on future light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special section of NIM is devoted to an overview of progress in the development of powerful new sources of X-radiation for use in advanced studies in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Included here are four articles on future light sources that were originally published in 2002 in the SLAC Beam Line quarterly magazine. We are grateful to SLAC and the authors of these articles for their agreement to reprint them in volume 500 of NIM. As is common for the Beam Line, these articles contain no references to reports in the literature and do not attempt to be comprehensive overviews of the field. Therefore, we offer this expanded overview and introduction in which we attempt to briefly cover recent developments and topics not covered in the four articles

  8. Introduction to special section on future light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    This special section of NIM is devoted to an overview of progress in the development of powerful new sources of X-radiation for use in advanced studies in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Included here are four articles on future light sources that were originally published in 2002 in the SLAC Beam Line quarterly magazine. We are grateful to SLAC and the of these articles for their agreement to reprint them in volume 500 of NIM. As is common for the Beam Line, these articles contain no references to reports in the literature and do not attempt to be comprehensive overviews of the field. Therefore, we offer this expanded overview and introduction in which we attempt to briefly cover recent developments and topics not covered in the four articles.

  9. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  10. A status report on the advanced neutron source project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design work on the Advanced Neutron Source facilities has progressed significantly, with cost saving changes to the buildings and other systems. The cold source design has advanced considerably, and in addition design work has been initiated on the hot neutron source and on a positron source. (J.P.N.)

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R and D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta,K.

    2009-05-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R&D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  13. Advanced light sculpting for contemporary biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson;

    , structured illumination, optical security, parallel laser marking and recently in contemporary biophotonics applications such as for real-­‐time parallel two-­‐photon optogenetics and neurophotonics. Our most recent GPC light sculpting developments geared towards these applications will be presented. This......Our proprietary Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method is a light efficient approach for generating speckle-­‐free contiguous optical distributions using binary-­‐only or analog spatial phase modulation. It has been used in applications such as optical trapping and manipulation, active microscopy...

  14. The 4th generation light source at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S.; Biallas, G.; Boyce, J.; Bullard, D.; Coleman, J.; Douglas, D.; Dylla, F.; Evans, R.; Evtushenko, P.; Grippo, A.; Gould, C.; Gubeli, J.; Hardy, D.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Jordan, K.; Klopf, J. M.; Moore, W.; Neil, G.; Powers, T.; Preble, J.; Sexton, D.; Shinn, M.; Tennant, C.; Walker, R.; Zhang, S.; Williams, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    A number of "Grand Challenges" in Science have recently been identified in reports from The National Academy of Sciences, and the US Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Many of these require a new generation of linac-based light source to study dynamical and non-linear phenomena in nanoscale samples. In this paper we present a summary of the properties of such light sources, comparing them with existing sources, and then describing in more detail a specific source at Jefferson Lab (JLab). Importantly, the JLab light source has developed some novel technology which is a critical enabler for other new light sources.

  15. Advanced neutron source materials surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be composed of several different materials, one of which is 6061-T6 aluminum. Among other components, the reflector vessel and the core pressure boundary tube (CPBT), are to be made of 6061-T6 aluminum. These components will be subjected to high thermal neutron fluences and will require a surveillance program to monitor the strength and fracture toughness of the 6061-T6 aluminum over their lifetimes. The purpose of this paper is to explain the steps that were taken in the summer of 1994 toward developing the surveillance program. The first goal was to decide upon standard specimens to use in the fracture toughness and tensile testing. Second, facilities had to be chosen for specimens representing the CPBT and the reflector vessel base, weld, and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) metals. Third, a timetable had to be defined to determine when to remove the specimens for testing

  16. ANL Advanced Photon Source crotch absorber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANL 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source storage ring crotch absorber will be subjected to a very high photon loading power density, approximately 750 W/mm2 at normal incidence. To accommodate this high heat load, two designs were studied: one is a V-type compound angle absorber and the other is a horizontally rotated plate absorber. For both models, thermal and structural analyses have been carried out using 3-D finite element analysis. The analysis indicates that the V-type compound angle absorber controlled the peak temperatures effectively within the given geometric constraints. Test samples made of GlidCop AL 15 (alumina dispersion strengthened copper) were evaluated with an electron beam welder. The predicted and measured temperatures were in reasonable agreement. The overall absorber design includes a perforated screen in the positron beam area of the storage ring vacuum chamber to reduce RF impedance and to provide pumping access for the high local gas load

  17. Collimated Light Source Using Patterned Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Microlens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukekazu Aratani,; Masaya Adachi,; Masao Shimizu,; Tatsuya Sugita,; Toshinari Shibasaki,; Katsusuke Shimazaki,

    2010-04-01

    We developed for the first time a collimated organic light-emitting diode (OLED) light source using a patterned OLED and a microlens. The structure of the collimated OLED light source was designed by conventional ray-tracking simulation. We demonstrated that the collimated OLED light source enhanced the luminance of a liquid crystal display (LCD) with a low aperture ratio by a factor of more than two compared with a conventional OLED light source, which was not patterned. The collimated OLED light source with the patterned OLED and microlens is thus very effective for achieving a highly efficient LCD with OLED backlight.

  18. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  19. LIGHT SOURCE: TW Laser system for Thomson scattering X-ray light source at Tsinghua University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Xm; Du, Ying-Chao; Du, Qiang; Li, Ren-Kai; Hua, Jian-Fei; Huang, Wen-Hui; Tang, Chuan-Xiang

    2009-06-01

    A TW (Tera Watt) laser system based on Ti:sapphire mainly for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray light source (TTX) is being built. Both UV (ultraviolet) laser pulse for driving the photocathode radio-frequency (RF) gun and the IR (infrared) laser pulse as the electron-beam-scattered-light are provided by the system. Efforts have also been made in laser pulse shaping and laser beam transport to optimize the high-brightness electron beam production by the photocathode RF gun.

  20. Partial Sleep Deprivation Reduces Phase Advances to Light in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Helen J.

    2010-01-01

    Partial sleep deprivation is increasingly common in modern society. This study examined for the first time if partial sleep deprivation alters circadian phase shifts to bright light in humans. Thirteen young healthy subjects participated in a repeated-measures counterbalanced design with 2 conditions. Each condition had baseline sleep, a dim-light circadian phase assessment, a 3-day phase-advancing protocol with morning bright light, then another phase assessment. In one condition (no sleep d...

  1. Nanoscience at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, D. (OTD-PSC)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Photon Source (APS), located at Argonne National Laboratory, is a 3rd-generation synchrotron radiation source of hard X-rays. Also sited at Argonne is the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), one of the five Nanoscience Research Centers that have been created by the DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The APS and CNM are closely connected, both physically and intellectually, as the CNM building is attached to the APS experiment hall, and the APS and CNM jointly operate the nanoprobe beamline at APS Sector 26 that was constructed as part of the CNM project. Both the APS and CNM are user facilities and their synergy provides the research community with a unique suite of tools for the fabrication and characterization of nanomaterials. This talk will summarize the capabilities of the nanoprobe beamline and some of the recent nanoscience results from data collected at the APS.

  2. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Boyce

    2006-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  3. Light Emitting Diode Flashlights as Effective and Inexpensive Light Sources for Fluorescence Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, J. Brian; Zhang, Yunfei; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2009-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are becoming more commonly used as light sources for fluorescence microscopy. We describe the adaptation of a commercially available LED flashlight for use as a source for fluorescence excitation. This light source is long-lived, inexpensive, and is effective for excitation in the range of 440–600 nm.

  4. Advances and prospects in visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongda, Chen; Chunhui, Wu; Honglei, Li; Xiongbin, Chen; Zongyu, Gao; Shigang, Cui; Qin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is an emerging technology in optical wireless communication (OWC) that has attracted worldwide research in recent years. VLC can combine communication and illumination together, which could be applied in many application scenarios such as visible light communication local area networks (VLANs), indoor localization, and intelligent lighting. In recent years, pioneering and significant work have been made in the field of VLC. In this paper, an overview of the recent progress in VLC is presented. We also demonstrate our recent experiment results including bidirectional 100 Mbit/s VLAN or Li-Fi system based on OOK modulation without blue filter. The VLC systems that we proposed are good solutions for high-speed VLC application systems with low-cost and low-complexity. VLC technology shows a bright future due to its inherent advantages, shortage of RF spectra and ever increasing popularity of white LEDs. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2015AA033303, 2013AA013602, 2013AA013603, 2013AA03A104), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61178051, 61321063, 61335010, 61178048, 61275169), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2013CB329205, 2011CBA00608).

  5. Applications of the advanced neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the technique of neutron scattering was pioneered at the X-10 graphite reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory about 50 years ago, it was used to study certain important, but fairly esoteric, properties of crystals. From this modest beginning, neutron scattering has become a major tool in every branch of science, from the astrophysics of the early universe to human biology, and in many important industrial and engineering applications. In a typical modern research reactor it is not unusual to find one instrument studying new polymeric materials, while its neighbor is measuring residual stress in a jet turbine, sometimes with the jet operating. Most of this development has taken place outside of the United States, primarily in Western Europe, Japan and Russia, and it is generally recognized that we are a decade behind our competitors in this important field. The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), planned to become operational as a user-facility at Oak Ridge at the end of this decade, will regain our leadership in neutron-based research and will be a major center for attracting new students into science. This paper discusses some of the research and development applications of the ANS, with an emphasis on applied materials science and engineering

  6. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  7. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  8. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS

  9. ANL Advanced Photon Source crotch absorber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANL 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source storage ring crotch absorber will be subjected to a very high photon loading power density, approximately 750 W/mm2 at normal incidence. To accommodate this high heat load, two designs were studied: one is a V-type compound angle absorber and the other is a horizontally rotated plate absorber. For both models, thermal and structural analyses have been carried out using 3-D finite element analysis. The analysis indicates that the V-type compound angle absorber controlled the peak temperatures effectively within the given geometric constraints. Test samples made of GlidCop Al 15 (alumina dispersion strengthened copper) were evaluated with an electron beam welder. The predicted and measured temperatures were in reasonable agreement. The overall absorber design includes a perforated screen in the positron beam area of the storage ring vacuum chamber to reduce rf impedance and to provide pumping access for the high local gas load. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MWth, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS

  11. Atomic physics at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne's 7-GeV synchrotron light source (APS) is expected to commence operations for research early in FY 1996. The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Research Center (BESSRC) is likewise expected to start its research programs at that time. As members of the BESSRC CAT (Collaborative Access Team), we are preparing, together with atomic physicists from the University of Western Michigan, the University of Tennessee, and University of Notre Dame, to initiate a series of atomic physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of the APS, especially its high brilliance for photon energies extending from about 3 keV to more than 50 keV. Most of our early work will be conducted on an undulator beam line and we are thus concentrating on various aspects of that beam line and its associated experimental areas. Our group has undertaken responsibilities in such areas as hutch design, evaluation of undulator performance, user policy, interfacing and instrumentation, etc. Initial experiments will probably utilize existing apparatus. We are, however, planning to move rapidly to more sophisticated measurements involving, for example, ion-beam targets, simultaneous laser excitation, and the spectroscopy of emitted photons

  12. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew R.; Mansell, Georgia L.; Chua, Sheon S. Y.; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2015-12-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments.

  13. Phase 2 safety analysis report: National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Phase II program was established in order to provide additional space for experiments, and also staging and equipment storage areas. It also provides additional office space and new types of advanced instrumentation for users. This document will deal with the new safety issues resulting from this extensive expansion program, and should be used as a supplement to BNL Report No. 51584 ''National Synchrotron Light Source Safety Analysis Report,'' July 1982 (hereafter referred to as the Phase I SAR). The initial NSLS facility is described in the Phase I SAR. It comprises two electron storage rings, an injection system common to both, experimental beam lines and equipment, and office and support areas, all of which are housed in a 74,000 sq. ft. building. The X-ray Ring provides for 28 primary beam ports and the VUV Ring, 16. Each port is capable of division into 2 or 3 separate beam lines. All ports receive their synchrotron light from conventional bending magnet sources, the magnets being part of the storage ring lattice. 4 refs

  14. Light absorption by biomass burning source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Engling, Guenter; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W. Patrick; Chen, L.-W. Antony; Wold, Cyle E.; Hao, Wei Min; He, Ke-bin

    2016-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol has relatively short atmospheric lifetimes yet plays a unique and important role in the Earth's climate system, making it an important short-term climate mitigation target. Globally, biomass burning is the largest source of BC emissions into the atmosphere. This study investigated the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of biomass burning BC generated by controlled combustion of various wildland fuels during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). MAE values derived from a photoacoustic spectrometer (∼7.8 m2/g at a wavelength of 532 nm) were in good agreement with those suggested for uncoated BC when the emission ratios of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) were extremely low (i.e., below 0.3). With the increase of OC/EC, two distinct types of biomass smoke were identified. For the first type, MAE exhibited a positive dependence on OC/EC, while the overestimation of the light absorption coefficient (babs) by a filter-based method was less significant and could be estimated by a nearly constant correction factor. For the second type, MAE was biased low and correlated negatively with OC/EC, while the overestimation of babs by the filter-based method was much more significant and showed an apparent OC/EC dependence. This study suggests that BC emission factors determined by the commonly used thermal-optical methods might be sustantially overestimated for some types of biomass burning emissions. Our results also indicate that biomass burning emissions may include some liquid-like organics that can significantly bias filter-based babs measurements.

  15. Barium light source method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  16. Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymers for Light Emitting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Raja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review.

  17. Recent advances in conjugated polymers for light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Alam, Javed; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy; Raja, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review. PMID:21673938

  18. Effects of read-out light sources and ambient light on radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both read-out light sources and ambient light sources can produce a marked effect on coloration of radiochromic film. Fluorescent, helium neon laser, light emitting diode (LED) and incandescent read-out light sources produce an equivalent dose coloration of 660 cGy h-1, 4.3 cGy h-1, 1.7 cGy h-1 and 2.6 cGy h-1 respectively. Direct sunlight, fluorescent light and incandescent ambient light produce an equivalent dose coloration of 30 cGy h-1, 18 cGy h-1 and 0 cGy h-1 respectively. Continuously on, fluorescent light sources should not be used for film optical density evaluation and minimal exposure to any light source will increase the accuracy of results. (author)

  19. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Dennis [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Padmore, Howard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lessner, Eliane [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2013-03-27

    potentially revolutionary science involves soft excitations such as magnons and phonons; in general, these are well below the resolution that can be probed by today’s optical systems. The study of these low-energy excitations will only move forward if advances are made in high-resolution gratings for the soft X-ray energy region, and higher-resolution crystal analyzers for the hard X-ray region. In almost all the forefront areas of X-ray science today, the main limitation is our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate X-rays at the level required for these advanced measurements. To address these issues, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop, X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities, which was held March 27–29, 2013, near Washington, D.C. The workshop addressed a wide range of technical and organizational issues. Eleven working groups were formed in advance of the meeting and sought over several months to define the most pressing problems and emerging opportunities and to propose the best routes forward for a focused R&D program to solve these problems. The workshop participants identified eight principal research directions (PRDs), as follows: Development of advanced grating lithography and manufacturing for high-energy resolution techniques such as soft X-ray inelastic scattering. Development of higher-precision mirrors for brightness preservation through the use of advanced metrology in manufacturing, improvements in manufacturing techniques, and in mechanical mounting and cooling. Development of higher-accuracy optical metrology that can be used in manufacturing, verification, and testing of optomechanical systems, as well as at wavelength metrology that can be used for quantification of individual optics and alignment and testing of beamlines. Development of an integrated optical modeling and design framework that is designed and maintained specifically for X-ray optics. Development of

  20. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design

  1. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

  2. LAT Monitored Source List Light Curves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LAT team monitors flux values for a number of bright sources and transient sources that have shown flares during the mission. (See up-to-date weekly reports on...

  3. Optical Pumping Experiments on Next Generation Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S J; Fournier, K B; Scott, H; Chung, H K; Lee, R W

    2004-07-29

    Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at the redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities for optical lasers end for plasmas with n{sub e}>10{sup 22}cm{sup -3} as light propagation is severely altered by the plasma. The construction of the Tesla Test Facility(TTF) at DESY(Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron), a short pulse tunable free electron laser in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regime (VUV FEL), based on the SASE(self amplified spontaneous emission) process, will provide a major advance in the capability for dense plasma-related research. This source will provide 10{sup 13} photons in a 200 fs duration pulse that is tunable from {approx} 6nm to 100nm. Since an VUV FEL will not have the limitation associated with optical lasers the entire field of high density plasmas kinetics in laser produced plasma will then be available to study with tunable source. Thus, one will be able to use this and other FEL x-ray sources to pump individual transitions creating enhanced population in the excited states that can easily be monitored. We show two case studies illuminating different aspects of plasma spectroscopy.

  4. How advances in light technology have shaped ENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, M; Fishman, J M; Tolley, N S

    2016-02-01

    The development of light technologies, allowing anatomical visualisation of otherwise hidden structures, led to significant advances in ENT in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Natural light from the sun, and from candles, was initially harnessed using mirrors. Later, the invention of limelight and electricity preceded the emergence of the modern-day endoscope, which, in tandem with the discovery of coherent fibre-optics in the 1950s, significantly expanded the surgical repertoire available to otolaryngologists. This study aimed to trace the rich history of ENT through the specialty's use of light. PMID:26669735

  5. 21 CFR 352.71 - Light source (solar simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Light source (solar simulator). 352.71 Section 352... Light source (solar simulator). A solar simulator used for determining the SPF of a sunscreen drug... addition, a solar simulator should have no significant time-related fluctuations in radiation...

  6. Supercontinuum Light Sources for Hyperspectral Subsurface Laser Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2011-01-01

    supercontinuum laser light source and an Acousto- Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) to provide a collimated light source, which can be tuned to any wavelength in the range from 480 to 900 nm. We present the newly developed hyperspectral vision system together with a proof-of-principle study of its ability to...

  7. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  8. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, poweful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  9. An Optically Stabilized Fast-Switching Light Emitting Diode as a Light Source for Functional Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience research increasingly relies on optical methods for evoking neuronal activity as well as for measuring it, making bright and stable light sources critical building blocks of modern experimental setups. This paper presents a method to control the brightness of a high-power light emitting diode (LED) light source to an unprecedented level of stability. By continuously monitoring the actual light output of the LED with a photodiode and feeding the result back to the LED's driver by ...

  10. Coherent Lensless imaging with Ultra-Broadband Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eikema K. S. E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a method for efficient lensless imaging using ultra-broadband light sources. By using a pair of time-delayed, coherent pulses in a Fourier-transform scheme, spectrally resolved diffraction patterns are obtained throughout the entire spectrum of the incident light source. We perform a proof-of-principle experiment using an octave-spanning visible light source, and obtain images of a holographic test sample with near-diffraction limited resolution. Our approach provides a promising route towards efficient high-resolution imaging using table-top high-harmonic soft-X-ray sources.

  11. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  12. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  13. An advanced negative hydrogen ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, Alexey A., E-mail: gonchar@iop.kiev.ua; Dobrovolsky, Andrey N.; Goretskii, Victor P. [Institute of Physics National Academy of Science in Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)

    2016-02-15

    The results of investigation of emission productivity of negative particles source with cesiated combined discharge are presented. A cylindrical beam of negative hydrogen ions with density about 2 A/cm{sup 2} in low noise mode on source emission aperture is obtained. The total beam current values are up to 200 mA for negative hydrogen ions and up to 1.5 A for all negative particles with high divergence after source. The source has simple design and can produce stable discharge with low level of oscillation.

  14. Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is having a very large impact on interdisciplinary science and has been tremendously successful with the arrival of third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. But the revolution in x-ray science is still gaining momentum. Even though new storage rings are currently under construction, even more advanced rings are under design (PETRA III and the ultra high energy x-ray source) and the uses of linacs (energy recovery linac, x-ray free electron laser) can take us further into the future, to provide the unique synchrotron light that is so highly prized for today's studies in science in such fields as materials science, physics, chemistry and biology, for example. All these machines are highly reliant upon the consequences of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The consequences of relativity account for the small opening angle of synchrotron radiation in the forward direction and the increasing mass an electron gains as it is accelerated to high energy. These are familiar results to every synchrotron scientist. In this paper we outline not only the origins of SR but discuss how Einstein's strong character and his intuition and excellence have not only marked the physics of the 20th century but provide the foundation for continuing accelerator developments into the 21st century

  15. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  16. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  17. A numerical experiment on light pollution from distant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, M.

    2011-08-01

    To predict the light pollution of the night-time sky realistically over any location or measuring point on the ground presents quite a difficult calculation task. Light pollution of the local atmosphere is caused by stray light, light loss or reflection of artificially illuminated ground objects or surfaces such as streets, advertisement boards or building interiors. Thus it depends on the size, shape, spatial distribution, radiative pattern and spectral characteristics of many neighbouring light sources. The actual state of the atmospheric environment and the orography of the surrounding terrain are also relevant. All of these factors together influence the spectral sky radiance/luminance in a complex manner. Knowledge of the directional behaviour of light pollution is especially important for the correct interpretation of astronomical observations. From a mathematical point of view, the light noise or veil luminance of a specific sky element is given by a superposition of scattered light beams. Theoretical models that simulate light pollution typically take into account all ground-based light sources, thus imposing great requirements on CPU and MEM. As shown in this paper, a contribution of distant sources to the light pollution might be essential under specific conditions of low turbidity and/or Garstang-like radiative patterns. To evaluate the convergence of the theoretical model, numerical experiments are made for different light sources, spectral bands and atmospheric conditions. It is shown that in the worst case the integration limit is approximately 100 km, but it can be significantly shortened for light sources with cosine-like radiative patterns.

  18. Electrical discharge light sources: a challenge for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first electric powder lamp operated that 150 years ago, since then the evolution of light sources is astonishing. Today, more than 10 % of the global electric power produced worldwide serve fore light production from several billions lamps. Since last three decades incandescent lamps are gradually replaced by more energy efficient discharge lamps. In parallel, new generation of light emitting diodes, producing bright colours (including white) with luminous efficacy challenging even discharge lamps, appeared in past years. The objective of this paper is to focus on the state of art in the domain of light sources and discuss the challenges for the near future. (author)

  19. Sealed sources in Peru: advances and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementation of spent sealed sources is performed by the Radioactive Waste Management Group of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN). The sealed sources are collected in different areas of the country and brought to the RACSO nuclear centre, a national storage and conditioning facility for spent sources from industry and medical institutions. In addition to its amenities dedicated to research and the production of radioisotopes, the RACSO nuclear centre features a complex of some 1.5 ha for radioactive waste management that includes an infiltration bed and chemical treatment plant for liquid waste, compacting equipment and trenches for solid radioactive waste, a tank for the elimination of biological residues and a temporary storage emplacement for radioactive waste immobilized in cement cylinder casings. The steps described are the unpacking, identification of spent sealed sources, placement of the source in shielding, cementation, solidification, tagging and storage, as well as the actions taken to comply with the appropriate measures of radiological protection. (author)

  20. VCSELs and silicon light sources exploiting SOI grating mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, novel vertical-cavity laser structure consisting of a dielectric Bragg reflector, a III-V active region, and a high-index-contrast grating made in the Si layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer will be presented. In the Si light source version of this laser structure, the SOI...... Bragg reflector. Numerical simulations show that both the silicon light source and the VCSEL exploiting SOI grating mirrors have superior performances, compared to existing silicon light sources and long wavelength VCSELs. These devices are highly adequate for chip-level optical interconnects as well as...

  1. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  2. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status

  3. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  4. Synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers accelerator physics, instrumentation and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat; Schneider, Jochen; Hastings, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century did have such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s seminal find of the X-rays. X-ray tubes soon made their way as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher brilliance and much extended spectral range resulted in stunning developments like the electron synchrotron and electron storage ring and the freeelectron laser. This handbook highlights these developments in fifty chapters. The reader is given not only an inside view of exciting science areas but also of design concepts for the most advanced light sources. The theory of synchrotron radiation and of the freeelectron laser, design examples and the technology basis are presented. The handbook presents advanced concepts like seeding and harmonic generation, the booming field of Terahertz radiation sources and upcoming brilliant light sources dri...

  5. Irradiation Pattern Analysis for Designing Light Sources-Based on Light Emitting Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays it is possible to design light sources with a specific irradiation pattern for many applications. Light Emitting Diodes present features like high luminous efficiency, durability, reliability, flexibility, among others as the result of its rapid development. In this paper the analysis of the irradiation pattern of the light emitting diodes is presented. The approximation of these irradiation patterns to both, a Lambertian, as well as a Gaussian functions for the design of light sources is proposed. Finally, the obtained results and the functionality of bringing the irradiation pattern of the light emitting diodes to these functions are discussed. (Author)

  6. Open-source products for a lighting experiment device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Kevin M; Milburn, Nelda

    2014-12-01

    The capabilities of open-source software and microcontrollers were used to construct a device for controlled lighting experiments. The device was designed to ascertain whether individuals with certain color vision deficiencies were able to discriminate between the red and white lights in fielded systems on the basis of luminous intensity. The device provided the ability to control the timing and duration of light-emitting diode (LED) and incandescent light stimulus presentations, to present the experimental sequence and verbal instructions automatically, to adjust LED and incandescent luminous intensity, and to display LED and incandescent lights with various spectral emissions. The lighting device could easily be adapted for experiments involving flashing or timed presentations of colored lights, or the components could be expanded to study areas such as threshold light perception and visual alerting systems. PMID:24281687

  7. Light source for narrow and broadband coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Maximilian; Dobner, Sven; Fallnich, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    We present a light source that is well adapted to both narrow- and broadband coherent Raman scattering (CRS) methods. Based on a single oscillator, the light source delivers synchronized broadband pulses via supercontinuum generation and narrowband, frequency-tunable pulses via four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber. Seeding the four-wave mixing with a spectrally filtered part of the supercontinuum yields high-pulse energies up to 8 nJ and the possibility of scanning a bandwidth of 2000  cm(-1) in 25 ms. All pulses are emitted with a repetition frequency of 1 MHz, which ensures efficient generation of CRS signals while avoiding significant damage of the samples. Consequently, the light source combines the performance of individual narrow- and broadband CRS light sources in one setup, thus enabling hyperspectral imaging and rapid single-resonance imaging in parallel. PMID:26625022

  8. Sealed sources in Peru: advances and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work refers to the sealed sources cementation in disuse performed by the Wastes Management Group of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy. Sources are centralized from several parts of the country in the 'RACSO' Nuclear Center, since this is the single national center of storing and sealed sources arrangement from industry and medicine national users mainly. The Nuclear Center besides its radioactive installations for the radioisotope research and production, has an area of about 1,5 Ha for the radioactive wastes management in which surface we can find: the infiltration bed and the chemical treatment plant for liquid wastes; compacting and trench for solid radioactive wastes, an isolation cubicle for the biological wastes removal, in addition to a temporary storage of motionless radioactive wastes in a cemented cylinder matrix. For the cementation, a tiltable drum-type mixer, metallic cylinders and transportation and cemented material were acquired. Although the main step concerning radiological security and protection by the isolation of the sealed sources in disuse related with public and environment is highlighted, there is still the need to integrate some improvements in the cementation procedures and in guarantees of an optimal physical location for the cemented radioactive sources definite storage

  9. Advanced radioisotope heat source for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, T. J.; Walberg, G.

    2001-02-01

    The heat exchanger on a Stirling Engine requires a thermal energy transfer from a heat source to the engine through a very limited area on the heater head circumference. Designing an effective means to assure maximum transfer efficiency is challenging. A single General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), which has been qualified for space operations, would satisfy thermal requirements for a single Stirling Engine that would produce 55 electrical watts. However, it is not efficient to transfer its thermal energy to the engine heat exchanger from its rectangular geometry. This paper describes a conceptual design of a heat source to improve energy transfer for Stirling Engines that may be deployed to power instrumentation on space missions. .

  10. Advanced radioisotope heat source for Stirling Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat exchanger on a Stirling Engine requires a thermal energy transfer from a heat source to the engine through a very limited area on the heater head circumference. Designing an effective means to assure maximum transfer efficiency is challenging. A single General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), which has been qualified for space operations, would satisfy thermal requirements for a single Stirling Engine that would produce 55 electrical watts. However, it is not efficient to transfer its thermal energy to the engine heat exchanger from its rectangular geometry. This paper describes a conceptual design of a heat source to improve energy transfer for Stirling Engines that may be deployed to power instrumentation on space missions

  11. Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozakov, R; Schoepp, H; Franke, St [Leibniz Institute of Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Stoll, C; Kunz, D, E-mail: kozakov@inp-greifswald.d [Charite-Universitymedicine Berlin, Sleep Research and Clinical Chronobiology, Gr. Hamburger Str. 5-11, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-06-16

    The impact of the non-visual action of light on the design of novel light sources is discussed. Therefore possible modifications of lamps dealing with spectral tailoring and their action on melatonin suppression in usual life situations are investigated. The results of melatonin suppression by plasma lamps are presented. It is shown that even short-time exposure to usual light levels in working areas has an influence on the melatonin onset.

  12. Lighting sources with a cold cathode electron tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lighting sources with a cold cathode are widely used in electronics. The lamps with a cold cathode are used primarily as sources of white light in optical scanners, digital indicators, display panels and signalling devices. In the paper the advantages of carbonaceous materials as emitters of cold electrons and the possibilities of using them to create a cathode in an electron lamp are discussed. (authors)

  13. A new LED light source for display cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul Michael

    Abstract: We report a new LED light source suitable for illumination of gold objects. It has a variable correlated color temperature from 2760 K to 2200 K with a high color rendering index up to 97.......Abstract: We report a new LED light source suitable for illumination of gold objects. It has a variable correlated color temperature from 2760 K to 2200 K with a high color rendering index up to 97....

  14. Deep UV Semiconductor Sources for Advanced Planetary Science Instruments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for miniature, narrow-linewidth, deep UV optical sources that operate at very low ambient temperatures for use in advanced in situ...

  15. Qualification issues for advanced light-water reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and fiber optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying the I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light-water reactor. The template was then used to suggest a methodology for the qualification of microprocessor-based protection systems. The methodology identifies standards/regulatory guides (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems. This approach addresses in part issues raised in NRC policy document SECY-91-292, which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are ''being developed without consensus standards. as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.''

  16. Advanced RF power sources for linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1996-10-01

    In order to maintain a reasonable over-all length at high center-of-mass energy, the main linac of an electron-positron linear collider must operate at a high accelerating gradient. For copper (non-superconducting) accelerator structures, this implies a high peak power per unit length and a high peak power per RF source, assuming a limited number of discrete sources are used. To provide this power, a number of devices are currently under active development or conceptual consideration: conventional klystrons with multi-cavity output structures, gyroklystrons, magnicons, sheet-beam klystrons, multiple-beam klystrons and amplifiers based on the FEL principle. To enhance the peak power produced by an rf source, the SLED rf pulse compression scheme is currently in use on existing linacs, and new compression methods that produce a flatter output pulse are being considered for future linear colliders. This paper covers the present status and future outlook for the more important rf power sources and pulse compression systems. It should be noted that high gradient electron linacs have applications in addition to high-energy linear colliders; they can, for example, serve as compact injectors for FEL`s and storage rings.

  17. A compact Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Yang, Wen-Hai; Zheng, Yao-Hui; Peng, Kun-Chi

    2015-07-01

    We present a stable entangled light source that integrates the pump laser, entanglement generator, detectors, and electronic control systems. By optimizing the design of the mechanical elements and the optical path, the size of the source is minimized, and the quantum correlations over 6 dB can be directly provided by the entangled source. The compact and stable entangled light source is suitable for practical applications in quantum information science and technology. The presented protocol provides a useful reference for manufacturing products of bright entangled light sources. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61227015) and the Program for the Outstanding Innovative Teams of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi, China.

  18. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded

  19. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a

  20. Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator to drive the future FEL Light Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, C.; Power, J.; Zholents, A. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS)); ( HEP); (LLC)

    2011-04-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expensive instruments and a large part of the cost of the entire facility is driven by the accelerator. Using a high-energy gain dielectric wake-field accelerator (DWA) instead of the conventional accelerator may provide a significant cost saving and reduction of the facility size. In this article, we investigate using a collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator to provide a high repetition rate, high current, high energy beam to drive a future FEL x-ray light source. As an initial case study, a {approx}100 MV/m loaded gradient, 850 GHz quartz dielectric based 2-stage, wakefield accelerator is proposed to generate a main electron beam of 8 GeV, 50 pC/bunch, {approx}1.2 kA of peak current, 10 x 10 kHz (10 beamlines) in just 100 meters with the fill factor and beam loading considered. This scheme provides 10 parallel main beams with one 100 kHz drive beam. A drive-to-main beam efficiency {approx}38.5% can be achieved with an advanced transformer ratio enhancement technique. rf power dissipation in the structure is only 5 W/cm{sup 2} in the high repetition rate, high gradient operation mode, which is in the range of advanced water cooling capability. Details of study presented in the article include the overall layout, the transform ratio enhancement scheme used to increase the drive to main beam efficiency, main wakefield linac design, cooling of the structure, etc.

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

  3. Lattice Development for Pep-X High Brightness Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC; Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    Design of PEP-X high brightness light source machine is under development at SLAC. The PEP-X is a proposed replacement for the PEP-II in the existing 2.2 km tunnel. Two of the PEP-X six arcs contain DBA type lattice providing 30 dispersion free straights suitable for 3.5 m long undulators. The lattice contains TME cells in the other four arcs and 89.3 m wiggler in a long straight section yielding a horizontal emittance of {approx}0.1 nm-rad at 4.5 GeV. The recent lattice modifications are aimed at increasing the predicted brightness and improving beam dynamic properties. The standard DBA cells are modified into supercells for providing low-{beta} undulator straights. The DBA and TME cell phase advance is better optimized. Harmonic sextupoles are added to minimize the sextupole driven resonance effects and amplitude dependent tune shift. Finally, the injection scheme is changed from vertical to horizontal plane in order to avoid large vertical amplitudes of injected beam within small vertical aperture of undulators.

  4. Low coherence interferometry modelling using combined broadband Gaussian light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansz, Paul; Wild, Graham; Richardson, Steven; Hinckley, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Using a Low Coherence Interferometry (LCI) model, a comparison of broadband single-Gaussian and multi-Gaussian light sources has been undertaken. For single-Gaussian sources, the axial resolution improved with source bandwidth, confirming the coherence length relation that resolution for single Gaussian sources improves with increasing spectral bandwidth. However, narrow bandwidth light sources resulted in interferograms with overlapping strata peaks and the loss of individual strata information. For multiple-Gaussian sources with the same bandwidth, spectral side lobes increased, reducing A-scan reliability to show accurate layer information without eliminating the side lobes. The simulations show the conditions needed for resolution of strata information for broadband light sources using both single and multiple Gaussian models. The potential to use the model to study LCI and OCT light sources, optical delays and sample structures can better characterise these LCI and OCT elements. Forecasting misinformation in the interferogram, may allow preliminary corrections. With improvements to the LCI-OCT model, more applications are envisaged.

  5. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R., E-mail: alanfry@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    This manuscript serves as a reference to describe the optical laser sources and capabilities at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  6. Advanced neutron source corrosion test-loop facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reference core for the advanced neutron source (ANS) will have a configuration similar to the present High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: simply, an array of aluminum-alloy-clad fuel plates immersed in rapidly flowing water. The high thermal conductivity of the aluminum combined with the high heat transfer coefficient governing heat flow from the plate to the water keep the fuel inside the plates at an acceptable temperature. Unfortunately, the exposed of aluminum under these conditions leads to the formation of a thin layer of oxide (boehmite) that separates the fuel plates from the coolant water. The boehmite film has very poor thermal conductivity, and the heat flux that must cross this film can cause excessive heating of the fuel during the lifetime of the core. A test loop has been built to determine experimentally the rate of corrosion product formation on the aluminum cladding at the higher heat fluxes. Preliminary experiments have been completed that illustrate the capabilities of the loop system and the general behavior of an aluminum specimen exposed to large heat fluxes and coolant velocities. This same facility will be used for thermal-hydraulic testing; however, modifications will be necessary because of higher heat fluxes, temperatures, and pressures. Currently, the design is for light water testing; heavy water tests will be conducted in the future, which will require additional modifications

  7. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project Progress report, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following about the Advanced Neutron Source: Project Management; Research and Development; Fuel Development; Corrosion Loop Tests and Analyses; Thermal-Hydraulic Loop Tests; Reactor Control and Shutdown Concepts; Critical and Subcritical Experiments; Material Data, Structural Tests, and Analysis; Cold-Source Development; Beam Tube, Guide, and Instrument Development; Hot-Source Development; Neutron Transport and Shielding; I ampersand C Research and Development; Design; and Safety

  8. Advanced spallation neutron sources for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced spallation neutron sources afford significant advantages over existing high flux reactors. The effective flux is much greater than that currently available with reactor sources. A ten-fold increase in neutron flux will be a major benefit to a wide range of condensed matter studies, and it will realise important experiments that are marginal at reactor sources. Moreover, the high intensity of epithermal neutrons open new vistas in studies of electronic states and molecular vibrations. (author)

  9. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project Progress report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.H. (ed.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Thompson, P.B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (United States). Engineering Division)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following about the Advanced Neutron Source: Project Management; Research and Development; Fuel Development; Corrosion Loop Tests and Analyses; Thermal-Hydraulic Loop Tests; Reactor Control and Shutdown Concepts; Critical and Subcritical Experiments; Material Data, Structural Tests, and Analysis; Cold-Source Development; Beam Tube, Guide, and Instrument Development; Hot-Source Development; Neutron Transport and Shielding; I C Research and Development; Design; and Safety.

  10. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project Progress report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.H. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Thompson, P.B. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (United States). Engineering Division

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following about the Advanced Neutron Source: Project Management; Research and Development; Fuel Development; Corrosion Loop Tests and Analyses; Thermal-Hydraulic Loop Tests; Reactor Control and Shutdown Concepts; Critical and Subcritical Experiments; Material Data, Structural Tests, and Analysis; Cold-Source Development; Beam Tube, Guide, and Instrument Development; Hot-Source Development; Neutron Transport and Shielding; I & C Research and Development; Design; and Safety.

  11. The Munich Compact Light Source: initial performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Dierolf, Martin; Achterhold, Klaus; Jud, Christoph; Günther, Benedikt; Braig, Eva; Gleich, Bernhard; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-09-01

    While large-scale synchrotron sources provide a highly brilliant monochromatic X-ray beam, these X-ray sources are expensive in terms of installation and maintenance, and require large amounts of space due to the size of storage rings for GeV electrons. On the other hand, laboratory X-ray tube sources can easily be implemented in laboratories or hospitals with comparatively little cost, but their performance features a lower brilliance and a polychromatic spectrum creates problems with beam hardening artifacts for imaging experiments. Over the last decade, compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering have evolved as one of the most promising types of laboratory-scale X-ray sources: they provide a performance and brilliance that lie in between those of large-scale synchrotron sources and X-ray tube sources, with significantly reduced financial and spatial requirements. These sources produce X-rays through the collision of relativistic electrons with infrared laser photons. In this study, an analysis of the performance, such as X-ray flux, source size and spectra, of the first commercially sold compact light source, the Munich Compact Light Source, is presented. PMID:27577768

  12. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  13. The advanced light water reactor program approach for gaining acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric utilities in the US face several obstacles and disincentives to building new nuclear power plants. A reformed licensing process that permits true one-step licensing is a prerequisite, as is timely implementation of the technical and political solutions of the high-level waste issue by the federal government and low-level waste storage by state governments. In addition, a more tangible acceptance of the need, benefits, and residual risk of nuclear power by all concerned institutions is an essential impetus for the return of the nuclear option. An improved version of the light water reactor (LWR) is expected to be the preferred choice for the next increment of nuclear capacity ordered in the US. The paper discusses the need for research and advanced LWR development. The advanced LWR program, sponsored jointly by the utility industry and the US Department of Energy (DOE), offers the most promising approach to developing the next generation of nuclear power plants

  14. Economics of advanced light water reactors - Recent update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper includes recently updated analyses of the economic prospects of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) during the decade of the 1990s. United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) has performed engineering economic analyses related to ALWRs over the last 5 yr using both target economics and detailed cost-estimating methodologies. It has been found through such cost comparisons that properly designed and constructed ALWRs should cost less than the target cost figures listed above and significantly less than the pressurized water reactor better experience reference LWR plant cost

  15. Use of gaseous tritium light sources (Beta lights) with respect to nocturnal illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number/letter plate for use in, for example darkened buildings has spaced apart gaseous tritium light sources (beta lights) arranged centrally along the indicia on a reflective background sealed in clear translucent plastics. Uses include house numbers, name plates, telephone numbers, notices, product advertisements, vehicle registration plates and names or trade marks on products. (author)

  16. Control and Driving Methods for LED Based Intelligent Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    High power light-emitting diodes allow the creation of luminaires capable of generating saturated colour light at very high efficacies. Contrary to traditional light sources like incandescent and high-intensity discharge lamps, where colour is generated using filters, LEDs use additive light mixing......, where the intensity of each primary colour diode has to be adjusted to the needed intensity to generate specified colour. The function of LED driver is to supply the diode with power needed to achieve the desired intensity. Typically, the drivers operate as a current source and the intensity of the...... diode is controlled either by varying the magnitude of the current or by driving the LED with a pulsed current and regulate the width of the pulse. It has been shown previously, that these two methods yield different effects on diode's efficacy and colour point. A hybrid dimming strategy has been...

  17. Visible and ultraviolet light sources based nonlinear interaction of lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Jain, Mayank; Pedersen, Christian

    narrow spectrum, high intensities and fast pulsing characteristics. Apart from potential significant reduction in filtration requirements as compared to the LED’s, these characreistics help in accurate examination of different trap parameters. In this poster recent work on a general approach for......Different light sources can be used for optically stimulated luminescence measurements and usually a halogen lamp in combination with filters or light emitting diodes (LED’s) are used to provide the desired stimulation wavelength. However lasers can provide a much more well-defined beam, very...... synthesizing any wavelength in the visible and ultraviolet light based sum frequency generation between two lasers is presented....

  18. Narrow-Bandwidth Diode-Laser-Based Ultraviolet Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact, tunable and narrow-bandwidth laser source for ultraviolet radiation is presented. A grating stabilized diode laser at 1064 nm is frequency-stabilized to below 10 kHz by using a ultra low expansion (ULE) cavity. Injecting light of the diode laser into a tapered amplifier yields a power of 290 mW. In a first frequency-doubling stage, about 47 mW of green light at 532 nm is generated by using a periodically poled KTP crystal. Subsequent second-harmonic generation employing a BBO crystal leads to about 30 μW of ultraviolet light at 266 nm. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  19. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  20. Squeezed-light source for the superresolving microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, I V; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Kolobov, Mikhail I.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a source of multimode squeezed light that can be used for the superresolving microscopy beyond the standard quantum limit. This source is an optical parametric amplifier with a properly chosen diaphragm on its output and a Fourier lens. We demonstrate that such an arrangement produces squeezed prolate spheroidal waves which are the eigen modes of the optical imaging scheme used in microscopy. The degree of squeezing and the number of spatial modes in illuminating light, necessary for the effective object field reconstruction, are evaluated

  1. IR light source based on LED for endoscopy applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz López, Mabel

    2009-01-01

    Tesina final de master feta en col.laboració amb Transmural Biotech S.L A specific endoscopy technology uses an InfraRed (IR) light to achieve specific imaging of the vascular system. This IR light is obtained by an IR laser source. The aim of this study is to find a new IR illumination built with LEDs to substitute the existing IR source. LEDs may contribute in the endoscopy application with their advantage: LEDs cost is lower than lasers, LEDs have a longer lifetime, LEDs are...

  2. A multi-source portable light emitting diode spectrofluorometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Safwan; Bai, Baolong; Rayson, Gary D; Anderson, Dean M; Puscheck, Adam D; Landau, Serge Y; Glasser, Tzach

    2008-03-01

    A portable luminescence spectrofluorometer weighing only 1.5 kg that uses multiple light emitting diodes (LEDs) as excitation sources was developed and evaluated. Excitation using a sequence of seven individual broad-band LED emission sources enabled the generation of excitation-emission spectra using a light weight (pistache or Mastic) and Philyria latifolia, and the herbaceous species Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium spp. (clover), and a feed concentrate. Application of multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) to the resulting three-dimensional data sets enabled discernment among these various diet constituents. PMID:18339242

  3. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  4. Sixth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. The actions taken at the 1994 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented here.

  5. Sixth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists and engineers from universities, industry, and national laboratories came to review the status of the facility and to look ahead to the types of forefront science that will be possible when the APS is completed. The presentations at the meeting included an overview of the project, advances in synchrotron radiation applications, and technical developments at the APS. The actions taken at the 1994 Business Meeting of the Advanced Photon Source Users Organization are also documented here

  6. High efficiency light source using solid-state emitter and down-conversion material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Gu, Yimin; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2010-10-26

    A light emitting apparatus includes a source of light for emitting light; a down conversion material receiving the emitted light, and converting the emitted light into transmitted light and backward transmitted light; and an optic device configured to receive the backward transmitted light and transfer the backward transmitted light outside of the optic device. The source of light is a semiconductor light emitting diode, a laser diode (LD), or a resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED). The down conversion material includes one of phosphor or other material for absorbing light in one spectral region and emitting light in another spectral region. The optic device, or lens, includes light transmissive material.

  7. Correlated Color Temperature Tunable Multi-chip Light Emitting Diodes Light Source Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hai-ping; PAN Jian-gen; FENG Hua-jun

    2008-01-01

    One of the methods to derive white light from light emitting diodes(LEDs) is the multi-chip white LED technology, which mixes the light from red, green and blue LEDs. Introduced is an optimal algorithm for the spectrum design of the multi-chip white LEDs in this paper. It optimizes the selection of single color LEDs and drive current controlling, so that the multi-chip white LED achieves the target correlated color temperature(CCT), as well as high luminous efficacy and good color rendering. A CCT tunable LED light source with four high-power LEDs is realized based on the above optimal design. Test results show that it maintains satisfactory color rendering and stable luminous efficacy across the whole CCT tuning range. Finally, discussed are the design improvement and the prospect of the future applications of the CCT tunable LED light source.

  8. Highly Automated Module Production Incorporating Advanced Light Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelli-Minetti, Michael [SolarWorld Americas Inc., Hillsboro, OR (United States); Roof, Kyle [SolarWorld Americas Inc., Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    2015-08-11

    The objective was to enable a high volume, cost effective solution for increasing the amount of light captured by PV modules through utilization of an advanced Light Re-directing Film and to follow a phased approach to develop and implement this new technology in order to achieve an expected power gain of up to 12 watts per module. Full size PV modules were manufactured using a new Light Redirecting Film (LRF) material applied to two different areas of PV modules in order to increase the amount of light captured by the modules. One configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the tabbing ribbon on the cells in order to redirect the light that is normally absorbed by the tabbing ribbon to the active areas of the cells. A second configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the white spaces between cells within a module in order to capture some of the light that is normally reflected from the white areas back through the front glass of the modules. Significant power increases of 1.4% (3.9 watts) and 1.0% (3.2 watts), respectively, compared to standard PV modules were measured under standard test conditions. The performance of PV modules with LRF applied to the tabbing ribbon was modeled. The results showed that the power increase provided by LRF depended greatly on the angle of incident light with the optimum performance only occurring when the light was within a narrow range of being perpendicular to the solar module. The modeling showed that most of the performance gain would be lost when the angle of incident light was greater than 28 degrees off axis. This effect made the orientation of modules with LRF applied to tabbing ribbons very important as modules mounted in “portrait” mode were predicted to provide little to no power gain from LRF under real world conditions. Based on these results, modules with LRF on tabbing ribbons would have to be mounted in “landscape” mode to realize a performance advantage. In addition

  9. The Advanced Photon Source: Performance and results from early operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is now providing researchers with extreme-brilliance undulator radiation in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum. All technical facilities and components are operational and have met design specifications. Fourteen research teams, occupying 20 sectors on the APS experiment hall floor, are currently installing beamline instrumentation or actively taking data. An overview is presented for the first operational years of the Advanced Photon Source. Emphasis is on the performance of accelerators and insertion devices, as well as early scientific results and future plans

  10. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is a DOE Energy Innovation Hub for modeling and simulation of nuclear reactors. It brings together an exceptionally capable team from national labs, industry and academia that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated as the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA), will incorporate science-based models, state-of-the-art numerical methods, modern computational science and engineering practices, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) and validation against data from operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It will couple state-of-the-art fuel performance, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics (T-H), and structural models with existing tools for systems and safety analysis and will be designed for implementation on both today's leadership-class computers and the advanced architecture platforms now under development by the DOE. CASL focuses on a set of challenge problems such as CRUD induced power shift and localized corrosion, grid-to-rod fretting fuel failures, pellet clad interaction, fuel assembly distortion, etc. that encompass the key phenomena limiting the performance of PWRs. It is expected that much of the capability developed will be applicable to other types of reactors. CASL's mission is to develop and apply modeling and simulation capabilities to address three critical areas of performance for nuclear power plants: (1) reduce capital and operating costs per unit energy by enabling power uprates and plant lifetime extension, (2) reduce nuclear waste volume generated by enabling higher fuel burnup, and (3) enhance nuclear safety by enabling high-fidelity predictive capability for component performance.

  11. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronaldo Szilard; Hongbin Zhang; Doug Kothe; Paul Turinsky

    2011-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is a DOE Energy Innovation Hub for modeling and simulation of nuclear reactors. It brings together an exceptionally capable team from national labs, industry and academia that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated as the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA), will incorporate science-based models, state-of-the-art numerical methods, modern computational science and engineering practices, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) and validation against data from operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It will couple state-of-the-art fuel performance, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics (T-H), and structural models with existing tools for systems and safety analysis and will be designed for implementation on both today's leadership-class computers and the advanced architecture platforms now under development by the DOE. CASL focuses on a set of challenge problems such as CRUD induced power shift and localized corrosion, grid-to-rod fretting fuel failures, pellet clad interaction, fuel assembly distortion, etc. that encompass the key phenomena limiting the performance of PWRs. It is expected that much of the capability developed will be applicable to other types of reactors. CASL's mission is to develop and apply modeling and simulation capabilities to address three critical areas of performance for nuclear power plants: (1) reduce capital and operating costs per unit energy by enabling power uprates and plant lifetime extension, (2) reduce nuclear waste volume generated by enabling higher fuel burnup, and (3) enhance nuclear safety by enabling high-fidelity predictive capability for component performance.

  12. The effect of light-activation sources on tooth bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusai Baroudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vital bleaching is one of the most requested cosmetic dental procedures asked by patients who seek a more pleasing smile. This procedure consists of carbamide or hydrogen peroxide gel applications that can be applied in-office or by the patient (at-home/overnight bleaching system. Some in-office treatments utilise whitening light with the objective of speeding up the whitening process. The objective of this article is to review and summarise the current literature with regard to the effect of light-activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. A literature search was conducted using Medline, accessed via the National Library of Medicine Pub Med from 2003 to 2013 searching for articles relating to effectiveness of light activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. This study found conflicting evidence on whether light truly improve tooth whitening. Other factors such as, type of stain, initial tooth colour and subject age which can influence tooth bleaching outcome were discussed. Conclusions: The use of light activator sources with in-office bleaching treatment of vital teeth did not increase the efficacy of bleaching or accelerate the bleaching.

  13. Advanced energy system with nuclear reactors as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    recovery system is also applicable to a fast reactor (FR) with a supercritical CO2 gas turbine that achieves higher cycle efficiency than conventional sodium cooled FRs with steam turbines. The FR will eliminate problems of conventional FRs related to safety, plant maintenance, and construction costs. The FR consumes efficiently trans-uranium elements (TRU) produced in light water reactors as fuel and reduce long-lived radioactive wastes or environmental loads of long term geological disposal. An Advanced Energy System (AES) with nuclear reactors as an energy source has been proposed which supply electricity and heat to cities. The AES has three objectives: 1. Save energy resources and reduce green house gas emissions, attaining total energy utilization efficiency higher than 85% through waste heat recovery and utilization. 2. Foster a recycling society that produces methane and methanol for fuel cells from waste products of cities and farms. 3. Consume TRU produced in LWRs as fuel for FRs, and reduce long-lived radioactive wastes or environmental loads of long term geological disposal. References 1. Y. Kato, T. Nitawaki and K. Fujima, 'Zero Waste Heat Release Nuclear Cogeneration System, 'Proc. 2003 Intl. Congress on Advanced Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'03), Cordoba, Spain, May 4-7, 2003, Paper 3313. 2. Y. Kato, T. Nitawaki and Y. Muto, 'Medium Temperature Carbon Dioxide Gas Turbine Reactor, 'Nucl. Eng. Design, 230, pp. 195-207 (2004). 3. H. N. Tran and Y. Kato, 'New 237Np Burning Strategy in a Supercritical CO2 Cooled Fast Reactor Core Attaining Zero Burnup Reactivity Loss,' Proc. American Nuclear Society's Topical Meeting on Reactor Physics (PHYSOR 2006), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, September 10-14, 2006

  14. Enabling instrumentation and technology for 21st century light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.M.; Shea, T.J.; Denes, P.; Siddons, P.; Attwood, D.; Kaertner, F.; Moog, L.; Li, Y.; Sakdinawat, A.; Schlueter, R.

    2010-06-01

    We present the summary from the Accelerator Instrumentation and Technology working group, one of the five working groups that participated in the BES-sponsored Workshop on Accelerator Physics of Future Light Sources held in Gaithersburg, MD September 15-17, 2009. We describe progress and potential in three areas: attosecond instrumentation, photon detectors for user experiments, and insertion devices.

  15. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.)

  16. Miniature Incandescent Lamps as Fiber-Optic Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret; Collura, Joe; Helvajian, Henry; Pocha, Michael; Meyer, Glenn; McConaghy, Charles F.; Olsen, Barry L.

    2008-01-01

    Miniature incandescent lamps of a special type have been invented to satisfy a need for compact, rapid-response, rugged, broadband, power-efficient, fiber-optic-coupled light sources for diverse purposes that could include calibrating spectrometers, interrogating optical sensors, spot illumination, and spot heating.

  17. Prospects for Next-Generation Storage Ring Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Storage ring light sources are among the most productive large-scale scientific user facilities in existence, owing to a combination of broad tunability, mature technology, high capacity, remarkable reliability, and high performance. The most commonly-used performance measure is the photon beam brightness, which is proportional to the flux per unit volume in six-dimensional phase space. The brightness is generally maximized by minimizing the transverse phase space area, or emittance, of the electron beam that generates the photons. Since the 1990's, most storage ring light sources have used a variant of the Chasman-Green, or double-bend-achromat (DBA), lattice, which produces transverse emittances of several nanometers. Presently, several light sources are under construction based on more challenging multi-bend-achromat (MBA) concepts, which promise an order of magnitude reduction in the emittance. Somewhat larger reductions are contemplated for upgrades of the largest facilities. This talk briefly surveys the relevant concepts in light source design, then explains both the mechanism and challenge of achieving next-generation emittances. Other factors, such as improved radiation-emitting devices, are also described. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  18. Photonic crystal fibre-based light source for STED lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glubokov, D A; Sychev, V V; Vitukhnovsky, Alexey G; Korol' kov, A E

    2013-06-30

    A light source having a relative noise level in the order of 10{sup -6} and sufficient stability for application in STED lithography has been obtained using the generation of Cherenkov peaks in a supercontinuum spectrum. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  19. Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinichi; Zaher Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Oda, Katsuya; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) is a group-IV indirect band gap semiconductor, and therefore bulk Ge cannot emit light efficiently. However, the direct band gap energy is close to the indirect one, and significant engineering efforts are being made to convert Ge into an efficient gain material monolithically integrated on a Si chip. In this article, we will review the engineering challenges of developing Ge light sources fabricated using nano-fabrication technologies compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processes. In particular, we review recent progress in applying high-tensile strain to Ge to reduce the direct band gap. Another important technique is doping Ge with donor impurities to fill the indirect band gap valleys in the conduction band. Realization of carrier confinement structures and suitable optical cavities will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss possible applications of Ge light sources in potential photonics-electronics convergent systems.

  20. Applicability of light-emitting diodes as light sources for active differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Trick, Sebastian; Rippel, Bernhard; Platt, Ulrich

    2006-03-20

    We present what is to our knowledge the first use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements of trace gases in the open atmosphere. Modern LEDs represent a potentially advantageous alternative to thermal light sources, in particular to xenon arc lamps, which are the most common active DOAS light sources. The radiative properties of a variety of LEDs were characterized, and parameters such as spectral shape, spectral range, spectral stability, and ways in which they can be influenced by environmental factors were analyzed. The spectra of several LEDs were found to contain Fabry-Perot etalon-induced spectral structures that interfered with the DOAS evaluation, in particular when a constant temperature was not maintained. It was shown that LEDs can be used successfully as light sources in active DOAS experiments that measure NO2 and NO3 near 450 and 630 nm, respectively. Average detection limits of 0.3 parts in 10(9) and 16 parts in 10(12) respectively, were obtained by use of a 6 km light path in the open atmosphere. PMID:16579579

  1. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, P R; Meister, D; Leake, S J; Lange, M; Bergamaschi, A; Böge, M; Calvi, M; Cancellieri, C; Casati, N; Cervellino, A; Chen, Q; David, C; Flechsig, U; Gozzo, F; Henrich, B; Jäggi-Spielmann, S; Jakob, B; Kalichava, I; Karvinen, P; Krempasky, J; Lüdeke, A; Lüscher, R; Maag, S; Quitmann, C; Reinle-Schmitt, M L; Schmidt, T; Schmitt, B; Streun, A; Vartiainen, I; Vitins, M; Wang, X; Wullschleger, R

    2013-09-01

    The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs. PMID:23955029

  2. New generation of light sources: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couprie, M.E., E-mail: couprie@synchrotron-soleil.fr

    2014-10-15

    Spectroscopy and imaging in the VUV–X-ray domain are very sensitive tools for the investigation of the properties of matter [1–3]. Time-resolved studies enable to follow the movies of ultra-fast reactions. More than fifty years after the laser discovery [4], VUVX light sources are actively developed around the world. Among them, high order harmonics generated in gas, X-ray lasers, synchrotron radiation, free electron lasers are providing a wide offer, from laboratory size sources to large scale facilities, with various features, suitable for different types of experiments. The properties of these sources are here reviewed. Quest of new performances and flexibility is also discussed.

  3. New generation of light sources: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopy and imaging in the VUV–X-ray domain are very sensitive tools for the investigation of the properties of matter [1–3]. Time-resolved studies enable to follow the movies of ultra-fast reactions. More than fifty years after the laser discovery [4], VUVX light sources are actively developed around the world. Among them, high order harmonics generated in gas, X-ray lasers, synchrotron radiation, free electron lasers are providing a wide offer, from laboratory size sources to large scale facilities, with various features, suitable for different types of experiments. The properties of these sources are here reviewed. Quest of new performances and flexibility is also discussed

  4. Light source design for spectral tuning in biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Chandrajit; Schlangen, Sebastian; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    We propose an architecture with a remote phosphor-based modular and compact light-emitting diode (LED) light source in a noncontact dermoscope prototype for skin cancer screening. The spectrum and color temperature of the output light can easily and significantly be changed depending on spectral absorption characteristics of the tissues being imaged. The new system has several advantages compared to state-of-the-art phosphor converted ultrabright white LEDs, used in a wide range of medical imaging devices, which have a fixed spectrum and color temperature at a given operating point. In particular, the system can more easily be adapted to the requirements originating from different tissues in the human body, which have wavelength-dependent absorption and reflectivity. This leads to improved contrast for different kinds of imaged tissue components. The concept of such a lighting architecture can be vastly utilized in many other medical imaging devices including endoscopic systems. PMID:26839911

  5. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors

  6. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2856-MHz S-band, 450-MeV electron/positron linear accelerator is the first part of the injector for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring. Construction of the APS linac is currently nearing completion, and commissioning will begin in July 1993. The linac and its current status are discussed in this paper

  7. Beamline standard component designs for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has initiated a design standardization and modularization activity for the APS synchrotron radiation beamline components. These standard components are included in components library, sub-components library and experimental station library. This paper briefly describes these standard components using both technical specifications and side view drawings

  8. Lithography imaging control by enhanced monitoring of light source performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Paolo; Zurita, Omar; Lalovic, Ivan; Seong, Nakgeuon; Rechsteiner, Gregory; Thornes, Joshua; D'havé, Koen; Van Look, Lieve; Bekaert, Joost

    2013-04-01

    Reducing lithography pattern variability has become a critical enabler of ArF immersion scaling and is required to ensure consistent lithography process yield for sub-30nm device technologies. As DUV multi-patterning requirements continue to shrink, it is imperative that all sources of lithography variability are controlled throughout the product life-cycle, from technology development to high volume manufacturing. Recent developments of new ArF light-source metrology and monitoring capabilities have been introduced in order to improve lithography patterning control.[1] These technologies enable performance monitoring of new light-source properties, relating to illumination stability, and enable new reporting and analysis of in-line performance.

  9. Does the velocity of light depend on the source movement?

    CERN Document Server

    Bilbao, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Data from spacecrafts tracking exhibit many anomalies that suggest the dependence of the speed of electromagnetic radiation with the motion of its source. This dependence is different from that predicted from emission theories that long ago have been demonstrated to be wrong. By relating the velocity of light and the corresponding Doppler effect with the velocity of the source at the time of detection, instead of the time of emission, it is possible to explain quantitatively and qualitatively the spacecraft anomalies. Also, a formulation of electromagnetism compatible with this conception is possible (and also compatible with the known electromagnetic phenomena). Under this theory the influence of the velocity of the source in the speed of light is somewhat subtle in many practical situations and probably went unnoticed in other phenomena.

  10. Economic analysis of the need for advanced power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the economic need for an advanced power source, be it fusion, solar, or some other concept. However, calculations were also performed assuming abandonment of the LMFBR program, so breeder benefits are a by-product of this study. The model used was the ALPS linear programming system for forecasting optimum power growth patterns. Total power costs were calculated over a planning horizon from 1975 to 2041 and discounted at 71/2 percent. The benefit of a particular advanced power source is simply the reduction in total power cost resulting from its introduction. Since data concerning advanced power sources (APS) are speculative, parametric calculations varying introduction dates and capital costs about a hypothetical APS plant were performed. Calculations were also performed without the LMFBR to determine the effect of the breeder on the benefits of an advanced power source. Other data used in the study, such as the energy demand curve and uranium resource estimates, are given in the Appendix, and a list of the 11 power plants used in this study is given. Calculations were performed for APS introduction dates of 2001 and 2011. Estimates of APS capital costs included cases where it was assumed the costs were $50/kW and $25/kW higher than the LMFBR. In addition, cases where APS and LMFBR capital costs are identical were also considered. It is noted that the APS capital costs used in this study are not estimates of potential advanced power system plant costs, but were chosen to compute potential dollar benefits of advanced power systems under extremely optimistic assumptions. As a further example, all APS fuel cycle costs were assumed to be zero

  11. ALWR - VTT's technology programme on advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1998, VTT Energy launched a four year research programme 'Advanced Light Water Reactors' (ALWR). The research programme strives to intensify co operation between different Finnish organisations as well as to make better use of international R and D efforts on ALWR concepts. Some projects of the programme focus on use of new computational tools for the design and safety analysis of ALWRs. Improved computer simulation methods and models are necessary for the analysis of passive safety systems. Some projects address development and assessment of new technical solutions in ALWR. The projects are carried out in close co operation with the Finnish power companies and are often part of reactor vendors international development programmes. Another key element of the programme is training of new nuclear experts and providing possibilities for continuing education of the current staff. (author)

  12. Incorporating outage management principles into the advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States there are 110 light water reactor (LWR) plants currently in operation, with a total generating capacity of 102 580 MW(electric). These plants include 37 boiling water reactor (BWR) and 73 pressurized water reactor (PWR) units. Since 1980, more than 40 nuclear power plants have entered service in the United States. However, no new plants have been ordered by utilities and owners groups since 1978. There will come a time in the not-too-distant future that new, large electricity generating units will be needed to supply expected increases in base-load capacity. Will the new advanced LWR (ALWR) designs be able to pass muster and be chosen to help meet that need? With outage management at operating plants improving every year, what can the ALWR designs offer that has not already been incorporated?

  13. Preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh; Yoo, Jae Gwon; Park, Seong Hee

    2000-07-01

    The preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source based on a superconducting electron accelerator is presented. The advanced quantum beams include: high power free electron lasers, monochromatic X-rays and {gamma}-rays, high-power medium-energy electrons, high-flux pulsed neutrons, and high-flux monochromatic slow positron beam. The AQBS system is being re-designed, assuming that the SPS superconducting RF cavities used for LEP at CERN will revived as a main accelerator of the AQBS system at KAERI, after the decommissioning of LEP at the end of 2000. Technical issues of using the SPS superconducting RF cavities for the AQBS project are discussed in this report. The advanced quantum beams will be used for advanced researches in science and industries.

  14. Preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source based on a superconducting electron accelerator is presented. The advanced quantum beams include: high power free electron lasers, monochromatic X-rays and γ-rays, high-power medium-energy electrons, high-flux pulsed neutrons, and high-flux monochromatic slow positron beam. The AQBS system is being re-designed, assuming that the SPS superconducting RF cavities used for LEP at CERN will revived as a main accelerator of the AQBS system at KAERI, after the decommissioning of LEP at the end of 2000. Technical issues of using the SPS superconducting RF cavities for the AQBS project are discussed in this report. The advanced quantum beams will be used for advanced researches in science and industries

  15. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  16. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy

  17. Finite temperature dense matter studies on next-generation light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of short-pulse tunable soft x-ray free electron laser sources based on the self-amplified spontaneous emission process will provide a major advance in capability for dense plasma-related and warm dense matter (WDM) research. The sources will provide 1013 photons in a 200-fs duration pulse that is tunable from approximately 6 to 100 nm. Here we discuss only two of the many applications made possible for WDM that has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable because visible light will not propagate at electron densities of ne≥1022 cm-3. The next-generation light sources will remove these restrictions

  18. Miniature field emission light sources for bio-chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept based on preparation of miniature field emission light sources (FELS) for integration with bio-chips is presented. Glass and silicon-glass micro-fluidic systems (biochips) with spectrofluorometric detection are designated for this solution. Planar, miniature silicon-glass field emission light sources were designed and fabricated for this conception. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been used as a low-voltage electron emissive layer. Nanocrystalline yttria matrices doped with rare earth (Re) ions (Re: Eu3+, Tb3+) have been synthesized and utilized as phosphor layers. Light emission spectral characteristics of fabricated sources allow to couple them with typical fluorescent markers as e.g. Alexa, Fluorescein or TO-PRO, used on the wide scale in biochemical researches. Fabricated FELSs are characterized by the intensive and homogenous light emission with well defined sharp emission lines. The efficient and stable field emission from carbon nanotubes has also been noticed. Fabricated FELS are technologically compatible with highly developing micromachined fluidic systems and are able to direct on-chip integration with these microsystems.

  19. Utility Leadership in Defining Requirements for Advanced Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is appropriate, based on twenty five years of operating experience, that utilities take a position of leadership in developing the technical design and performance requirements for the next generations of nuclear electric generating plants. The U. S. utilities, through the Electric Power Research Institute, began an initiative in 1985 to develop such Utility requirements. Many international Utility organizations, including Korea Electric Power Corporation, have joined as full participants in this important Utility industry initiative. In light of the closer linkage among countries of the world due to rapid travel and telecommunications, it is also appropriate that there be international dialogue and agreement on the principal standards for nuclear power plant acceptability and performance. The Utility/EPRI Advanced Light Water Reactor Program guided by the ALRR Utility Steering Committee has been very successful in developing these Utility requirements. This paper will summarize the state of development of the ALRR Utility Requirements for Evolutionary Plants, recent developments in their review by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, resolution of open issues, and the extension of this effort to develop a companion set of ALRR Utility Requirements for plants employing passive safety features

  20. Device characterization of the VCSEL-on-silicon as an on chip light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Myung-Joon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Joo, Jiho; Park, Hyundai; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Park, Jaegyu; Kim, Sanggi; Kim, Gyungock

    2016-03-01

    Advancement of silicon photonics technology can offer a new dimension in data communications with un-precedent bandwidth. Increasing the integration level in the silicon photonics is required to develop compact high-performance chip-level optical interconnects for future systems. Especially, monolithic integration of light source on a silicon wafer is important for future silicon photonic integrated circuits, since realizing a compact on-chip light source on a silicon wafer is a serious issue which impedes practical implementation of the silicon photonic interconnects. At present, due to the lack of a practical light source based on Group IV elements, flip chip-bonded or packaged lasers based on III-V semiconductor are usually being used as external light sources, to feed silicon modulators on SOI wafers to complete a photonic transmitter, except the reported silicon hybrid lasers monolithic-integrated on SOI wafers. To overcome above problem, we have proposed a compact on-chip light source, the directly monolithic-integrated VCSEL on a bulk silicon wafer (VCSEL-on-Si), based on the transplanted epitaxial film by substrate lift-off process and following device-fabrication on the bulk Si wafer. This can offer practical low-power-consumption light sources integrated on a silicon wafer, which can provide a complete chip-level I/O set when combined with monolithic-integrated vertical-illumination Ge-on-Si photodetectors on the same silicon wafer. In this work, we report the characterization of direct-modulation VCSELs-on-Si for λ ~850 nm with CW optical output power > ~2 mW and the threshold current < ~3 mA, over 10 Gb/s operations. We also discuss about the thermal characteristics of the VCSELs-on-Si.

  1. Developing electron beam bunching technology for improving light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new electron bunch compression technology, experimentally demonstrate subpicosecond compression of bunches with charges on the order of 1 nC, and to theoretically investigate fundamental limitations to electron bunch compression. All of these goals were achieved, and in addition, the compression system built for this project was used to generate 22 nm light in a plasma-radiator light source

  2. Direct Seeded Single Frequency mid-IR OPA all Passive Light Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present a two stage pulsed mid-infrared light source based on nonlinear downconversion of light. The light source is single frequency, tunable, all passive, single moded and build with standard optical components.......We present a two stage pulsed mid-infrared light source based on nonlinear downconversion of light. The light source is single frequency, tunable, all passive, single moded and build with standard optical components....

  3. Algal Photobiology: A Rich Source of Unusual Light Sensitive Proteins for Synthetic Biology and Optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2016-01-01

    The light absorption system in eukaryotic (micro)algae includes highly sensitive photoreceptors, which change their conformation in response to different light qualities on a subsecond time scale and induce physiological and behavioral responses. Some of the light sensitive modules are already in use to engineer and design photoswitchable tools for control of cellular and physiological activities in living organisms with various degrees of complexity. Thus, identification of new light sensitive modules will not only extend the source material for the generation of optogenetic tools but also foster the development of new light-based strategies in cell signaling research. Apart from searching for new proteins with suitable light-sensitive modules, smaller variants of existing light-sensitive modules would be helpful to simplify the construction of hybrid genes and facilitate the generation of mutated and chimerized modules. Advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing as well as functional analysis of photoreceptors and their interaction partners will help to discover new light sensitive modules. PMID:26965114

  4. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanov, V. M.; Amatuni, G. A.; Amirkhanyan, Z. G.; Aslyan, L. V.; Avagyan, V. Sh.; Danielyan, V. A.; Davtyan, H. D.; Dekhtiarov, V. S.; Gevorgyan, K. L.; Ghazaryan, N. G.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Hakobyan, L. S.; Haroutiunian, S. G.; Ivanyan, M. I.; Khachatryan, V. G.; Laziev, E. M.; Manukyan, P. S.; Margaryan, I. N.; Markosyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, N. V.; Mehrabyan, Sh. A.; Mkrtchyan, T. H.; Muradyan, L. Kh.; Nikogosyan, G. H.; Petrosyan, V. H.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Sargsyan, A. A.; Simonyan, A. S.; Toneyan, H. A.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Vardanyan, T. L.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Yeremyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.; Zanyan, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  5. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two ''second generation'' storage rings that currently provide the world's most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels

  6. Simulating Dicke-like superradiance with classical light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, D.; Oppel, S.; Wiegner, R.; Agarwal, G. S.; von Zanthier, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the close relationship between Dicke superradiance, originally predicted for an ensemble of two-level atoms in entangled states, and the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect, initially established in astronomy to determine the dimensions of classical light sources such as stars. By studying the state evolution of the fields produced by classical sources—defined by a positive Glauber-Sudarshan P function—when recording intensity correlations of higher order in a generalized Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup we find that the angular distribution of the last detected photon, apart from an offset, is identical to the superradiant emission pattern generated by an ensemble of two-level atoms in entangled symmetric Dicke states. We show that the phenomenon derives from projective measurements induced by the measurement of photons in the far field of the sources and the permutative superposition of quantum paths identical to those leading to superradiance in the case of single photon emitters. We thus point out an important similarity between classical sources and quantum emitters upon detection of photons if the particular photon source remains unknown. We finally present a compact result for the characteristic functional which generates intensity correlations of arbitrary order for any kind of light source.

  7. Light wells in residential building as a complimentary daylight source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristl, Z.; Krainer, A. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents the results of the illumination measurements and analyses, carried out on the scale model of an energy conscious multistorey apartment building using light wells as an additional source of daylight. The design of the building is based on a compact longitudinal structure consisting of east or west oriented flats with only one outer wall and a deep ground-plan. To additionally daylight the central areas of the building and at the same time to control the heat gains and losses, three types of innovative light-guiding systems with several variations were devised. The illuminance measurements on the scale models were carried out under an artificial sky. The measurements showed that the best results were obtained by using light well with wide upper and narrow lower part into which the reflecting wall was placed. In all the cases the reference values were reached. (author)

  8. The Canadian Light Source - A new tool for industrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As applied research moves into the 21st century, industry is discovering that traditional analytical techniques are not answering all of their questions. For example, new materials are being developed daily that may have significantly different properties but are chemical indistinguishable using current analysis techniques. It is important for industry to understand these differences and develop those unique properties into a new product. Therefore, today, industry is turning to new tools to shed light on old and new questions. The Canadian Light Source Inc. has assembled an industrial science team and business development office to make synchrotron-based techniques available to pay-for-service clients which range from academia to industry. Since 2000, the industrial science group has conducted approximately 60 projects with a majority coming from the environmental sector with marked increases in the life science sector. In the future, the demand for full client services at synchrotron sources will increase as facilities develop client-friendly access mechanisms

  9. Ground motion measurements at the LBL Light Source site, the Bevatron and at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the technique for measuring ground motion at the site of the 1.0 to 2.0 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Facility which was known as the Advanced Light Source (in 1983 when the measurements were taken). The results of ground motion measurements at the Light Source site at Building 6 at LBL are presented. As comparison, ground motion measurements were made at the Byerly Tunnel, the Bevatron, Blackberry Canyon, and SLAC at the Spear Ring. Ground Motion at the Light Source site was measured in a band from 4 to 100 Hz. The measured noise is primarily local in origin and is not easily transported through LBL soils. The background ground motion is for the most part less than 0.1 microns. Localized truck traffic near Building 6 and the operation of the cranes in the building can result in local ground motions of a micron or more for short periods of time. The background motion at Building 6 is between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude higher than ground motion in a quiet seismic tunnel, which is representative of quiet sites worldwide. The magnitude of the ground motions at SLAC and the Bevatron are comparable to ground motions measured at the Building 6 Light Source site. However, the frequency signature of each site is very different

  10. Novel crystalline-waveguide broadband light sources for interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pollnau, Markus

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, broadband fiber interferometers have become very popular as basic instruments used in optical low-coherence reflectometry for diagnostics of fiber and integrated optics devices or in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging applications in the biomedical field. The longitudinal resolution of such instruments is inversely proportional to the optical bandwidth of the light source. Broadband luminescence from transition-metal-ion doped materials can significantly improve t...

  11. Light source based on multiturn circulation energy recovery linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light source based on a nine-turn ring circulation energy recovery linac with bunch-by-bunch beam switch by RF deflection cavities is proposed and its performance is estimated including the degradation of the beam quality by radiation excitation. The application of the round to flat beam conversion at a injector, which was proposed for linear colliders, is discussed for a scheme to reduce the brightness degradation by radiation excitation. (author)

  12. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  13. National Synchrotron Light Source safety-analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document covers all of the safety issues relating to the design and operation of the storage rings and injection system of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The building systems for fire protection, access and egress are described together with air and other gaseous control or venting systems. Details of shielding against prompt bremstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation are described and the administrative requirements to be satisfied for operation of a beam line at the facility are given

  14. Influence of light source and clinical experience on shade matching

    OpenAIRE

    GÁSPÁRIK, CRISTINA; TOFAN, ALINA; CULIC, BOGDAN; BADEA, MÎNDRA; DUDEA, DIANA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Shade is one of the most important attributes when evaluating the success of a restoration. Several factors can influence the visual shade matching process, and therefore the outcome of the final restoration. Objectives 1. to assess the importance of clinical experience on shade matching accuracy; 2. to assess the influence of two standard light sources on the ability to match shade tabs; 3. to identify the area in a VITA Classical shade guide where matching errors are most likel...

  15. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo;

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...... sources makes it difficult to decide which equipment is the best for treating port-wine stains....

  16. Development of micro-incandescent light sources on silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, A. H.; Carvalho, D. O.; Rehder, G.; Alayo, M. I.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we report one simple fabrication process to build incandescent microlamps over silicon microtips. By taking advantage of the underetch observed when the Si substrate is anisotropically etched in KOH solutions, specific silicon microtips are created which serve as mechanical supports for the incandescent light sources. A thin film of chrome is deposited by sputtering technique above the microtip and defined by photolitography in order to create an electrical resistance. Consequently, the electrical energy transformed in heat is concentrated in a small spot achieving temperatures high enough to produce incandescent light similar to a blackbody spectrum. To reduce the heat loss caused by the high thermal conductivity of silicon, a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) placed between substrate and metal was necessary to avoid the use of large electrical currents to generate the incandescence in the light source. A SiO2 film is also used as a protection layer against moisture and specially oxygen, since at high temperatures chrome can easily oxidize losing its electrical conductivity. As the microtips are very tall compared to photoresist thickness, the lift-off process was needed in order to guarantee that the top of the microtip would be covered by chrome. The results showed that it is possible to produce light in all visible spectrum by applying electrical power higher than 4 W.

  17. Defining the force between separated sources on a light front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Newtonian character of gauge theories on a light front requires that the longitudinal momentum P+, which plays the role of Newtonian mass, be conserved. This requirement conflicts with the standard definition of the force between two sources in terms of the minimal energy of quantum gauge fields in the presence of a quark and anti-quark pinned to points separated by a distance R. We propose that, on a light front, the force be defined by minimizing the energy of gauge fields in the presence of a quark and an anti-quark pinned to lines (1-branes) oriented in the longitudinal direction singled out by the light front and separated by a transverse distance R. Such sources will have a limited 1+1 dimensional dynamics. We study this proposal for weak coupling gauge theories by showing how it leads to the Coulomb force law. For QCD we also show how asymptotic freedom emerges by evaluating the S matrix through one loop for the scattering of a particle in the Nc representation of color SU(Nc) on a 1-brane by a particle in the bar Nc representation of color on a parallel 1-brane separated from the first by a distance RQCD. Potential applications to the problem of confinement on a light front are discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. A concept for the Spanish light source-ALBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Spring 2003, the Spanish and Catalan Governments created a public consortium for the construction, equipment, and exploitation of a third-generation synchrotron light source. The foundation was based upon a proposal presented at the end of 1997 to build a 2.5 GeV, 12 fold symmetry accelerator with a circumference of 250 m. In order to optimise the spectral characteristics of the synchrotron radiation a re-design of the light source is currently taking place. It will include several new developments that had been demonstrated feasible in third-generation light sources currently in operation: toping-up injection, storage ring and booster in a same tunnel, improvements in orbit stability, etc. In addition, the energy of the design has been upgraded to 3 GeV and a new, more performing lattice is being studied. The main candidate for the lattice, describing the linear parameters, beam dynamics, and estimation of the lifetime will also be discussed. Also the key design decisions, the project status and the schedule will be given. In order to analyse the performance of the different lattices, some general purpose IDs have been considered

  19. NIJI-III superconducting compact light source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitomo Electric Industries established a synchrotron radiation (SR) facility named 'Harima Research Laboratories' in 1993. The facility is located in Harima Science Garden City where the large SR facility 'Spring-8' is being under construction. Main purpose of our laboratory is to develop the advanced technologies on SR application, particularly for micro-fabrication, photochemistry and x-ray tomography. In the facility, a 600 MeV superconducting compact SR ring 'NIJI-III', a 100 MeV compact linac and five beamlines have been installed. Nowadays, NIJI-III usually provides SR light to users for 16 hours in a day. (author)

  20. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm-1. For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm-1. With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  1. Light Front Nuclear Physics Toy Models, Static Sources and Tilted Light Front Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Blunden, P G; Miller, G A

    2000-01-01

    The principles behind the detailed results of a light-front mean field theory of finite nuclei are elucidated by deriving the nucleon mode equation using a simple general argument, based on the idea that a static source in equal time coordinates corresponds to a moving source in light front coordinates. This idea also allows us to solve several simple toy model examples: scalar field in a box, 1+1 dimensional bag model, three-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the Hulthén potential. The latter provide simplified versions of momentum distributions and form factors of relevance to experiments. In particular, the relativistic correction to the mean square radius of a nucleus is shown to be very small. Solving these simple examples suggests another more general approach-- the use of tilted light front coordinates. The simple examples are made even simpler.

  2. Light front nuclear physics: Toy models, static sources, and tilted light front coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles behind the detailed results of a light-front mean field theory of finite nuclei are elucidated by deriving the nucleon mode equation using a simple general argument, based on the idea that a static source in equal time coordinates corresponds to a moving source in light front coordinates. This idea also allows us to solve several simple toy model examples: scalar field in a box, (1+1)-dimensional bag model, three-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the Hulthen potential. The latter provide simplified versions of momentum distributions and form factors of relevance to experiments. In particular, the relativistic correction to the mean square radius of a nucleus is shown to be very small. Solving these simple examples suggests another more general approach--the use of tilted light front coordinates. The simple examples are made even simpler. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources: A White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Dierker, Steve; Falcone, Roger; Galayda, John; Gibson, Murray; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hill, John; Hussain, Zahid; Kao, Chi-Chang; Kirz, a= Janos; Long, Gabrielle; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z.-X.; Shenoy, Gopal; Schoenlein, Bob; Shen, Qun; /Argonne /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-02-03

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects (Figure 1.1). The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee [1]. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter

  4. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2856-MHz S-band, electron-positron linear accelerator (linac) has been constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It is the source of particles and the injector for the other APS accelerators, and linac commissioning is well underway. The linac is operated 24 hours per day to support linac beam studies and rf conditioning, as well as positron accumulator ring and synchrotron commissioning studies. The design goal for accelerated positron current is 8-mA, and has been met. Maximum positron energy to date is 420-MeV, approaching the design goal of 450-MeV. The linac design and its performance are discussed

  5. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  6. Reliability assurance programme guidebook for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To facilitate the implementation of reliability assurance programmes (RAP) within future advanced reactor programmes and to ensure that the next generation of commercial nuclear reactors achieves the very high levels of safety, reliability and economy which are expected of them, in 1996, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established a task to develop a guidebook for reliability assurance programmes. The draft RAP guidebook was prepared by an expert consultant and was reviewed/modified at an Advisory Group meeting (7-10 April 1997) and at a consults meeting (7-10 October 1997). The programme for the RAP guidebook was reported to and guided by the Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR). This guidebook will demonstrate how the designers and operators of future commercial nuclear plants can exploit the risk, reliability and availability engineering methods and techniques developed over the past two decades to augment existing design and operational nuclear plant decision-making capabilities. This guidebook is intended to provide the necessary understanding, insights and examples of RAP management systems and processes from which a future user can derive his own plant specific reliability assurance programmes. The RAP guidebook is intended to augment, not replace, specific reliability assurance requirements defined by the utility requirements documents and by individual nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) designers. This guidebook draws from utility experience gained during implementation of reliability and availability improvement and risk based management programmes to provide both written and diagrammatic 'how to' guidance which can be followed to assure conformance with the specific requirements outlined by utility requirements documents and in the development of a practical and effective plant specific RAP in any IAEA Member State

  7. Photothermal cathode measurements at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) ballistic bunch compression (BBC) gun in the Injector Test Stand (ITS) presently uses an M-type thermionic dispenser cathode as a photocathode. This photothermal cathode offers substantial advantages over conventional metal photocathodes, including easy replacement and easy cleaning via the cathode's built-in heater. We present the results of photoemission measurements as a function of cathode heater power, laser pulse energy, and applied rf field strength.

  8. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  9. Development of a high-resolution soft x-ray (30--1500 eV) beamline at the Advanced Light Source and its use for the study of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALS Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 is for high resolution spectroscopy, with circularly polarized light. Fixed included-angle SGM uses three gratings for 30--1500 eV photons; circular polarization is produced by an aperture for selecting the beam above or below the horizontal plane. Photocurrent from upper and lower jaws of entrance slit sets a piezoelectric drive feedback loop on the vertically deflecting mirror for stable beam. End station has a movable platform. With photomeission data from Stanford, structure of c(2x2)P/Fe(100) was determined using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS). Multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations indicate that P atoms adsorb in fourfold hollow sites 1.02A above the first Fe layer. Self-consistent-field Xα scattered wave calculation confirm that the Fe1-Fe2 space is contracted for S/Fe but not for P/Fe; comparison is made to atomic N and O on Fe(100). Final-state effects on ARPEFS curves used literature data from the S 1s and 2p core levels of c(2x2)S/Ni(001); a generalized Ramsauer-Townsend splitting is present in the 1s but not 2p data. An approximate method for analyzing ARPEFS data from a non-s initial state using only the higher-ell partial wave was tested successfully. ARPEFS data from clean surfaces were collected normal to Ni(111) (3p core levels) and 5 degree off-normal from Cu(111)(3s, 3p). Fourier transforms (FT) resemble adsorbate systems, showing backscattering signals from atoms up to 4 layers below emitters. 3p FTs show scattering from 6 nearest neighbors in the same crystal layer as the emitters. MSSW calulation indicate that Cu 3p photoemission is mostly d-wave. FTs also indicate double-scattering and single-scattering from laterally distant atoms; calculations indicate that the signal is dominated by photoemission from the first 2 crystal layers

  10. Environmental Remediation Science at Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Paul

    2013-11-07

    The goal of this project was to provide support for an advanced X-ray microspectroscopy facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. This facility is operated by the University of Chicago and the University of Kentucky. The facility is available to researchers at both institutions as well as researchers around the globe through the general user program. This facility was successfully supported during the project period. It provided access to advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques which lead to fundamental advances in understanding the behavior of contaminants and geochemistry that is applicable to environmental remediation of DOE legacy sites as well as contaminated sites around the United States and beyond.

  11. The linac coherent light source single particle imaging road map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aquila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources allow the imaging of individual particles in a single shot. Early experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS have led to rapid progress in the field and, so far, coherent diffractive images have been recorded from biological specimens, aerosols, and quantum systems with a few-tens-of-nanometers resolution. In March 2014, LCLS held a workshop to discuss the scientific and technical challenges for reaching the ultimate goal of atomic resolution with single-shot coherent diffractive imaging. This paper summarizes the workshop findings and presents the roadmap toward reaching atomic resolution, 3D imaging at free-electron laser sources.

  12. Ideas for a Future PEP-X Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLAC is developing a long-range plan to transfer the evolving scientific programs at SSRL from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing synchrotron source -- PEP-X -- a new storage ring that would occupy the existing PEP-II tunnel and support two experimental halls, each containing 16 x-ray beam lines. Operating at 4.5 GeV and 1.5 A with a horizontal emittance of 0.14 nm-rad, reached using 90 m of damping wigglers, PEP-X would have an order of magnitude higher average brightness and flux in the 1-(angstrom) x-ray range than any existing or planned future storage ring sources. Higher brightness in the soft x-ray regime might be reached with partial lasing in long undulators, and high peak brightness could be reached with seeded FEL emission. The status of preliminary studies of PEP-X is presented.

  13. Overview of the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesza Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL was established in July 2010 for the purpose of providing advanced modeling and simulation solutions for commercial nuclear reactors. The primary goal is to provide coupled, higher-fidelity, usable modeling and simulation capabilities than are currently available. These are needed to address light water reactor (LWR operational and safety performance-defining phenomena that are not yet able to be fully modeled taking a first-principles approach. In order to pursue these goals, CASL has participation from laboratory, academic, and industry partners. These partners are pursuing the solution of ten major “Challenge Problems” in order to advance the state-of-the-art in reactor design and analysis to permit power uprates, higher burnup, life extension, and increased safety. At present, the problems being addressed by CASL are primarily reactor physics-oriented; however, this paper is intended to introduce CASL to the reactor dosimetry community because of the importance of reactor physics modelling and nuclear data to define the source term for that community and the applicability and extensibility of the transport methods being developed.

  14. Overview of the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Joel A.; Franceschini, Fausto; Evans, Thomas M.; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was established in July 2010 for the purpose of providing advanced modeling and simulation solutions for commercial nuclear reactors. The primary goal is to provide coupled, higher-fidelity, usable modeling and simulation capabilities than are currently available. These are needed to address light water reactor (LWR) operational and safety performance-defining phenomena that are not yet able to be fully modeled taking a first-principles approach. In order to pursue these goals, CASL has participation from laboratory, academic, and industry partners. These partners are pursuing the solution of ten major "Challenge Problems" in order to advance the state-of-the-art in reactor design and analysis to permit power uprates, higher burnup, life extension, and increased safety. At present, the problems being addressed by CASL are primarily reactor physics-oriented; however, this paper is intended to introduce CASL to the reactor dosimetry community because of the importance of reactor physics modelling and nuclear data to define the source term for that community and the applicability and extensibility of the transport methods being developed.

  15. Light source comprising a common substrate, a first led device and a second led device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En

    2010-02-23

    At least one stacked organic or polymeric light emitting diode (PLEDs) devices to comprise a light source is disclosed. At least one of the PLEDs includes a patterned cathode which has regions which transmit light. The patterned cathodes enable light emission from the PLEDs to combine together. The light source may be top or bottom emitting or both.

  16. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  17. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando-May, Elisa; Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans-Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-06-01

    Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM-CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM-CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM-CFs, German Bio-Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM-CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463-479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. PMID:27040755

  18. On the path to ordering standardized advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) program is specifying, designing, and certifying the next generation of nuclear power plants. Begun in the mid-1980's, the program is on track to permit ordering and construction of families of standardized plants at the start of the twenty-first century. ALWRs will be constructed only if they are economically competitive with alternative forms of electricity generation and are recognized as acceptable and favorable by the public, prospective owners, and investors. This paper first gives an overview of the major building blocks ensuring safe, reliable, and economic designs and the status of those designs. Next it lays out the path the industry has charted toward adopting the ALWR option and indicates the status of three key steps -- design certification, utility requirements, and first-of-a-kind engineering. Lastly, the paper focuses on one of the most important building blocks for ensuring economic viability -- life-cycle standardization. Among the topics are the definition and scope of standardization; its advantages and disadvantages; design team standardization plans that describe the desired or optimum degree of standardization and the processes used to achieve it; and the need for an agreement among all plant owners and operators for implementing and sustaining standardization in families of ALWRs. 10 refs., 5 figs

  19. Status report on the Advanced Photon Source, Spring 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory has been designed as a national user facility for synchrotron-radiation researchers from industry, universities, and national laboratories. In fact, the APS user community has been an important source of guidance and expertise throughout the project's planning cycle. By providing x-ray beams more brilliant than those currently available, the APS promises to play a substantial role in any discipline where knowledge of the structure of matter is important, from basic research in materials and chemistry to condensed-matter physics, biology, and medical applications. The science now in progress at existing synchrotron-radiation facilities, and the science being proposed for the APS, underlie virtually all modern technologies. In February of 1986, a conceptual design report (CDR) was issued detailing plans for a next-generation synchrotron-radiation machine, the 6-GeV Synchrotron X-ray Source. In April of 1987, a second CDR formalized the design of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source. That design has been refined and carried forward to its current level of construction readiness. On the eve of ground-breaking ceremonies, a review of APS status is appropriate

  20. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which fore...

  1. Powerful nanosecond light sources based on LEDs for astroparticle physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Shaibonov, B A J; Vyatchin, Y E

    2007-01-01

    Powerful nanosecond light sources based on LEDs have been developed for use in astroparticle physics experiments. The light sources use either matrixes of ultra bright blue LEDs or a new generation high power blue LEDs. It's shown that such light sources have light yield of up to 10**10 - 10**12 photons per pulse with very fast light emission kinetics. The described light sources are important for use in calibration systems of Cherenkov and scintillator detectors. The developed light sources are currently used successfully in a number of astroparticle experiments, namely: the TUNKA EAS experiment, the Baikal neutrino experiment etc.

  2. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  3. Concepts for the PEP-X Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettel, Robert; Bane, Karl; Bertsche, Kirk; Cai, Yunhai; Chao, Alex; Dolgashev, Valery; Fox, John; Huang, Xiaobiao; Huang, Zhirong; Mastorides, Themistoklis; Ng, Cho; Nosochkov, Yuri; Novokhatski, Alexander; Rabedeau, Thomas; Rivetta, Claudio; Safranek, James; Seeman, John; Stohr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; Tantawi, Sami G.; Wang, Lanfa; /SLAC /Stanford U. /UCLA

    2010-08-26

    SSRL and SLAC groups are developing a long-range plan to transfer its evolving scientific programs from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing photon source that would be housed in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel. While various concepts for the PEP-X light source are under consideration, including ultimate storage ring and ERL configurations, the present baseline design is a very low-emittance storage ring. A hybrid lattice has double bend achromat (DBA) cells in two of the six arcs that provide a total 30 straight sections for insertion device (ID) beam lines extending into two new experimental halls. The remaining arcs contain TME cells. Using 90 m of damping wigglers the horizontal emittance at 4.5 GeV would be 100 pm-rad with 1.5-A stored beam. PEP-X will produce photon beams having brightnesses near 10{sup 22} (ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW) at 10 keV. Studies indicate that a 90-m undulator could have FEL gain and brightness enhancement at soft x-ray wavelengths with the stored beam. Crab cavities or other beam manipulation systems could be used to reduce bunch length or otherwise enhance photon emission properties. The present status of the design of PEP-X as a storage ring is presented.

  4. The treatment as tritium wastes of expired beta light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After about 10 years of operation, the loss of luminance of the beta light sources amounts up to 75% and consequently, their replacement is required. The storage without conditioning of expired sources as radioactive wastes is not recommended due to the fragility of their glass envelope and to the gaseous state of the radioactive material. Different technological procedures for beta light source treatment were identified. Technological principles consist in breaking the expired sources in a vacuum chamber followed by: (a) 3 He-3 H mixture separation and selective absorption of tritium on the 238 U; (b) Na3H and NaB3H synthesis or; (c) catalytic oxidation at T2O and CH3COOT synthesis by hydrolysis of acetic anhydride. Resulting contaminated gases were oxidized at HTO (liquid tritium waste). The storage of HTO, as conditioned radioactive waste requires its incorporation in absorbed materials, the most utilized being silica gel and zeolites. Due to its high capacity for water absorption, the polyacrylic acids (PAA) represent an interesting alternative for HTO storage. Simulation of self radiolytic processes was realized using the gamma radiation field emitted by an irradiation source of 60 Co (IETI 10000 - NIPNE-HH) which ensures a maximum of absorbed dose rate of 3 kGy (0.3 Mrad/h). The test was performed on hydrogels with various swelling degrees (PAA:water from 1:1 to 1:300) and absorbed doses between 0.1 and 20 kGy. The gel/sol ratio variation of PAA hydrogels was analyzed. (authors)

  5. Excitation of anodized alumina films with a light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Canulescu, Stela; Rechendorff, K.;

    Optical properties of anodized aluminium alloys were determined by optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of such films. Samples with different concentrations of dopants were excited with a white-light source combined with an integrating sphere for fast determination of diffuse reflectance. The...... UV-VIS reflectance of Ti-doped anodized aluminium films was measured over the wavelength range of 200 nm to 900 nm. Titanium doped-anodized aluminium films with 5-15 wt% Ti were characterized. Changes in the diffuse light scattering of doped anodized aluminium films, and thus optical appearance, with...... doping are discussed. Using the Kubelka-Munk model on the diffuse reflectance spectra of such films, the bandgap Eg of the oxide alloys can be determined....

  6. Use of a Single Nanoparticle as Localized Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this work, we have identified different types of inorganic spherical nanoparticles that can be trapped by near-infrared (IR) laser tweezers and simultaneously used as a local near-field light source. Visible light emission is then exclusively induced by the IR trapping laser. In particular, we show that we can detect electromagnetic non-linear optical field enhancement resulting from surface plasmon excitation on a trapped gold nanosphere. Furthermore, we demonstrate optical trapping of a single KNbO3 nanoparticle along with second harmonic excitation by the IR laser. In parallel, we can quantify the forces acting on the trapped nanoparticle by measuring its 3D Brownian fluctuations with nanometer spatial and microsecond temporal resolutions through interferometric position detection. The long term goal is to use a single near-field probe for versatile and multidimensional microspectroscopy to obtain local information, such as fluorescence, dynamical and mechanical properties of molecules surrounding the particle. (author)

  7. Visible light scatter as quantitative information source on milk constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melentieva, Anastasiya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    VISIBLE LIGHT SCATTER AS A QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION SOURCE ON MILK CONSTITUENTS A. Melenteva 1, S. Kucheryavski 2, A. Bogomolov 1,31Samara State Technical University, Molodogvardeyskaya Street 244, 443100 Samara, Russia. 2Aalborg University, campus Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs vej 8, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark....... 3J&M Analytik AG, Willy-Messerschmitt-Strasse 8, 73457 Essingen, Germany. bogomolov@j-m.de Fat and protein are two major milk nutrients that are routinely analyzed in the dairy industry. Growing food quality requirements promote the dissemination of spectroscopic analysis, enabling real...... micelles (80-200 μm) that strongly dominates; therefore, making the classical absorbance analysis hardly applicable. At the same time, diffused light by itself delivers information on the milk composition, specifically, fat content as illustrated in Fig. 1, and can potentially be used for the quantitative...

  8. Analysis and optimization of several designs of the light source in spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-zhi; Jin, Shang-zhong; Yuan, Kun; Wang, Cong

    2012-10-01

    The light source in spectrophotometer must contain all spectral lines of visible light and have strong enough power in entire visible light spectrum range, so it calls for composition of several light sources. In order to reduce light source error and improve test accuracy, the light source was divided into reference light and test light. The reference light goes into inference path directly to get electrical signals; the test light falls on testing sample after perfect diffuse reflected by integrating sphere, then carries information of testing sample ,and passes through emitting hole, falls on photovoltaic cell to get corresponding electrical signals. Several projects of realizing perfect diffuse reflection of test light from both light source design and structure design are put forward in the essay, and simulated by Tracepro and other optical software. Then analyze and evaluate these several projects to get optimization design.

  9. Fast reactors and advanced light water reactors for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows: The importance of nuclear energy, as a realistic option to solve the issues of the depletion of energy resources and the global environment, has been re-acknowledged worldwide. In response to this international movement, the papers compiling the most recent findings in the fields of fast reactors (FR) and advanced light water reactors (LWR) were gathered and published in this special issue. This special issue compiles six articles, most of which are very meticulously performed studies of the multi year development of design and assessment methods for large sodium-cooled FRs (SFRs), and two are related to the fuel cycle options that are leading to a greater understanding on the efficient utilization of energy resources. The Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) is addressed in two manuscripts. H. Yamano et al. reviewed the current design which adopts a number of innovative technologies in order to achieve economic competitiveness, enhanced reliability, and safety. Their safety assessments of both design basis accidents and severe accidents indicate that the devised JSFR satisfies well their risk target. T. Takeda et al. discussed the improvement of the modeling accuracy for the detailed calculation of JSFR's features in three areas: neutronics, fuel materials, and thermal hydraulics. The verification studies which partly use the measured data from the prototype FBR Monju are also described. Two of these manuscripts deal with those aspects of advanced design of SFR that have hitherto not been explored in great depth. The paper by G. Palmiotti et al. explored the possibility of using the sensitivity methodologies in the reactor physics field. A review of the methods used is provided, and several examples illustrate the success of the methodology in reactor physics. A new application as the improvement of nuclear basic parameters using integral experiments is also described. F. Baque et al. reviewed the evolution of the in

  10. Feasibility of new particle search at future light source accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various types of accelerators are proposed as a future light source. Especially those design which can produce high peak power at high repetition rate utilizing energy recovery scheme are interesting also for searching a new particle which couples with photons. We estimated sensitivity of axion search with future XFEL-O, EUV-FEL, and LCSS-γ machines. It shows experiment at these machines can extend the parameter space. We also checked the feasibility of FEL output power assumed in this discussion. (author)

  11. Billion particle linac simulations for future light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report on multi-physics, multi-billion macroparticle simulation of beam transport in a free electron laser (FEL) linac for future light source applications. The simulation includes a self-consistent calculation of 3D space-charge effects, short-range geometry wakefields, longitudinal coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wakefields, and detailed modeling of RF acceleration and focusing. We discuss the need for and the challenges associated with such large-scale simulation. Applications to the study of the microbunching instability in an FEL linac are also presented

  12. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the National Synchrotron Light Source is implemented using dual central computers and many remote microprocessors. This paper describes developments in four areas: (1) system organization; (2) hardware status, particularly control desk and operator support facilities; (3) central computer software system organization to support data base structures and access, and communication between application programs and hardware; and (4) high level control programs which allow the operator to examine and control the transport lines and rings in terms of beam and machine parameters using mathematical models of the system. The output of these programs can be viewed on a color graphical display

  13. Semiconductor Nanomembranes for Quantum Photonics: Quantum Light Sources and Optomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jin

    optomechanical nanomembranes for cavity cooling experiments. For PC cavities, several important processes have been extensively optimized such as the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etch, the release of the membranes and the post-cleaning of the samples. GaAs optomechanical nanomembranes with a world......This thesis describes the fabrication and characterizations of semiconductor nanomembranes, i.e., gallium arsenide (GaAs) photonic crystal (PC) and optomechanical nanomemebranes. Processing techniques are developed and optimized in order to fabricate PC membranes for quantum light sources and...

  14. Radiation properties of Turkish light source facility TURKAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergiz, Zafer

    2015-09-01

    The synchrotron light source TURKAY, which is one of the sub-project of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC), has been supported by Ministry of Development of Turkey since 2006. The facility is designed to generate synchrotron radiation (SR) in range 0.01-60 keV from a 3 GeV storage ring with a beam emittance of 0.51 nm rad. Synchrotron radiation will be produced from the bending magnets and insertion devices in the storage ring. In this paper design studies for possible devices to produce synchrotron radiation and radiation properties of these devices with TURKAY storage ring parameters are presented.

  15. Radiation properties of Turkish light source facility TURKAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nergiz, Zafer, E-mail: znergiz@nigde.edu.tr

    2015-09-21

    The synchrotron light source TURKAY, which is one of the sub-project of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC), has been supported by Ministry of Development of Turkey since 2006. The facility is designed to generate synchrotron radiation (SR) in range 0.01–60 keV from a 3 GeV storage ring with a beam emittance of 0.51 nm rad. Synchrotron radiation will be produced from the bending magnets and insertion devices in the storage ring. In this paper design studies for possible devices to produce synchrotron radiation and radiation properties of these devices with TURKAY storage ring parameters are presented.

  16. Producing Terahertz Conherent Synchrotron Radiation Based On Hefei Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    De-Rong, Xu; Yan, Shao

    2014-01-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an ac sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the ac sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. We calculate the radiation spectral distribution from the wavy bunch in Hefei Light Source(HLS). If we reduce electron energy to 400MeV, it can produce extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation(CSR) at 0.115THz.

  17. Producing terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at the Hefei Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Rong; Xu, Hong-Liang; Shao, Yan

    2015-07-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in the THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an AC sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the AC sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. The radiation spectral distribution was calculated from the wavy bunch parameters at the Hefei Light Source (HLS). When the electron energy is reduced to 400 MeV, extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at 0.115 THz should be produced. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375176)

  18. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  19. Simulated nuclear optical signatures using explosive light sources (ELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four Explosive Light Source (aluminium powder and oxygen) tests were conducted on the test range at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque (SLA) from 28 February through 7 March 1978. Although several types of measuring devices were used, the report documents only the optical time histories measured by the bhangmeters and the NBDS, and explains the conclusions reached. In general, the four shots made it possible to gather clear-air optical transmission data, determine the suitability of ELS to simulate the optical effects of a nuclear burst, and provide experience for the larger scale ELS tests to be conducted at Fort Ord, CA in April

  20. Simulated nuclear optical signatures using explosive light sources (ELS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R.F.

    1979-05-01

    Four Explosive Light Source (aluminium powder and oxygen) tests were conducted on the test range at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque (SLA) from 28 February through 7 March 1978. Although several types of measuring devices were used, the report documents only the optical time histories measured by the bhangmeters and the NBDS, and explains the conclusions reached. In general, the four shots made it possible to gather clear-air optical transmission data, determine the suitability of ELS to simulate the optical effects of a nuclear burst, and provide experience for the larger scale ELS tests to be conducted at Fort Ord, CA in April.

  1. Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr. (.; .); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous

  2. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (Pbulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (Pbulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty. PMID:26949140

  3. Poster session: Fifth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), which is currently under construction as a national user facility at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation synchrotron x-ray source, one of only three in the world. It is expected to produce x-rays that are 10,000 times brighter than any currently produced elsewhere for use in research in a wide range of scientific areas. Users from industry, national laboratories, universities, and business will be able to come to the APS to conduct research either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATS) or as Independent Investigators. Principal users will be members of CATS, which will be building and operating all of the beamlines present in the first phase of APS beamline development. The first set of CATs has been selected through a competitive proposal process involving peer scientific review, thorough technical evaluation, and significant management oversight by the APS. This document is a compilation of posters presented at the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source, held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 14--15, 1992. All CATs whose scientific cases were approved by the APS Proposal Evaluation Board are included. In addition, this document contains a poster from the Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Research and Instrumentation at the Illinois Institute of Technology.

  4. Poster session: Fifth users meeting for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), which is currently under construction as a national user facility at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation synchrotron x-ray source, one of only three in the world. It is expected to produce x-rays that are 10,000 times brighter than any currently produced elsewhere for use in research in a wide range of scientific areas. Users from industry, national laboratories, universities, and business will be able to come to the APS to conduct research either as members of Collaborative Access Teams (CATS) or as Independent Investigators. Principal users will be members of CATS, which will be building and operating all of the beamlines present in the first phase of APS beamline development. The first set of CATs has been selected through a competitive proposal process involving peer scientific review, thorough technical evaluation, and significant management oversight by the APS. This document is a compilation of posters presented at the Fifth Users Meeting for the Advanced Photon Source, held at Argonne National Laboratory on October 14--15, 1992. All CATs whose scientific cases were approved by the APS Proposal Evaluation Board are included. In addition, this document contains a poster from the Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Research and Instrumentation at the Illinois Institute of Technology

  5. Performance of light vibroseis sources on polar firn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, O.; Diez, A.; Hofstede, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Mayer, C.; Miller, H.

    2012-04-01

    Small vibrator sources have been succesfully operated on cold Alpine firn in the last years. Here we present results from first operations on the Antarctic plateau, near Kohnen station, Dronning Maud Land with the electrodynamic vibrator system ELVIS. Because of its light weight, such vibrator sources are especially suitable for air transport, a considerable logistic advantage for operation in remote polar regions. As its peak force is lower than 1000 N, it has also been possible to excite shear waves at the surfaces. The complementation of shear waves with pressure waves allows for the deduction of elastic moduli within the firn and ice column. We provide an overall assessment of the results of recordings made with three-component geophones, including estimates of penetrating depth, capability to image shallow internal layering and comparison with stratigraphy detected with ground-penetrating radars.

  6. Multi-contrast computed laminography at ANKA light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray computed laminography has been developed as a non-destructive imaging technique for inspecting laterally extended objects. Benefiting from a parallel-beam geometry, high photon flux of synchrotron sources and modern high-resolution detector systems, synchrotron radiation computed laminography (SRCL) results in a powerful three-dimensional microscopy technique. SRCL can be combined with different contrast modes, such as absorption, phase and dark-field contrasts, in order to provide complementary information for the same specimen. Here we show the development of SRCL at the TopoTomo beamline of the ANKA light source. A novel instrumentation design is reported and compared to the existing one. For this design, experimental results from different contrast modalities are shown

  7. Multi-contrast computed laminography at ANKA light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Altapova, V.; Helfen, L.; Xu, F.; dos Santos Rolo, T.; Vagovič, P.; Fiederle, M.; Baumbach, T.

    2013-10-01

    X-ray computed laminography has been developed as a non-destructive imaging technique for inspecting laterally extended objects. Benefiting from a parallel-beam geometry, high photon flux of synchrotron sources and modern high-resolution detector systems, synchrotron radiation computed laminography (SRCL) results in a powerful three-dimensional microscopy technique. SRCL can be combined with different contrast modes, such as absorption, phase and dark-field contrasts, in order to provide complementary information for the same specimen. Here we show the development of SRCL at the TopoTomo beamline of the ANKA light source. A novel instrumentation design is reported and compared to the existing one. For this design, experimental results from different contrast modalities are shown.

  8. Advanced light source: Compendium of user abstracts 1993-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress from 1993-1996, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998. Two tables of contents organize the user abstracts by beamline and by area of research, and an author index makes abstracts accessible by author and by principal investigator. Technical details for each beamline including whom to contact for additional information can be found in the beamline information section. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this compendium

  9. Optical Beam Timing Monitor Experiments at the Advanced Light Source

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, John; De Santis, Stefano; Wilcox, Rusell; Yan, Yin

    2008-01-01

    We present the initial results of an experimental study of a beam timing monitor based on an optoelectronic technique. This technique uses the electrical signal from a beam position monitor to modulate the amplitude of a train of laser pulses, converting timing jitter into an amplitude jitter. This modulation is then measured with a photodetector and sampled by a fast ADC. This approach has already demonstrated sub-100 fs resolution and promises even better results. Additionally, we are ...

  10. Annual meeting of the Advanced Light Source Users' Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains discussions on: Welcome to the annual meeting of the ALS User's Association; overview of the ALS; the ALS into the 21st century; report from the DOE; scientific program at the ALS; plans for industrial use of the ALS; progress in beamline commissioning and overview of new projects; ALS user program; the fluorescent x-ray microprobe beamline at the ALS; the early days of x-ray optics; high-resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy; soft x-ray emission spectroscopy; x-ray dichroism; and application of VUV undulator beamline to chemical dynamics at the ALS

  11. Fifth Annual Meeting of the Advanced Light Source User's Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS Project Status; Accelerator Commissioning; Experimental Systems: Supersmooth Optics and Ultra-Precise Undulators; Planning for Users and User Services; ALS Scientific Program; High Resolution Core-Level Photoemission; Photoelectron Diffraction and Holography; Soft X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy of Solids at the NSLS and the ALS; Gas-Phase Spectrometry; Spectromicroscopy; X-Ray Dichroism Experiments Using Circular Polarization; Magnetic Circular X-Ray Dichroism and MCXD Microscopy; Applications of Soft X-Ray Optics to Sub-Micron Silicon Device Technology; Bend Magnet Microprobe; Protein Crystallography: Recent Developments and Plans for the ALS; and Applications of High-Brightness Synchrotron Radiation to Protein Crystallography

  12. Particle acceleration studies with intense lasers and advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C. D.; Gray, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; Rusby, D.; McKenna, P.; Ridgers, C. P.; Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Wilson, L.; Green, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    The interaction of lasers with matter is a subject which has progressed rapidly over the last two decades as higher intensity lasers are found to have possible applications in inertial fusion, laboratory astrophysics and ion acceleration for oncology or ultrafast proton probing. All of these applications require a good understanding of laser-electron coupling and fast electron transport in solid targets which has proven difficult to diagnose. Here we present data from an experiment carried out on the Astra Gemini laser system at STFC-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, where novel targets and diagnostics illuminate the complex processes at play. An outline of how x-ray free electron lasers may further expand our understanding of such processes will also be described.

  13. Penning plasma based simultaneous light emission source of visible and VUV lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, G. L.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Manchanda, R.; Halder, N.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a laboratory-based penning plasma discharge source is reported which has been developed in two anode configurations and is able to produce visible and VUV lights simultaneously. The developed source has simultaneous diagnostics facility using Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The two anode configurations, namely, double ring and rectangular configurations, have been studied and compared for optimum use of the geometry for efficient light emissions and recording. The plasma is produced using helium gas and admixture of three noble gases including helium, neon, and argon. The source is capable to produce eight spectral lines for pure helium in the VUV range from 20 to 60 nm and total 24 spectral lines covering the wavelength range 20-106 nm for the admixture of gases. The large range of VUV lines is generated from gaseous admixture rather from the sputtered materials. The recorded spectrum shows that the plasma light radiations in both visible and VUV range are larger in double ring configuration than that of the rectangular configurations at the same discharge operating conditions. To clearly understand the difference, the imaging of the discharge using ICCD camera and particle-in-cell simulation using VORPAL have also been carried out. The effect of ion diffusion, metastable collision with the anode wall and the nonlinear effects are correlated to explain the results.

  14. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.;

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...... during thermomechanical loading. Case studies demonstrate the mapping of grain boundary topology, the evaluation of stress tensors of individual grains during tensile deformation and comparison to a finite element modeling simulation, and the characterization of evolving dislocation structure...

  15. Advanced neutron source three-element-core fuel grading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed advanced neutron source (ANS) neutron research facility's purpose is to provide unprecedented experimental capabilities in the areas of neutron scattering, materials research, and isotope production. The primary goals of the ANS project are to obtain neutron flux levels that are 5 to 10 times larger than any current existing facility and to provide isotope irradiation facilities that are at least as good as the High-Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The design changes in the ANS are described

  16. Review of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) materials irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to document as accurately as possible the present and future needs for neutron irradiation capacity and facilities as related to the design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) which will be the next generation steady-state research reactor. The report provides the findings and recommendations of the working group. After introductory and background information is presented, the discussion includes the status of the ANS design, in particular in-core materials irradiation facilities design and important experimental parameters. The summary of workshop discussions describes a survey of irradiation-effects research community and opportunities for ex-core irradiation facilities. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured

  18. Automated tuning of the advanced photon source booster synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedron, S.G.; Milton, S.V.

    1997-08-01

    The acceleration cycle of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster synchrotron is completed within 223 ms and is repeated at 2 Hz. Unless properly corrected, transverse and longitudinal injection errors can lead to inefficient booster performance. In order to simplify daily operation, automated tuning methods have been developed. Through the use of beam position monitor (BPM) reading, transfer line corrector magnets, magnet ramp timing, and empirically determined response functions, the injection process is optimized by correcting the first turn trajectory to the measured closed orbit. These tuning algorithms and their implementation are described here along with an evaluation of their performance.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of VIIRS DNB Nightlight Point Source for Light Power Estimation and Stability Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity and advanced onboard calibration on the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB enables accurate measurements of low light radiances which leads to enhanced quantitative applications at night. The finer spatial resolution of DNB also allows users to examine social economic activities at urban scales. Given the growing interest in the use of the DNB data, there is a pressing need for better understanding of the calibration stability and absolute accuracy of the DNB at low radiances. The low light calibration accuracy was previously estimated at a moderate 15% using extended sources while the long-term stability has yet to be characterized. There are also several science related questions to be answered, for example, how the Earth’s atmosphere and surface variability contribute to the stability of the DNB measured radiances; how to separate them from instrument calibration stability; whether or not SI (International System of Units traceable active light sources can be designed and installed at selected sites to monitor the calibration stability, radiometric and geolocation accuracy, and point spread functions of the DNB; furthermore, whether or not such active light sources can be used for detecting environmental changes, such as aerosols. This paper explores the quantitative analysis of nightlight point sources, such as those from fishing vessels, bridges, and cities, using fundamental radiometry and radiative transfer, which would be useful for a number of applications including search and rescue in severe weather events, as well as calibration/validation of the DNB. Time series of the bridge light data are used to assess the stability of the light measurements and the calibration of VIIRS DNB. It was found that the light radiant power computed from the VIIRS DNB data matched relatively well with independent assessments based on the in situ light installations, although estimates have to be

  20. Complex Evaluation of Light Sources in Case of Electric Power Cost Increase

    OpenAIRE

    Y. N. Kolesnik; A. V. Ivaneychik

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives complex evaluation of efficiency of incandescent lamps, luminescent and light-emitting-diode (LED) light sources in case of electric power price increase. On the basis of experimental table lamp electric power indices of light-emitting-diode (LED) light sources with equivalent luminous flux have been determined. Dependences of main indices of economic efficiency of various light sources on their operational regimes have been obtained and rate of influence on these indices of e...

  1. Fundamental limits on beam stability at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbit correction is now routinely performed at the few-micron level in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Three diagnostics are presently in use to measure and control both AC and DC orbit motions: broad-band turn-by-turn rf beam position monitors (BPMs), narrow-band switched heterodyne receivers, and photoemission-style x-ray beam position monitors. Each type of diagnostic has its own set of systematic error effects that place limits on the ultimate pointing stability of x-ray beams supplied to users at the APS. Limiting sources of beam motion at present are magnet power supply noise, girder vibration, and thermal timescale vacuum chamber and girder motion. This paper will investigate the present limitations on orbit correction, and will delve into the upgrades necessary to achieve true sub-micron beam stability

  2. Man-machine interface builders at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory is constructing a 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source for use as a synchrotron radiation source in basic and applied research. The controls and computing environment for this accelerator complex includes graphical operator interfaces to the machine based on Motif, X11, and PHIGS/PEX. Construction and operation of the control system for this accelerator relies upon interactive interface builder and diagram/editor type tools, as well as a run-time environment for the constructed displays which communicate with the physical machine via network connections. This paper discusses our experience with several commercial CUI builders, the inadequacies found in these, motivation for the development of an application- specific builder, and design and implementation strategies employed in the development of our own Man-Machine Interface builder. 5 refs

  3. Polymerization shrinkage stress of composites photoactivated by different light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; Drubi Filho, Brahim; Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Consani, Simonides

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the polymerization shrinkage stress of composite resins (microfilled, microhybrid and hybrid) photoactivated by quartz-tungsten halogen light (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED). Glass rods (5.0 mm x 5.0 cm) were fabricated and had one of the surfaces air-abraded with aluminum oxide and coated with a layer of an adhesive system, which was photoactivated with the QTH unit. The glass rods were vertically assembled, in pairs, to a universal testing machine and the composites were applied to the lower rod. The upper rod was placed closer, at 2 mm, and an extensometer was attached to the rods. The 20 composites were polymerized by either QTH (n=10) or LED (n=10) curing units. Polymerization was carried out using 2 devices positioned in opposite sides, which were simultaneously activated for 40 s. Shrinkage stress was analyzed twice: shortly after polymerization (t40s) and 10 min later (t10min). Data were analyzed statistically by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). The shrinkage stress for all composites was higher at t10min than at t40s, regardless of the activation source. Microfilled composite resins showed lower shrinkage stress values compared to the other composite resins. For the hybrid and microhybrid composite resins, the light source had no influence on the shrinkage stress, except for microfilled composite at t10min. It may be concluded that the composition of composite resins is the factor with the strongest influence on shrinkage stress. PMID:20069256

  4. Follow-up fuel plate stability experiments and analyses for the Advanced Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1993-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source uses closely spaced plates cooled by heavy water flowing through narrow channels. Two sets of tests were performed on the upper and lower fuel plates for the structural response of the fuel plates to the required high coolant flow velocities. This report contains the data from the second round of tests. Results and conclusions from all of the tests are also included in this report. The tests were done using light water on full-scale epoxy models, and through model theory, the results were related to the prototype plates, which are aluminum-clad aluminum/uranium silicide involute-shaped plates.

  5. Advances in the use of open-source information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great advances have been made in the application of open-source information for Safeguards. However, the open-source 'ecosystem' is rapidly evolving. Recently, the combination of powerful smart-phones and the World Wide Web have led to novel developments for mapping the impact of natural and man-made disasters. Researchers are learning to harness online volunteers as citizen scientists. Online social media such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are becoming accepted channels of credible information. Geo-spatially-aware applications (augmented reality applications) are capable of overlaying data upon a smart-phone's view screen. The authors review available open-source tools and technologies. These and other developments will have a significant effect on the collection, evaluation, structuring, analysis, and dissemination of safeguards-relevant information. In addition, the modern, open Internet is posing new security threats.not just viruses and their ilk, but threats based on digital traces left by browsing the open Web. The authors present a case study of the disastrous toxic flood near Devecser, Hungary in October 2010 for which we get 621,000 results for everything related to search terms, 68,000 blog posts on the topic, 43,300 images available and then give recommendations for the future use of open-source information and software tools. (authors)

  6. Plasma-Based Studies on 4th Generation Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R W; Baldis, H A; Cauble, R C; Landen, O L; Wark, J S; Ng, A; Rose, S J; Lewis, C; Riley, D; Gauthier, J-C; Audebert, P

    2000-11-28

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warn dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (T{sub e}), the density (n{sub e}), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, n{sub e}, {ge} 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3} implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However. the possibilities end for plasmas with n{sub e} {ge} 10{sup 22} since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  7. Spectral characteristics of insertion device sources at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory will be a powerful source of hard x-rays with energies above 1 keV. In addition to the availability of bending magnet radiation, the storage ring will have 35 straight sections for insertion device (ID) x-ray sources. The unique spectral properties and flexibility of these devices open new possibilities for scientific research in essentially every area of science and technology. Existing and new techniques utilizing the full potential of these sources, such as the enhanced coherence, unique polarization properties, and high spectral brilliance, will permit experiments not possible with existing sources. In the following presentation, the spectral properties of ID sources are briefly reviewed. A summary of the specific properties of sources planned for the APS storage ring is then presented. Recent results for APS prototype ID sources are discussed, and finally some special x-ray sources under consideration for the APS facility are described

  8. Spectral characteristics of insertion device sources at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory will be a powerful source of hard x-rays with energies above 1 keV. In addition to the availability of bending magnet radiation, the storage ring will have 35 straight sections for insertion device (ID) x-ray sources. The unique spectral properties and flexibility of these devices open new possibilities for scientific research in essentially every area of science and technology. Existing and new techniques utilizing the full potential of these sources, such as the enhanced coherence, unique polarization properties, and high spectral brilliance, will permit experiments not possible with existing sources. In the following presentation, the spectral properties of ID sources are briefly reviewed. A summary of the specific properties of sources planned for the APS storage ring is then presented. Recent results for APS prototype ID sources are discussed, and finally some special x-ray sources under consideration for the APS facility are described

  9. Spectral characteristics of insertion device sources at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory will be a powerful source of hard x-rays with energies above 1 keV. In addition to the availability of bending magnet radiation, the storage ring will have 35 straight sections for insertion device (ID) x-ray sources. The unique spectral properties and flexibility of these devices open new possibilities for scientific research in essentially every area of science and technology. Existing and new techniques utilizing the full potential of these sources, such as the enhanced coherence, unique polarization properties, and high spectral brilliance, will permit experiments not possible with existing sources. In the following presentation, the spectral properties of ID sources are briefly reviewed. A summary of the specific properties of sources planned for the APS storage ring is then presented. Recent results for APS prototype ID sources are discussed, and finally some special x-ray sources under consideration for the APS facility are described. 9 refs

  10. Atomic physics at the Advanced Photon Source: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Workshop on Atomic Physics at the Advanced Photon Source was held at Argonne National Laboratory on March 29--30, 1990. The unprecedented brightness of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the hard X-ray region is expected to make possible a vast array of new research opportunities for the atomic-physics community. Starting with discussions of the history and current status of the field, presentations were made on various future directions for research with hard X-rays interacting with atoms, ions, clusters, and solids. Also important were the discussions on the design and status of the four next-generation rings coming on line during the 1990's: the ALS 1.6 GeV ring at Berkeley; the ESRF 6.0-GeV ring at Grenoble (1993); the APS 7.0-GeV ring at Argonne (1995); and the SPring-8 8.0-GeV ring in Japan (1998). The participation of more than one hundred scientists from domestic as well as foreign institutions demonstrated a strong interest in this field. We plan to organize follow-up workshops in the future emphasizing specific research topics

  11. On plasma ion beam formation in the Advanced Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Plasma Source (APS) is employed for plasma ion-assisted deposition (PIAD) of optical coatings. The APS is a hot cathode dc glow discharge which emits a plasma ion beam to the deposition chamber at high vacuum (p ≲ 2 × 10−4 mbar). It is established as an industrial tool but to date no detailed information is available on plasma parameters in the process chamber. As a consequence, the details of the generation of the plasma ion beam and the reasons for variations of the properties of the deposited films are barely understood. In this paper the results obtained from Langmuir probe and retarding field energy analyzer diagnostics operated in the plasma plume of the APS are presented, where the source was operated with argon. With increasing distance to the source exit the electron density (ne) is found to drop by two orders of magnitude and the effective electron temperature (Te,eff) drops by a factor of five. The parameters close to the source region read ne ≳ 1011 cm−3 and Te,eff ≳ 10 eV. The electron distribution function exhibits a concave shape and can be described in the framework of the non-local approximation. It is revealed that an energetic ion population leaves the source region and a cold ion population in the plume is build up by charge exchange collisions with the background neutral gas. Based on the experimental data a scaling law for ion beam power is deduced, which links the control parameters of the source to the plasma parameters in the process chamber. (paper)

  12. Terahertz Light Source and User Area at FACET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FACET at SLAC provides high charge, high peak current, low emittance electron beam that is bunched at THz wavelength scale during its normal operation. A THz light source based coherent transition radiation (CTR) from this beam would potentially be the brightest short-pulse THz source ever constructed. Efforts have been put into building this photon source together with a user area, to provide a platform to utilize this unique THz radiation for novel nonlinear and ultrafast phenomena researches and experiments. Being a long-time underutilized portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz (100 GHz ∼ 10 THz) spectral range is experiencing a renaissance in recent years, with broad interests from chemical and biological imaging, material science, telecommunication, semiconductor and superconductor research, etc. Nevertheless, the paucity of THz sources especially strong THz radiation hinders both its commercial applications and nonlinear processes research. FACET - Facilities for Accelerator science and Experimental Test beams at SLAC - provides 23 GeV electron beam with peak currents of ∼ 20 kA that can be focused down to 100 μm2 transversely. Such an intense electron beam, when compressed to sub-picosecond longitudinal bunch length, coherently radiates high intensity EM fields well within THz frequency range that are orders of magnitude stronger than those available from laboratory tabletop THz sources, which will enable a wide variety of THz related research opportunities. Together with a description of the FACET beamline and electron beam parameters, this paper will report FACET THz radiation generation via coherent transition radiation and calculated photon yield and power spectrum. A user table is being set up along the THz radiation extraction sites, and equipped with various signal diagnostics including THz power detector, Michelson interferometer, sample stages, and sets of motorized optical components. This setup will also be presented. Potential

  13. Terahertz Light Source and User Area at FACET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Fisher, A.D.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    FACET at SLAC provides high charge, high peak current, low emittance electron beam that is bunched at THz wavelength scale during its normal operation. A THz light source based coherent transition radiation (CTR) from this beam would potentially be the brightest short-pulse THz source ever constructed. Efforts have been put into building this photon source together with a user area, to provide a platform to utilize this unique THz radiation for novel nonlinear and ultrafast phenomena researches and experiments. Being a long-time underutilized portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz (100 GHz {approx} 10 THz) spectral range is experiencing a renaissance in recent years, with broad interests from chemical and biological imaging, material science, telecommunication, semiconductor and superconductor research, etc. Nevertheless, the paucity of THz sources especially strong THz radiation hinders both its commercial applications and nonlinear processes research. FACET - Facilities for Accelerator science and Experimental Test beams at SLAC - provides 23 GeV electron beam with peak currents of {approx} 20 kA that can be focused down to 100 {mu}m{sup 2} transversely. Such an intense electron beam, when compressed to sub-picosecond longitudinal bunch length, coherently radiates high intensity EM fields well within THz frequency range that are orders of magnitude stronger than those available from laboratory tabletop THz sources, which will enable a wide variety of THz related research opportunities. Together with a description of the FACET beamline and electron beam parameters, this paper will report FACET THz radiation generation via coherent transition radiation and calculated photon yield and power spectrum. A user table is being set up along the THz radiation extraction sites, and equipped with various signal diagnostics including THz power detector, Michelson interferometer, sample stages, and sets of motorized optical components. This setup will also be

  14. Proceedings of the Advanced Photon Source renewal workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. M.; Mills, D. M.; Kobenhavns Univ.; Northwestern Univ.; Stony Brook Univ.; Univ. of Pennsylvania; Notre Dame Univ.; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Connecticut; Diamond Light Source Ltd.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; North Dakota State Univ.; Washington State Univ.; ORNL; Univ. of Illinois; NIH

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in March 2008, Advanced Photon Source (APS) management engaged users, facility staff, the distinguished members of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, and other outside experts in crafting a renewal plan for this premier synchrotron x-ray research facility. It is vital that the investment in the APS renewal begin as soon as possible in order to keep this important U.S. facility internationally competitive. The APS renewal plan encompasses innovations in the beamlines and the x-ray source that are needed for major advances in science - advances that promise to further extend the impact of x-ray science on energy research, technology development, materials innovation, economic competitiveness, health, and far-reaching fundamental knowledge. A planning milestone was the APS Renewal Workshop held on October 20-21, 2008. Organized by the APS Renewal Steering Committee, the purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum where leading researchers could present the broad outlines of forward-looking plans for science at the APS in all major disciplines serviced by x-ray techniques. Two days of scientific presentations, discussions, and dialogue involved more than 180 scientists representing 41 institutions. The scientific talks and breakout/discussion sessions provided a forum for Science Team leaders to present the outlines of forward-looking plans for experimentation in all the major scientific disciplines covered by photon science. These proceedings comprise the reports from the Science Teams that were commissioned by the APS Renewal Steering Committee, having been edited by the Science Teams after discussion at the workshop.

  15. Light-assisted drying (LAD) of small volume biologics: a comparison of two IR light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Madison A.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2016-03-01

    Protein therapeutics have been developed to treat diseases ranging from arthritis and psoriasis to cancer. A challenge in the development of protein-based drugs is maintaining the protein in the folded state during processing and storage. We are developing a novel processing method, light-assisted drying (LAD), to dehydrate proteins suspended in a sugar (trehalose) solution for storage at supra-zero temperatures. Our technique selectively heats the water in small volume samples using near-IR light to speed dehydration which prevents sugar crystallization that can damage embedded proteins. In this study, we compare the end moisture content (EMC) as a function of processing time of samples dried with two different light sources, Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and Thulium fiber (1850 nm) lasers. EMC is the ratio of water to dry weight in a sample and the lower the EMC the higher the possible storage temperature. LAD with the 1064 and 1850 nm lasers yielded 78% and 65% lower EMC, respectively, than standard air-drying. After 40 minutes of LAD with 1064 and 1850 nm sources, EMCs of 0.27+/-.27 and 0.15+/-.05 gH2O/gDryWeight were reached, which are near the desired value of 0.10 gH2O/gDryWeight that enables storage in a glassy state without refrigeration. LAD is a promising new technique for the preparation of biologics for anhydrous preservation.

  16. A nano-graphite cold cathode for an energy-efficient cathodoluminescent light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Obraztsov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of new types of light sources is necessary in order to meet the growing demands of consumers and to ensure an efficient use of energy. The cathodoluminescence process is still under-exploited for light generation because of the lack of cathodes suitable for the energy-efficient production of electron beams and appropriate phosphor materials. In this paper we propose a nano-graphite film material as a highly efficient cold cathode, which is able to produce high intensity electron beams without energy consumption. The nano-graphite film material was produced by using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Prototypes of cathodoluminescent lamp devices with a construction optimized for the usage of nano-graphite cold cathodes were developed, manufactured and tested. The results indicate prospective advantages of this type of lamp and the possibility to provide advanced power efficiency as well as enhanced spectral and other characteristics.

  17. Front-Light Source Using Inverted Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Microcathode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Kohei; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    We have demonstrated an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) front-light source with a blinding microcathode array on a transparent electrode and a top-emission structure. Contrast ratio was improved by inserting MoO3 at the indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/Al interface. In a device of glass substrate/ITO/MoO3/meshed Al/lithium fluoride (LiF)/tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum(III) (Alq3)/bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl] benzidine (α-NPD)/MoO3/semitransparent Au structure, the maximum luminance of top-side emission was 1,140 cd/m2, and the contrast ratio was 19:1. The transmittance was 44% at 555 nm.

  18. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  19. Highlights from e-EPS: Coordinated Access to Light sources

    CERN Multimedia

    e-EPS News

    2014-01-01

    The CALIPSO project, which runs until May 2015, will contribute to the effective exploitation of European synchrotrons and free electron lasers. CALIPSO (Coordinated Access to Light sources to Promote Standards and Optimisation) includes 20 partners forming one of the largest Research Networks in the world.   e-EPS interviewed M. Bertolo, CALIPSO project manager and his assistant C. Blasetti. Which challenges are addressed by CALIPSO? CALIPSO’s goal is to optimize the exploitation of the European synchrotrons and Free Electron Lasers. With respect to previous projects funded by the European Commission, it foresees significant improvements in integration, innovation and user-friendliness in all three areas of networking, transnational access and instrumentation. The Transnational Access program potentially benefits a community of 25,000 estimated users offering free open access to 12 synchrotrons and 5 free electron lasers solely based on scientific merit. In ad...

  20. Tunable and monochromatic light sources at LEBRA in Nihon University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two tunable light sources, a free electron laser (FEL) oscillator in the near infrared region and a Parametric X-ray (PXR) generator, have been developed on the basis of the 125-MeV electron linac in the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) at Nihon University. The saturated FEL lasing has been obtained in a wavelength range from 1 to 6 μm, with the maximum output energy of approximately 30 mJ per macropulse at around 2.4 μm. The property of the PXR generator has been investigated since the first observation of the PXR beam in 2004. The tunability of the device to the X-ray energy has been obtained in a range from 6 to 20 keV with the resolution of a few eV. Various application studies have been performed using the FEL or the PXR beam. (author)

  1. National synchrotron light source medical personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated

  2. An integrated source of broadband quadrature squeezed light

    CERN Document Server

    Hoff, Ulrich B; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2015-01-01

    An integrated silicon nitride resonator is proposed as an ultra-compact source of bright single-mode quadrature squeezed light at 850 nm. Optical properties of the device are investigated and tailored through numerical simulations, with particular attention paid to loss associated with interfacing the device. An asymmetric double layer stack waveguide geometry with inverse vertical tapers is proposed for efficient and robust fibre-chip coupling, yielding a simulated total loss of -0.75 dB/facet. We assess the feasibility of the device through a full quantum noise analysis and derive the output squeezing spectrum for intra-cavity pump self-phase modulation. Subject to standard material loss and detection efficiencies, we find that the device holds promises for generating substantial quantum noise squeezing over a bandwidth exceeding 1 GHz. In the low-propagation loss regime, approximately -7 dB squeezing is predicted for a pump power of only 50 mW.

  3. Operation of the ANKA Synchrotron Light Source with Superconductive Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossmanith, Robert; Bernhard, Axel; Hagelstein, Michael; Kostka, Barbara; Steffens, Erhard; Weisser, Matthias; Wollmann, D

    2005-01-01

    The synchrotron light source ANKA (2.5 GeV, 200 mA) is a versatile multi-purpose storage ring with beam lines for coherent IR and THz radiation (IR-laser), LIGA applications and high brilliance X-rays. It is now plannned to install in addition several superconductive undulators for a wide range of applications: fast tunable X-rays for material research, imaging applications and an undulator with variable polarization direction for a dichroism beamline. This development of ANKA is the result of successful research on superconductive undulators which surpass the performance of permanent undulators by far (collaboration between ANKA, the University of Karlsruhe and the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg). The basic layout of the undulators and the required changes to a storage ring to accommodate the superconductive undulators is described in this paper.

  4. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region

  5. The National Synchrotron Light Source, Part I: Bright Idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) was the first facility designed and built specifically for producing and exploiting synchrotron radiation. It was also the first facility to incorporate the Chasman-Green lattice for maximizing brightness. The NSLS was a $24-million project conceived about 1970. It was officially proposed in 1976, and its groundbreaking took place in 1978. Its construction was a key episode in Brookhaven's history, in the transition of synchrotron radiation from a novelty to a commodity, and in the transition of synchrotron-radiation scientists from parasitic to autonomous researchers. The way the machine was conceived, designed, promoted, and constructed illustrates much both about the tensions and tradeoffs faced by large scientific projects in the age of big science. In this article, the first of two parts, I cover the conception, design, and planning of the NSLS up to its groundbreaking. Part II, covering its construction, will appear in the next issue.

  6. Continuous-wave optical fiber based supercontinuum light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z. G.; Song, Y.; Liu, J. R.; Zhang, X. P.

    2007-11-01

    We have demonstrated a continuum-wave (CW) supercontinuum (SC) fiber light source with over 1000 nm bandwidth based on a low-cost erbium/ytterbium co-doped double-cladding fiber ring cavity laser. Based on the observation to the SC evolvement, we have experimentally analyzed the detailed contributions of several nonlinear effects within highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber (HNLF). Our experimental results have clearly indicated that four-wave mixing (FWM) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) play key roles in CW-pumped SC generation. At the same time, self-phase modulation (SPM) mainly contributes to generate new frequency components near the peaks that appear in the form of the spectra broadening while cross-phase modulation (XPM) enhances the broadening of peaks.

  7. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ∼2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  8. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS` Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region.

  9. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses ; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region.

  10. Overview of insertion device controls at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Grimmer, John; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron with major emphasis on insertion device (ID) sources. Currently, there are 25 sectors instrumented out of a possible 35 ID sources. Most of the insertion devices are undulators. Beamlines have been using the ID radiation at the APS for more than five years. The control system of choice at the APS is the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) (http://www.aps.anl.gov/epics). Based on operational experience, the ID control system has been completely revamped. During user operations, the beamline user has complete control of the insertion device. Various interfaces, from RS-232 to EPICS channel access, have been provided for the users to control the IDs. The control system software has been designed to accommodate scanning of the insertion device synchronized to each user's beamline monochromator. The users have the option of operating the device in a tapered mode. The control software allows the users to control the undulators in energy space from the fundamental to the seventh harmonic. The design philosophy of the insertion device control system will be discussed. The implementation and operational experience will be presented in detail.

  11. Industry-grade high average power femtosecond light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckl, O. H.; Weiler, S.; Fleischhaker, R.; Gebs, R.; Budnicki, A.; Wolf, M.; Kleinbauer, J.; Russ, S.; Kumkar, M.; Sutter, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrashort pulses are capable of processing practically any material with negligible heat affected zone. Typical pulse durations for industrial applications are situated in the low picosecond-regime. Pulse durations of 5 ps or below are a well established compromise between the electron-phonon interaction time of most materials and the need for pulses long enough to suppress detrimental effects such as nonlinear interaction with the ablated plasma plume. However, sub-picosecond pulses can further increase the ablation efficiency for certain materials, depending on the available average power, pulse energy and peak fluence. Based on the well established TruMicro 5000 platform (first release in 2007, third generation in 2011) an Yb:YAG disk amplifier in combination with a broadband seed laser was used to scale the output power for industrial femtosecond-light sources: We report on a subpicosecond amplifier that delivers a maximum of 160 W of average output power at pulse durations of 750 fs. Optimizing the system for maximum peak power allowed for pulse energies of 850 μJ at pulse durations of 650 fs. Based on this study and the approved design of the TruMicro 5000 product-series, industrygrade, high average power femtosecond-light sources are now available for 24/7 operation. Since their release in May 2013 we were able to increase the average output power of the TruMicro 5000 FemtoEdition from 40 W to 80 W while maintaining pulse durations around 800 fs. First studies on metals reveal a drastic increase of processing speed for some micro processing applications.

  12. The perihelion of Mercury advance and the light bending calculated in (enhanced) Newton's theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, M A; Wielgus, M

    2013-01-01

    We show that results of a simple dynamical gedanken experiment interpreted according to standard Newton's gravitational theory, may reveal that three-dimensional space is curved. The experiment may be used to reconstruct the curved geometry of space, i.e. its non-Euclidean metric. The perihelion of Mercury advance and the light bending calculated from the Poisson equation and the equation of motion in the curved geometry have the correct (observed) values. Independently, we also show that Newtonian gravity theory may be enhanced to incorporate the curvature of three dimensional space by adding an extra equation which links the Ricci scalar with the density of matter. Like in Einstein's general relativity, matter is the source of curvature. In the spherically symmetric (vacuum) case, the metric of space 3gik that follows from this extra equation agrees, to the expected accuracy, with the metric measured by the Newtonian gedanken experiment mentioned above.

  13. Recent advancement of slow light in microwave photonics applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Sanghoon; Thévenaz, Luc

    2010-01-01

    A complete realization of an optically tunable true time delay, generated through the combination of a photonic RF phase shifter and a Brillouin slow light element is presented. Illustration through a dynamic microwave photonic filter is demonstrated.

  14. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  15. The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, J F

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector prior to its installation into the APS linac. A modular control system for the test stand has been developed using standard APS control solutions with EPICS to deliver a flexible and comprehensive control system. The modularity of the system will allow both the future expansion of test stand functionality and the evaluation of new control techniques and solutions.

  16. [Overview of RF systems for the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is being built by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) near Chicago. The APS is a 7-GeV positron storage ring from which x-ray beams of energies from a few keV to hundreds of keV are emitted as the positrons pass through ring bending magnets and also through special magnets called wigglers and undulators. The present schedule is to be operational in 1995. The energy emitted from the positron beam as x-rays is replaced through a radio-frequency accelerating system operating at 352 MHz at a maximum power level of 3 MW. The RF system will be described as well as several lower-power systems at frequencies of 0.8 MHz, 117 MHz and 2.8 GHz. The associated control electronics (phase shifters amplitude control, automatic tuning control, etc.) as well as the computer control architecture will also be described

  17. Design considerations for mirrors at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed ray-tracing studies and preliminary thermal analysis are presented for two mirrors that will be installed at the Advanced Photon Source. The first mirror is designed to accept white radiation from a bending magnet. This radiation is 5 mrad in the horizontal direction and 73 μrad in the vertical. A 1.5 m long toroidal mirror is planned. The second mirror accepts radiation from an undulator. This radiation is 55 μrad and 25 μrad in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. A 70-cm toroidal mirror is planned. Both mirrors are optimized for 1:1 focusing in order to minimize optical aberrations. Design specifications are presented. Suitable materials for the mirror substrates and reflective surfaces are discussed as well

  18. Photon energy tunability of the advanced photon source undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a fixed storage ring energy, the energy of the harmonics of an undulator can be shifted or open-quote tunedclose quotes by changing the magnet gap of the device. The possible photon energy interval spanned in this way depends on the undulator period, minimum closed gap, minimum acceptable photon intensity and storage ring energy. The minimum magnet gap depends directly on the stay-clear particle beam aperture required for storage ring operation. The tunability of undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source with first harmonic photon energies in the range of 5-20 keV is discussed. The results of an analysis used to optimize the APS ring energy is presented and tunability contours and K-values are given for two typical classes of devices

  19. Commissioning software tools at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software tool-oriented approach has been adopted in the commissioning of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, particularly in the commissioning of the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR). The general philosophy is to decompose a complicated procedure involving measurement, data processing, and control into a series of simpler steps, each accomplished by a generic toolkit program. The implementation is greatly facilitated by adopting the SDDS (self-describing data set protocol), which comes with its own toolkit. The combined toolkit has made accelerator physics measurements easier. For instance, the measurement of the optical functions of the PAR and the beamlines connected to it have been largely automated. Complicated measurements are feasible with a combination of tools running independently

  20. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems.

  1. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems.

  2. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems

  3. Elliptical multipole wiggler beamlines at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team has built three independent beamlines, which simultaneously utilize the X-ray radiation from an elliptical multipole wiggler, located at Sector 11 of the Advanced Photon Source. This insertion device produces circularly polarized X-rays on-axis and linearly polarized X-rays above and below the ring plane. The lower linearly polarized radiation is used in the monochromatic 11ID-D station for scattering and spectroscopy experiments in the 5-40 keV range. The on-axis circularly polarized photons are used for magnetic Compton scattering experiments in the 11ID-B station. The upper linearly polarized radiation is utilized by the high-energy diffraction station, 11ID-C. We report here on the beamline optics and experimental station equipment

  4. Some results of the advanced photon source beam lifetime studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total beam lifetime consists of two components: the residual-gas-scattering lifetime and Touschek lifetime. The residual-gas lifetime is comprised of the elastic and inelastic scattering on electrons and elastic and inelastic scattering on nuclei. Touschek scattering involves scattering of particles within the bunch. One usually calculates only the elastic scattering on nuclei (single Coulomb scattering) and inelastic scattering on nuclei (bremsstrahlung) of the residual-gas-scattering lifetime component. Experience gained from computing the beam lifetime in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring shows that the electron scattering should not be neglected, particularly the inelastic contribution. Given the measured quantities from the APS storage ring, one can compare theoretical predictions with experimental results. Uncertainties in calculating the various contributions to lifetime will be discussed

  5. Advanced Neutron Source Reactor thermal analysis of fuel plate defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor designed to provide the highest continuous neutron beam intensity of any reactor in the world. The present technology for determining safe operations were developed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). These techniques are conservative and provide confidence in the safe operation of HFIR. However, the more intense requirements of ANSR necessitate the development of more accurate, but still conservative, techniques. This report details the development of a Local Analysis Technique (LAT) that provides an appropriate approach. Application of the LAT to two ANSR core designs are presented. New theories of the thermal and nuclear behavior of the U3Si2 fuel are utilized. The implications of lower fuel enrichment and of modifying the inspection procedures are also discussed. Development of the computer codes that enable the automate execution of the LAT is included

  6. Construction and commissioning of the national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The road from conception to completion of a large facility like the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a long and tortuous one. More than fifteen years have passed since the first discussions of a synchrotron radiation source at BNL, and there have been many twists and turns in the process. In putting together an accelerator project like this, there are many critical skills that must be assembled, and budgets, schedules and organizations must be properly examined. The lessons learned in design and commissioning of the NSLS rings may be summarized as follows: (1) the damped emittances expected of a Chasman-Green lattice are attainable at high current, if ion trapping problems can be circumvented; (2) there have been no unexpected effects from the rather strong sextupoles required to correct the chromaticities in this type of lattice; (3) the most important beam instabilities are coupled-bunch, and can be counteracted; and (4) commissioning the NSLS rings was mostly an effort to bring the hardware into conformation with the original ring design; achievement of the specified magnetic fields, injection timing, vacuum, RF voltages, etc. led to ring performance which was easily good enough to begin operation

  7. Status of PEP-X Light Source Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Bertsche, K.J.; Cai, Y.; Chao, A.; Huang, X.; Jiao, Y.; Ng, C.-K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Rivetta, C.H.; Safranek, J.A.; Stupakov, G.V.; Wang, L.; Wang, M.-H.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC; Rabedeau, T.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    The SLAC Beam Physics group and other SLAC collaborators continue to study options for implementing a near diffraction-limited ring-based light source in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel that will serve the SSRL scientific program in the future. The study team has completed the baseline design for a 4.5-GeV storage ring having 160 pm-rad emittance with stored beam current of 1.5 A, providing >10{sup 22} brightness for multi-keV photon beams from 3.5-m undulator sources. The team has also investigated possible 5-GeV ERL configurations which, similar to the Cornell and KEK ERL plans, would have {approx}30 pm-rad emittance with 100 mA current, and {approx}10 pm-rad emittance with 25 mA or less. Now a 4.5-GeV 'ultimate' storage ring having emittance similar to the ERL and operating with {approx}200 mA is under study. An overview of the progress of the PEP-X design study and SSRL's plans for defining performance parameters that will guide the choice of ring options is presented.

  8. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project progress report, FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The President's budget request for FY 1994 included a construction project for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). However, the budget that emerged from the Congress did not, and so activities during this reporting period were limited to continued research and development and to advanced conceptual design. A significant effort was devoted to a study, requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and led by Brookhaven National Laboratory, of the performance and cost impacts of reducing the uranium fuel enrichment below the baseline design value of 93%. The study also considered alternative core designs that might mitigate those impacts. The ANS Project proposed a modified core design, with three fuel elements instead of two, that would allow operation with only 50% enriched uranium and use existing fuel technology. The performance penalty would be 15--20% loss of thermal neutron flux; the flux would still just meet the minimum design requirement set by the user community. At the time of this writing, DOE has not established an enrichment level for ANS, but two advisory committees have recommended adopting the new core design, provided the minimum flux requirements are still met

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of New Laser Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Arecchi, F; Mooradian, Aram; Sona, Alberto

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Physics of New Laser Sources", the twelfth course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics, held under the supervision of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society. The Institute was held at Centro "I Cappuccini" San Miniato, Tuscany, July 11-21, 1984. The Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics was started in 1970 with the aim of providing instruction for young researchers and advanced students already engaged in the area of quantum electronics or for those wishing to switch into this area after working previously in other areas. From the outset, the School has been under the direction of Prof. F. T. Arecchi, then at the University of Pavia, now at the University of Florence, and Dr. D. Roess of Heraeus, Hanau. In 1981, Prof. H. Walther, University of Munich and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik joined as co-director. Each year the Directors choose a subj~ct of particular int...

  10. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.H.; King-Jones, K.H. [eds.; Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Thompson, P.B. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Central Engineering Services

    1995-01-01

    The President`s budget request for FY 1994 included a construction project for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). However, the budget that emerged from the Congress did not, and so activities during this reporting period were limited to continued research and development and to advanced conceptual design. A significant effort was devoted to a study, requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and led by Brookhaven National Laboratory, of the performance and cost impacts of reducing the uranium fuel enrichment below the baseline design value of 93%. The study also considered alternative core designs that might mitigate those impacts. The ANS Project proposed a modified core design, with three fuel elements instead of two, that would allow operation with only 50% enriched uranium and use existing fuel technology. The performance penalty would be 15--20% loss of thermal neutron flux; the flux would still just meet the minimum design requirement set by the user community. At the time of this writing, DOE has not established an enrichment level for ANS, but two advisory committees have recommended adopting the new core design, provided the minimum flux requirements are still met.

  11. 77 FR 62270 - Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY... Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The current SRP does... Section 19.3, ``Regulatory Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light...

  12. 78 FR 41436 - Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors... Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The NRC seeks public...- Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' This area includes a revised...

  13. Advanced concept proof-of-principle demonstration: Switchable radioactive neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced concept proof-of-principle demonstration was successfully performed to show the feasibility of a practical switchable radioactive neutron source (SRNS) that can be switched on and off like an accelerator, but without requiring accelerator equipment such as high voltage supply, control unit, etc. This source concept would provide a highly portable neutron source for field radiation measurement applications. Such a source would require minimal, if any, shielding when not in use. The SRNS, previously patented by Argonne staff, provides a means of constructing the alpha-emitting and light-element components of a radioactive neutron source, in such a fashion that these two components can brought together to turn the source ''on'' and then be separated to turn the source ''off''. An SRNS could be used for such field applications as active neutron interrogation of objects to detect fissile materials or to measure their concentration; and to excite gamma-ray emission for detection of specific elements that indicate toxic chemicals, drugs, explosives, etc. The demonstration was performed using Pu-238 as the alpha emitter and Be as the light element, in an air-atmosphere glovebox having no atmosphere purification capability. A stable, thin film of Pu-238 oxide was deposited on a stainless steel planchet. The ''on'' output of the demonstration Pu-238 film was measured to be 2.5 x 106 neutrons/sec-gram of Pu-238. The measured ''off'' neutron rate was satisfactory, only about 5% of the ''on'' output, after two weeks of exposure to the glovebox atmosphere. After several weeks additional exposure, the ''off'' rate had increased to about 15%. This work demonstrates the feasibility of constructing practical, highly portable SRNS units with very low gamma-ray dose in the ''off'' position

  14. Overview of the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza Joel A.; Franceschini Fausto; Evans Thomas M.; Gehin Jess C.

    2016-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was established in July 2010 for the purpose of providing advanced modeling and simulation solutions for commercial nuclear reactors. The primary goal is to provide coupled, higher-fidelity, usable modeling and simulation capabilities than are currently available. These are needed to address light water reactor (LWR) operational and safety performance-defining phenomena that are not yet able to be fully modeled taking a fir...

  15. Identification of improvements of advanced light water reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this report is to identify the improvement of reactor developments with respect to reactor safety. This includes the collection of non-proprietary information on the description of the advanced design characteristics, especially summary design descriptions and general publications. This documentation is not intended to include a safety evaluation of the advanced concepts; however, it is structured in such a way that it can serve as a basis for a future safety evaluation. This is taken into account in the structure of the information regarding the distinction of the various concepts with respect to their 'advancement' and the classification of design characteristics according to some basic safety aspects. The overall description concentrates on those features which are relevant to safety. Other aspects, such as economy, operational features, maintenance, the construction period, etc...are not considered explicitly in this report

  16. Harnessing structural darkness in the visible and infrared wavelengths for a new source of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianfeng; Liu, Changxu; Zhu, Yihan; Masala, Silvia; Alarousu, Erkki; Han, Yu; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Engineering broadband light absorbers is crucial to many applications, including energy-harvesting devices and optical interconnects. The performances of an ideal absorber are that of a black body, a dark material that absorbs radiation at all angles and polarizations. Despite advances in micrometre-thick films, the absorbers available to date are still far from an ideal black body. Here, we describe a disordered nanostructured material that shows an almost ideal black-body absorption of 98-99% between 400 and 1,400 nm that is insensitive to the angle and polarization of the incident light. The material comprises nanoparticles composed of a nanorod with a nanosphere of 30 nm diameter attached. When diluted into liquids, a small concentration of nanoparticles absorbs on average 26% more than carbon nanotubes, the darkest material available to date. By pumping a dye optical amplifier with nanosecond pulses of ˜100 mW power, we harness the structural darkness of the material and create a new type of light source, which generates monochromatic emission (˜5 nm wide) without the need for any resonance. This is achieved through the dynamics of light condensation in which all absorbed electromagnetic energy spontaneously generates single-colour energy pulses.

  17. The planned photon diagnostics beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the planned photon diagnostics beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source. The photon diagnostics beamlines of the storage ring include two bending magnet sources and a dedicated diagnostic undulator. The bending magnet lines will employ the conventional UV/visible imaging techniques (resolution σ congruent 10 μm) and the x-ray pinhole camera (resolution σ congruent 15 μm) for the measurement of the positron beam-size (design value: σ congruent 100 μm). The opening angle of die undulator radiation will be around σ congruent 3 μrad for its first hamionic (23.2--25.8 keV), and σ congruent=1.7 μrad for its third harmonic (70--72 keV), providing a good resolution for measuring the positron beam divergence size (design values: σ congruent 9 μrad for 10% vertical coupling and 3 μrad for 1% coupling). The undulator and its x-ray, optics are specifically optimized for full emittance measurement of the positron beam. A major developmental effort will be in the area of detecting very fast phenomena (nanosecond and sub-nanosecond) in particle dynamics

  18. Advances in the analysis of iminocyclitols: Methods, sources and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézqueta, Susana; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2016-05-01

    Iminocyclitols are chemically and metabolically stable, naturally occurring sugar mimetics. Their biological activities make them interesting and extremely promising as both drug leads and functional food ingredients. The first iminocyclitols were discovered using preparative isolation and purification methods followed by chemical characterization using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition to this classical approach, gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are increasingly used; they are highly sensitive techniques capable of detecting minute amounts of analytes in a broad spectrum of sources after only minimal sample preparation. These techniques have been applied to identify new iminocyclitols in plants, microorganisms and synthetic mixtures. The separation of iminocyclitol mixtures by chromatography is particularly difficult however, as the most commonly used matrices have very low selectivity for these highly hydrophilic structurally similar molecules. This review critically summarizes recent advances in the analysis of iminocyclitols from plant sources and findings regarding their quantification in dietary supplements and foodstuffs, as well as in biological fluids and organs, from bioavailability studies. PMID:26946023

  19. Advances and prospects in nitrides based light-emitting-diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinmin, Li; Zhe, Liu; Zhiqiang, Liu; Jianchang, Yan; Tongbo, Wei; Xiaoyan, Yi; Junxi, Wang

    2016-06-01

    Due to their low power consumption, long lifetime and high efficiency, nitrides based white light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have long been considered to be a promising technology for next generation illumination. In this work, we provide a brief review of the development of GaN based LEDs. Some pioneering and significant experiment results of our group and the overview of the recent progress in this field are presented. We hope it can provide some meaningful information for the development of high efficiency GaN based LEDs and solid-state-lighting. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA03A101).

  20. LIGHT SOURCE: A simulation study of Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Li, Ren-Kai; Huang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Huai-Bi; Du, Ying-Chao; Du, Qiang; Du, Tai-Bin; He, Xiao-Zhong; Hua, Jian-Fei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Qian, Hou-Jun; Shi, Jia-Ru; Xiang, Dao; Yan, Li-Xin; Yu, Pei-Cheng

    2009-06-01

    Thomson scattering X-ray sources are compact and affordable facilities that produce short duration, high brightness X-ray pulses enabling new experimental capacities in ultra-fast science studies, and also medical and industrial applications. Such a facility has been built at the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University, and upgrade is in progress. In this paper, we present a proposed layout of the upgrade with design parameters by simulation, aiming at high X-ray pulses flux and brightness, and also enabling advanced dynamics studies and applications of the electron beam. Design and construction status of main subsystems are also presented.