WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced heat engines

  1. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  2. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  3. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  4. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  6. Proceedings of the 1987 coatings for advanced heat engines workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This Workshop was conducted to enhance communication among those involved in coating development for improved heat engine performance and durability. We were fortunate to have Bill Goward review the steady progress and problems encountered along the way in the use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in aircraft gas turbine engines. Navy contractors discussed their work toward the elusive goal of qualifying TBC for turbine airfoil applications. In the diesel community, Caterpillar and Cummins are developing TBC for combustion chamber components as part of the low heat rejection diesel engine concept. The diesel engine TBC work is based on gas turbine technology with a goal of more than twice the thickness used on gas turbine engine components. Adoption of TBC in production for diesel engines could justify a new generation of plasma spray coating equipment. Increasing interests in tribology were evident in this Workshop. Coatings have a significant role in reducing friction and wear under greater mechanical loadings at higher temperatures. The emergence of a high temperature synthetic lubricant could have an enormous impact on diesel engine design and operating conditions. The proven coating processes such as plasma spray, electron-beam physical vapor deposition, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition have shown enhanced capabilities, particularly with microprocessor controls. Also, the newer coating schemes such as ion implantation and cathodic arc are demonstrating intriguing potential for engine applications. Coatings will play an expanding role in higher efficiency, more durable heat engines.

  7. Test Method Designed to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    Research on advanced heat engine concepts, such as the low-heat-rejection engine, have shown the potential for increased thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, lighter weight, simpler design, and longer life in comparison to current diesel engine designs. A major obstacle in the development of a functional advanced heat engine is overcoming the problems caused by the high combustion temperatures at the piston ring/cylinder liner interface, specifically at top ring reversal (TRR). Therefore, advanced cylinder liner and piston ring materials are needed that can survive under these extreme conditions. To address this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have designed a tribological test method to help evaluate candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for advanced diesel engines.

  8. Recent advance on the efficiency at maximum power of heat engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Zhan-Chun

    2012-01-01

    This review reports several key advances on the theoretical investigations of efficiency at maximum power of heat engines in the past five years.The analytical results of efficiency at maximum power for the Curzon-Ahlborn heat engine,the stochastic heat engine constructed from a Brownian particle,and Feynman's ratchet as a heat engine are presented.It is found that:the efficiency at maximum power exhibits universal behavior at small relative temperature differences; the lower and the upper bounds might exist under quite general conditions; and the problem of efficiency at maximum power comes down to seeking for the minimum irreversible entropy production in each finite-time isothermal process for a given time.

  9. Studies of dynamic contact of ceramics and alloys for advanced heat engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaydos, P.A.; Dufrane, K.F. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Advanced materials and coatings for low heat rejection engines have been investigated for almost a decade. Much of the work has concentrated on the critical wear interface between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simplified bench tests have identified families of coatings with high temperature wear performance that could meet or exceed that of conventional engine materials at today`s operating temperatures. More recently, engine manufacturers have begun to optimize material combinations and manufacturing processes so that the materials not only have promising friction and wear performance but are practical replacements for current materials from a materials and manufacturing cost standpoint. In this study, the advanced materials supplied by major diesel engine manufacturers were evaluated in an experimental apparatus that simulates many of the in-cylinder conditions of a low heat rejection diesel engine. Results include ring wear factors and average dynamic friction coefficients measured at intervals during the test. These results are compared with other advanced materials tested in the past as well as the baseline wear of current engines. Both fabricated specimens and sections of actual ring and cylinder liners were used in the testing. Observations and relative friction and wear performance of the individual materials are provided.

  10. Optimal design of Stirling heat engine using an advanced optimization algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R V RAO; K C MORE; J TALER; P OCION

    2016-11-01

    The Stirling engine presents an excellent theoretical output equivalent to the output of Carnot engine and it is less pollutant and requires little maintenance. In this paper, Stirling heat engine is considered for optimization with multiple criteria. A recently developed advanced optimization algorithm namely ‘‘teaching–learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm’’ is used for maximization of output power, minimization ofpressure losses and maximization of the thermal efficiency of the entire solar Stirling system. The comparisons of the proposed algorithm are made with those obtained by using the decision-making methods like linear programming technique for multi-dimensional analysis of preference (LINMAP), technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and fuzzy Bellman–Zadeh method that have used the Pareto frontier gained through non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The comparisons were also made with those obtained by the experimental results. It is found that the TLBO algorithm has produced comparatively better results than those given by the decision-making methods and the experimental results presented by the previous researchers.

  11. Heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekos, N. F., Jr.; Parsons, E. L., Jr.

    1989-09-01

    For the past decade, the Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored projects to develop diesel and gas turbine engines capable of operating on low-cost, coal-based fuels. Much of the current work addresses the use of coal-water fuel (CWF) in diesel and turbines, although there is some work with dry coal feed and other coal fuels. Both the diesel and gas turbine portions of the program include proof-of-concept and support projects. Specific highlights of the program include: engine tests and economic analyses have shown that CWF can replace 70 percent of the diesel oil used in the duty cycle of a typical main-line locomotive; A. D. Little and Cooper-Bessemer completed a system and economic study of coal-fueled diesel engines for modular power and industrial cogeneration markets. The coal-fueled diesel was found to be competitive at fuel oil prices of $5.50 per million British thermal units (MBtu); Over 200 hours of testing have been completed using CWF in full-scale, single-cylinder diesel engines. Combustion efficiencies have exceeded 99 percent; Both CWF and dry coal fuel forms can be burned in short residence time in-line combustors and in off-base combustors with a combustion efficiency of over 99 percent; Rich/lean combustion systems employed by the three major DOE contractors have demonstrated low NO(sub x) emissions levels; Contractors have also achieved promising results for controlling sulfur oxide (SO(sub x)) emissions using calcium-based sorbents; Slagging combustors have achieved between 65 and 95 percent slag capture, which will limit particulate loading on pre-turbine cleanup devices. For many of the gas turbine and diesel applications emission standards do not exist. Our goal is to develop coal-fueled diesels and gas turbines that not only meet all applicable emission standards that do exist, but also are capable of meeting possible future standards.

  12. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  13. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  14. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ü. C. Hardal; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific Reports | 5:12953 | DOI: 10.1038/srep12953 1 www.nature.com/scientificreports Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine Ali Ü. C. Hardal & Özgür E. Müstecaplıoğlu Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop eficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, ...

  15. A preliminary design and analysis of an advanced heat-rejection system for an extreme altitude advanced variable cycle diesel engine installed in a high-altitude advanced research platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite surveillance in such areas as the Antarctic indicates that from time to time concentration of ozone grows and shrinks. An effort to obtain useful atmospheric data for determining the causes of ozone depletion would require a flight capable of reaching altitudes of at least 100,000 ft and flying subsonically during the sampling portion of the mission. A study of a heat rejection system for an advanced variable cycle diesel (AVCD) engine was conducted. The engine was installed in an extreme altitude, high altitude advanced research platform. Results indicate that the waste heat from an AVCD engine propulsion system can be rejected at the maximum cruise altitude of 120,000 ft. Fifteen performance points, reflecting the behavior of the engine as the vehicle proceeded through the mission, were used to characterize the heat exchanger operation. That portion of the study is described in a appendix titled, 'A Detailed Study of the Heat Rejection System for an Extreme Altitude Atmospheric Sampling Aircraft,' by a consultant, Mr. James Bourne, Lytron, Incorporated.

  16. Identification of tribological research and development needs for lubrication of advanced heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbacher, L.L.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    The continuous evolution of higher power density propulsion systems has always fueled the search for materials and lubricants with improved thermal and/or durability characteristics. Tribology of the upper cylinder region is the major technology roadblock in the path of the adiabatic diesel engine which has an energy reduction potential that exceeds that of all other engine development types. This tribology assessment resulted in the following major conclusions: a low friction and a low wear seal between the ring belt and cylinder bore are the most critical tribology functions in the diesel combustion chamber; development of solid lubrication systems will not satisfy the simultaneous low friction and low wear requirements in the upper cylinder area; development of separate upper cylinder liquid lubrication systems offers the most attractive design alternative for meeting the operational goals of future ''minimum cooled'' diesel engines.

  17. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  18. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-03-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  19. Advanced heat pump cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, E.A.; Radermacher, R.

    1993-07-01

    The desorption and absorption process of a vapor compression heat pump with a solution circuit (VCHSC) proceeds at gliding temperature intervals, which can be adjusted over a wide range. In case that the gliding temperature intervals in the desorber and the absorber overlap, a modification of the VCHSC employing a desorber/absorber heat exchange (DAHX) can be introduced, which results in an extreme reduction of the pressure ratio. Although the DAHX-cycle has features of a two-stage cycle, it still requires only one solution pump, one separator and one compressor. Such a cycle for the working pair ammonia/water is built in the Energy Laboratory of the Center for Environmental Energy Engineering at the University of Maryland. The experimental results obtained with the research plant are discussed and compared to those calculated with a simulation program. The possible temperature lift between heat source and heat sink depending on the achievable COP are presented.

  20. A sublimation heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-03-03

    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid-vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation.

  1. Holographic Heat Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

  2. Electrochemical heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Guy R. B.; Holley, Charles E.; Houseman, Barton L.; Sibbitt, Jr., Wilmer L.

    1978-01-01

    Electrochemical heat engines produce electrochemical work, and mechanical motion is limited to valve and switching actions as the heat-to-work cycles are performed. The electrochemical cells of said heat engines use molten or solid electrolytes at high temperatures. One or more reactions in the cycle will generate a gas at high temperature which can be condensed at a lower temperature with later return of the condensate to electrochemical cells. Sodium, potassium, and cesium are used as the working gases for high temperature cells (above 600 K) with halogen gases or volatile halides being used at lower temperature. Carbonates and halides are used as molten electrolytes and the solid electrolyte in these melts can also be used as a cell separator.

  3. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  4. Cummins/Tacom advanced adiabatic engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamo, R.; Bryzik, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company, Inc. and the U.S. Army have been jointly developing an adiabatic turbocompound engine during the last nine years. Although progress in the early years was slow, recent developments in the field of advanced ceramics have made it possible to make steady progress. It is now possible to reconsider the temperature limitation imposed on current heat engines and its subsequent influence on higher engine efficiency when using an exhaust energy utilization system. This paper presents an adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine concept in which high-performance ceramics are used in its design. The adiabatic turbocompound engine will enable higher operating temperatures, reduced heat loss, and higher exhaust energy recovery, resulting in higher thermal engine efficiency. This paper indicates that the careful selection of ceramics in engine design is essential. Adiabatic engine materials requirements are defined and the possible ceramic materials which will satisfy these requirements are identified. Examples in design considerations of engine components are illustrated. In addition to these important points, the use of ceramic coatings in the design of engine components. The first generation adiabatic engine with ceramic coatings is described. The advanced adiabatic engine with minimum friction features utilizaing ceramics is also presented. The advanced ceramic turbocharger turbine rotor as well as the oilless ceramic bearing design is described. Finally, the current status of the advanced adiabatic engine program culminating in the AA750 V-8 adiabatic engine is presented.

  5. A sublimation heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G.; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-01-01

    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid–vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation. PMID:25731669

  6. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  7. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  8. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design....... For this reason, the book puts emphasis on the state-space approach. The main contents of the book includes state-space representation of dynamic systems, analysis of linear control systems, feedback control and observer design. Both continuous-time and discrete-time systems have been addressed in this book....

  9. Advanced engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Engineering Mathematics provides comprehensive and contemporary coverage of key mathematical ideas, techniques, and their widespread applications, for students majoring in engineering, computer science, mathematics and physics. Using a wide range of examples throughout the book, Jeffrey illustrates how to construct simple mathematical models, how to apply mathematical reasoning to select a particular solution from a range of possible alternatives, and how to determine which solution has physical significance. Jeffrey includes material that is not found in works of a similar nature, such as the use of the matrix exponential when solving systems of ordinary differential equations. The text provides many detailed, worked examples following the introduction of each new idea, and large problem sets provide both routine practice, and, in many cases, greater challenge and insight for students. Most chapters end with a set of computer projects that require the use of any CAS (such as Maple or Mathematica) th...

  10. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 3, is a collection of papers that discusses circulatory system models, linguistics in computer usage, and clinical applications on patient monitoring. One paper describes the use of comparative models of overall circulatory mechanics that include models of the cardiac pump, of the vascular systems, and of the overall systems behavior. Another paper describes a model in processing medical language data that employs an explicit semantic structure, becoming the basis for the computer-based, artificial intelligence of the system. One paper cites studies b

  11. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4, is a collection of papers that deals with gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and the analysis of minute samples, as well as the role of the government in regulating the production, usage, safety, and efficacy of medical devices. One paper reviews the use of mass spectrometry and computer technology in relation to gas-phase analytical methods based on gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer instruments and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer analytical systems. Many health practitioners, government and private health agencies, the legal prof

  12. Advanced heat pump research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliasha, M. A.

    The Office of Building Energy Research and Development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been funding R&D in advanced heat pumps and appliances since 1976. Much of that research has been managed for DOE by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the Building Equipment Research (BER) program at ORNL has been to generate new concepts and develop a technology base for improving the energy efficiency and load characteristics of energy conversion equipment used in residential and commercial buildings. The research being pursued to achieve these objectives falls under three general areas: thermally activated heat pumps (TAHP), refrigeration systems, and building equipment systems. The TAHP work is concentrated on three technologies: (1) absorption heat pumps; (2) Stirling engine-driven heat pumps; and (3) internal combustion (IC) engine-driven heat pumps. Major project areas in refrigeration systems research include electric heat pumps, ground-coupled heat pumps, and refigerant mixtures. In the building equipment systems areas, project areas include advanced distribution systems, advanced insulation for appliances, and commercial building equipment.

  13. Life explained by heat engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.W.J.; Seckbach, J.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are in essence fuel cells that use organics as reductant and oxygen as oxidant. In engineering, increasing attention is being given to the replacement of the internal combustion engine by the fuel cell. According to the Thermosynthesis theory, a similar replacement of heat engines by fu

  14. Analytical and experimental evaluation of joining silicon carbide to silicon carbide and silicon nitride to silicon nitride for advanced heat engine applications Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, G.J.; Vartabedian, A.M.; Wade, J.A.; White, C.S. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States). Advanced Ceramics Div.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of joining, Phase 2 was to develop joining technologies for HIP`ed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with 4wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (NCX-5101) and for a siliconized SiC (NT230) for various geometries including: butt joins, curved joins and shaft to disk joins. In addition, more extensive mechanical characterization of silicon nitride joins to enhance the predictive capabilities of the analytical/numerical models for structural components in advanced heat engines was provided. Mechanical evaluation were performed by: flexure strength at 22 C and 1,370 C, stress rupture at 1,370 C, high temperature creep, 22 C tensile testing and spin tests. While the silicon nitride joins were produced with sufficient integrity for many applications, the lower join strength would limit its use in the more severe structural applications. Thus, the silicon carbide join quality was deemed unsatisfactory to advance to more complex, curved geometries. The silicon carbide joining methods covered within this contract, although not entirely successful, have emphasized the need to focus future efforts upon ways to obtain a homogeneous, well sintered parent/join interface prior to siliconization. In conclusion, the improved definition of the silicon carbide joining problem obtained by efforts during this contract have provided avenues for future work that could successfully obtain heat engine quality joins.

  15. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  16. Advanced Metasearch Engine Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Weiyi

    2010-01-01

    Among the search tools currently on the Web, search engines are the most well known thanks to the popularity of major search engines such as Google and Yahoo!. While extremely successful, these major search engines do have serious limitations. This book introduces large-scale metasearch engine technology, which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the major search engines. Essentially, a metasearch engine is a search system that supports unified access to multiple existing search engines by passing the queries it receives to its component search engines and aggregating the returned

  17. Mechanical autonomous stochastic heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, Andre; Moleron, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara; . Team

    Stochastic heat engines extract work from the Brownian motion of a set of particles out of equilibrium. So far, experimental demonstrations of stochastic heat engines have required extreme operating conditions or nonautonomous external control systems. In this talk, we will present a simple, purely classical, autonomous stochastic heat engine that uses the well-known tension induced nonlinearity in a string. Our engine operates between two heat baths out of equilibrium, and transfers energy from the hot bath to a work reservoir. This energy transfer occurs even if the work reservoir is at a higher temperature than the hot reservoir. The talk will cover a theoretical investigation and experimental results on a macroscopic setup subject to external noise excitations. This system presents an opportunity for the study of non equilibrium thermodynamics and is an interesting candidate for innovative energy conversion devices.

  18. Efficiency of Brownian heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derényi, I; Astumian, R D

    1999-06-01

    We study the efficiency of one-dimensional thermally driven Brownian ratchets or heat engines. We identify and compare the three basic setups characterized by the type of the connection between the Brownian particle and the two heat reservoirs: (i) simultaneous, (ii) alternating in time, and (iii) position dependent. We make a clear distinction between the heat flow via the kinetic and the potential energy of the particle, and show that the former is always irreversible and it is only the third setup where the latter is reversible when the engine works quasistatically. We also show that in the third setup the heat flow via the kinetic energy can be reduced arbitrarily, proving that even for microscopic heat engines there is no fundamental limit of the efficiency lower than that of a Carnot cycle.

  19. Advances in Medical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Buzug, Thorsten M

    2007-01-01

    Presents research and development trends of physics, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences in biomedical engineering. This work uses contributions from industry, clinics, universities and research labs with foci on medical imaging, computer-assisted surgery, and others to give insight to engineering, clinical and mathematical studies.

  20. Advances in industrial heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Minea, Alina Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Industrial Heat Transfer presents the basic principles of industrial heat transfer enhancement. Serving as a reference and guide for future research, this book presents a complete approach, from redesigning equipment to the use of nanofluids in industry. Based on the latest methods of the experiment and their interpretation, this book presents a unified conception of the industrial heat transfer process and procedures which will help decrease global energy consumption. Containing both theoretical and practical results, the book uses text, pictures, graphs, and definitions to illust

  1. Heat recovery equipment for engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-04-01

    The recovery and use of waste heat from prime movers is an important consideration for evaluating an on-site power system, since it is the basic factor that makes possible a substantial increase in fuel-use efficiency. The equipment usually employed to recover waste heat can be categorized as: (a) shell-and-tube type heat exchangers, (b) radiator-type heat exchangers, (c) exhaust gas boilers for the generation of pressurized hot water and/or steam, (d) steam separators, and (e) combined packaged units for ebulliently cooled internal combustion piston engines. The functional requirements and cost considerations involved in applying these devices for the recovery of waste heat from various types of prime-movers considered for application in the ICES Systems Engineering Program are examined.

  2. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  3. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.

  4. Development of improved processing and evaluation methods for high reliability structural ceramics for advanced heat engine applications Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.J.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The research program had as goals the development and demonstration of significant improvements in processing methods, process controls, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) which can be commercially implemented to produce high reliability silicon nitride components for advanced heat engine applications at temperatures to 1370{degrees}C. In Phase I of the program a process was developed that resulted in a silicon nitride - 4 w% yttria HIP`ed material (NCX 5102) that displayed unprecedented strength and reliability. An average tensile strength of 1 GPa and a strength distribution following a 3-parameter Weibull distribution were demonstrated by testing several hundred buttonhead tensile specimens. The Phase II program focused on the development of methodology for colloidal consolidation producing green microstructure which minimizes downstream process problems such as drying, shrinkage, cracking, and part distortion during densification. Furthermore, the program focused on the extension of the process to gas pressure sinterable (GPS) compositions. Excellent results were obtained for the HIP composition processed for minimal density gradients, both with respect to room-temperature strength and high-temperature creep resistance. Complex component fabricability of this material was demonstrated by producing engine-vane prototypes. Strength data for the GPS material (NCX-5400) suggest that it ranks very high relative to other silicon nitride materials in terms of tensile/flexure strength ratio, a measure of volume quality. This high quality was derived from the closed-loop colloidal process employed in the program.

  5. Advanced Control of Turbofan Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Hanz

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Control of Turbofan Engines describes the operational performance requirements of turbofan (commercial)engines from a controls systems perspective, covering industry-standard methods and research-edge advances. This book allows the reader to design controllers and produce realistic simulations using public-domain software like CMAPSS: Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation, whose versions are released to the public by NASA. The scope of the book is centered on the design of thrust controllers for both steady flight and transient maneuvers. Classical control theory is not dwelled on, but instead an introduction to general undergraduate control techniques is provided. This book also: Develops a thorough understanding of the challenges associated with engine operability from a control systems perspective, describing performance demands and operational constraints into the framework and language of modern control theory Presents solid theoretical support for classical and advanced engine co...

  6. Engineering heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Annaratone, Donatello

    2010-01-01

    This book is a generalist textbook; it is designed for anybody interested in heat transmission, including scholars, designers and students. Two criteria constitute the foundation of Annaratone's books, including the present one. The first one consists of indispensable scientific rigor without theoretical exasperation. The inclusion in the book of some theoretical studies, even if admirable for their scientific rigor, would have strengthened the scientific foundation of this publication, yet without providing the reader with further applicable know-how. The second criterion is to deliver practi

  7. Advances in tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a newly developed specialty involved in the construction of tissues and organs either in vitro or in vivo. Tremendous progress has been achieved over the past decade in tisse construction as well as in other related areas, such as bone marrow stromal cells, embryonic stem cells and tissue progenitor cells. In our laboratory, tissues of full-thickness skin, bone, cartilage and tendon have been successfully engineered, and the engineered tissues have repaired full-thickness skin wound, cranial bone defects, articular cartilage defects and tendon defects in animals. In basic research areas, bone marrow stromal cells have been induced and transformed into osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro. Mouse embryo stem cell lines we established have differentiated into neuron precursor, cardiac muscle cells and epithelial cells. Genetic modifications of seed cells for promoting cell proliferation, delaying cell aging and inducing immune tolerance have also been investigated.

  8. Advances in yeast genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Florian; Siewers, Verena

    2015-02-01

    Genome engineering based on homologous recombination has been applied to yeast for many years. However, the growing importance of yeast as a cell factory in metabolic engineering and chassis in synthetic biology demands methods for fast and efficient introduction of multiple targeted changes such as gene knockouts and introduction of multistep metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarize recent improvements of existing genome engineering methods, the development of novel techniques, for example for advanced genome redesign and evolution, and the importance of endonucleases as genome engineering tools.

  9. Advanced thermodynamics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Jog, Milind A

    2011-01-01

    Thermolab Excel-Based Software for Thermodynamic Properties and Flame Temperatures of Fuels IntroductionImportance, Significance and LimitationsReview of ThermodynamicsMathematical BackgroundOverview of Microscopic/NanothermodynamicsSummaryAppendix: Stokes and Gauss Theorems First Law of ThermodynamicsZeroth LawFirst Law for a Closed SystemQuasi Equilibrium (QE) and Nonquasi-equilibrium (NQE) ProcessesEnthalpy and First LawAdiabatic Reversible Process for Ideal Gas with Constant Specific HeatsFirst Law for an Open SystemApplications of First Law for an Open SystemIntegral and Differential Form

  10. Advanced engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreyszig, Erwin

    1972-01-01

    Introducing those areas of mathematics which are most important to practical problem solving in the field, this book pays particular attention to ordinary differential equations, linear algebra and vector analysis, complex analysis, and numerical methods. Fourier series and partial differential equations are also covered thoroughly. The problem sets in this edition have been updated and revised to give greater weight to modeling, phase-plane and numerical multi-step methods, and applications. Each section includes examples and problems illustrating concepts, methods and results, and their engineering applications.

  11. A simple quantum heat engine

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, J; Philippe, F; Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice

    2002-01-01

    A simple urn model is presented that may describe heat engines employing as working agents spin-1/2 particles (e.g., electrons) or two-level atoms. In this model the cold reservoir is an urn located at altitude $\\epsilon_{c}$ that contains $N$ balls of total weight $n_{c}$. Likewise, the hot reservoir at altitude $\\epsilon_{h}$ contains $N$ balls of total weight $n_{h}$. A cycle consists of exchanging two randomly selected balls between the reservoirs. Elementary considerations show that the heat-engine efficiency (ratio of the average work performed divided by the average hot-reservoir energy consumption) is $\\eta=1-\\epsilon_{c}/\\epsilon_{h}$. The case where the two reservoirs have negative temperatures is symmetrical to the case where the two reservoirs have positive temperatures in the sense that heat engines become heat pumps and conversely. When the cold reservoir has positive temperature while the hot reservoir has negative temperature the maximum efficiency is unity. When many cold and hot sub-reservoi...

  12. Advancement in Engineering Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will be discussing about the impact of technology on our daily lives. How everybody is dependent upon technology in one or other way. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Technology has played a significant role in the evolution of the society. Science has produced many new ideas...... but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected...... the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect....

  13. Analytical and experimental evaluation of joining silicon nitride to metal and silicon carbide to metal for advanced heat engine applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S.; Selverian, J.H.; O`Neil, D.; Kim, H. [GTE Labs., Inc., Waltham, MA (US); Kim, K. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (US). Div. of Engineering

    1993-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Joining Silicon Nitride to Metal and Silicon Carbide to Metal for Advanced Heat Engine Applications. A general methodology was developed to optimize the joint geometry and material systems for 650{degrees}C applications. Failure criteria were derived to predict the fracture of the braze and ceramic. Extensive finite element analyses (FEA) were performed to examine various joint geometries and to evaluate the affect of different interlayers on the residual stress state. Also, material systems composed of coating materials, interlayers, and braze alloys were developed for the program based on the chemical stability and strength of the joints during processing, and service. The FEA results were compared with experiments using two methods: (1) an idealized strength relationship of the ceramic, and (2) a probabilistic analysis of the ceramic strength (NASA CARES). The results showed that the measured strength of the joint reached 30--80% of the strength predicted by FEA. Also, potential high-temperature braze alloys were developed and evaluated for the high-temperature application of ceramic-metal joints. 38 tabs, 29 figs, 20 refs.

  14. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  15. Advanced Technology for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Technology for Engineering Education, held at the Peninsula Graduate Engineering Center, Hampton, Virginia, February 24-25, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced technologies for engineering education and to explore the possibility of forming a consortium of interested individuals/universities for curriculum reform and development using advanced technologies. The presentations covered novel delivery systems and several implementations of new technologies for engineering education. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

  16. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  17. Development of improved processing and evaluation methods for high reliability structural ceramics for advanced heat engine applications, Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Wilkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The program goals were to develop and demonstrate significant improvements in processing methods, process controls and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) which can be commercially implemented to produce high reliability silicon nitride components for advanced heat engine applications at temperatures to 1,370{degrees}C. The program focused on a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-4% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} high temperature ceramic composition and hot-isostatic-pressing as the method of densification. Stage I had as major objectives: (1) comparing injection molding and colloidal consolidation process routes, and selecting one route for subsequent optimization, (2) comparing the performance of water milled and alcohol milled powder and selecting one on the basis of performance data, and (3) adapting several NDE methods to the needs of ceramic processing. The NDE methods considered were microfocus X-ray radiography, computed tomography, ultrasonics, NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopy, fluorescent liquid dye penetrant and X-ray diffraction residual stress analysis. The colloidal consolidation process route was selected and approved as the forming technique for the remainder of the program. The material produced by the final Stage II optimized process has been given the designation NCX 5102 silicon nitride. According to plan, a large number of specimens were produced and tested during Stage III to establish a statistically robust room temperature tensile strength database for this material. Highlights of the Stage III process demonstration and resultant database are included in the main text of the report, along with a synopsis of the NCX-5102 aqueous based colloidal process. The R and D accomplishments for Stage I are discussed in Appendices 1--4, while the tensile strength-fractography database for the Stage III NCX-5102 process demonstration is provided in Appendix 5. 4 refs., 108 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  19. Advances in water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering is a collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. A sister volume to Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, this volume focuses on the theory and analysis of various water resources systems including watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and an environmental water engineering glossary. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of...

  20. Magnetically driven quantum heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Enrique; Peña, Francisco J.

    2014-05-01

    We studied the efficiency of two different schemes for a magnetically driven quantum heat engine, by considering as the "working substance" a single nonrelativistic particle trapped in a cylindrical potential well, in the presence of an external magnetic field. The first scheme is a cycle, composed of two adiabatic and two isoenergetic reversible trajectories in configuration space. The trajectories are driven by a quasistatic modulation of the external magnetic-field intensity. The second scheme is a variant of the former, where the isoenergetic trajectories are replaced by isothermal ones, along which the system is in contact with macroscopic thermostats. This second scheme constitutes a quantum analog of the classical Carnot cycle.

  1. Advances in heat transfer volume 21

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I

    1991-01-01

    This volume in a series on heat transfer covers the modelling of the dynamics of turbulent transport processes, supercritical pressures, hydrodynamics, mass transfer near rotating surfaces, lost heat in entropy and the mechanics of heat transfer in a multifluid bubbling pool. Other related titles are "Advances in Heat Transfer", volumes 18, 19 and 20.

  2. Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, J.L.; Werner, J.R.

    1982-12-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  3. Advanced engineering environment collaboration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Pomplun, Alan R.; Kiba, Grant W.; Dutra, Edward G.; Dankiewicz, Robert J.; Marburger, Scot J.

    2008-12-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a model for an engineering design and communications system that will enhance project collaboration throughout the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) worked together on a prototype project to evaluate the suitability of a portion of PTC's Windchill 9.0 suite of data management, design and collaboration tools as the basis for an AEE. The AEE project team implemented Windchill 9.0 development servers in both classified and unclassified domains and used them to test and evaluate the Windchill tool suite relative to the needs of the NWC using weapons project use cases. A primary deliverable was the development of a new real time collaborative desktop design and engineering process using PDMLink (data management tool), Pro/Engineer (mechanical computer aided design tool) and ProductView Lite (visualization tool). Additional project activities included evaluations of PTC's electrical computer aided design, visualization, and engineering calculations applications. This report documents the AEE project work to share information and lessons learned with other NWC sites. It also provides PTC with recommendations for improving their products for NWC applications.

  4. Nanofluids for heat transfer: an engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Elena V; Yu, Wenhua; France, David M; Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules L

    2011-02-28

    An overview of systematic studies that address the complexity of nanofluid systems and advance the understanding of nanoscale contributions to viscosity, thermal conductivity, and cooling efficiency of nanofluids is presented. A nanoparticle suspension is considered as a three-phase system including the solid phase (nanoparticles), the liquid phase (fluid media), and the interfacial phase, which contributes significantly to the system properties because of its extremely high surface-to-volume ratio in nanofluids. The systems engineering approach was applied to nanofluid design resulting in a detailed assessment of various parameters in the multivariable nanofluid systems. The relative importance of nanofluid parameters for heat transfer evaluated in this article allows engineering nanofluids with desired set of properties.

  5. Nanofluids for heat transfer: an engineering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An overview of systematic studies that address the complexity of nanofluid systems and advance the understanding of nanoscale contributions to viscosity, thermal conductivity, and cooling efficiency of nanofluids is presented. A nanoparticle suspension is considered as a three-phase system including the solid phase (nanoparticles, the liquid phase (fluid media, and the interfacial phase, which contributes significantly to the system properties because of its extremely high surface-to-volume ratio in nanofluids. The systems engineering approach was applied to nanofluid design resulting in a detailed assessment of various parameters in the multivariable nanofluid systems. The relative importance of nanofluid parameters for heat transfer evaluated in this article allows engineering nanofluids with desired set of properties.

  6. Nanofluids for heat transfer : an engineering approach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeeva, E. V.; Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Singh, D.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems); ( NE); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago)

    2011-02-28

    An overview of systematic studies that address the complexity of nanofluid systems and advance the understanding of nanoscale contributions to viscosity, thermal conductivity, and cooling efficiency of nanofluids is presented. A nanoparticle suspension is considered as a three-phase system including the solid phase (nanoparticles), the liquid phase (fluid media), and the interfacial phase, which contributes significantly to the system properties because of its extremely high surface-to-volume ratio in nanofluids. The systems engineering approach was applied to nanofluid design resulting in a detailed assessment of various parameters in the multivariable nanofluid systems. The relative importance of nanofluid parameters for heat transfer evaluated in this article allows engineering nanofluids with desired set of properties.

  7. Quantum point contacts as heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgram, Sebastian; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency of macroscopic heat engines is restricted by the second law of thermodynamics. They can reach at most the efficiency of a Carnot engine. In contrast, heat currents in mesoscopic heat engines show fluctuations. Thus, there is a small probability that a mesoscopic heat engine exceeds Carnot's maximum value during a short measurement time. We illustrate this effect using a quantum point contact as a heat engine. When a temperature difference is applied to a quantum point contact, the system may be utilized as a source of electrical power under steady state conditions. We first discuss the optimal working point of such a heat engine that maximizes the generated electrical power and subsequently calculate the statistics for deviations of the efficiency from its most likely value. We find that deviations surpassing the Carnot limit are possible, but unlikely.

  8. Advanced engineering environment pilot project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegel, Jill; Pomplun, Alan R.; Abernathy, Rusty (Parametric Technology Corporation, Needham, MA)

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a concurrent engineering concept that enables real-time process tooling design and analysis, collaborative process flow development, automated document creation, and full process traceability throughout a product's life cycle. The AEE will enable NNSA's Design and Production Agencies to collaborate through a singular integrated process. Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) are working together on a prototype AEE pilot project to evaluate PTC's product collaboration tools relative to the needs of the NWC. The primary deliverable for the project is a set of validated criteria for defining a complete commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solution to deploy the AEE across the NWC.

  9. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  10. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  11. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  12. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Benstein, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The small engine technology requirements suitable for general aviation service in the 1987 to 1988 time frame were defined. The market analysis showed potential United States engines sales of 31,500 per year providing that the turbine engine sales price approaches current reciprocating engine prices. An optimum engine design was prepared for four categories of fixed wing aircraft and for rotary wing applications. A common core approach was derived from the optimum engines that maximizes engine commonality over the power spectrum with a projected price competitive with reciprocating piston engines. The advanced technology features reduced engine cost, approximately 50 percent compared with current technology.

  13. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  14. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  15. Optimization of Heat Exchangers for Intercooled Recuperated Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Misirlis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European research project LEMCOTEC, a section was devoted to the further optimization of the recuperation system of the Intercooled Recuperated Aero engine (IRA engine concept, of MTU Aero Engines AG. This concept is based on an advanced thermodynamic cycle combining both intercooling and recuperation. The present work is focused only on the recuperation process. This is carried out through a system of heat exchangers mounted inside the hot-gas exhaust nozzle, providing fuel economy and reduced pollutant emissions. The optimization of the recuperation system was performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD computations, experimental measurements and thermodynamic cycle analysis for a wide range of engine operating conditions. A customized numerical tool was developed based on an advanced porosity model approach. The heat exchangers were modeled as porous media of predefined heat transfer and pressure loss behaviour and could also incorporate major and critical heat exchanger design decisions in the CFD computations. The optimization resulted in two completely new innovative heat exchanger concepts, named as CORN (COnical Recuperative Nozzle and STARTREC (STraight AnnulaR Thermal RECuperator, which provided significant benefits in terms of fuel consumption, pollutants emission and weight reduction compared to more conventional heat exchanger designs, thus proving that further optimization potential for this technology exists.

  16. Recent advances in coronal heating

    CERN Document Server

    De Moortel, Ineke

    2015-01-01

    The solar corona, the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, is orders of magnitude hotter than the solar surface. This 'coronal heating problem' requires the identification of a heat source to balance losses due to thermal conduction, radiation and (in some locations) convection. The review papers in this Theo Murphy meeting issue present an overview of recent observational findings, large- and small-scale numerical modelling of physical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere and other aspects which may affect our understanding of the proposed heating mechanisms. At the same time, they also set out the directions and challenges which must be tackled by future research. In this brief introduction, we summarize some of the issues and themes which reoccur throughout this issue.

  17. Advances in Computer Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012)

    2012-01-01

    This book includes the proceedings of the second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012), which was held during January 13-14, 2012 in Sanya, China. The papers in these proceedings of CES 2012 focus on the researchers’ advanced works in their fields of Computer Science and Engineering mainly organized in four topics, (1) Software Engineering, (2) Intelligent Computing, (3) Computer Networks, and (4) Artificial Intelligence Software.

  18. Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel-engine evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, J.L.; Werner, J.R.

    1982-12-01

    The turbocompound diesel engine has been under development since 1972. Development reached a mature stage following the evolution of three power turbine and gear train designs. In 1978, the Department of Energy sponsored a program for comprehensive vehicle testing of the turbocompound engine. Upon successful completion of the vehicle test program, an advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated in 1980 to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. This paper presents the individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements.

  19. Advances in communication systems and electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xu

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains contributions from participants in the 2007 International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists Topics covered include communications theory, communications protocols, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, electronics, power engineering, control engineering, signal processing, and industrial applications. The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in communication systems and electrical engineering and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on communication systems a

  20. Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W

    1974-01-01

    Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.

  1. Hurricanes as Heat Engines: Two Undergraduate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykko, Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes can be regarded as Carnot heat engines. One reason that they can be so violent is that thermodynamically, they demonstrate large efficiency, [epsilon] = (T[subscript h] - T[subscript c]) / T[subscript h], which is of the order of 0.3. Evaporation of water vapor from the ocean and its subsequent condensation is the main heat transfer…

  2. Heat engine regenerators: Research status and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    The rapidly oscillating, variable density flows of regenerative heat engines provide a class of poorly understood unsteady flow and heat transfer problems. These problems are not currently amenable to direct experimental resolution. Experiences in engine development and test programs and efforts to develop analysis tools point to the regenerator as a key area of insufficient understanding. Focusing on flow and heat transfer in regenerators, this report discusses similarity parameters for the flows and reviews the experimental data currently available for Stirling analysis. Then a number of experimental results are presented from recent fundamental fluid mechanical and thermal investigations that shed additional light on the functioning of heat engine regenerators. Suggestions are made for approaches for further measurement and analysis efforts.

  3. Externally heated valve engine a new approach to piston engines

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierski, Zbyszko

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on a novel approach for generating mechanical energy from different, external heat sources using the body of a typical piston engine with valves. By presenting simple yet effective numerical models, the authors show how this new approach, which combines existing internal combustion technology with a lubrication system, is able to offer an economic solution to the problem of mechanical energy generation in piston engines. Their results also show that a stable heat generation process can be guaranteed outside of the engine. The book offers a detailed report on physical and numerical models of 4-stroke and 2-stroke versions of the EHVE together with different models of heat exchange, valves and results of their simulations. It also delivers the test results of an engine prototype run in laboratory conditions. By presenting a novel theoretical framework and providing readers with extensive knowledge of both the advantages and challenges of the method, this book is expected to inspire academic re...

  4. Boiling heat transfer modern developments and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Lahey, Jr, RT

    2013-01-01

    This volume covers the modern developments in boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow, and is intended to provide industrial, government and academic researchers with state-of-the-art research findings in the area of multiphase flow and heat transfer technology. Special attention is given to technology transfer, indicating how recent significant results may be used for practical applications. The chapters give detailed technical material that will be useful to engineers and scientists who work in the field of multiphase flow and heat transfer. The authors of all chapters are members of the

  5. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  6. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  7. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  8. Advanced Surface Engineering of Titanium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Dong

    2000-01-01

    Despite their outstanding combination of properties, titanium and its alloys are very susceptible to severe adhesive wear in rubbing with most engineering surfaces and can exhibit poorcorrosion resistance in some aggressive environments. Surface engineering research centred at the University of Birmingham has been focused on creating designer surfaces for titanium components via surface engineering.Great progress has been made recently through the development of such advanced surface engineering techniques as thermal oxidation, palladium-treated thermal oxidation, oxygen boost diffusion and duplex systems.Such advances thus provide scope for designing titanium components for a diversified range of engineering application, usually as direct replacements for steel components. By way of example, some of the successful steps towards titanium designer surfaces are demonstrated. To data, the potential of these advanced technologies has been realised first in auto-sport and off-shore industrials.

  9. Performance and efficiency evaluation and heat release study of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Addy, H. E.; Bond, T. H.; Lee, C. M.; Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation which models engine performance of the Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engines was used to study the effect of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and efficiency of an Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) experimental rotary combustion engine. Engine pressure data were used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine data were compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the rotary engine using advanced heat engine concepts such as faster combustion, reduced leakage, and turbocharging is also presented.

  10. Research advances in industrial engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides discussions and the exchange of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications of industrial engineering. It communicates the latest developments and research activity on industrial engineering and is useful for all those interested in the technological challenges in the field.

  11. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  12. Advances in the heat treatment of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Kim, J.I.; Syn, C.K.

    1978-06-01

    A number of important recent advances in the processing of steels have resulted from the sophisticated uses of heat treatment to tailor the microstructure of the steels so that desirable properties are established. These new heat treatments often involve the tempering or annealing of the steel to accompish a partial or complete reversion from martensite to austenite. The influence of these reversion heat treatments on the product microstructure and its properties may be systematically discussed in terms of the heat treating temperature in relation to the phase diagram. From this perspective, four characteristic heat treatments are defined: (1) normal tempering, (2) inter-critical tempering, (3) intercritical annealing, and (4) austenite reversion. The reactions occurring during each of these treatments are described and the nature and properties of typical product microstructures discussed, with specific reference to new commercial or laboratory steels having useful and exceptional properties.

  13. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  14. Ecological optimization for general heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    We conducted an analysis of efficiency and its bounds for general heat engines under the maximum ecological criterion. For generality, both nonisothermal heat-exchanging processes and internal dissipation were taken into consideration. When the product of the internal dissipation and the heat capacity ratio is one, the efficiency under the maximum ecological criterion is the same as that of the irreversible Carnot model. However, the efficiencies have different physical meanings and optimization spaces. Furthermore, the efficiency is independent of the time it takes to complete each process and the heat conductance. For other situations, numerical calculations were conducted to investigate the parameters' effects on optimal efficiency. When the dimensionless contact times approach zero, the irreversible Carnot model is recovered. The general upper and lower bounds of optimal efficiency are obtained by applying the asymmetric heat capacity ratio limits when the dimensionless contact times approach infinity. In addition, the efficiency of general endoreversible heat engines was investigated. The efficiency bounds of different real-life heat engines under the maximum ecological criterion are proposed.

  15. Advancing Sustainable Surface Engineering: Challenges & Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Energy costs – Inefficient processes – Supply chain risk • Reduced Liability – Environmental and occupational • Increased Availability...2013 Noblis, Inc. Advancing Sustainable Surface Engineering: Challenges & Future Opportunities Dr. Jeffrey Marqusee Chief Scientist...control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advancing Sustainable

  16. A single-atom heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßnagel, Johannes; Dawkins, Samuel T.; Tolazzi, Karl N.; Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Singer, Kilian

    2016-04-01

    Heat engines convert thermal energy into mechanical work and generally involve a large number of particles. We report the experimental realization of a single-atom heat engine. An ion is confined in a linear Paul trap with tapered geometry and driven thermally by coupling it alternately to hot and cold reservoirs. The output power of the engine is used to drive a harmonic oscillation. From direct measurements of the ion dynamics, we were able to determine the thermodynamic cycles for various temperature differences of the reservoirs. We then used these cycles to evaluate the power P and efficiency η of the engine, obtaining values up to P = 3.4 × 10-22 joules per second and η = 0.28%, consistent with analytical estimations. Our results demonstrate that thermal machines can be reduced to the limit of single atoms.

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency and quantum heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. E.

    2016-11-01

    We describe how electromagnetically induced transparency may be used to construct a nontraditional near-ideal quantum heat engine as constrained by the second law. The engine is pumped by a thermal reservoir that may be either hotter or colder than that of an exhaust reservoir, and also by a monochromatic laser. As output, it produces a bright narrow emission at line center of an otherwise absorbing transition.

  18. Advanced nonlinear engine speed control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterholm, Thomas; Hendricks, Elbert

    1994-01-01

    Several subsidiary control problems have turned out to be important for improving driveability and fuel consumption in modern spark ignition (SI) engine cars. Among these are idle speed control and cruise control. In this paper the idle speed and cruise control problems will be treated as one......: accurately tracking of a desired engine speed in the presence of model uncertainties and severe load disturbances. This is accomplished by using advanced nonlinear control techniques such as input/output-linearization and sliding mode control. These techniques take advantage of a nonlinear model...... of the engine dynamics, a mean value engine model....

  19. Modern thermodynamics from heat engines to dissipative structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kondepudi, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition presents a comprehensive introduction to 20th century thermodynamics that can be applied to both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems, unifying what was traditionally divided into 'thermodynamics' and 'kinetics' into one theory of irreversible processes. This comprehensive text, suitable for introductory as well as advanced courses on thermodynamics, has been widely used by chemists, physicists, engineers and geologists.  Fully revised and expanded, this new edition includes the following updates and featur

  20. Symposium on advances in refrigeration and heat pump technology. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegaard, B.; Brix, W.; Ryhl Kaern, M. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    Technical University of Denmark - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Danish Technological Institute, and the Danish Energy Association in collaboration hosted a two-day symposium covering advances in refrigeration and heat pump technology on the 15th and 16th of May 2012. These proceedings are the formal documentation of the lectures that were given over the two days on several topics of significant relevance for the future development of technology for cooling and heating application. The focus was on both the industrial development of solutions for domestic, commercial and industrial applications in the near future as well as the scientific and engineering research in the more distant years to come. Applications of compression technology, phase changing materials and magnetic refrigeration were presented as well as novel results for selection of working fluids and design of cycles, development of components and cycles. (LN)

  1. Advances in high voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, A

    2005-01-01

    This book addresses the very latest research and development issues in high voltage technology and is intended as a reference source for researchers and students in the field, specifically covering developments throughout the past decade. This unique blend of expert authors and comprehensive subject coverage means that this book is ideally suited as a reference source for engineers and academics in the field for years to come.

  2. Monitoring advances in chemical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, H.P.F.; Hartmann, D; Van Raan, A.F.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to monitoring scientific progress in chemical engineering in order to operationalize concepts such as 'research performance' which can be used in the retrospective evaluation and the future anticipation of scientific research activities. We focus on various quantitative methods. Bibliometric methods form an important, but not the only, part of the work. The use of bibliometric approaches and measures is plagued by many problems. This is es...

  3. Quantum heat engines and refrigerators: continuous devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloff, Ronnie; Levy, Amikam

    2014-01-01

    Quantum thermodynamics supplies a consistent description of quantum heat engines and refrigerators up to a single few-level system coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three (a hot, cold, and work reservoir), a heat engine can operate. The device converts the positive gain into power, with the gain obtained from population inversion between the components of the device. Reversing the operation transforms the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs, is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. The equation of motion for the heat currents and power can be derived from first principles. Only a global description of the coupling of the device to the reservoirs is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Optimization of the devices leads to a balanced set of parameters in which the couplings to the three reservoirs are of the same order and the external driving field is in resonance. When analyzing refrigerators, one needs to devote special attention to a dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics. Bounds on the rate of cooling when Tc→0 are obtained by optimizing the cooling current. All refrigerators as Tc→0 show universal behavior. The dynamical version of the third law imposes restrictions on the scaling as Tc→0 of the relaxation rate γc and heat capacity cV of the cold bath.

  4. Single-particle stochastic heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Shubhashis; Pal, P S; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A M

    2014-10-01

    We have performed an extensive analysis of a single-particle stochastic heat engine constructed by manipulating a Brownian particle in a time-dependent harmonic potential. The cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps similar to that of a Carnot engine. The engine shows qualitative differences in inertial and overdamped regimes. All the thermodynamic quantities, including efficiency, exhibit strong fluctuations in a time periodic steady state. The fluctuations of stochastic efficiency dominate over the mean values even in the quasistatic regime. Interestingly, our system acts as an engine provided the temperature difference between the two reservoirs is greater than a finite critical value which in turn depends on the cycle time and other system parameters. This is supported by our analytical results carried out in the quasistatic regime. Our system works more reliably as an engine for large cycle times. By studying various model systems, we observe that the operational characteristics are model dependent. Our results clearly rule out any universal relation between efficiency at maximum power and temperature of the baths. We have also verified fluctuation relations for heat engines in time periodic steady state.

  5. Thermoelectric Generators used as Cryogenic Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Ordonez, C. A.

    1997-03-01

    A future experiment is being planned at the University of North Texas to design, build, and test a cryogenic heat engine(C. A. Ordonez, Am. J. Phys. 64), 479 (1996). suitable as an electric-vehicle power system. The power system shall then be installed in a demonstration vehicle. This will be a next-generation vehicle following the current project described in the accompanying poster, ``Experimental Car Which Uses Liquid Nitrogen as Its Fuel" by M. E. Parker et al. The cryogenic heat engine electric vehicle power system will incorporate both a thermoelectric generator and an ambient-temperature turbine or pneumatic-motor/generator. The thermoelectric generator shall use liquid nitrogen (under pressure) as its cold reservoir. Energy is produced with the thermoelectric generator by using the liquid/gas phase change to absorb heat. At the present time a study is being carried out to determine the efficiency of thermoelectric devices which are used as cryogenic heat engines. Initial data is being taken using frozen H_2O and CO2 as cold reservoirs. The results of the study shall be presented.

  6. Heat transfer applications for the practicing engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view. The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, inclu

  7. Three Important Advances in Engineering Strength Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuMaohong; FanWen; MitustoshiYoshimine

    2003-01-01

    There are there great advances in the research on engineering strength theories in the latter half of the 20th Century. The first advance was the devel-opment of strength theory from the single-shear strength theory including the Tresca yield criterion and Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion to theoctahe-dral-shear strength theory; the second one was that from the octahedral-shear strength theory to the twin-shear strength theory; and the third wasthe theories from the single criteria to the unifiedstrength theory. These three advances are summa-rized in this paper. It is interesting and useful for re-searchers to choose an appropriate failure criterion in studying the strength of materials and struc-tures, for engineers to correctly use it and for stu-dents to understand strength theory.

  8. Dissipation, correlation and lags in heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Michele; Fazio, Rosario

    2016-08-01

    By modelling heat engines as driven multi-partite system we show that their dissipation can be expressed in terms of the lag (relative entropy) between the perturbed state of each partition and their equilibrium state, and the correlations that build up among the partitions. We show that the non-negativity of the overall dissipation implies Carnot formulation of the second law. We illustrate the rich interplay between correlations and lags with a two-qubit device driven by a quantum gate.

  9. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Michele L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, Azure D.; Bobela, David; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.

    2016-05-31

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a 'thermal valve,' which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  10. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  11. Work Criteria Function of Irreversible Heat Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Huleihil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The irreversible heat engine is reconsidered with a general heat transfer law. Three criteria known in the literature—power, power density, and efficient power—are redefined in terms of the work criteria function (WCF, a concept introduced in this study. The formulation enabled the suggestion and analysis of a unique criterion—the efficient power density (which accounts for the efficiency and power density. Practically speaking, the efficient power and the efficient power density could be defined on any order based on the WCF. The applicability of the WCF is illustrated for the Newtonian heat transfer law (n=1 and for the radiative law (n=4. The importance of WCF is twofold: it gives an explicit design and educational tool to analyze and to display graphically the different criteria side by side and thus helps in design process. Finally, the criteria were compared and some conclusions were drawn.

  12. Supersonic combustion engine testbed, heat lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoying, D.; Kelble, C.; Langenbahn, A.; Stahl, M.; Tincher, M.; Walsh, M.; Wisler, S.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a supersonic combustion engine testbed (SCET) aircraft is presented. The hypersonic waverider will utilize both supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMjet) and turbofan-ramjet engines. The waverider concept, system integration, electrical power, weight analysis, cockpit, landing skids, and configuration modeling are addressed in the configuration considerations. The subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics are presented along with the aerodynamic stability and landing analysis of the aircraft. The propulsion design considerations include: engine selection, turbofan ramjet inlets, SCRAMjet inlets and the SCRAMjet diffuser. The cooling requirements and system are covered along with the topics of materials and the hydrogen fuel tanks and insulation system. A cost analysis is presented and the appendices include: information about the subsonic wind tunnel test, shock expansion calculations, and an aerodynamic heat flux program.

  13. The power of a critical heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Michele; Fazio, Rosario

    2016-06-01

    Since its inception about two centuries ago thermodynamics has sparkled continuous interest and fundamental questions. According to the second law no heat engine can have an efficiency larger than Carnot's efficiency. The latter can be achieved by the Carnot engine, which however ideally operates in infinite time, hence delivers null power. A currently open question is whether the Carnot efficiency can be achieved at finite power. Most of the previous works addressed this question within the Onsager matrix formalism of linear response theory. Here we pursue a different route based on finite-size-scaling theory. We focus on quantum Otto engines and show that when the working substance is at the verge of a second order phase transition diverging energy fluctuations can enable approaching the Carnot point without sacrificing power. The rate of such approach is dictated by the critical indices, thus showing the universal character of our analysis.

  14. The power of a critical heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Michele; Fazio, Rosario

    2016-06-20

    Since its inception about two centuries ago thermodynamics has sparkled continuous interest and fundamental questions. According to the second law no heat engine can have an efficiency larger than Carnot's efficiency. The latter can be achieved by the Carnot engine, which however ideally operates in infinite time, hence delivers null power. A currently open question is whether the Carnot efficiency can be achieved at finite power. Most of the previous works addressed this question within the Onsager matrix formalism of linear response theory. Here we pursue a different route based on finite-size-scaling theory. We focus on quantum Otto engines and show that when the working substance is at the verge of a second order phase transition diverging energy fluctuations can enable approaching the Carnot point without sacrificing power. The rate of such approach is dictated by the critical indices, thus showing the universal character of our analysis.

  15. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumburg, Kjeld

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of molecular engineering is the `property directed' synthesis of large molecules and molecular assemblies. Synthetic expertise has advanced to a state which allows the assembly of supramolecules containing thousands of atoms using a `construction kit' of molecular building blocks. Expansion in the field is driven by the appearance of new building blocks and by an improved understanding of the rules for joining them in the design of nanometer-sized devices. Another aspect is the transition from supramolecules to materials. At present no single molecule (however large) has been demonstrated to function as a device, but this appears to be only a matter of time. In all of this research, which has a strongly multidisciplinary character, both existing and yet to be developed analytical techniques are and will remain indispensable. All this and more is discussed in Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials, which provides a masterly and up to date summary of one of the most challenging researc...

  16. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  17. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic engineering has evolved through three stages in history: transgenesis, gene targeting, and gene editing. Since the birth of the first transgenic pig, genetic engineering in livestock has been advancing slowly due to inherent technical limitations. A major breakthrough has been the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer, which, for the first time, provided the technical ability to produce site-specific genome-modified domestic animals. However, the low efficiency of gene targeting events in somatic cells prohibits its wide use in agricultural and biomedical applications. Recently, rapid progress in tools and methods of genome engineering has been made, allowing genetic editing from mutation of a single base pair to the deletion of entire chromosomes. Here, we review the major advances of genetic engineering in domestic animals with emphasis placed on the introduction of latest designer nucleases.

  18. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  19. Probabilistic Durability Analysis in Advanced Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kudzys

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Expedience of probabilistic durability concepts and approaches in advanced engineering design of building materials, structural members and systems is considered. Target margin values of structural safety and serviceability indices are analyzed and their draft values are presented. Analytical methods of the cumulative coefficient of correlation and the limit transient action effect for calculation of reliability indices are given. Analysis can be used for probabilistic durability assessment of carrying and enclosure metal, reinforced concrete, wood, plastic, masonry both homogeneous and sandwich or composite structures and some kinds of equipments. Analysis models can be applied in other engineering fields.

  20. Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering : LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-08-01

    Constitutive modeling is an important aspect of computational solid mechanics. Sandia National Laboratories has always had a considerable effort in the development of constitutive models for complex material behavior. However, for this development to be of use the models need to be implemented in our solid mechanics application codes. In support of this important role, the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) has been developed in Engineering Sciences. The library allows for simple implementation of constitutive models by model developers and access to these models by application codes. The library is written in C++ and has a very simple object oriented programming structure. This report summarizes the current status of LAME.

  1. Optimization of automotive Rankine cycle waste heat recovery under various engine operating condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punov, Plamen; Milkov, Nikolay; Danel, Quentin; Perilhon, Christelle; Podevin, Pierre; Evtimov, Teodossi

    2017-02-01

    An optimization study of the Rankine cycle as a function of diesel engine operating mode is presented. The Rankine cycle here, is studied as a waste heat recovery system which uses the engine exhaust gases as heat source. The engine exhaust gases parameters (temperature, mass flow and composition) were defined by means of numerical simulation in advanced simulation software AVL Boost. Previously, the engine simulation model was validated and the Vibe function parameters were defined as a function of engine load. The Rankine cycle output power and efficiency was numerically estimated by means of a simulation code in Python(x,y). This code includes discretized heat exchanger model and simplified model of the pump and the expander based on their isentropic efficiency. The Rankine cycle simulation revealed the optimum value of working fluid mass flow and evaporation pressure according to the heat source. Thus, the optimal Rankine cycle performance was obtained over the engine operating map.

  2. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  3. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  4. Advanced Engineering Strategies for Periodontal Complex Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Ho Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration and integration of multiple tissue types is critical for efforts to restore the function of musculoskeletal complex. In particular, the neogenesis of periodontal constructs for systematic tooth-supporting functions is a current challenge due to micron-scaled tissue compartmentalization, oblique/perpendicular orientations of fibrous connective tissues to the tooth root surface and the orchestration of multiple regenerated tissues. Although there have been various biological and biochemical achievements, periodontal tissue regeneration remains limited and unpredictable. The purpose of this paper is to discuss current advanced engineering approaches for periodontal complex formations; computer-designed, customized scaffolding architectures; cell sheet technology-based multi-phasic approaches; and patient-specific constructs using bioresorbable polymeric material and 3-D printing technology for clinical application. The review covers various advanced technologies for periodontal complex regeneration and state-of-the-art therapeutic avenues in periodontal tissue engineering.

  5. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ogle, Brenda M.; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F.; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M.; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or “big questions” were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state-of-the-art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repa...

  6. Sorption heat engines: simple inanimate negative entropy generators

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Anthonie W. J.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    The name 'sorption heat engines' is proposed for simple negative entropy generators that are driven by thermal cycling and work on alternating adsorption and desorption. These generators are in general not explicitly recognized as heat engines. Their mechanism is applicable to the fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, geology, and biology, in particular the origin of life. Four kinds of sorption heat engines are distinguished depending on the occurrence of changes in the adsorbent or ads...

  7. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  8. Risk Assessment in Advanced Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holický

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for designing of civil engineering structures and other engineering systems are frequently based on the concept of target probability of failure. However, this fundamental quantity is usually specified on the basis of comparative studies and past experience only. Moreover, probabilistic design methods suffer from several deficiencies, including lack of consideration for accidental and other hazard situations and their consequences. Both of these extreme conditions are more and more frequently becoming causes of serious failures and other adverse events. Available experience clearly indicates that probabilistic design procedures may be efficiently supplemented by a risk analysis and assessment, which can take into account various consequences of unfavourable events. It is therefore anticipated that in addition to traditional probabilistic concepts the methods of advanced engineering design will also commonly include criteria for acceptable risks.

  9. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  10. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes'' is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal's heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  11. Recent Advances in Genetic Engineering - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobiah Rauf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans have been doing genetic engineering, a technology which is transforming our world, for thousands of years on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organism and have applications in the field of medicine, research, industry and agriculture. The rapid developments in the field of genetic engineering have given a new impetus to biotechnology. This introduces the possibility of tailoring organisms in order to optimize the production of established or novel metabolites of commercial importance and of transferring genetic material from one organism to another. In order to achieve potential benefits of genetic engineering the only need is to develop perfect tools and techniques. Once it has been perfected then all of the problems associated with food production can be solved, the world environment can be restored, and human health and lifestyle will improve beyond imagination. No doubt that there are almost no limits to what can be achieved through responsible genetic engineering. Classical field of genetic engineering and some of its advancements are discussed in this review.

  12. Comparison of advanced engines for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Bowyer, J. M.; Gajanana, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    A paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plant produces electrical energy by a two-step conversion process. The collector subsystem is composed of a two-axis tracking paraboloidal concentrator and a cavity receiver. The concentrator focuses intercepted sunlight (direct, normal insolation) into a cavity receiver whose aperture encircles the focal point of the concentrator. At the internal wall of the receiver the electromagnetic radiation is converted to thermal energy. A heat engine/generator assembly then converts the thermal energy captured by the receiver to electricity. Developmental activity has been concentrated on small power modules which employ 11- to 12-meter diameter dishes to generate nominal power levels of approximately 20 kWe. A comparison of advanced heat engines for the dish power module is presented in terms of the performance potential of each engine with its requirements for advanced technology development. Three advanced engine possibilities are the Brayton (gas turbine), Brayton/Rankine combined cycle, and Stirling engines.

  13. Exploring heating performance of gas engine heat pump with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董付江; 刘凤国; 李先庭; 尤学一; 赵冬芳

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the heating performance of gas engine heat pump (GEHP) for air-conditioning and hot water supply, a test facility was developed and experiments were performed over a wide range of engine speed (1400−2600 r/min), ambient air temperature (2.4−17.8 °C) and condenser water inlet temperature (30−50 °C). The results show that as engine speed increases from 1400 r/min to 2600 r/min, the total heating capacity and energy consumption increase by about 30% and 89%, respectively; while the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and system primary energy ratio (PER) decrease by 44% and 31%, respectively. With the increase of ambient air temperature from 2.4 °C to 17.8 °C, the heat pump COP and system PER increase by 32% and 19%, respectively. Moreover, the heat pump COP and system PER decrease by 27% and 15%, respectively, when the condenser water inlet temperature changes from 30 °C to 50 °C. So, it is obvious that the effect of engine speed on the performance is more significant than the effects of ambient air temperature and condenser water inlet temperature.

  14. Ecological performance of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine with complex heat transfer law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal ecological performance of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine with the losses of heat-resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility, in which the transfer between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs obeys a complex heat transfer law, including generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law is derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the power and entropy production rate of the heat engine. The effects of heat transfer laws and various loss terms are analyzed. The obtained results include those obtained in many literatures.

  15. Reprint of : Quantum point contacts as heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgram, Sebastian; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of macroscopic heat engines is restricted by the second law of thermodynamics. They can reach at most the efficiency of a Carnot engine. In contrast, heat currents in mesoscopic heat engines show fluctuations. Thus, there is a small probability that a mesoscopic heat engine exceeds Carnot's maximum value during a short measurement time. We illustrate this effect using a quantum point contact as a heat engine. When a temperature difference is applied to a quantum point contact, the system may be utilized as a source of electrical power under steady state conditions. We first discuss the optimal working point of such a heat engine that maximizes the generated electrical power and subsequently calculate the statistics for deviations of the efficiency from its most likely value. We find that deviations surpassing the Carnot limit are possible, but unlikely.

  16. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Contrepois, Quentin; Beck, Tilmann; Kuhn, Bernd (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  17. Microscale and nanoscale heat transfer fundamentals and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sobhan, CB

    2008-01-01

    Preface Introduction to Microscale Heat Transfer Microscale Heat Transfer: A Recent Avenue in Energy Transport State of the Art: Some Introductory Remarks Overview of Microscale Transport Phenomena Discussions on Size-Effect Behavior Fundamental Approach for Microscale Heat Transfer Introduction to Engineering Applications of Microscale Heat Transfer Microscale Heat Conduction Review of Conduction Heat Transfer Conduction at the Microscale Space and Timescales Fundamental Approach Thermal Conductivity Boltzmann Equation and Phonon Transport Conduction in Thin Films

  18. Oxidizer heat exchangers for rocket engine operation in idle modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanic, P. G.; Kmiec, T. D.

    1987-01-01

    The heat exchanger concept is discussed together with its role in rocket engine operation in idle modes. Two heat exchanger designs (low and high heat transfer) utilizing different approaches to achieve stable oxygen vaporization are presented as well as their performance test results. It is concluded that compact and lightweight heat exchangers can be used in a stable manner under the 'idle' operating conditions expected with the RL10 rocket engine.

  19. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  20. Ecological optimization of an irreversible harmonic oscillators Carnot heat engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A model of an irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine with heat resistance,internal irreversibility and heat leakage and many non-interacting harmonic oscillators is established in this paper. Based on the quantum master equation and semi-group approach,equations of some important performance parameters,such as power output,efficiency,exergy loss rate and ecological function for the irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine are derived. The optimal ecological performance of the heat engine in the classical limit is analyzed with numerical examples. Effects of internal irreversibility and heat leakage on the ecological performance are discussed. A performance comparison of the quantum heat engine under maximum ecological function and maximum power conditions is also performed.

  1. Ecolosical optimization of an irreversible harmonic oscillators Carnot heat engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XiaoWei; CHEN LinGen; WU Feng; SUN FengRui

    2009-01-01

    A model of an irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine with heat resistance, internal irreversibility and heat leakage and many non-interacting harmonic oscillators is established in this paper. Based on the quantum master equation and semi-group approach, equations of some important performance parameters, such as power output, efficiency, exergy loss rate and ecological function for the irreversible quantum Carnot heat engine are derived. The optimal ecological performance of the heat engine in the classical limit is analyzed with numerical examples. Effects of internal irreversibility and heat leakage on the ecological performance are discussed. A performance comparison of the quantum heat engine under maximum ecological function and maximum power conditions is also performed.

  2. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because the great...... conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...

  3. Polymers Advance Heat Management Materials for Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For 6 years prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program, the shuttles carried an onboard repair kit with a tool for emergency use: two tubes of NOAX, or "good goo," as some people called it. NOAX flew on all 22 flights following the Columbia accident, and was designed to repair damage that occurred on the exterior of the shuttle. Bill McMahon, a structural materials engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center says NASA needed a solution for the widest range of possible damage to the shuttle s exterior thermal protection system. "NASA looked at several options in early 2004 and decided on a sealant. Ultimately, NOAX performed the best and was selected," he says. To prove NOAX would work effectively required hundreds of samples manufactured at Marshall and Johnson, and a concerted effort from various NASA field centers. Johnson Space Center provided programmatic leadership, testing, tools, and crew training; Glenn Research Center provided materials analysis; Langley Research Center provided test support and led an effort to perform large patch repairs; Ames Research Center provided additional testing; and Marshall provided further testing and the site of NOAX manufacturing. Although the sealant never had to be used in an emergency situation, it was tested by astronauts on samples of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) during two shuttle missions. (RCC is the thermal material on areas of the shuttle that experience the most heat, such as the nose cone and wing leading edges.) The material handled well on orbit, and tests showed the NOAX patch held up well on RCC.

  4. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  5. Advanced interdisciplinary undergraduate program: light engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Alexey; Bougrov, Vladislav; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Ezhova, Kseniia

    2016-09-01

    The undergraduate educational program "Light Engineering" of an advanced level of studies is focused on development of scientific learning outcomes and training of professionals, whose activities are in the interdisciplinary fields of Optical engineering and Technical physics. The program gives practical experience in transmission, reception, storage, processing and displaying information using opto-electronic devices, automation of optical systems design, computer image modeling, automated quality control and characterization of optical devices. The program is implemented in accordance with Educational standards of the ITMO University. The specific features of the Program is practice- and problem-based learning implemented by engaging students to perform research and projects, internships at the enterprises and in leading Russian and international research educational centers. The modular structure of the Program and a significant proportion of variable disciplines provide the concept of individual learning for each student. Learning outcomes of the program's graduates include theoretical knowledge and skills in natural science and core professional disciplines, deep knowledge of modern computer technologies, research expertise, design skills, optical and optoelectronic systems and devices.

  6. SAPLE: Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopio, Michael J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine (SAPLE) web application, a directory search application for use by Sandia National Laboratories personnel. SAPLE's purpose is to return Sandia personnel 'results' as a function of user search queries, with its mission to make it easier and faster to find people at Sandia. To accomplish this, SAPLE breaks from more traditional directory application approaches by aiming to return the correct set of results while placing minimal constraints on the user's query. Two key features form the core of SAPLE: advanced search query interpretation and inexact string matching. SAPLE's query interpretation permits the user to perform compound queries when typing into a single search field; where able, SAPLE infers the type of field that the user intends to search on based on the value of the search term. SAPLE's inexact string matching feature yields a high-quality ranking of personnel search results even when there are no exact matches to the user's query. This paper explores these two key features, describing in detail the architecture and operation of SAPLE. Finally, an extensive analysis on logged search query data taken from an 11-week sample period is presented.

  7. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  8. Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASE (trademark)) Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM...Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM) Guidelines 5a

  9. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  10. Study of heat transfer in CI engine using heat transfer correlation based on intake jet velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharief, A. [Sri Siddharhta Inst. of Technology, Tumkur, Karnataka (India); Samaga, B.S.; Shrinivas Rao, B.R. [Nitte Mahalinga Adyantaya Institute of Technology, Karkala, Karnataka (India); JAntonyc, A. [Sahyadri Inst. of Technology, Mangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2009-07-01

    A reliable heat transfer formulation is needed to simulate reciprocating combustion engines. In order to reduce heat loss and improve thermal efficiency, it is necessary to calculate the rate of heat transfer from the working fluid to the combustion chamber walls. The thermal stresses in the engine components must also be determined. In this study, the author calculated heat transfer coefficient in a diesel engine using a heat transfer correlation based on intake jet velocity instead of mean piston speed. Experiments were conducted in a diesel engine with natural aspiration of hot air at 150 to 300 degrees C. Peak temperature was 1100 degrees C at various loads. The convective heat transfer coefficient and radiative heat transfer coefficient component was also determined separately at various loads. This model based on intake jet velocity instead of mean piston speed was found to be more realistic when considering the influence of gas velocities on the thermal boundary layer thickness. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Theory of Thermodynamic Variables of Rubber Band Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharayu, Nurhidayah; Widayani; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Rubber band heat engine is a heat engine that is easily applied in the experiment. However, to get the data from the experimental results are required a formulation that is able to accommodate the data, so that it will be obtained an accurate value. We show and analyze the variables thermodynamic formulation of rubber band heat engine to accommodate the experimental data, so that the equation of state, heat, work and efficiency are not only studied theoretically but also experimentally. The engine's efficiency is calculated for an idealized but reasonable model. The engine's work cycle is compared with a Carnot cycle, and it is shown to be equivalent to the Carnot cycle as an extremely ideal limiting case. We measured the force law parameters for a working model, and we obtained the efficiency of this model.

  12. FY2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  13. FY2015 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurpreet [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Gravel, Roland M. [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Howden, Kenneth C. [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Breton, Leo [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-25

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  14. Geometric Heat Engines Featuring Power that Grows with Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Pugatch, R.

    2016-04-01

    Thermodynamics places a limit on the efficiency of heat engines, but not on their output power or on how the power and efficiency change with the engine's cycle time. In this Letter, we develop a geometrical description of the power and efficiency as a function of the cycle time, applicable to an important class of heat engine models. This geometrical description is used to design engine protocols that attain both the maximal power and maximal efficiency at the fast driving limit. Furthermore, using this method, we also prove that no protocol can exactly attain the Carnot efficiency at nonzero power.

  15. Geometric Heat Engines Featuring Power that Grows with Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, O; Subaşı, Y; Pugatch, R

    2016-04-22

    Thermodynamics places a limit on the efficiency of heat engines, but not on their output power or on how the power and efficiency change with the engine's cycle time. In this Letter, we develop a geometrical description of the power and efficiency as a function of the cycle time, applicable to an important class of heat engine models. This geometrical description is used to design engine protocols that attain both the maximal power and maximal efficiency at the fast driving limit. Furthermore, using this method, we also prove that no protocol can exactly attain the Carnot efficiency at nonzero power.

  16. Finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of a thermoacoustic heat engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuxian Kan, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun, Feng Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of a generalized irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine with heat resistance, heat leakage, thermal relaxation, and internal dissipation is investigated in this paper. Both the real part and the imaginary part of the complex heat transfer exponent change the optimal profit rate versus efficiency relationship quantitatively. The operation of the generalized irreversible thermoacoustic engine is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the generalized irreversible thermoacoustic engine is performed by taking profit rate as the objective. The analytical formulas about the profit rate and thermal efficiency of the thermoacoustic engine are derived. Furthermore, the comparative analysis of the influences of various factors on the relationship between optimal profit rate and the thermal efficiency of the generalized irreversible thermoacoustic engine is carried out by detailed numerical examples. The optimal zone on the performance of the thermoacoustic heat engine is obtained by numerical analysis. The results obtained herein may be useful for the selection of the operation parameters for real thermoacoustic heat engines.

  17. Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development Program, final report - tasks 4-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, T.S.; Weber, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program is a multi-year, multi-phase effort to develop and demonstrate the critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection (LHR) engine concept for the long-haul, heavy-duty truck market. The ADECD Program has been partitioned into two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, was completed in 1986, resulting in definition of the Advanced Diesel Reference Engine (ADRE)III. The second phase, Phase 11/111, examines the feasibility of the ADRE concepts for application to the on-highway diesel engine. Phase 11/111 is currently underway. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies. The work has been performed by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) under Contract DEN3-329 with the NASA Lewis Research Center, who provide project management and technical direction.

  18. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  19. Optimal power and efficiency of quantum Stirling heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong; Chen, Lingen; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    A quantum Stirling heat engine model is established in this paper in which imperfect regeneration and heat leakage are considered. A single particle which contained in a one-dimensional infinite potential well is studied, and the system consists of countless replicas. Each particle is confined in its own potential well, whose occupation probabilities can be expressed by the thermal equilibrium Gibbs distributions. Based on the Schrödinger equation, the expressions of power output and efficiency for the engine are obtained. Effects of imperfect regeneration and heat leakage on the optimal performance are discussed. The optimal performance region and the optimal values of important parameters of the engine cycle are obtained. The results obtained can provide some guidelines for the design of a quantum Stirling heat engine.

  20. Experimental Investigation on Heating Kerosene Using Thrust Tube Waste Heat of Pulse Detonation Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiqiao; Yan, Yu; Mu, Yang; Zheng, Longxi; Chen, Le

    2013-12-01

    Performance of liquid hydrocarbon fueled pulse detonation engines are hindered by the time required to evaporate liquid fuel droplets within the mixture. Efforts such as heating the liquid fuel before introduced into the engine were made to overcome this problem. The engine wall suffered high temperature of gaseous detonative products, which is harmful to the engine. Therefore the waste heat of PDE engine wall was used here to heat the liquid kerosene of the engine by using two concentric heat-exchangers with helical slot inside mounted at the tail of the pulse detonation engine. The pulse detonation engine (PDE) used here are 110 mm in inner diameter and 1700 mm in length and liquid kerosene and gaseous air were used as fuel and oxidizer respectively. Heating liquid kerosene was found effective in enhancing the engine performance, which was helpful for deflagration to detonation transition process. It was found that the waste heat could elevate the kerosene temperature effectively and the wall temperature could also be decreased obviously.

  1. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems - Workshop Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, P.

    2001-06-15

    This CD ROM brings together proceedings of the Annex 26 Workshop 'Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems' held in Sweden, 2-3 October 2000. Sessions at the workshop were: Session 1: The supermarket as a system, Session 2: Analysis and modeling, Session 3: Field experiences, Session 4: Energy-efficient equipment. Annex 26 investigates candidate advanced system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption for both refrigeration and heating/ air conditioning in supermarkets. Advanced supermarket refrigeration system concepts to be considered include, but are not limited to secondary loop systems, distributed compressors systems, and self-contained display cases.

  2. FY 2007 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    Advanced combustion engines have great potential for achieving dramatic energy efficiency improvements in light-duty vehicle applications, where it is suited to both conventional and hybrid- electric powertrain configurations. Light-duty vehicles with advanced combustion engines can compete directly with gasoline engine hybrid vehicles in terms of fuel economy and consumer-friendly driving characteristics; also, they are projected to have energy efficiencies that are competitive with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles when used in hybrid applications.Advanced engine technologies being researched and developed by the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program will also allow the use of hydrogen as a fuel in ICEs and will provide an energy-efficient interim hydrogen-based powertrain technology during the transition to hydrogen/fuelcell-powered transportation vehicles.

  3. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shengnan

    2016-01-01

    The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation betw...

  4. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  5. Advances in cryogenic engineering, Volume 39, Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, P. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    This book provides a review of the latest work in cryogenic engineering and technology as related to a number of differing disciplines. It should serve as a valuable reference to researchers and engineers in cryogenics, materials science, low-temperature physics, polymer science, and solid-state physics. This volume contains articles under the following general areas: instrumentation and control; cryocoolers; heat exchangers and cryopumps; heat and mass transfer; cryogenic properties. Separate articles have been indexed into the database.

  6. Geothermal heating a handbook of engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, R; Smarason, O B

    2013-01-01

    To date all books on geothermics have emphasized its use for generating electricity, with applications of lower grade resources for direct heating meriting only a brief chapter. This book brings together research from a range of scientific journals and 'grey' literature to produce the first comprehensive text on geothermal heating. Economics form an important part of the book. It provides a step by step analysis of the various ways in which thermal waters can be used to provide space heating and of the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The final section of the book provides

  7. Parametric Variations of a Heat Balanced Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    OTTO Engine Performance...0.5 IHP -0.4 6 - -0.3 10 12 14 16 AIR/FUEL Fig. V11-2 OTTO Engine Performance OTTO Mode co r 7.2 (11.) 10 RPM 15s0 8 Fuel Reg. Spark z 150 BTDC File... OTTO Engine Performance waft..................... I I NAHBE Mode 1, OTTO ISFC r 7.0 7.2 (LBS/IHP-HR) 0 0.42 - g-- 0.080 - 0.6- RPM - 1300 1300

  8. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  9. Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine...

  10. Dual Expander Cycle Rocket Engine with an Intermediate, Closed-cycle Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A dual expander cycle (DEC) rocket engine with an intermediate closed-cycle heat exchanger is provided. A conventional DEC rocket engine has a closed-cycle heat exchanger thermally coupled thereto. The heat exchanger utilizes heat extracted from the engine's fuel circuit to drive the engine's oxidizer turbomachinery.

  11. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  12. Performance of Gas-Engine Driven Heat Pump Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi Zaltash; Randy Linkous; Randall Wetherington; Patrick Geoghegan; Ed Vineyard; Isaac Mahderekal; Robert Gaylord

    2008-09-30

    Air-conditioning (cooling) for buildings is the single largest use of electricity in the United States (U.S.). This drives summer peak electric demand in much of the U.S. Improved air-conditioning technology thus has the greatest potential impact on the electric grid compared to other technologies that use electricity. Thermally-activated technologies (TAT), such as natural gas engine-driven heat pumps (GHP), can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. GHP offers an attractive opportunity for commercial building owners to reduce electric demand charges and operating expenses. Engine-driven systems have several potential advantages over conventional single-speed or single-capacity electric motor-driven units. Among them are variable speed operation, high part load efficiency, high temperature waste heat recovery from the engine, and reduced annual operating costs (SCGC 1998). Although gas engine-driven systems have been in use since the 1960s, current research is resulting in better performance, lower maintenance requirements, and longer operating lifetimes. Gas engine-driven systems are typically more expensive to purchase than comparable electric motor-driven systems, but they typically cost less to operate, especially for commercial building applications. Operating cost savings for commercial applications are primarily driven by electric demand charges. GHP operating costs are dominated by fuel costs, but also include maintenance costs. The reliability of gas cooling equipment has improved in the last few years and maintenance requirements have decreased (SCGC 1998, Yahagi et al. 2006). Another advantage of the GHP over electric motor-driven is the ability to use the heat rejected from the engine during heating operation. The recovered heat can be used to supplement the vapor compression cycle during heating or to supply other process loads, such as water heating. The use of the engine waste heat results in greater

  13. 1983-2004 Heat Treatment Embraces Surface Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom Bell

    2004-01-01

    The origins of surface engineering lie in antiquity, with the practices in ancient Greece and China of hardening,tempering and crude form of case hardening using solid organic materials. The formation of the International Federation for Heat Treatment in 1971 later to include Surface Engineering has been pre-eminent in the globalisation of the rapidly developing discipline of surface engineering. The dominant effect of environmental aspects of surface engineering are discussed regarding the impact for change to light weight materials and the adoption of environmentally friendly plasma technologies.

  14. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  15. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  16. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-09-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  17. Design of heat exchanger for Ericsson-Brayton piston engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcansky, Peter; Papucik, Stefan; Jandacka, Jozef; Holubcik, Michal; Nosek, Radovan

    2014-01-01

    Combined power generation or cogeneration is a highly effective technology that produces heat and electricity in one device more efficiently than separate production. Overall effectiveness is growing by use of combined technologies of energy extraction, taking heat from flue gases and coolants of machines. Another problem is the dependence of such devices on fossil fuels as fuel. For the combustion turbine is mostly used as fuel natural gas, kerosene and as fuel for heating power plants is mostly used coal. It is therefore necessary to seek for compensation today, which confirms the assumption in the future. At first glance, the obvious efforts are to restrict the use of largely oil and change the type of energy used in transport. Another significant change is the increase in renewable energy--energy that is produced from renewable sources. Among machines gaining energy by unconventional way belong mainly the steam engine, Stirling engine, and Ericsson engine. In these machines, the energy is obtained by external combustion and engine performs work in a medium that receives and transmits energy from combustion or flue gases indirectly. The paper deals with the principle of hot-air engines, and their use in combined heat and electricity production from biomass and with heat exchangers as primary energy transforming element.

  18. Design of Heat Exchanger for Ericsson-Brayton Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Durcansky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined power generation or cogeneration is a highly effective technology that produces heat and electricity in one device more efficiently than separate production. Overall effectiveness is growing by use of combined technologies of energy extraction, taking heat from flue gases and coolants of machines. Another problem is the dependence of such devices on fossil fuels as fuel. For the combustion turbine is mostly used as fuel natural gas, kerosene and as fuel for heating power plants is mostly used coal. It is therefore necessary to seek for compensation today, which confirms the assumption in the future. At first glance, the obvious efforts are to restrict the use of largely oil and change the type of energy used in transport. Another significant change is the increase in renewable energy—energy that is produced from renewable sources. Among machines gaining energy by unconventional way belong mainly the steam engine, Stirling engine, and Ericsson engine. In these machines, the energy is obtained by external combustion and engine performs work in a medium that receives and transmits energy from combustion or flue gases indirectly. The paper deals with the principle of hot-air engines, and their use in combined heat and electricity production from biomass and with heat exchangers as primary energy transforming element.

  19. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  20. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  1. Advanced finite element method in structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Yu-Qiu; Long, Zhi-Fei

    2009-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the research work on the Finite Element Method completed over the past 25 years. Original theoretical achievements and their applications in the fields of structural engineering and computational mechanics are discussed.

  2. A Course in Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.

    1983-01-01

    A three or four semester-hour graduate course was designed to provide basic instruction in heat/mass transfer topics relevant to chemical engineering problems and to train students to develop mathematical descriptions for new situations encountered in problem-solving. Course outline and list of references used in the course are provided. (JM)

  3. Recent Advances in Genetic Engineering - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sobiah Rauf; Zubair Anwar; Hussain Mustatab Wahedi; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Talal Jamil

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been doing genetic engineering, a technology which is transforming our world, for thousands of years on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organism and have applications in the field of medicine, research, industry and agriculture. The rapid developments in the field of genetic engineering have given a new impetus to biotechnology. This introduces the possibility of tailoring organisms in order to optimize the production of established or novel metabolites of commercial imp...

  4. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  5. Heat Transfer in Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent

    Heat transfer between the cylinder gas and the piston surface during combustion in large two-stroke uniflow scavenged marine diesel engines has been investigated in the present work. The piston surface experiences a severe thermal load during combustion due to the close proximity of the combustion...... marine diesel engines. The contribution from thermal radiation to the piston surface heat flux was not investigated in the present work, but a coarse estimation of the magnitude was performed. The obtained estimations indicate a peak piston surface heat flux level in the interval from about 1 MW/m2...... and up to 9.5 MW/m2 with the actual value probably being in the lower part of this interval. This is about the same magnitude as that previously reported for automotive size diesel engines. The obtained interval is relatively large, but a more accurate prediction is difficult to achieve with the applied...

  6. Advanced quantum communications an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Imre, Sandor

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the most advanced quantum informational geometric techniques, which can help quantum communication theorists analyze quantum channels, such as security or additivity properties. Each section addresses an area of major research of quantum information theory and quantum communication networks. The authors present the fundamental theoretical results of quantum information theory, while also presenting the details of advanced quantum ccommunication protocols with clear mathematical and information theoretical background. This book bridges the gap between quantum ph

  7. Uncooled two-stroke gas engine for heat pump drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Patrick; McNulty, Dave; Woods, Melvin

    This paper describes the design and analysis of a family of natural gas fueled, uncooled, two-stroke, lean burn, thermal-ignition engines. The engines were designed specifically to meet the requirements dictated by the commercial heat pump application. The engines have a power output ranging from 15 to 100 kW; a thermal efficiency of 36 percent; a mean time between failure greater than 3 years; and a life expectancy of 45,000 hours. To meet these specifications a family of very simple, uncooled, two-stroke cycle engines were designed which have no belts, gears or pumps. The engines utilize crankcase scavenging, lubrication, stratified fuel introduction to prevent raw fuel from escaping with the exhaust gas, and use of ceramic rolling contact bearings. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) is used for ignition to enable the engines to operate with a lean mixture and eliminate spark plug erosion.

  8. Thermal barrier coatings for heat engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.; Hodge, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive NASA-Lewis program of coating development for aircraft gas turbine blades and vanes is presented. Improved ceramic layer compositions are investigated, along the MCrAlY bond films and the methods of uniform deposition of the coatings; the thermomechanical and fuel impurity tolerance limits of the coatings are being studied. Materials include the ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY system; the effects of the bond coat and zirconia composition on coating life and Mach 1 burner rig test results are discussed. It is concluded that Diesel engines can also utilize thermal barrier coatings; they have been used successfully on piston crowns and exhaust valves of shipboard engines to combat lower grade fuel combustion corrosion.

  9. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  10. Quantum heat engines based on electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Patrick P.; Sothmann, Björn

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the thermoelectric properties of heat engines based on Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The energy dependence of the transmission amplitudes in such setups arises from a difference in the interferometer arm lengths. Any thermoelectric response is thus of purely quantum-mechanical origin. In addition to an experimentally established three-terminal setup, we also consider a two-terminal geometry as well as a four-terminal setup consisting of two interferometers. We find that Mach-Zehnder interferometers can be used as powerful and efficient heat engines which perform well under realistic conditions.

  11. Optimization criteria, bounds, and efficiencies of heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salas, N; López-Palacios, L; Velasco, S; Calvo Hernández, A

    2010-11-01

    The efficiency of four different and representative models of heat engines under maximum conditions for a figure of merit representing a compromise between useful energy and lost energy (the Ω criterion) is investigated and compared with previous results for the same models where the efficiency is considered at maximum power conditions. It is shown that the maximum Ω regime is more efficient and, additionally, that the resulting efficiencies present a similar behavior. For each performance regime we obtain explicit equations accounting for lower and upper bounds. The optimization of refrigeration devices is far from being as clear as heat engines, and some remarks on it are finally considered.

  12. A micrometre-sized heat engine operating between bacterial reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Sudeesh; Ghosh, Subho; Chatterji, Dipankar; Ganapathy, Rajesh; Sood, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Artificial microscale heat engines are prototypical models to explore the mechanisms of energy transduction in a fluctuation-dominated regime. The heat engines realized so far on this scale have operated between thermal reservoirs, such that stochastic thermodynamics provides a precise framework for quantifying their performance. It remains to be seen whether these concepts readily carry over to situations where the reservoirs are out of equilibrium, a scenario of particular importance to the functioning of synthetic and biological microscale engines and motors. Here, we experimentally realize a micrometre-sized active Stirling engine by periodically cycling a colloidal particle in a time-varying optical potential across bacterial baths characterized by different degrees of activity. We find that the displacement statistics of the trapped particle becomes increasingly non-Gaussian with activity and contributes substantially to the overall power output and the efficiency. Remarkably, even for engines with the same energy input, differences in non-Gaussianity of reservoir noise results in distinct performances. At high activities, the efficiency of our engines surpasses the equilibrium saturation limit of Stirling efficiency, the maximum efficiency of a Stirling engine where the ratio of cold to hot reservoir temperatures is vanishingly small. Our experiments provide fundamental insights into the functioning of micromotors and engines operating out of equilibrium.

  13. Analysis of a Brownian heat engine with ecological criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkkalp, Emin

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the Brownian heat engine with thermo-ecological function ( ECF) and ecological coefficient of performance ( ECOP). Potential and kinetic heat flows are taken into account. Different parameters are considered in the analyses. Beside the thermo-ecological function and ecological coefficient of performance, the basic thermodynamics parameters involving power output and efficiency are investigated. Results are presented numerically and the optimum points of the system are determined.

  14. Advanced Probability Theory for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2006-01-01

    This is the third in a series of short books on probability theory and random processes for biomedical engineers. This book focuses on standard probability distributions commonly encountered in biomedical engineering. The exponential, Poisson and Gaussian distributions are introduced, as well as important approximations to the Bernoulli PMF and Gaussian CDF. Many important properties of jointly Gaussian random variables are presented. The primary subjects of the final chapter are methods for determining the probability distribution of a function of a random variable. We first evaluate the prob

  15. International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering & Advanced Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Nigrelli, Vincenzo; Oliveri, Salvatore; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Rizzuti, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers papers presented at the International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing (JCM 2016), held on 14-16 September, 2016, in Catania, Italy. It reports on cutting-edge topics in product design and manufacturing, such as industrial methods for integrated product and process design; innovative design; and computer-aided design. Further topics covered include virtual simulation and reverse engineering; additive manufacturing; product manufacturing; engineering methods in medicine and education; representation techniques; and nautical, aeronautics and aerospace design and modeling. The book is divided into eight main sections, reflecting the focus and primary themes of the conference. The contributions presented here will not only provide researchers, engineers and experts in a range of industrial engineering subfields with extensive information to support their daily work; they are also intended to stimulate new research directions, advanced applications of t...

  16. Fundamental heat transfer research for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, D. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven experts from industry and the universities joined 24 NASA Lewis staff members in an exchange of ideas on trends in aeropropulsion research and technology, basic analyses, computational analyses, basic experiments, near-engine environment experiments, fundamental fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and hot technology as related to gas turbine engines. The workshop proceedings described include pre-workshop input from participants, presentations of current activity by the Lewis staff, reports of the four working groups, and a workshop summary.

  17. Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sobh, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering includes the proceedings of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2011). The contents of this book are a set of rigorously reviewed, world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of  Industrial Electronics, Technology and Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.

  18. The influence of engine technology advancements on aircraft economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, J. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1973-01-01

    A technology advancement in a new powerplant has both favorable and unfavorable effects. Increased bypass ratio and compression ratio, coupled with high turbine temperatures, improve performance but also increase engine price and maintenance cost. The factors that should be evaluated in choosing an engine for airline use are discussed. These factors are compared for two engines that might be considered for future 150 to 200 passenger airplanes: an all-new turbofan and a quiet derivative of an existing first generation turbofan. The results of the performance and cost evaluations of the example engines are reduced to common units so they can be combined.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Piston Heat Transfer in a Light Duty Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    piston to the antennas is nearly 100%. During times of the engine cycle when the transmitter does not have good visibility (i.e. near TDC ) with the...to TDC have shorter ignition delays and therefore a lower premixed burn fraction. Both location 3 and 7 showed advancement in peak heat flux as CA50...in heat flux during compression prior to TDC as was seen in the CDC data. However, at location 3 the effect prior to TDC is not significant. There

  20. XG40 - Rolls-Royce Advanced Fighter Engine Demonstrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Lewis

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Commenced in 1982, the XG40 programme is central to the demonstration of Rolls-Royce technology appropriate to the requirements of the advanced combat engine for mid 1990's operation. At the same time, the technology in scaled form is viewed as having wider application than for the advanced combat engine alone.To meet the multi-role requirements of advanced twin and single engined fighters, the combat engine must be designed to give enhanced dry thrust, retain good dry specific fuel consumption and reduce reheated fuel consumption compared with current fighter engines. A thrust/weight ratio of 10 : 1 is targeted and at the same time requirements for operating cost, reliability and durability are stringent.Advanced materials, manufacturing technology and design of structures have been incorporated to enable the required levels of reliability, durability, component cost and weight to be demonstrated.The engine is in the 90/95 kN nominal Sea Level Static Combat thrust class.

  1. VHTR engineering design study: intermediate heat exchanger program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-11-01

    The work reported is the result of a follow-on program to earlier Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) studies. The primary use of the VHTR is to provide heat for various industrial processes, such as hydrocarbon reforming and coal gasification. For many processes the use of an intermediate heat transfer barrier between the reactor coolant and the process is desirable; for some processes it is mandatory. Various intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts for the VHTR were investigated with respect to safety, cost, and engineering design considerations. The reference processes chosen were steam-hydrocarbon reforming, with emphasis on the chemical heat pipe, and steam gasification of coal. The study investigates the critically important area of heat transfer between the reactor coolant, helium, and the various chemical processes.

  2. Testing of Stirling engine solar reflux heat-pipe receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, S.; Cordeiro, P.; Dudley, V.; Moss, T.

    1993-07-01

    Alkali metal heat-pipe receivers have been identified as a desirable interface to couple a Stirling-cycle engine with a parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflux receiver provides power nearly isothermally to the engine heater heads while de-coupling the heater head design from the solar absorber surface design. The independent design of the receiver and engine heater head leads to high system efficiency. Heat pipe reflux receivers have been demonstrated at approximately 30 kW{sub t} power throughput by others. This size is suitable fm engine output powers up to 10 kW{sub e}. Several 25-kW{sub e}, Stirling-cycle engines exist, as well as designs for 75-kW{sub t} parabolic dish solar concentrators. The extension of heat pipe technology from 30 kW{sub t} to 75 kW{sub t} is not trivial. Heat pipe designs are pushed to their limits, and it is critical to understand the flux profiles expected from the dish, and the local performance of the wick structure. Sandia has developed instrumentation to monitor and control the operation of heat pipe reflux receivers to test their throughput limits, and analytical models to evaluate receiver designs. In the past 1.5 years, several heat pipe receivers have been tested on Sandia`s test bed concentrators (TBC`s) and 60-kW{sub t} solar furnace. A screen-wick heat pipe developed by Dynatherm was tested to 27.5 kW{sub t} throughput. A Cummins Power Generation (CPG)/Thermacore 30-kW{sub t} heat pipe was pushed to a throughput of 41 kW{sub t} to verify design models. A Sandia-design screen-wick and artery 75-kW{sub t} heat pipe and a CPG/Thermacore 75-kW{sub t} sintered-wick heat pipe were also limit tested on the TBC. This report reviews the design of these receivers, and compares test results with model predictions.

  3. Advances in Electrical Engineering and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    EEA2011 is an integrated conference concentration its focus on Electrical Engineering and Automation. In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about  Electrical Engineering and Automation of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.  

  4. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-01-01

    Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic enginee...

  5. Advances in reliability and system engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents original studies describing the latest research and developments in the area of reliability and systems engineering. It helps the reader identifying gaps in the current knowledge and presents fruitful areas for further research in the field. Among others, this book covers reliability measures, reliability assessment of multi-state systems, optimization of multi-state systems, continuous multi-state systems, new computational techniques applied to multi-state systems and probabilistic and non-probabilistic safety assessment.

  6. Exotic properties and optimal control of quantum heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Congjie; Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2016-02-01

    A quantum heat engine of a specific type is studied. This engine contains a single particle confined in the infinite square well potential with variable width and consists of three processes: the isoenergetic process (which has no classical analogs) as well as the isothermal and adiabatic processes. It is found that the engine possesses exotic properties in its performance. The efficiency takes the maximum value when the expansion ratio of the engine is appropriately set, and, in addition, the lower the temperature is, the higher the maximum efficiency becomes, highlighting aspects of the influence of quantum effects on thermodynamics. A comment is also made on the relevance of this engine to that of Carnot.

  7. Advanced materials and protective coatings in aero-engines application

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hetmańczyk; L. Swadźba; B. Mendala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The following article demonstrates the characteristics of the materials applied as parts of aircraft engine turbines and the stationary gas turbines. The principal technologies for manufacturing the heat resistant coatings and the erosion and corrosion resistant coatings were characterized. Sample applications for the aforementioned coatings are presented: on turbine blades, compressor blades and on parts of combustion chambers of aircraft engines.Design/methodology/approach: The nic...

  8. Quantum, cyclic, and particle-exchange heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, T. E.; Linke, H.

    2005-10-01

    Differences between the thermodynamic behavior of the three-level amplifier (a quantum heat engine based on a thermally pumped laser) and the classical Carnot cycle are usually attributed to the essentially quantum or discrete nature of the former. Here we provide examples of a number of classical and semiclassical heat engines, such as thermionic, thermoelectric and photovoltaic devices, which all utilize the same thermodynamic mechanism for achieving reversibility as the three-level amplifier, namely isentropic (but non-isothermal) particle transfer between hot and cold reservoirs. This mechanism is distinct from the isothermal heat transfer required to achieve reversibility in cyclic engines such as the Carnot, Otto or Brayton cycles. We point out that some of the qualitative differences previously uncovered between the three-level amplifier and the Carnot cycle may be attributed to the fact that they are not the same ‘type’ of heat engine, rather than to the quantum nature of the three-level amplifier per se.

  9. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue consumpti

  10. Computational electromagnetics recent advances and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Emerging Topics in Computational Electromagnetics in Computational Electromagnetics presents advances in Computational Electromagnetics. This book is designed to fill the existing gap in current CEM literature that only cover the conventional numerical techniques for solving traditional EM problems. The book examines new algorithms, and applications of these algorithms for solving problems of current interest that are not readily amenable to efficient treatment by using the existing techniques. The authors discuss solution techniques for problems arising in nanotechnology, bioEM, metamaterials, as well as multiscale problems. They present techniques that utilize recent advances in computer technology, such as parallel architectures, and the increasing need to solve large and complex problems in a time efficient manner by using highly scalable algorithms.

  11. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

    2013-07-22

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

  12. Thermoelectric study of dissipative quantum-dot heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Bitan; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the thermoelectric response of a dissipative quantum-dot heat engine based on the Anderson-Holstein model in two relevant operating limits, (i) when the dot phonon modes are out of equilibrium, and (ii) when the dot phonon modes are strongly coupled to a heat bath. In the first case, a detailed analysis of the physics related to the interplay between the quantum-dot level quantization, the on-site Coulomb interaction, and the electron-phonon coupling on the thermoelectric performance reveals that an n -type heat engine performs better than a p -type heat engine. In the second case, with the aid of the dot temperature estimated by incorporating a thermometer bath, it is shown that the dot temperature deviates from the bath temperature as electron-phonon interaction in the dot becomes stronger. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the dot temperature controls the direction of phonon heat currents, thereby influencing the thermoelectric performance. Finally, the conditions on the maximum efficiency with varying phonon couplings between the dot and all the other macroscopic bodies are analyzed in order to reveal the nature of the optimum junction.

  13. High heat transfer oxidizer heat exchanger design and analysis. [RL10-2B engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiec, Thomas D.; Kanic, Paul G.; Peckham, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The RL10-2B engine, a derivative of the RL10, is capable of multimode thrust operation. This engine operates at two low thrust levels: tank head idle (THI), which is approximately 1 to 2% of full thrust, and pumped idle (PI), which is 10% of full thrust. Operation at THI provides vehicle propellant settling thrust and efficient engine thermal conditioning; PI operation provides vehicle tank pre-pressurization and maneuver thrust for low-g deployment. Stable combustion of the RL10-2B engine during the low thrust operating modes can be accomplished by using a heat exchanger to supply gaseous oxygen to the propellant injector. The oxidizer heat exchanger (OHE) vaporizes the liquid oxygen using hydrogen as the energy source. The design, concept verification testing and analysis for such a heat exchanger is discussed. The design presented uses a high efficiency compact core to vaporize the oxygen, and in the self-contained unit, attenuates any pressure and flow oscillations which result from unstable boiling in the core. This approach is referred to as the high heat transfer design. An alternative approach which prevents unstable boiling of the oxygen by limiting the heat transfer is referred to as the low heat transfer design and is reported in Pratt & Whitney report FR-19135-2.

  14. Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph

    2012-04-01

    We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior.

  15. An Exact Efficiency Formula for Holographic Heat Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2016-01-01

    Further consideration is given to the efficiency of black hole heat engines that perform mechanical work via the pdV terms present in the First Law of extended gravitational thermodynamics. It is noted that when the engine cycle is a rectangle with sides parallel to the (p,V) axes, the efficiency can be written simply in terms of the mass of the black hole evaluated at the corners. Since an arbitrary cycle can be approximated to any desired accuracy by a tiling of rectangles, a general geometrical algorithm for computing the efficiency follows. A simple generalization of the algorithm renders it applicable to more general classes of heat engine, beyond the black hole context.

  16. Optimal configuration for a finite high-temperature source heat engine cycle with the complex heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The optimal configuration of a heat engine operating between a finite high-temperature source and an infinite low-temperature reservoir is derived by using finite time thermodynamics based on a complex heat transfer law,including Newtonian heat transfer law,linear phenomenological heat transfer law,radiative heat transfer law,Dulong-Petit heat transfer law,generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law,q ∝(△T n). In the engine model the only irreversibility of finite rate heat transfer is considered. The optimal relation between the power output and efficiency of the heat engine is also derived by using an equivalent temperature of the hot reservoir. The obtained results include those obtained in recent literature and can provide some theoretical guidance for the designs of practical engines.

  17. Optimal configuration for a finite high-temperature source heat engine cycle with the complex heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; CHEN LinGen; SUN FengRui

    2009-01-01

    The optimal configuration of a heat engine operating between a finite high-temperature source and an infinite low-temperature reservoir is derived by using finite time thermodynamics based on a complex heat transfer law, including Newtonian heat transfer law, linear phenomenological heat transfer law, radiative heat transfer law, Dulong-Petit heat transfer law, generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law, q∝ (△Tn). In the engine model the only irreversibility of finite rate heat transfer is considered. The optimal relation between the power output and efficiency of the heat engine is also derived by using an equivalent temperature of the hot reservoir. The obtained re-sults include those obtained in recent literature and can provide some theoretical guidance for the de-signs of practical engines.

  18. Microbial engineering for the production of advanced biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; Zhang, Fuzhong; del Cardayre, Stephen B; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-08-16

    Advanced biofuels produced by microorganisms have similar properties to petroleum-based fuels, and can 'drop in' to the existing transportation infrastructure. However, producing these biofuels in yields high enough to be useful requires the engineering of the microorganism's metabolism. Such engineering is not based on just one specific feedstock or host organism. Data-driven and synthetic-biology approaches can be used to optimize both the host and pathways to maximize fuel production. Despite some success, challenges still need to be met to move advanced biofuels towards commercialization, and to compete with more conventional fuels.

  19. 2014 Joint Conference on Mechanical Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Daidie, Alain; Eynard, Benoit; Paredes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Covering key topics in the field such as technological innovation, human-centered sustainable engineering and manufacturing, and manufacture at a global scale in a virtual world, this book addresses both advanced techniques and industrial applications of key research in interactive design and manufacturing. Featuring the full papers presented at the 2014 Joint Conference on Mechanical Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing, which took place in June 2014 in Toulouse, France, it presents recent research and industrial success stories related to implementing interactive design and manufacturing solutions.

  20. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms.

  1. Heat transfer in rocket engine combustion chambers and nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. G.; Cheng, G. C.; Farmer, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Complexities of liquid rocket engine heat transfer which involve the injector faceplate and regeneratively and film cooled walls are being investigated by computational analysis. A conjugate heat transfer analysis will be used to describe localized heating phenomena associated with particular injector configurations and coolant channels and film coolant dumps. These components are being analyzed, and the analyses verified with appropriate test data. Finally, the component analyses will be synthesized into an overall flowfield/heat transfer model. The FDNS code is being used to make the component analyses. Particular attention is being given to the representation of the thermodynamic properties of the fluid streams and to the method of combining the detailed models to represent overall heating. Unit flow models of specific coaxial injector elements have been developed and will be described. Since test data from the NLS development program are not available, new validation heat transfer data have been sought. Suitable data were obtained from a Rocketdyne test program on a model hydrocarbon/oxygen engine. Simulations of these test data will be presented. Recent interest in the hybrid motor have established the need for analyses of ablating solid fuels in the combustion chamber. Analysis of a simplified hybrid motor will also be presented.

  2. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump with Desiccant Dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    About 40% of total U.S. energy consumption was consumed in residential and commercial buildings. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. This paper describes the development of an innovative natural gas, propane, LNG or bio-gas IC engine-driven heat pump (GHP) with desiccant dehumidification (GHP/DD). This integrated system has higher overall efficiencies than conventional equipment for space cooling, addresses both new and existing commercial buildings, and more effectively controls humidity in humid areas. Waste heat is recovered from the GHP to provide energy for regenerating the desiccant wheel and to augment heating capacity and efficiency. By combining the two technologies, an overall source COP of greater that 1.5 (hot, humid case) can be achieved by utilizing waste heat from the engine to reduce the overall energy required to regenerate the desiccant. Moreover, system modeling results show that the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to less 60% in a dedicated outdoor air system application with hot, humid cases.

  3. Mechanical engineering utilizing advanced engineering tools for the CANDU 9 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzzo, F.; Yu, S.K.W.; Hedges, K.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Ontario (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    To meet the increasing challenging project requirements such as cost and schedule reduction, AECL has incorporated a comprehensive suite of integrated, advanced engineering tools for CANDU project engineering and delivery. This paper provides a description of the advanced engineering tools developed and used by AECL in the pre-project engineering of the CANDU 9 product and the construction projects such as the construction of two CANDU 6 units in Qinshan, China. The advanced mechanical engineering tools described include: the Process and Instrument Diagram ; the mechanical/piping 3D models; the CADDS/piping analysis interface (PAI) tool; the pipe support design system (SDS) tool; and the powerful equipment database tool - TeddyBase. A description of the enhanced work process will also be provided. The work process improvement is a direct result of the implementation of advanced information technology and the integration of AECL tools with commercial engineering and project tools available in the market. The use of these advanced tools results in better design quality; enhanced presentation of the engineering deliverables to construction and commissioning staff; and potential support to future plant operations (Ref.1). (author). 2 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  5. Test of an improved gas engine-driven heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Domitrovic, R.

    1998-01-01

    A new generation of natural gas engine-driven heat pump (GEHP) was introduced to the marketplace recently. While the units installed have performed exceptionally well and earned rave reviews for comfort and savings on utility bills, the higher initial cost and relatively long payback time have affected the wide commercialization of this advanced technology. According to a study done for the southeastern US in the Atlanta metropolitan area, the annual operating cost of the GEHP is less than that of a baseline system consisting of a 92% efficiency gas furnace and a SEER 12 air conditioner. The estimated payback time is around 10 years to cover the difference in initial equipment price between the new and the baseline system. It has been projected that a liquid overfeed (LOF) recuperative cycle concept can simplify the hardware design of a GEHP, resulting in reduced cost and improved performance. Laboratory tests have shown that LOF would improve the energy efficiency of a vapor compression unit by 10%. In addition, LOF will reduce the compressor pressure ratio and thereby improve equipment reliability. Based on the assumed performance improvements and cost reduction, a simple payback calculation indicates LOF can reduce the payback time for an improved GEHP considerably in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Laboratory testing of an improved GEHP has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper reports on the equipment design modifications required to implement LOF and the results of performance tests at steady-state conditions. The preliminary cooling test results have indicated that the LOF in conjunction with orifice-type expander can be applied to GEHP for cost and performance enhancements. The improvements in energy efficiency will be dependent upon several controlling parameters including the proper refrigeration charge, the selected ambient temperature, and the system operating condition.

  6. Maximum work for Carnot-like heat engines with infinite heat source

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Rui

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of efficiency and its bounds at maximum work output for Carnot-like heat engines is conducted. The heat transfer processes are described by the linear law with time-dependent heat conductance. The upper bound of efficiency is found to be the CA efficiency,and is independent of the time duration completing each process and the time-dependent conductance. We prove that even the working medium exchanges heat sufficiently with the heat reservoirs, the work which could be extracted is finite and limited. The optimal temperature profiles in the heat exchanging processes are also analyzed. When the dimensionless contact times satisfy certain relations,the endoreversible model is recovered.

  7. Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both

  8. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration / Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings (16 papers) of a workshop (held in Stockholm, Sweden, 2-3 October 2000) on Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/ Heat Recovery Systems. Sessions at the workshop discussed: The supermarket as a system, Analysis and modelling, Field experiences and Energy-efficient equipment. The 16 papers presented at the workshop provide a useful information source for all involved in supermarket refrigeration.

  9. Recent Advances in Intelligent Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Klempous, Ryszard; Araujo, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This volume is a collection of 19 chapters on intelligent engineering systems written by respectable experts of the fields. The book consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to the foundational aspects of computational intelligence. It consists of 8 chapters that include studies in genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic connectives, enhanced intelligence in product models, nature-inspired optimization technologies, particle swarm optimization, evolution algorithms, model complexity of neural networks, and fitness landscape analysis. The second part contains contributions to intelligent computation in networks, presented in 5 chapters. The covered subjects include the application of self-organizing maps for early detection of denial of service attacks, combating security threats via immunity and adaptability in cognitive radio networks, novel modifications in WSN network design for improved SNR and reliability, a conceptual framework for the design of audio based cognitive infocommunication channels, and a ...

  10. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  11. Recent Advances and Future Directions for Quality Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vining, Geoff; Kulahci, Murat; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The origins of quality engineering are in manufacturing, where quality engineers apply basic statistical methodologies to improve the quality and productivity of products and processes. In the past decade, people have discovered that these methodologies are effective for improving almost any type...... of system or process, such as financial, health care, and supply chains. This paper begins with a review of key advances and trends within quality engineering over the past decade. The second part uses the first part as a foundation to outline new application areas for the field. It also discusses how...... quality engineering needs to evolve in order to make significant contributions to these new areas. © 2015 The Authors Quality and Reliability Engineering International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  12. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  13. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

    2004-01-01

    Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

  14. A heating system for piglets in farrowing house using waste heat from biogas engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payungsak Junyusen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design and test a heating system for piglets in farrowing house by utilising the waste heat from a biogas engine as a heat source. The study was separated into three parts: the study on the biogas combined heat and power plant, the investigation on the properties of the heat panel, and the installation and testing of the heating system. From the experiment, the condition producing 60 kW of electrical power was a proper one, in which electrical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were 14% and 1.22 m3/kWh respectively. Generating both electricity and heat increased the overall efficiency to 37.7% and decreased the specific fuel consumption to 0.45 m3/kWh. The heat panel, which was made of a plastic material, had a thermal conductivity of 0.58 W/mC and the maximum compressive force and operating pressure of 8.1 kN and 0.35 bar respectively. The surface temperature of the panel was dependent on the inlet water temperature. When hot water of 44C was supplied into the farrowing house with room temperature of 26C, the average surface temperature was 33C. The developed heating system could provide heat for 4.3 farrowing houses. The payback period of this project was 2.5 years.

  15. Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

    2004-12-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends.

  16. A novel heat engine for magnetizing superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T A; Hong, Z; Zhu, X [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Krabbes, G [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2008-03-01

    The potential of bulk melt-processed YBCO single domains to trap significant magnetic fields (Tomita and Murakami 2003 Nature 421 517-20; Fuchs et al 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 2107-9) at cryogenic temperatures makes them particularly attractive for a variety of engineering applications including superconducting magnets, magnetic bearings and motors (Coombs et al 1999 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9 968-71; Coombs et al 2005 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15 2312-5). It has already been shown that large fields can be obtained in single domain samples at 77 K. A range of possible applications exist in the design of high power density electric motors (Jiang et al 2006 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 1164-8). Before such devices can be created a major problem needs to be overcome. Even though all of these devices use a superconductor in the role of a permanent magnet and even though the superconductor can trap potentially huge magnetic fields (greater than 10 T) the problem is how to induce the magnetic fields. There are four possible known methods: (1) cooling in field; (2) zero field cooling, followed by slowly applied field; (3) pulse magnetization; (4) flux pumping. Any of these methods could be used to magnetize the superconductor and this may be done either in situ or ex situ. Ideally the superconductors are magnetized in situ. There are several reasons for this: first, if the superconductors should become demagnetized through (i) flux creep, (ii) repeatedly applied perpendicular fields (Vanderbemden et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 (17)) or (iii) by loss of cooling then they may be re-magnetized without the need to disassemble the machine; secondly, there are difficulties with handling very strongly magnetized material at cryogenic temperatures when assembling the machine; thirdly, ex situ methods would require the machine to be assembled both cold and pre-magnetized and would offer significant design difficulties. Until room temperature superconductors can be prepared, the

  17. A novel heat engine for magnetizing superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, T. A.; Hong, Z.; Zhu, X.; Krabbes, G.

    2008-03-01

    The potential of bulk melt-processed YBCO single domains to trap significant magnetic fields (Tomita and Murakami 2003 Nature 421 517-20 Fuchs et al 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 2107-9) at cryogenic temperatures makes them particularly attractive for a variety of engineering applications including superconducting magnets, magnetic bearings and motors (Coombs et al 1999 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9 968-71 Coombs et al 2005 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15 2312-5). It has already been shown that large fields can be obtained in single domain samples at 77 K. A range of possible applications exist in the design of high power density electric motors (Jiang et al 2006 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 1164-8). Before such devices can be created a major problem needs to be overcome. Even though all of these devices use a superconductor in the role of a permanent magnet and even though the superconductor can trap potentially huge magnetic fields (greater than 10 T) the problem is how to induce the magnetic fields. There are four possible known methods: (1) cooling in field; (2) zero field cooling, followed by slowly applied field; (3) pulse magnetization; (4) flux pumping. Any of these methods could be used to magnetize the superconductor and this may be done either in situ or ex situ. Ideally the superconductors are magnetized in situ. There are several reasons for this: first, if the superconductors should become demagnetized through (i) flux creep, (ii) repeatedly applied perpendicular fields (Vanderbemden et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 (17)) or (iii) by loss of cooling then they may be re-magnetized without the need to disassemble the machine; secondly, there are difficulties with handling very strongly magnetized material at cryogenic temperatures when assembling the machine; thirdly, ex situ methods would require the machine to be assembled both cold and pre-magnetized and would offer significant design difficulties. Until room temperature superconductors can be prepared, the

  18. Advancement in Engineering Technology: A Novel Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will be discussing about the impact of technology on our daily lives. How everybody is dependent upon technology in one or other way. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Technology has played a significant role in the evolution of the society. Science has produced many new ideas but to...... the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect....... but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected......In this paper we will be discussing about the impact of technology on our daily lives. How everybody is dependent upon technology in one or other way. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Technology has played a significant role in the evolution of the society. Science has produced many new ideas...

  19. Thermodynamics an advanced textbook for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Astarita, Gianni

    1989-01-01

    If a Writer would know how to behave himself with relation to Posterity; let him consider in old Books, what he finds, that he is glad to know; and what Omissions he most laments. Jonathan Swift This book emerges from a long story of teaching. I taught chemical engineering thermodynamics for about ten years at the University of Naples in the 1960s, and I still remember the awkwardness that I felt about any textbook I chose to consider-all of them seemed to be vague at best, and the standard of logical rigor seemed immensely inferior to what I could find in books on such other of the students in my first class subjects as calculus and fluid mechanics. One (who is now Prof. F. Gioia of the University of Naples) once asked me a question which I have used here as Example 4. 2-more than 20 years have gone by, and I am still waiting for a more intelligent question from one of my students. At the time, that question compelled me to answer in a way I didn't like, namely "I'll think about it, and I hope I'll have the ...

  20. Effect of Heat Leak and Finite Thermal Capacity on the Optimal Configuration of a Two-Heat-Reservoir Heat Engine for Another Linear Heat Transfer Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Wu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Based on a model of a two-heat-reservoir heat engine with a finite high-temperature source and bypass heat leak, the optimal configuration of the cycle is found for the fixed cycle period with another linear heat transfer law . The finite thermal capacity source without heat leak makes the configuration of the cycle to a class of generalized Carnot cycle. The configuration of the cycle with heat leak and finite thermal capacity source is different from others.

  1. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  2. Sino-UX Advanced Engineering Cooperation Set Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2009-01-01

    @@ Asignificant marketing document produced by UK Trade & Investment (UKTI) to promote greater bilateral trade and investment co-operation between the UK and China in the area of advanced engineering was launched on 11 March,Beijing,by HM Ambassador,Sir William Erhman,UK Ambassador to China.

  3. Stem and progenitor cells: advancing bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevlin, R; Walmsley, G G; Marecic, O; Hu, Michael S; Wan, D C; Longaker, M T

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many other postnatal tissues, bone can regenerate and repair itself; nevertheless, this capacity can be overcome. Traditionally, surgical reconstructive strategies have implemented autologous, allogeneic, and prosthetic materials. Autologous bone--the best option--is limited in supply and also mandates an additional surgical procedure. In regenerative tissue engineering, there are myriad issues to consider in the creation of a functional, implantable replacement tissue. Importantly, there must exist an easily accessible, abundant cell source with the capacity to express the phenotype of the desired tissue, and a biocompatible scaffold to deliver the cells to the damaged region. A literature review was performed using PubMed; peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance in order to identify key advances in stem and progenitor cell contribution to the field of bone tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly introduce various adult stem cells implemented in bone tissue engineering such as mesenchymal stem cells (including bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells), endothelial progenitor cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. We then discuss numerous advances associated with their application and subsequently focus on technological advances in the field, before addressing key regenerative strategies currently used in clinical practice. Stem and progenitor cell implementation in bone tissue engineering strategies have the ability to make a major impact on regenerative medicine and reduce patient morbidity. As the field of regenerative medicine endeavors to harness the body's own cells for treatment, scientific innovation has led to great advances in stem cell-based therapies in the past decade.

  4. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  5. Neural engineering from advanced biomaterials to 3D fabrication techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, David

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the principles of advanced 3D fabrication techniques, stem cells and biomaterials for neural engineering. Renowned contributors cover topics such as neural tissue regeneration, peripheral and central nervous system repair, brain-machine interfaces and in vitro nervous system modeling. Within these areas, focus remains on exciting and emerging technologies such as highly developed neuroprostheses and the communication channels between the brain and prostheses, enabling technologies that are beneficial for development of therapeutic interventions, advanced fabrication techniques such as 3D bioprinting, photolithography, microfluidics, and subtractive fabrication, and the engineering of implantable neural grafts. There is a strong focus on stem cells and 3D bioprinting technologies throughout the book, including working with embryonic, fetal, neonatal, and adult stem cells and a variety of sophisticated 3D bioprinting methods for neural engineering applications. There is also a strong focus on b...

  6. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  7. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stability Research for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Stiegemeier, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of a new generation of high performance boost rocket engines. These efforts, which will represent a substantial advancement in boost engine technology over that developed for the Space Shuttle Main Engines in the early 1970s, are being pursued both at NASA and the United States Air Force. NASA, under its Space Launch Initiative s Next Generation Launch Technology Program, is investigating the feasibility of developing a highly reliable, long-life, liquid oxygen/kerosene (RP-1) rocket engine for launch vehicles. One of the top technical risks to any engine program employing hydrocarbon fuels is the potential for fuel thermal stability and material compatibility problems to occur under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions required for regenerative fuel cooling of the engine combustion chamber and nozzle. Decreased heat transfer due to carbon deposits forming on wetted fuel components, corrosion of materials common in engine construction (copper based alloys), and corrosion induced pressure drop increases have all been observed in laboratory tests simulating rocket engine cooling channels. To mitigate these risks, the knowledge of how these fuels behave in high temperature environments must be obtained. Currently, due to the complexity of the physical and chemical process occurring, the only way to accomplish this is empirically. Heated tube testing is a well-established method of experimentally determining the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels. The popularity of this method stems from the low cost incurred in testing when compared to hot fire engine tests, the ability to have greater control over experimental conditions, and the accessibility of the test section, facilitating easy instrumentation. These benefits make heated tube testing the best alternative to hot fire engine testing for thermal stability and heat transfer research. This investigation

  8. Work Fluctuation-Dissipation Trade-Off in Heat Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-12-31

    Reducing work fluctuation and dissipation in heat engines or, more generally, information heat engines that perform feedback control, is vital to maximize their efficiency. The same problem arises when we attempt to maximize the efficiency of a given thermodynamic task that undergoes nonequilibrium processes for arbitrary initial and final states. We find that the most general trade-off relation between work fluctuation and dissipation applicable to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes is bounded from below by the information distance characterizing how far the system is from thermal equilibrium. The minimum amount of dissipation is found to be given in terms of the relative entropy and the Renyi divergence, both of which quantify the information distance between the state of the system and the canonical distribution. We give an explicit protocol that achieves the fundamental lower bound of the trade-off relation.

  9. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Hendricks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available All hydrocarbon- (HC- fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe emissions (<10 to 140 nm contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked and, when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  10. On the maximum efficiency of realistic heat engines

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, E N

    2012-01-01

    In 1975, Courzon and Ahlborn studied a Carnot engine with thermal losses and got an expression for its efficiency that described better the performance of actual heat machines than the traditional result due to Carnot. In their original derivation, time appears explicitly and this is disappointing in the framework of classical thermodynamics. In this note a derivation is given without any explicit reference to time.

  11. On introduction of artificial intelligence elements to heat power engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregalin, A. F.; Nazyrova, R. R.

    1993-10-01

    The basic problems of 'the thermodynamic intelligence' of personal computers have been outlined. The thermodynamic intellect of personal computers as a concept has been introduced to heat processes occurring in engines of flying vehicles. In particular, the thermodynamic intellect of computers is determined by the possibility of deriving formal relationships between thermodynamic functions. In chemical thermodynamics, a concept of a characteristic function has been introduced.

  12. Research and Development on Heat Pipes and Related Thermal Engineering Technologies in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    OSHIMA, Koichi

    1989-01-01

    Five advanced heat pipe systems utilizing phase changing heat transfer concept are introduced, which are; a separate type heat pipe heat exchanger, a heat pipe turbine, micro heat pipes, a thermocapillary loop system and mass-produced tubes with inner fin. Inside of these heat pipes, contrary to the conventional heat transfer tubes, evaporation and condensation processes are heavily influenced by the surface tension effect. This effect is also dominant in the heat pipes operating under micro-...

  13. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review...... the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further.......Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable...

  14. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further.

  15. Nanoelectromechanical Heat Engine Based on Electron-Electron Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikström, A.; Eriksson, A. M.; Kulinich, S. I.; Gorelik, L. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically show that a nanoelectromechanical system can be mechanically actuated by a heat flow through it via an electron-electron interaction. In contrast to most known actuation mechanisms in similar systems, this new mechanism does not involve an electronic current nor external ac fields. Instead, the mechanism relies on deflection-dependent tunneling rates and a heat flow which is mediated by an electron-electron interaction while an electronic current through the device is prohibited by, for instance, a spin-valve effect. Therefore, the system resembles a nanoelectromechanical heat engine. We derive a criterion for the mechanical instability and estimate the amplitude of the resulting self-sustained oscillations. Estimations show that the suggested phenomenon can be studied using available experimental techniques.

  16. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 41, Part A & B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, P. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This proceedings is of the 1995 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. It consists of 252 published papers covering the latest developments in all aspects of cryogenic engineering research. Contributions touch on fields including: cryobiology; heat and mass transfer (including data on boiling and superfluid helium); magnet technology; large-scale cryogenic systems, such as the large hadron collider and the TeV Electron Superconducting Linear Accelerator; cryofuels; minesweeping applications; space cryocooler applications; research on miscellaneous cryogenic machinery, techniques, and safety concerns. Separate abstracts have been submitted for contributions from this proceedings.

  17. Inspiring engineering minds to advance human health: the Henry Samueli School of Engineering's Department of BME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham; Wirtanen, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The growth of biomedical engineering at The Henry Samueli School of Engineering at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) has been rapid since the Center for Biomedical Engineering was first formed in 1998 [and was later renamed as the Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) in 2002]. Our current mission statement, “Inspiring Engineering Minds to Advance Human Health,” serves as a reminder of why we exist, what we do, and the core principles that we value and by which we abide. BME exists to advance the state of human health via engineering innovation and practices. To attain our goal, we are empowering our faculty to inspire and mobilize our students to address health problems. We treasure the human being, particularly the human mind and health. We believe that BME is where minds are nurtured, challenged, and disciplined, and it is also where the health of the human is held as a core mission value that deserves our utmost priority (Figure 1). Advancing human health is not a theoretical practice; it requires bridging between disciplines (engineering and medicine) and between communities (academic and industry).

  18. Mechanics and model-based control of advanced engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irschik, Hans; Krommer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mechanics and Model-Based Control of Advanced Engineering Systems collects 32 contributions presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines, which took place in St. Petersburg, Russia in July 2012. The workshop continued a series of international workshops, which started with a Japan-Austria Joint Workshop on Mechanics and Model Based Control of Smart Materials and Structures and a Russia-Austria Joint Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines. In the present volume, 10 full-length papers based on presentations from Russia, 9 from Austria, 8 from Japan, 3 from Italy, one from Germany and one from Taiwan are included, which represent the state of the art in the field of mechanics and model based control, with particular emphasis on the application of advanced structures and machines.

  19. Metabolic engineering of microbial pathways for advanced biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuzhong; Rodriguez, Sarah; Keasling, Jay D

    2011-12-01

    Production of biofuels from renewable resources such as cellulosic biomass provides a source of liquid transportation fuel to replace petroleum-based fuels. This endeavor requires the conversion of cellulosic biomass into simple sugars, and the conversion of simple sugars into biofuels. Recently, microorganisms have been engineered to convert simple sugars into several types of biofuels, such as alcohols, fatty acid alkyl esters, alkanes, and terpenes, with high titers and yields. Here, we review recently engineered biosynthetic pathways from the well-characterized microorganisms Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of several advanced biofuels.

  20. Work output and efficiency at maximum power of linear irreversible heat engines operating with a finite-sized heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

    2014-05-01

    We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart.

  1. Coupling Between Turbulent Boundary Layer and Radiative Heat Transfer Under Engine-Relevant Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, A.; Paul, C.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The lack of accurate submodels for in-cylinder radiation and heat transfer has been identified as a key shortcoming in developing truly predictive CFD models that can be used to develop combustion systems for advanced high-efficiency, low-emissions engines. Recent measurements of wall layers in engines show discrepancies of up to 100% with respect to standard CFD boundary-layer models. And recent analysis of in-cylinder radiation based on recent spectral property databases and high-fidelity radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers has shown that at operating conditions typical of heavy-duty CI engines, radiative emission can be as high as 40% of the wall heat losses, that molecular gas radiation can be more important than soot radiation, and that a significant fraction of the emitted radiation can be reabsorbed before reaching the walls. That is, radiation changes the in-cylinder temperature distribution, which in turn affects combustion and emissions. The goal of this research is to develop models that explicitly account for the potentially strong coupling between radiative and turbulent boundary layer heat transfer. For example, for optically thick conditions, a simple diffusion model might be formulated in terms of an absorption-coefficient-dependent turbulent Prandtl number. NSF, DOE.

  2. Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    SNL/CA proposes the Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) facility to support customer-driven national security mission requirements while demonstrating a fiscally responsible approach to cost-control. SNL/CA realizes that due to the current backlog of capital projects in NNSA that following the normal Line Item process to procure capital funding is unlikely and therefore SNL/CA will be looking at all options including Alternative Financing.

  3. Advances in polymeric systems for tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-03-01

    The characteristics of tissue engineered scaffolds are major concerns in the quest to fabricate ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The polymer scaffolds employed for tissue engineering applications should possess multifunctional properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and favorable mechanical properties as it comes in direct contact with the body fluids in vivo. Additionally, the polymer system should also possess biomimetic architecture and should support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. As the progress in polymer technology continues, polymeric biomaterials have taken characteristics more closely related to that desired for tissue engineering and clinical needs. Stimuli responsive polymers also termed as smart biomaterials respond to stimuli such as pH, temperature, enzyme, antigen, glucose and electrical stimuli that are inherently present in living systems. This review highlights the exciting advancements in these polymeric systems that relate to biological and tissue engineering applications. Additionally, several aspects of technology namely scaffold fabrication methods and surface modifications to confer biological functionality to the polymers have also been discussed. The ultimate objective is to emphasize on these underutilized adaptive behaviors of the polymers so that novel applications and new generations of smart polymeric materials can be realized for biomedical and tissue engineering applications.

  4. Finite-time exergoeconomic performance of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine with complex heat transfer law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite time exergoeconomic performance of the generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine with the losses of heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility, and with a complex heat transfer law, including generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law is investigated in this paper. The focus of this paper is to obtain the compromised optimization between economics (profit and the energy utilization factor (efficiency for the generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine, by searching the optimum efficiency at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite time exergoeconomic performance bound. The obtained results include those obtained in many literatures and can provide some theoretical guidelines for the design of practical heat engines.

  5. District heating and gas engine heat pump: Economic analysis based on a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Noro, M. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Stradella, S. Nicola, 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy)

    2006-02-01

    'S. Nicola' HVAC plant in Vicenza features innovative and significant energy savings characteristics. It has been set up by a gas engine heat pump (coupled to two condensing boilers) whose performances are here evaluated during three years of operation. Due to a grid expansion, the University received the offer of being connected to the district heating grid. This possibility that is often considered advantageous was economically evaluated. As a result of this, a significant increasing of the building annual energy bill was demonstrated in case of acceptance. (author)

  6. Nanoscale phase engineering of thermal transport with a Josephson heat modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornieri, Antonio; Blanc, Christophe; Bosisio, Riccardo; D'Ambrosio, Sophie; Giazotto, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Macroscopic quantum phase coherence has one of its pivotal expressions in the Josephson effect, which manifests itself both in charge and energy transport. The ability to master the amount of heat transferred through two tunnel-coupled superconductors by tuning their phase difference is the core of coherent caloritronics, and is expected to be a key tool in a number of nanoscience fields, including solid-state cooling, thermal isolation, radiation detection, quantum information and thermal logic. Here, we show the realization of the first balanced Josephson heat modulator designed to offer full control at the nanoscale over the phase-coherent component of thermal currents. Our device provides magnetic-flux-dependent temperature modulations up to 40 mK in amplitude with a maximum of the flux-to-temperature transfer coefficient reaching 200 mK per flux quantum at a bath temperature of 25 mK. Foremost, it demonstrates the exact correspondence in the phase engineering of charge and heat currents, breaking ground for advanced caloritronic nanodevices such as thermal splitters, heat pumps and time-dependent electronic engines.

  7. Peracetic acid: a practical agent for sterilizing heat-labile polymeric tissue-engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Trahan, William R; Best, Al M; Bowlin, Gary L; Kitten, Todd O; Moon, Peter C; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A

    2014-09-01

    Advanced biomaterials and sophisticated processing technologies aim at fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds that can predictably interact within a biological environment at the cellular level. Sterilization of such scaffolds is at the core of patient safety and is an important regulatory issue that needs to be addressed before clinical translation. In addition, it is crucial that meticulously engineered micro- and nano- structures are preserved after sterilization. Conventional sterilization methods involving heat, steam, and radiation are not compatible with engineered polymeric systems because of scaffold degradation and loss of architecture. Using electrospun scaffolds made from polycaprolactone, a low melting polymer, and employing spores of Bacillus atrophaeus as biological indicators, we compared ethylene oxide, autoclaving and 80% ethanol to a known chemical sterilant, peracetic acid (PAA), for their ability to sterilize as well as their effects on scaffold properties. PAA diluted in 20% ethanol to 1000 ppm or above sterilized electrospun scaffolds in 15 min at room temperature while maintaining nano-architecture and mechanical properties. Scaffolds treated with PAA at 5000 ppm were rendered hydrophilic, with contact angles reduced to 0°. Therefore, PAA can provide economical, rapid, and effective sterilization of heat-sensitive polymeric electrospun scaffolds that are used in tissue engineering.

  8. International Conference on Advances in Tribology and Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deheri, Gunamani; Patel, Harshvadan; Mehta, Shreya

    2014-01-01

    This book contains advanced-level research material in the area of lubrication theory and related aspects, presented by eminent researchers during the International Conference on Advances in Tribology and Engineering Systems (ICATES 2013) held at Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, India during October 15–17, 2013. The material in this book represents the advanced field of tribology and reflects the work of many eminent researchers from both India and abroad. The treatment of the presentations is the result of the contributions of several professionals working in the industry and academia. This book will be useful for students, researchers, academicians, and professionals working in the area of tribology, in general, and bearing performance characteristics, in particular, especially from the point-of-view of design. This book will also appeal to researchers and professionals working in fluid-film lubrication and other practical applications of tribology. A wide range of topics has been included des...

  9. Some design considerations for ceramic components in heat engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1986-01-01

    The design methodology for brittle material structures which is being developed and used at the Lewis Research Center for sizing ceramic components in heat engine applications is reviewed. Theoretical aspects of designing with structural ceramics are discussed, and a general purpose reliability program for predicting fast fracture response due to volume distributed flaws is described. Statistical treatment of brittle behavior, based on the Weibull model, is reviewed and its advantages, as well as drawbacks, are listed. A mechanistic statistical fracture theory, proposed by Batdorf to overcome the Weibull model limitations and based on Griffith fracture mechanics, is summarized. Failure probability predictions are made for rotating annular Si3N4 disks using various fracture models, and the results are compared to actual failure data. The application of these design methods to Government funded ceramics engine demonstration programs is surveyed. The uncertainty in observed component performance emphasizes the need for proof testing and improved nondestructive evaluation to guarantee adequate structural integrity.

  10. ADVANCED NICKEL-BASED AND NICKEL-IRON-BASED SUPERALLOYS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Brill

    2005-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials is especially important in power station construction,heating systems engineering, furnace industry, chemical and petrochemical industry, waste incineration plants, coal gasification plants and for flying gas turbines in civil and military aircrafts and helicopters. Particularly in recent years, the development of new processes and the drive to improve the economics of existing processes have increased the requirements significantly so that it is necessary to change from well-proven materials to new alloys. Hitherto, heat resistant ferritic steels sufficed in conventional power station constructions for temperatures up to 550℃ newly developed ferritic/martensitic steels provide sufficient strength up to about 600-620℃. In new processes, e.g. fiuidized-bed combustion of coal, process temperatures up to 900℃ occur. However, this is not the upper limit, since in combustion engines, e.g. gas turbines. Material temperatures up to 1100℃ are reached locally. Similar development trends can also be identified in the petrochemical industry and in the heat treatment and furnace engineering. The advance to ever higher material temperatures now not only has the consequence of having to use materials with enhanced high-strength properties, considerable attention now also has to be given to their chemical stability in corrosive media. Therefore not only examples of the use of high-temperature alloys for practical applications will be given but also be contributed to some general rules for material selection with regard to their high-temperature strength and corrosion resistance.

  11. Convective Heating of the LIFE Engine Target During Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdener, D S; Tillack, M S; Wang, X R

    2011-10-24

    Target survival in the hostile, high temperature xenon environment of the proposed Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine is critical. This work focuses on the flow properties and convective heat load imposed upon the surface of the indirect drive target while traveling through the xenon gas. While this rarefied flow is traditionally characterized as being within the continuum regime, it is approaching transition where conventional CFD codes reach their bounds of operation. Thus ANSYS, specifically the Navier-Stokes module CFX, will be used in parallel with direct simulation Monte Carlo code DS2V and analytically and empirically derived expressions for heat transfer to the hohlraum for validation. Comparison of the viscous and thermal boundary layers of ANSYS and DS2V were shown to be nearly identical, with the surface heat flux varying less than 8% on average. From the results herein, external baffles have been shown to reduce this heat transfer to the sensitive laser entrance hole (LEH) windows and optimize target survival independent of other reactor parameters.

  12. Speed and efficiency limits of multilevel incoherent heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, V.; Niedenzu, W.; Kofman, A. G.; Kurizki, G.

    2016-12-01

    We present a comprehensive theory of heat engines (HE) based on a quantum-mechanical "working fluid" (WF) with periodically modulated energy levels. The theory is valid for any periodicity of driving Hamiltonians that commute with themselves at all times and do not induce coherence in the WF. Continuous and stroke cycles arise in opposite limits of this theory, which encompasses hitherto unfamiliar cycle forms, dubbed here hybrid cycles. The theory allows us to discover the speed, power, and efficiency limits attainable by incoherently operating multilevel HE depending on the cycle form and the dynamical regimes.

  13. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Keefe, Andrew C; Alexander, Paul W; Sarosi, Peter Maxwell; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan

    2013-12-17

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulled spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes first spring coil and a first fiber core within the first spring coil. A timing cable is disposed about disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  14. Development of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Using a High-Heat-Flux Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The development of low conductivity, robust thermal and environmental barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity and cyclic resistance at very high surface temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux test approach is established for evaluating advanced low conductivity, high temperature capability thermal and environmental barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. The test approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which initially rises under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later drops under the cyclic thermal gradient test due to coating cracking/delamination. The coating system is then evaluated based on damage accumulation and failure after the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The lattice and radiation thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic coatings can also be evaluated using laser heat-flux techniques. The external radiation resistance of the coating is assessed based on the measured specimen temperature response under a laser- heated intense radiation-flux source. The coating internal radiation contribution is investigated based on the measured apparent coating conductivity increases with the coating surface test temperature under large thermal gradient test conditions. Since an increased radiation contribution is observed at these very high surface test temperatures, by varying the laser heat-flux and coating average test temperature, the complex relation between the lattice and radiation conductivity as a function of surface and interface test temperature may be derived.

  15. Challenging and Future of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines; an Advanced and Novel Concepts Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkelawy, Medhat; Yu-Sheng, Zhang; Hagar, Alm El-Din; Yu, Jing-Zhou

    The potential of HCCI combustion to reduce the internal combustion engines exhaust emissions, particularly NOX and soot emissions, and to delimit the application range of this technique as well as a detailed analysis of previous and current results of combustion chemistry, emission behaviors, the challenging facing this technique, and all controlling parameters including transient states are introduced. From HCCI combustion chemistry and emissions analysis it was found that, the heavy fuels displays two-stage heat release or two stage combustion process involving low temperature oxidation (LTO) stage followed by high temperature oxidation (HTO) stage separated by a time delay between them is attributed to negative temperature coefficient (NTC), the advantage of NOX emissions reduction from HCCI engine diminishing at high load condition, HC production is reduced with increasing the engine load, and the soot ejection is negligible during all operating conditions. Valve timing, compression ratio, inlet air temperature, and EGR show an advanced control on the HCCI combustion behaviors over a wide range of speed and load. The use of EGR in HCCI operation is limited at EGR-rates about 70% at this point the reaction rates and ignition timing are so much reduced and retarded, respectively, and leads to misfiring and production of HC-emissions. Homogenization of fuel, air, and recycled burnt gases prior to ignition in addition to the control of ignition and combustion timing, and heat release rates are obstructs that must be overcome in order to realize the advantages of HCCI engine in the future.

  16. Two-phase plate-fin heat exchanger modeling for waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; de Jager, B.; Willems, F.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and model validation for a modular two-phase heat exchanger that recovers energy in heavy-duty diesel engines. The model is developed for temperature and vapor quality prediction and for control design of the waste heat recovery system. In the studied waste heat reco

  17. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Aladayleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively. The indication work, real shaft power and specific fuel consumption for Stirling engine, and the exhaust power losses for IC engine are calculated. The study shows the availability and possibility of recovery of the waste heat from internal combustion engine using Stirling engine.

  18. Study, optimization, and design of a laser heat engine. [for satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, R. T.; Cassady, P. E.; Zumdieck, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Laser heat engine concepts, proposed for satellite applications, are analyzed to determine which engine concept best meets the requirements of high efficiency (50 percent or better), continuous operation in space using near-term technology. The analysis of laser heat engines includes the thermodynamic cycles, engine design, laser power sources, collector/concentrator optics, receiving windows, absorbers, working fluids, electricity generation, and heat rejection. Specific engine concepts, optimized according to thermal efficiency, are rated by their technological availability and scaling to higher powers. A near-term experimental demonstration of the laser heat engine concept appears feasible utilizing an Otto cycle powered by CO2 laser radiation coupled into the engine through a diamond window. Higher cycle temperatures, higher efficiencies, and scalability to larger sizes appear to be achievable from a laser heat engine design based on the Brayton cycle and powered by a CO laser.

  19. Design for micro-combined cooling, heating and power systems stirling engines and renewable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    ‘Design for Micro-Combined Cooling, Heating & Power Systems’ provides a manual for the technical and structural design of systems for supplying decentralised energy in residential buildings. It presents the micro-combined cooling, heating & power systems Stirling engines & renewable energy sources (mCCHP-SE-RES) systems in an accessible manner both for the public at large, and for professionals who conceive, design or commercialise such systems or their components.  The high performance levels of these systems are demonstrated within the final chapter by the results of an experiment in which a house is equipped with a mCCHP-SE-RES system. The reader is also familiarized with the conceptual, technical and legal aspects of modern domestic energy systems; the components that constitute these systems; and advanced algorithms for achieving the structural and technical design of such systems. In residential buildings, satisfying demands of durable development has gradually evolved from necessity to...

  20. Performance Analysis and Optimization of a Solar Powered Stirling Engine with Heat Transfer Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-En Ho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimization of the performance of a solar powered Stirling engine based on finite-time thermodynamics. Heat transference in the heat exchangers between a concentrating solar collector and the Stirling engine is studied. The irreversibility of a Stirling engine is considered with the heat transfer following Newton's law. The power generated by a Stirling engine is used as an objective function for maximum power output design with the concentrating solar collector temperature and the engine thermal efficiency as the optimization parameters. The maximum output power of engine and its corresponding system parameters are determined using a genetic algorithm.

  1. Manufacturing technology for advanced jet engines; Jisedai jetto engine no seizo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-04-05

    A part of the latest production technologies for aircraft jet engines is introduced. Outline of the turbofan engine, turbo-prop engine, and turbo-shaft engine are given. Every one of them employs a gas turbine engine comprising a compressor, combustor, and a turbine as the output generator. Increase in the turbine inlet temperature is effective for making the gas turbine engine more efficient. The development tread of heat resisting materials for realizing higher temperature is shown. The current status and future aspect of the manufacturing technology is discussed for each main component of the engine. Technological development for decreasing weight is important because the weight of the fan member increases when the fan diameter is increased to increase the bypass ratio. FRP is adopted for the blades and casing to decrease the weight of the compressor, and studies have been made on fiber reinforced materials to reduce the weight of the disks. The outlines of the latest manufacturing technologies for the combustor and turbine are introduced. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Effect of translucence of engineering ceramics on heat transfer in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahiduzzaman, S.; Morel, T. (Integral Technologies, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the experimental portion of a broader study undertaken to assess the effects of translucence of ceramic materials used as thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines. In an earlier analytical work a parametric study was performed, varying several radiative properties over ranges typical of engineering ceramics, thereby identifying the most important radiative properties and their impact on in-cylinder heat transfer. In the current study these properties were experimentally determined for several specific zirconia coatings considered for thermal barrier applications in diesel engines. The methodology of this study involved formulation of a model capable of describing radiative transfer through a semitransparent medium as a function of three independent model parameters, ie, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index. For the zirconia-based ceramics investigated in this study, it was concluded that for usual coating thicknesses (1.5--2.5 mm) these ceramics are optically thick and hence, are effective as radiative heat transfer barriers. These ceramics possess high scattering coefficients and low absorption coefficients causing them to be highly reflective (60-80%) in the spectral region where thermal radiation is important. The performance of the investigated ceramics and the mechanism of heat transfer were found to depend on surface condition, specifically on soot deposition. Thus, to insure the optimum thermal barrier operation for either clean or heavily sooted surfaces, a ceramic material with high scattering coefficient provides the best choice.

  3. Effect of translucence of engineering ceramics on heat transfer in diesel engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahiduzzaman, S.; Morel, T. [Integral Technologies, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the experimental portion of a broader study undertaken to assess the effects of translucence of ceramic materials used as thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines. In an earlier analytical work a parametric study was performed, varying several radiative properties over ranges typical of engineering ceramics, thereby identifying the most important radiative properties and their impact on in-cylinder heat transfer. In the current study these properties were experimentally determined for several specific zirconia coatings considered for thermal barrier applications in diesel engines. The methodology of this study involved formulation of a model capable of describing radiative transfer through a semitransparent medium as a function of three independent model parameters, ie, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index. For the zirconia-based ceramics investigated in this study, it was concluded that for usual coating thicknesses (1.5--2.5 mm) these ceramics are optically thick and hence, are effective as radiative heat transfer barriers. These ceramics possess high scattering coefficients and low absorption coefficients causing them to be highly reflective (60-80%) in the spectral region where thermal radiation is important. The performance of the investigated ceramics and the mechanism of heat transfer were found to depend on surface condition, specifically on soot deposition. Thus, to insure the optimum thermal barrier operation for either clean or heavily sooted surfaces, a ceramic material with high scattering coefficient provides the best choice.

  4. Effect of combustion chamber insulation on the performance of a low heat rejection diesel engine with exhaust heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assanis, D.N. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompound diesel engine system is used to study the effect of combustion chamber insulation on the performance of low heat rejection system configurations with exhaust heat recovery. The analysis is carried out for zirconia coatings of various thicknesses applied on the cylinder head and piston. It is found that an intercooled turbocompound engine derives a modest thermal efficiency benefit from insulation, e.g. 4.3% improvement at a 60% reduction in heat loss. The addition of Rankine compounding can improve the thermal efficiency of the turbocompounded engine by 10-14%, depending on the level of insulation and the system configuration. Furthermore, Rankine compounding can make the otherwise inferior performance of a non-intercooled engine match the performance of an intercooled engine. Finally, use of an insulating material of low conductivity and low heat capacity can increase the thermal efficiency benefits, but at the expense of increased component thermal loading. (author).

  5. Entropic anomaly and maximal efficiency of microscopic heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Stefano; Celani, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The efficiency of microscopic heat engines in a thermally heterogenous environment is considered. We show that-as a consequence of the recently discovered entropic anomaly-quasistatic engines, whose efficiency is maximal in a fluid at uniform temperature, have in fact vanishing efficiency in the presence of temperature gradients. For slow cycles the efficiency falls off as the inverse of the period. The maximum efficiency is reached at a finite value of the cycle period that is inversely proportional to the square root of the gradient intensity. The relative loss in maximal efficiency with respect to the thermally homogeneous case grows as the square root of the gradient. As an illustration of these general results, we construct an explicit, analytically solvable example of a Carnot stochastic engine. In this thought experiment, a Brownian particle is confined by a harmonic trap and immersed in a fluid with a linear temperature profile. This example may serve as a template for the design of real experiments in which the effect of the entropic anomaly can be measured.

  6. Engineering of Glasses for Advanced Optical Fiber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Carlie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced optical applications (such as fiber opticsdemand the engineering of innovative materialswhich provide the requisite optical performance in aform with specific functionality necessary for thedesired application. We will report on recent effortsto engineer new non-oxide glasses with tailoredphoto-sensitive response, and multi-component oxideglasses optimized for use in next generation Ramanamplification applications. The ultimate performanceof such glasses relies on control of the formation andstability of defective and/or metastable structuralconfigurations and their impact on physical as well aslinear and nonlinear optical properties. Direct laserwriting has drawn considerable attention since thedevelopment of femtosecond lasers and therecognition that such systems possess the requisiteintensity to modify, reversibly or irreversibly thephysical properties of optical materials. Such“structuring” has emerged as one of several possibleroutes for the fabrication of waveguides and otherphoto-induced structures.

  7. Computational modeling, optimization and manufacturing simulation of advanced engineering materials

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents recent research work focused in the development of adequate theoretical and numerical formulations to describe the behavior of advanced engineering materials.  Particular emphasis is devoted to applications in the fields of biological tissues, phase changing and porous materials, polymers and to micro/nano scale modeling. Sensitivity analysis, gradient and non-gradient based optimization procedures are involved in many of the chapters, aiming at the solution of constitutive inverse problems and parameter identification. All these relevant topics are exposed by experienced international and inter institutional research teams resulting in a high level compilation. The book is a valuable research reference for scientists, senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for engineers acting in the area of computational material modeling.

  8. Advances in Research on Genetically Engineered Plants for Metal Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Qing Zhang; Chun-Fang Tang; Shi-Zhi Wen; Yun-Guo Liu; Ke-Lin Li

    2006-01-01

    The engineering application of natural hyperaccumulators in removing or inactivating metal pollutants from soil and surface water in field trials mostly presents the insurmountable shortcoming of low efficiency owing to their little biomass and slow growth. Based on further understanding of the molecular mechanism of metal uptake, translocation, and also the separation, identification, and cloning of some related functional genes, this article highlights and summarizes in detail the advances in research on transgenic techniques, such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and particle bombardment, in breeding of plants for metal resistance and accumulation, and points out that deepening the development of transgenic plants is one of the efficient approaches to improving phytoremediation efficiency of metal-contaminated environments. From the viewpoint of sustainable development, governments should strengthen support to the development of genetic engineering for metal resistance and accumulation in plants.

  9. Efficiencies and coefficients of performance of heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps with friction: a universal limiting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, João P S; Rodrigues, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    For work-producing heat engines, or work-consuming refrigerators and heat pumps, the percentage decrease caused by friction in their efficiencies, or coefficients of performance (COP's), is approximately given by the ratio W(fric)/W between the work spent against friction forces and the work performed by, or delivered to, the working fluid. This universal scaling, which applies in the limit of small friction (W(fric)/W heat-engine efficiencies), allows a simple and quick estimate of the impact that friction losses can have on the FOM's of thermal engines and plants, or of the level of those losses from the observed and predicted FOM's. In the case of refrigerators and heat pumps, if W(fric)/W heat engines), the COP percentage decrease due to friction approaches asymptotically (W(fric)/W)/(1+W(fric)/W) instead of W(fric)/W. Estimates for the level of frictional losses using the Carnot (or, for heat engines and power plants only, the Curzon-Ahlborn) predictions and observed FOM's of real power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps show that they usually operate in domains where these behaviors are valid.

  10. Advanced Engineering Environment FY09/10 pilot project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Kiba, Grant W.; Pomplun, Alan R.; Dutra, Edward G.; Sego, Abraham L.

    2010-06-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) project identifies emerging engineering environment tools and assesses their value to Sandia National Laboratories and our partners in the Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) by testing them in our design environment. This project accomplished several pilot activities, including: the preliminary definition of an engineering bill of materials (BOM) based product structure in the Windchill PDMLink 9.0 application; an evaluation of Mentor Graphics Data Management System (DMS) application for electrical computer-aided design (ECAD) library administration; and implementation and documentation of a Windchill 9.1 application upgrade. The project also supported the migration of legacy data from existing corporate product lifecycle management systems into new classified and unclassified Windchill PDMLink 9.0 systems. The project included two infrastructure modernization efforts: the replacement of two aging AEE development servers for reliable platforms for ongoing AEE project work; and the replacement of four critical application and license servers that support design and engineering work at the Sandia National Laboratories/California site.

  11. Requirements Development for the NASA Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eric; Hale, Joseph P.; Zook, Keith; Gowda, Sanjay; Salas, Andrea O.

    2003-01-01

    The requirements development process for the Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is presented. This environment has been developed to allow NASA to perform independent analysis and design of space transportation architectures and technologies. Given the highly collaborative and distributed nature of AEE, a variety of organizations are involved in the development, operations and management of the system. Furthermore, there are additional organizations involved representing external customers and stakeholders. Thorough coordination and effective communication is essential to translate desired expectations of the system into requirements. Functional, verifiable requirements for this (and indeed any) system are necessary to fulfill several roles. Requirements serve as a contractual tool, configuration management tool, and as an engineering tool, sometimes simultaneously. The role of requirements as an engineering tool is particularly important because a stable set of requirements for a system provides a common framework of system scope and characterization among team members. Furthermore, the requirements provide the basis for checking completion of system elements and form the basis for system verification. Requirements are at the core of systems engineering. The AEE Project has undertaken a thorough process to translate the desires and expectations of external customers and stakeholders into functional system-level requirements that are captured with sufficient rigor to allow development planning, resource allocation and system-level design, development, implementation and verification. These requirements are maintained in an integrated, relational database that provides traceability to governing Program requirements and also to verification methods and subsystem-level requirements.

  12. Thermal Conductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by a Steady-state Laser Heat-flux Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.

  13. Materials for advanced rocket engine turbopump turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    A study program was conducted to identify those materials that will provide the greatest benefits as turbine blades for advanced liquid propellant rocket engine turbines and to prepare technology plans for the development of those materials for use in the 1990 through 1995 period. The candidate materials were selected from six classes of materials: single-crystal (SC) superalloys, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, rapid solidification processed (RSP) superalloys, directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) superalloys, fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, and ceramics. Properties of materials from the six classes were compiled and evaluated and property improvements were projected approximately 5 years into the future for advanced versions of materials in each of the six classes.

  14. Magnetic bearings: A key technology for advanced rocket engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, J. PH.

    1992-01-01

    For several years, active magnetic bearings (AMB) have demonstrated their capabilities in many fields, from industrial compressors to control wheel suspension for spacecraft. Despite this broad area, no significant advance has been observed in rocket propulsion turbomachinery, where size, efficiency, and cost are crucial design criteria. To this respect, Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) had funded for several years significant efforts to delineate the advantages and drawbacks of AMB applied to rocket propulsion systems. Objectives of this work, relative technological basis, and improvements are described and illustrated by advanced turbopump layouts. Profiting from the advantages of compact design in cryogenic environments, the designs show considerable improvements in engine life, performances, and reliability. However, these conclusions should still be tempered by high recurrent costs, mainly due to the space-rated electronics. Development work focused on this point and evolution of electronics show the possibility to decrease production costs by an order of magnitude.

  15. Biomass and biofuels from microalgae advances in engineering and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Moheimani, Navid Reza; de Boer, Karne; Bahri, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book details the most recent advances in the microalgae biological sciences and engineering technologies for biomass and biofuel production in order to meet the ongoing need for new and affordable sources of food, chemicals and energy for future generations. The chapters explore new microalgae cultivation techniques, including solid (biofilm) systems, and heterotrophic production methods, while also critically investigating topics such as combining wastewater as a source of nutrients, the effect of CO2 on growth, and converting biomass to methane through anaerobi

  16. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  17. An acoustical pump capable of significantly increasing pressure ratio of thermoacoustic heat engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pressure ratio is one of the important parameters for evaluating a thermoacoustic heat engine. A so-called acoustical pump, which is capable of significantly increasing pressure ratio of a thermoacoustic heat engine, is proposed. Its operating principle is given. Also, a verification experiment is done with nitrogen gas in the energy-focused thermoacoustic heat engine, showing that the pressure ratio increased from 1.25 to 1.47.

  18. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  19. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  20. Universal bounds on efficiency and power of heat engines with broken time-reversal symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ever since James Watt's steam engine, the urge to explore the fundamental principles governing the performance of devices that convert thermal energy into useful work was one of the major quests in thermodynamics. From a conceptual point of view, such heat engines can be divided into two classes. Cyclic engines use a reciprocating piston to generate mechanical work by periodically compressing and expanding a working fluid at varying temperature. Thermoelectric engines consist of two heat and ...

  1. The equivalence of minimum entropy production and maximum thermal efficiency in endoreversible heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseli, Y

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal efficiency and power production of typical models of endoreversible heat engines at the regime of minimum entropy generation rate. The study considers the Curzon-Ahlborn engine, the Novikov's engine, and the Carnot vapor cycle. The operational regimes at maximum thermal efficiency, maximum power output and minimum entropy production rate are compared for each of these engines. The results reveal that in an endoreversible heat engine, a reduction in entropy production corresponds to an increase in thermal efficiency. The three criteria of minimum entropy production, the maximum thermal efficiency, and the maximum power may become equivalent at the condition of fixed heat input.

  2. Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines for maximum efficiency with radiative heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG HanJiang; CHEN LinGen; SUN FengRui

    2008-01-01

    Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration, input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝△(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory, and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches, four maximum-efficiency branches, and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained, as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton's heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.

  3. Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines for maximum efficiency with radiative heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration,input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝Δ(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory,and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches,four maximum-efficiency branches,and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained,as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton’s heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.

  4. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  5. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  6. Hydrogen/Oxygen Propellant Densifier Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C. T.; Yeckley, A. J.; Schieb, D. J.; Haberbusch, M. S.

    2004-06-01

    A unique, patent pending, thermoacoustic propellant densifier for the simultaneous densification of hydrogen and oxygen propellants for aerospace vehicles is introduced. The densifier uses a high-pressure amplitude, low-frequency Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) coupled with a uniquely designed half-wave-length resonator to drive a pulse tube cryocooler using a Gas Helium (GHe) working fluid. The extremely reliable TASHE has no moving parts, is water cooled, and is electrically powered. The helium-filled TASHE is designed to ASME piping codes, which enables the safe inspection of the system while in operation. The resonator is designed to eliminate higher-order harmonics with minimal acoustic losses. A system description will be presented, and experimental data on both the TASHE and the resonator will be compared with analytical results.

  7. Aerodynamic Heat-Power Engine Operating on a Closed Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackeret, J.; Keller, D. C.

    1942-01-01

    Hot-air engines with dynamic compressors and turbines offer new prospects of success through utilization of units of high efficiencies and through the employment of modern materials of great strength at high temperature. Particular consideration is given to an aerodynamic prime mover operating on a closed circuit and heated externally. Increase of the pressure level of the circulating air permits a great increase of limit load of the unit. This also affords a possibility of regulation for which the internal efficiency of the unit changes but slightly. The effect of pressure and temperature losses is investigated. A general discussion is given of the experimental installation operating at the Escher Wyss plant in Zurich for a considerable time at high temperatures.

  8. Value management in heating engineering; Wertmanagement in der Heiztechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhenkel, H.

    1995-03-01

    For the development of innovative markets and products there is often a lack of timely and adequate findings that indicate in which sectors and with what concequences potential successes can be developed, or how specific hindrances can be avoided or at least overcome in the inital stages. An illustration of value management in heating engineering is used to demonstrate the specific contribution that can be made by the method systems produced under VDI-GSP Value Management. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Entwicklung innovativer Maerkte und Produkte fehlen immer wieder rechtzeitige und hinreichende Erkenntnisse darueber, in welchen Bereichen und mit welchen Konsequenzen Erfolgspotentiale entwickelt werden koennen, oder wie spezielle Hemmnisse schon im Vorfeld zu vermeiden oder wenigstens zu umgehen sind. An einem Beispiel des Wertmanagements in der Heiztechnik soll dargelegt werden, welchen Beitrag die im Rahmen der VDI-GSP Value Management entstandenen Methodensysteme hierfuer zu leisten vermoegen. (orig.)

  9. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Shaw, John Andrew; Churchill, Christopher Burton; Keefe, Andrew C; McKnight, Geoffrey P; Alexander, Paul W; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan; Brown, Jeffrey W

    2014-09-30

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulley spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes a first wire, a second wire, and a matrix joining the first wire and the second wire. The first wire and the second wire are in contact with the pulleys, but the matrix is not in contact with the pulleys. A timing cable is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  10. Hypersonic Engine Leading Edge Experiments in a High Heat Flux, Supersonic Flow Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.

    1994-01-01

    A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Three aerothermal load related concerns are the boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow, articulating panel seals in high temperature environments, and strut (or cowl) leading edges with shock-on-shock interactions. A multidisciplinary approach is required to address these technical concerns. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to experimentally evaluate the heat transfer and structural response of the strut (or cowl) leading edge. A recent experimental program conducted in this facility is discussed and related to cooling technology capability. The specific objective of the experiment discussed is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Heat transfer analyses of a similar leading edge concept cooled with gaseous hydrogen is included to demonstrate the complexity of the problem resulting from plastic deformation of the structures. Macro-photographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight.

  11. Radiative Heat Transfer and Turbulence-Radiation Interactions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C.; Sircar, A.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Radiation in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method. DOE, NSF.

  12. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  13. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  14. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

    2008-06-18

    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering

  15. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwarul Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications.

  16. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  17. Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. This requires experiments in appropriate research facilities in which complete flow field data, not only point measurements, are obtained and analyzed. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows.

  18. Piston surface heat transfer during combustion in large marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    In the design process of large marine diesel engines information on the maximum heat load on the piston surface experienced during the engine cycle is an important parameter. The peak heat load occurs during combustion when hot combustion products impinge on the piston surface. Although the maximum...... with burning off piston surface material. In this work the peak heat load on the piston surface of large marine diesel engines during combustion was investigated. Measurements of the instantaneous surface temperature and surface heat flux on pistons in large marine engines are difficult due to expensive...... was calculated under different conditions in the numerical setup in order to obtain information of the actual peak heat flux experienced at the piston in large marine diesel engines during combustion. The variation of physical parameters influencing the heat transfer during combustion included a variation...

  19. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  20. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES): Raising the Bar on Engine Technology with Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions, at Attractive Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This is a fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems program (ARES), which is designed to promote separate, but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the United States.

  1. Computational fluid flow and heat transfer. An engineering tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcudean, Martha

    1991-05-01

    The purpose, method, and potential of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are discussed. Some examples of CFD and heat transfer applied to engineering problems are described. Simulation of casting in a permanent mold, gallium arsenide crystal growth, and the computation of discharge coefficients in film cooling of turbine blades are briefly described. It is shown the the CFD methods help to improve the understanding of the physics involved. They allow the influence of various parameters on the product or process to be investigated in a relatively inexpensive way. CFD constitutes a predictive tool which allows for product or process optimization. Discretization and solution methods used in the present examples are briefly described. Some limitations of the CFD methods are illustrated. The error introduced by false diffusion is shown for laminar flow around a bluff body. The improvement obtained by a higher order scheme is discussed. Some difficulties related to turbulence modelling are illustrated for the flow and heat transfer around the same bluff body. Turbulent swirling flow between concentric annuli is also discussed. Problems related to the slow convergence rate and major improvements obtained through applying multigrid convergence acceleration methods are shown for two and three dimensional opposing jets penetrating into a main flow.

  2. Recent Advances In Optimization Of Aerospace Structures And Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao*, J. S.

    Optimization theories have been well advanced during the last few decades; however when it came to handle real life engineering structures it has been always time consuming and approximate when the structure geometry is highly complex. Design of Experiments has helped in understanding the influence of size and shape parameters on achieving a specified objective function with required constraints and a suitable analysis platform, but has its limitations in arriving at the final optimal solution. There are several commercial codes that addressed this need to handle large size structures subjected to dynamic loads. Most advanced tools in this category are Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy available in Altair HyperWorks suite. Application of these tools in achieving optimum solutions for linear advanced aircraft structures for minimization of weight are first explained. The application of these tools for globally elastic and locally plastic nonlinear structures to reduce local plastic strains and achieve higher life under dynamic loads will then be discussed.

  3. Modeling and simulation of combined gas turbine engine and heat pipe system for waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamfon, N.J. [Saudi Aramco Jeddah Refinery, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Najjar, Y.S.H.; Akyurt, M. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-12-01

    The results of a modeling and simulation study are presented for a combined system consisting of a gas turbine engine, a heat pipe recovery system and an inlet-air cooling system. The presentation covers performance data related to the gas turbine engine with precooled air intake as coupled to the water-in-copper heat pipe recovery system. This is done by matching the two mathematical models. The net power output is improved by 11% when the gas turbine engine is supplied with cold air produced by the heat-pipe recovery and utilization system. It is further concluded from the results produced by the combined mathematical model that the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine engine rises to 6% at 75% part load. It is to be anticipated that this rising trend in increases of thermal efficiency of the gas turbine engine would continue for operations at other (lower) part load conditions. (author)

  4. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  5. Combined vapor compression/absorption heat pump cycles for engine-driven heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Reinhard; Herold, Keith E.; Howe, Lawrence A.

    1988-12-01

    The performance of three combined absorption/vapor compression cycles for gas-fired internal combustion engine driven heat pumps was theoretically assessed. Two cycles were selected for the preliminary design of breadboard systems using only off-the-shelf components. The first cycle, based on the working pair ammonia/water, is termed the simple-cycle. The second cycle, based on the working pair lithium-bromide/water, is termed the compressor enhanced double-effect chiller. Both cycles are found to be technically feasible. The coefficient of performance and the capacity are increased by up to 21 percent for cooling in the first case (compressor efficiency of 0.7) and by up to 14 percent in the second (compressor efficiency of 0.5). Both were compared against the engine drive R22 vapor compression heat pump. The performance of actual machinery for both cycles is, in the current design, hampered by the fact that the desired oil-free compressors have poor isentropic efficiencies. Oil lubricated compressors together with very effective oil separators would improve the performance of the combined LiBr/water cycle to 23 percent.

  6. Metal hydride heat pump engineering demonstration and evaluation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Franklin E.

    1993-01-01

    Future generations of portable life support systems (PLSS's) for space suites (extravehicular mobility units or EMU's) may require regenerable nonventing thermal sinks (RNTS's). For purposes of mobility, a PLSS must be as light and compact as possible. Previous venting PLSS's have employed water sublimators to reject metabolic and equipment heat from EMU's. It is desirable for long-duration future space missions to minimize the use of water and other consumables that need to be periodically resupplied. The emission of water vapor also interferes with some types of instrumentation that might be used in future space exploration. The test article is a type of RNTS based on a metal hydride heat pump (MHHP). The task of reservicing EMU's after use must be made less demanding in terms of time, procedures, and equipment. The capability for quick turnaround post-EVA servicing (30 minutes) is a challenging requirement for many of the RNTS options. The MHHP is a very simple option that can be regenerated in the airlock within the 30 minute limit by the application of a heating source and a cooling sink. In addition, advanced PLSS's must provide a greater degree of automatic control, relieving astronauts of the need to manually adjust temperatures in their liquid cooled ventilation garments (LCVG's). The MHHP includes automatic coolant controls with the ability to follow thermal load swings from minimum to maximum in seconds. The MHHP includes a coolant loop subsystem with pump and controls, regeneration equipment for post-EVA servicing, and a PC-based data acquisition and control system (DACS).

  7. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Miller, James Edward; O' Hern, Timothy John; Gill, Walter; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2011-02-01

    A multifunctional reactor is a chemical engineering device that exploits enhanced heat and mass transfer to promote production of a desired chemical, combining more than one unit operation in a single system. The main component of the reactor system under study here is a vertical column containing packing material through which liquid(s) and gas flow cocurrently downward. Under certain conditions, a range of hydrodynamic regimes can be achieved within the column that can either enhance or inhibit a desired chemical reaction. To study such reactors in a controlled laboratory environment, two experimental facilities were constructed at Sandia National Laboratories. One experiment, referred to as the Two-Phase Experiment, operates with two phases (air and water). The second experiment, referred to as the Three-Phase Experiment, operates with three phases (immiscible organic liquid and aqueous liquid, and nitrogen). This report describes the motivation, design, construction, operational hazards, and operation of the both of these experiments. Data and conclusions are included.

  8. Liquid fueled external heating system for STM4-120 Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.; Godett, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    The STM4-120 Stirling engine, currently under development at Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., is a 40 kW variable stroke engine with indirect heating using a sodium heat pipe. The engine is functionally separated into an application independent Energy Conversion Unit (ECU) consisting of the Stirling cycle and drive heated by condensing sodium and the application dependent External Heating System (EHS), designed to supply the ECU with sodium vapor heated by the particular energy source, connected by tubes with mechanical couplings. This paper describes an External Heating System for the STM4-120 ECU designed for the combustion of liquid fuel, comprised of a recuperative preheater, a combustion chamber, and a heat exchanger/evaporator where heat is transferred from the flue gas to the sodium causing it to evaporate. The design concept and projected performance are described and discussed.

  9. Research on inverse, hybrid and optimization problems in engineering sciences with emphasis on turbomachine aerodynamics: Review of Chinese advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao-Lian

    1991-01-01

    Advances in inverse design and optimization theory in engineering fields in China are presented. Two original approaches, the image-space approach and the variational approach, are discussed in terms of turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design. Other areas of research in turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design include the improved mean-streamline (stream surface) method and optimization theory based on optimal control. Among the additional engineering fields discussed are the following: the inverse problem of heat conduction, free-surface flow, variational cogeneration of optimal grid and flow field, and optimal meshing theory of gears.

  10. Making Work: Demonstrating Thermodynamic Concepts with Solar-Powered Wax and Rubber Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Construction details are provided for simple heat engines that use candle wax and elastomers as working substances. The engines are constructed using common household materials and can be easily constructed in a school classroom or at home. They work reliably and are useful tools for demonstrating the conversion of heat to mechanical work. They…

  11. Advances in the Lightweight Air-Liquid Composite Heat Exchanger Development for Space Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Johnston, J. Chris; Haas, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    An advanced, lightweight composite modular Air/Liquid (A/L) Heat Exchanger (HX) Prototype for potential space exploration thermal management applications was successfully designed, manufactured, and tested. This full-scale Prototype consisting of 19 modules, based on recommendations from its predecessor Engineering Development unit (EDU) but with improved thermal characteristics and manufacturability, was 11.2 % lighter than the EDU and achieves potentially a 42.7% weight reduction from the existing state-of-the-art metallic HX demonstrator. However, its higher pressure drop (0.58 psid vs. 0.16 psid of the metal HX) has to be mitigated by foam material optimizations and design modifications including a more systematic air channel design. Scalability of the Prototype design was validated experimentally by comparing manufacturability and performance between the 2-module coupon and the 19-module Prototype. The Prototype utilized the thermally conductive open-cell carbon foam material but with lower density and adopted a novel high-efficiency cooling system with significantly increased heat transfer contact surface areas, improved fabricability and manufacturability compared to the EDU. Even though the Prototype was required to meet both the thermal and the structural specifications, accomplishing the thermal requirement was a higher priority goal for this first version. Overall, the Prototype outperformed both the EDU and the corresponding metal HX, particularly in terms of specific heat transfer, but achieved 93.4% of the target. The next generation Prototype to achieve the specification target, 3,450W would need 24 core modules based on the simple scaling factor. The scale-up Prototype will weigh about 14.7 Kg vs. 21.6 Kg for the metal counterpart. The advancement of this lightweight composite HX development from the original feasibility test coupons to EDU to Prototype is discussed in this paper.

  12. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A. [Coal Technology Corporation, Bristol, VA (United States); Ferris, D.D. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  13. The engineered Salmonella typhimurium inhibits tumorigenesis in advanced glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JQ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jian-qiang Chen,1 Yue-fu Zhan,2 Wei Wang,1 Sheng-nan Jiang,2,3 Xiang-ying Li21Department of Radiology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Affiliated to Haikou Hospital Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Haikou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Central South University Xiangya School of Medicine Affiliated HaiKou Hospital, Haikou, Hainan, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To explore the antitumor role of the attenuated Salmonella typhimurium ΔppGpp with inducible cytolysin A (ClyA in advanced stage of glioma.Materials and methods: The C6 rat glioma cells were orthotopically implanted by surgery into the caudate nucleus of rat brains. The rats were then randomly divided into the treatment group (SL + ClyA (n=12, negative control group (SL (n=12, and control group (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS] (n=12. In the treatment group, the attenuated S. typhimurium were transformed with the plasmid-encoded antitumor gene ClyA. The expression of ClyA was controlled by the TetR-regulated promoter in response to extracellular doxycycline. The plasmid also contained an imaging gene lux to allow illumination of the tumor infected by the bacteria. The rat glioma C6 cells were implanted into the caudate nucleus of all rats. The engineered S. typhimurium and respective controls were injected intravenously into the rats 21 days after initial tumor implantation. The pathological analysis of the glioma tumor was performed at 21 days and 28 days (7 days after doxycycline treatment postimplantation. All rats underwent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescence study at 21 days and 28 days postimplantation to detect tumor volume. The differences between the three groups in tumor volume and survival time were analyzed.Results: Advanced stage glioma  was detected at 21 days postimplantation. Bioluminescence showed that the

  14. Advances in complex societal, environmental and engineered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Essaaidi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses recent technological progress that has led to an increased complexity in many natural and artificial systems. The resulting complexity research due to the emergence of new properties and spatio-temporal interactions among a large number of system elements - and between the system and its environment - is the primary focus of this text. This volume is divided into three parts: Part one focuses on societal and ecological systems, Part two deals with approaches for understanding, modeling, predicting and mastering socio-technical systems, and Part three includes real-life examples. Each chapter has its own special features; it is a self-contained contribution of distinguished experts working on different fields of science and technology relevant to the study of complex systems. Advances in Complex Systems of Contemporary Reality: Societal, Environmental and Engineered Systems will provide postgraduate students, researchers and managers with qualitative and quantitative methods for handling th...

  15. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  16. Toward metabolic engineering in the context of system biology and synthetic biology: advances and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic engineering facilitates the rational development of recombinant bacterial strains for metabolite overproduction. Building on enormous advances in system biology and synthetic biology, novel strategies have been established for multivariate optimization of metabolic networks in ensemble, spatial, and dynamic manners such as modular pathway engineering, compartmentalization metabolic engineering, and metabolic engineering guided by genome-scale metabolic models, in vitro reconstitution, and systems and synthetic biology. Herein, we summarize recent advances in novel metabolic engineering strategies. Combined with advancing kinetic models and synthetic biology tools, more efficient new strategies for improving cellular properties can be established and applied for industrially important biochemical production.

  17. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  18. Improving the Efficiency of an Ideal Heat Engine: The Quantum Afterburner

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Marlan O.

    2001-01-01

    By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases involved in heat engine operation. Such a "quantum afterburner" involves the internal quantum states of working gas atoms or molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. As an example, it is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the "ideal" Otto heat engine.

  19. Bibliography of Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-01

    This report, published in two volumes, is a bibliography of the reports published at the Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (CANEL). The reports cover the period 1952 through 1965 and include the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program, the Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor program, the Advanced Reactor Materials program and the SNAP-50 program. The bibliography contains the report number, title, author, date published, and classification. In some cases where the writing of a report was a group effort, and in some reports containing compilations of certain types of data, the author column is not applicable. This is indicated by a {open_quotes}n.a.{close_quotes} in the author column. The following types of reports are included: PWAC`s, TIM`s, CNLM`s, FXM`s and miscellaneous reports. PWAC and TIM reports conform to the requirements of AEC Manual Chapter 3202-041 and 3202-042, respectively. Most of the technical information of interest generated by this project is documented in these reports. CNLM and FXM reports were written primarily for internal distribution. However, these reports contain enough information of technical interest to warrant their inclusion. All CNLM`s and those FXM`s considered to be of interest are included in this bibliography. The MPR`s (Monthly Progress Reports) are the most important of the miscellaneous categories of reports. The other miscellaneous categories relate primarily to equipment and reactor specifications. The Division of Technical Information Extension (DTIE) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee has been designated as the primary recipient of the reports in the CANEL library. When more than one copy of a report was available, the additional copies were delivered to the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, California.

  20. Bibliography of Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-01

    This report, published in two, volumes, is a bibliography of the reports published at the Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (CANEL). The reports cover the period 1952 through 1965 and include the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program, the Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor program, the Advanced Reactor Materials program and the SNAP-50 program. The bibliography contains the report number, title, author, date published, and classification. In some cases where the writing of a report was a group effort, and in some reports containing compilations of certain types of data, the author column is not applicable. This is indicated by a {open_quotes}n.a.{close_quotes} in the author column. The following types of reports are included: PWAC`s, TIM`s, CNLM`s. FXM`s and miscellaneous reports. PWAC and TIM reports conform to the requirements of AEC Manual Chapter 3202-041 and 3202-042, respectively. Most of the technical information of interest generated by this project is documented in these reports, CNLM and FXM reports were written primarily for internal distribution. However, these reports contain enough information of technical interest to warrant their inclusion. All CNLM`s and those FXM`s considered to be of interest are included in this bibliography. The MPR`s (Monthly Progress Reports) are the most important of the miscellaneous categories of reports. The other miscellaneous categories relate primarily to equipment and reactor specifications. The Division of Technical Information Extension (DTIE) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee has been designated as the primary recipient of the reports in the CANEL library. When more than one copy of a report was available, the additional copies were delivered to the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, California.

  1. Quantum Lubrication: Suppression of Friction in a First Principle Four Stroke Heat Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Feldmann, Tova; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2005-01-01

    A quantum model of a heat engine resembling the Otto cycle is employed to explore strategies to suppress frictional losses. These losses are caused by the inability of the engine's working medium to follow adiabatically the change in the Hamiltonian during the expansion and compression stages. By adding external noise to the engine, frictional losses can be suppressed.

  2. Impact of Dissociation and Sensible Heat Release on Pulse Detonation and Gas Turbine Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2001-01-01

    A thermodynamic cycle analysis of the effect of sensible heat release on the relative performance of pulse detonation and gas turbine engines is presented. Dissociation losses in the PDE (Pulse Detonation Engine) are found to cause a substantial decrease in engine performance parameters.

  3. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.

    1979-01-01

    The key to improved helicopter gas turbine engine performance lies in the development of advanced materials and advanced structural and design concepts. The modification of the low temperature components of helicopter engines (such as the inlet particle separator), the introduction of composites for use in the engine front frame, the development of advanced materials with increased use-temperature capability for the engine hot section, can result in improved performance and/or decreased engine maintenance cost. A major emphasis in helicopter engine design is the ability to design to meet a required lifetime. This, in turn, requires that the interrelated aspects of higher operating temperatures and pressures, cooling concepts, and environmental protection schemes be integrated into component design. The major material advances, coatings, and design life-prediction techniques pertinent to helicopter engines are reviewed; the current state-of-the-art is identified; and when appropriate, progress, problems, and future directions are assessed.

  4. Stirling engine or heat pump having an improved seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice A.; Riggle, Peter; Emigh, Stuart G.

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling Engine or Heat Pump having two relatively movable machine elements for power transmission purposes includes a hermetic seal bellows interposed between the elements for separating a working gas from a pressure compensating liquid that balances pressure across the bellows to reduce bellows stress and to assure long bellows life. The volume of pressure compensating liquid displaced due to relative movement between the machine elements is minimized by enclosing the compensating liquid within a region exposed to portions of both machine elements at one axial end of a slidable interface presented between them by a clearance seal having an effective diameter of the seal bellows. Pressure equalization across the bellows is achieved by a separate hermetically sealed compensator including a movable enclosed bellows. The interior of the compensator bellows is in communication with one side of the seal bellows, and its exterior is in communication with the remaining side of the seal bellows. A buffer gas or additional liquid region can be provided at the remaining axial end of the clearnace seal, along with valved arrangements for makeup of liquid leakage through the clearance seal.

  5. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies

  6. Performance analysis and parametric optimum criteria of a quantum Otto heat engine with heat transfer effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hao [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)], E-mail: ncu.wh@163.com; Liu Sanqiu; He Jizhou [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The influence of both the quantum degeneracy and the finite rate heat transfer between the working substance and the cylinder wall on the optimal performance of an Otto engine cycle is investigated. Expressions for several important parameters such as the power output and efficiency are derived. By using numerical solutions, the curves of the power output and efficiency varying with the compression ratio of two isochoric processes are presented. It is found that there are optimal values of the compression ratio at which the power output and efficiency attain their maximum. In particular, the optimal performance of the cycle in strong and weak gas degeneracy and the high temperature limit are discussed in detail. The distinctions and connections between the quantum Otto engine and the classical are revealed. Moreover, the maximum power output and efficiency and the corresponding relevant parameters are calculated, and consequently, the optimization criteria of some important parameters such as the power output, efficiency and compression ratio of the working substance are obtained.

  7. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, Vesna; Hector, Louis G.; Ezzat, Hesham; Sachdev, Anil K.; Quinn, James; Krupitzer, Ronald; Sun, Xin

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980 grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.

  8. Heat Transfer Investigation of Intake Port Engine Based on Steady-State and Transient Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available his research is presents the gas flow heat transfer investigation in the intake port of four stroke direct injection compression ignition engine using GT-Suite software for steady-state and transient simulation. To investigate and simulate the intake port gas flow heat transfer profile of compression ignition engine is using GT-Power engine model were developed in this research. GT-Power is sub-system menu from GT-Suite. The engine model is developed from the real compression ignition engine data and input to software library. In this research, the simulation of engine model is running in variations engine speeds. The simulation output data is collected from the GT-Post results plots and casesRLT in post processing. The simulation results of the intake port engine model are shown the characters in intake port heat transfer profile of engine in variations engine speeds. The detail performance intake port gas flow heat transfer is shown that in 3500 rpm engine speed is the best

  9. Quantum Stirling heat engine and refrigerator with single and coupled spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Li; Niu, Xin-Ya; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Yi, Xue-Xi

    2014-02-01

    We study the reversible quantum Stirling cycle with a single spin or two coupled spins as the working substance. With the single spin as the working substance, we find that under certain conditions the reversed cycle of a heat engine is NOT a refrigerator, this feature holds true for a Stirling heat engine with an ion trapped in a shallow potential as its working substance. The efficiency of quantum Stirling heat engine can be higher than the efficiency of the Carnot engine, but the performance coefficient of the quantum Stirling refrigerator is always lower than its classical counterpart. With two coupled spins as the working substance, we find that a heat engine can turn to a refrigerator due to the increasing of the coupling constant, this can be explained by the properties of the isothermal line in the magnetic field-entropy plane.

  10. Influence of high rotational speeds on heat transfer and oil film thickness in aero-engine bearing chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, S.; Glahn, A.; Himmelsbach, J.

    1994-04-01

    Increasing the thermal loading of bearing chambers in modern aero-engines requires advanced techniques for the determination of heat transfer characteristics. In the present study, film thickness and heat transfer measurements have been carried out for the complex two-phase oil/air flow in bearing chambers. In order to ensure real engine conditions, a new test facility has been built up, designed for rotational speeds up to n = 16,000 rpm and maximum flow temperatures of T(sub max) = 473 K. Sealing air and lubrication oil flow can be varied nearly in the whole range of aero-engine applications. Special interest is directed toward the development of an ultrasonic oil film thickness measuring technique, which can be used without any reaction on the flow inside the chamber. The determination of local heat transfer at the bearing chamber housing is based on a well-known temperature gradient method using surface temperature measurements and a finite element code to determine temperature distributions within the bearing chamber housing. The influence of high rotational speed on the local heat transfer and the oil film thickness is discussed.

  11. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  12. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the e...

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  14. Advances in Integrated Heat Pipe Technology for Printed Circuit Boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel W.; Riele, te Gert Jan

    2010-01-01

    Designing thermal control systems for electronic products has become very challenging due to the continuous miniaturization and increasing performance demands. Two-phase cooling solutions, such as heat pipes or vapor chambers, are increasingly used as they offer higher thermal coefficients for heat

  15. Heat transfer comparison between methane and hydrogen in a spark ignited engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierens, Roger; Demuynck, Joachim; Paepe, Michel de; Verhelst, Sebastian [Ghent Univ. (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is one of the alternative fuels which are being investigated at Ghent University. NO{sub x} emissions will occur at high engine loads and they are a constraint for power and efficiency optimization. The formation of NO{sub x} emissions is temperature dependent. Consequently, the heat transfer from the burning gases to the cylinder walls has to be accurately modelled if precise computer calculations of the emissions are wanted. Several engine heat transfer models exist but they have been cited to be inaccurate for hydrogen. We have measured the heat flux in a spark ignited engine with a commercially available heat flux sensor. This paper investigates the difference between the heat transfer of hydrogen and a fossil fuel, in this case methane. Measurements with the same indicated power output are compared and the effect of the heat loss on the indicated efficiency is investigated. The power output of hydrogen combustion is lowered by burning lean in contrast to using a throttle in the case of methane. Although the peak in the heat flux of hydrogen is 3 times higher compared to methane for a high engine power output, the indicated efficiency is only 3% lower. The heat loss for hydrogen at a low engine load is smaller than that of methane which results in a higher indicated efficiency. The richness of the hydrogen-air mixture has a great influence on the heat transfer process in contrast to the in-cylinder mass in the case of methane. (orig.)

  16. Reconsideration of Criteria and Modeling in Order to Optimize the Efficiency of Irreversible Thermomechanical Heat Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Feidt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to precise and complete one recently proposed in the literature and relative to a general criterion to maximize the first law efficiency of irreversible heat engines. It is shown that the previous proposal seems to be a particular case. A new proposal has been developed for a Carnot irreversible thermomechanical heat engine at steady state associated to two infinite heat reservoirs (hot source, and cold sink: this constitutes the studied system. The presence of heat leak is accounted for, with the most simple form, as is done generally in the literature. Irreversibility is modeled through , created internal entropy rate in the converter (engine, and , total created entropy rate in the system. Heat transfer laws are represented as general functions of temperatures. These concepts are particularized to the most common heat transfer law (linear one. Consequences of the proposal are examined; some new analytical results are proposed for efficiencies.

  17. Innovative tissue engineering structures through advanced manufacturing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardelli, Gianluca; Chiono, Valeria; Cristallini, Caterina; Barbani, Niccoletta; Ahluwalia, Arti; Vozzi, Giovanni; Previti, Antonino; Tantussi, Giovanni; Giusti, Paolo

    2004-04-01

    Awide range of rapid prototyping (RP) techniques for the construction of three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for tissue engineering has been recently developed. In this study, we report and compare two methods for the fabrication of poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly-(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly-(oxyethylene)-poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer scaffolds. The first technique is based on the use of a microsyringe and a computer-controlled three-axis micropositioner, which regulates motor speed and position. Polymer solutions are extruded through the needle of the microsyringe by the application of a constant pressure of 10-300 mm Hg, resulting in controlled polymer deposition of 5-600 microm lateral dimensions. The second method utilises the heating energy of a laser beam to sinter polymer microparticles according to computer-guided geometries. Materials may be fed either as dry powder or slurry of microparticles. Both powder granulometry and laser working parameters influence resolution (generally 300 microm x 700 microm), accuracy of sintering and surface and bulk properties of the final structures. The two RP methods allow the fabrication of 3-D scaffolds with a controlled architecture, providing a powerful means to study cell response to an environment similar to that found

  18. Vibration-induced coherence enhances the performance of a biological quantum heat engine

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong-Bin; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis has been the long-standing research interest due to its fundamental importance. Recently, studies on photosynthesis processes also inspire attention from thermodynamical aspect when considering photosynthetic apparatuses as biological quantum heat engines. Quantum coherence is shown to play a crucial role in enhancing the performance of these quantum heat engines. Based on the experimentally reported structure, we propose a quantum heat engine model with a non-Markovian vibrational mode. We show that one can obtain a performance enhancement easily for a wide range of parameters in the presence of the vibrational mode. Our results suggest new insights into the photosynthetic processes and a design principle mimicking natural organisms.

  19. Vibration-induced coherence enhancement of the performance of a biological quantum heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bin; Chiu, Pin-Yi; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-11-01

    Photosynthesis has been a long-standing research interest due to its fundamental importance. Recently, studies on photosynthesis processes also have inspired attention from a thermodynamical aspect when considering photosynthetic apparatuses as biological quantum heat engines. Quantum coherence is shown to play a crucial role in enhancing the performance of these quantum heat engines. Based on the experimentally reported structure, we propose a quantum heat engine model with a non-Markovian vibrational mode. We show that one can obtain a performance enhancement easily for a wide range of parameters in the presence of the vibrational mode. Our results provide insights into the photosynthetic processes and a design principle mimicking natural organisms.

  20. Malone-Brayton Cycle Engine/Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A machine, such as a heat pump , and having an all liquid heat exchange fluid, operates over a more nearly ideal thermodynamic cycle by adjustment of...difference in axial lengths of rotary pumps of the gear or vane type to achieve the adjustment of volumetric capacity. Adjustment of the heat pump system

  1. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNenly, Matt J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitesides, Russell [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Killingsworth, Nick J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-17

    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  2. Radiative properties of advanced spacecraft heat shield materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.; Mcnab, T. K.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are presented to show the effects of simulated reentry exposure by convective heating and by radiant heating on spectral and total emittance of statically oxidized Inconel 617 and Haynes HS188 superalloys to 1260 K and a silicide coatea (R512E) columbium 752 alloy to 1590 K. Convective heating exposures were conducted in a supersonic arc plasma wind tunnel using a wedge-shaped specimen configuration. Radiant tests were conducted at a pressure of .003 atmospheres of dry air at a flow velocity of several meters per second. Convective heating specimens were subjected to 8, 20, and 38 15-min heating cycles, and radiant heating specimens were tested for 10, 20, 50, and 100 30-min heating cycles. Changes in radiative properties are explained in terms of changes in composition resulting from simulated reentry tests. The methods used to evaluate morphological, compositional and crystallographic changes include: Auger electron spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis; and electron microprobe analysis.

  3. Review: Gigacycle fatigue data sheets for advanced engineering materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Yamaguchi, Takayuki Abe, Kazuo Kobayashi, Etsuo Takeuchi, Hisashi Hirukawa, Yoshio Maeda, Nobuo Nagashima, Masao Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Furuya, Masuo Shimodaira and Kensuke Miyahara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gigacycle fatigue data sheets have been published since 1997 by the National Institute for Materials Science. They cover several areas such as high-cycle-number fatigue for high-strength steels and titanium alloys, the fatigue of welded joints, and high-temperature fatigue for advanced ferritic heat-resistant steels. Some unique testing machines are used to run the tests up to an extremely high number of cycles such as 1010 cycles. A characteristic of gigacycle fatigue failure is that it is initiated inside smooth specimens; the fatigue strength decreases with increasing cycle number and the fatigue limit disappears, although ordinary fatigue failure initiates from the surface of a smooth specimen and a fatigue limit appears. For welded joints, fatigue failure initiates from the notch root of the weld, because a large amount of stress is concentrated at the weld toe. The fatigue strength of welded joints has been obtained for up to 108 cycles, which is an extremely high number of cycles for large welded joints. The project of producing gigacycle fatigue data sheets is still continuing and will take a few more years to complete.

  4. Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna P. Guillen

    2012-07-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

  5. Analysis of heat recovery of diesel engine using intermediate working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Jiang; Tan, Gangfeng; Liu, Huaming

    2017-02-01

    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an effective way to recovery the engine exhaust heat. The thermal stability of the evaporation system is significant for the stable operation of the ORC system. In this paper, the performance of the designed evaporation system which combines with the intermediate fluid for recovering the exhaust waste heat from a diesel engine is evaluated. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly. Then, the mathematical model of the evaporation system is built based on the geometrical parameters and the specific working conditions of ORC. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation system are estimated corresponding to three typical operating conditions of the diesel engine. The result shows that the exhaust temperature at the evaporator outlet increases slightly with the engine speed and load. In the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is slightly larger than the intermediate fluid. However, the heat transfer coefficient of the intermediate fluid in the heat exchanger is larger than the exhaust side. The heat transfer areas of the evaporator in both the two-phase zone and the preheated zone change slightly along with the engine working condition while the heat transfer areas of the overheated zone has changed obviously. The maximum heat transfer rate occurs in the preheating zone while the minimum value occurs in the overheating zone. In addition, the Rankine working fluid temperature at the evaporator outlet is not sensitively affected by the torque and speed of the engine and the organic fluid flow is relatively stable. It is concluded that the intermediate fluid could effectively reduce the physical changes of Rankine working fluid in the evaporator outlet due to changes in engine operating conditions.

  6. COMPARATIVEANALYSIS OF ADVANCED CONTROLLERS IN A HEAT EXCHANGER

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Temperature control of the shell and tube heat exchanger is characteristics of nonlinear, time varying and time lag. Since the temperature control with conventional PID controller cannot meet a wide range of precision temperature control requirement, we design temperature control system of the shell and tube heat exchanger by combining fuzzy and PID control methods in this paper. The simulation and experiments are carried out; making a comparison with conventional PID control showing that fuz...

  7. Advanced turbine cooling, heat transfer, and aerodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Je-Chin Han; Schobeiri, M.T. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The contractual work is in three parts: Part I - Effect of rotation on enhanced cooling passage heat transfer, Part II - Effect on Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) spallation on surface heat transfer, and Part III - Effect of surface roughness and trailing edge ejection on turbine efficiency under unsteady flow conditions. Each section of this paper has been divided into three parts to individually accommodate each part. Part III is further divided into Parts IIIa and IIIb.

  8. Reduction of harmful nitrogen oxide emission from low heat rejection diesel engine using carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasi Gopinathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lanthanum aluminate is used as thermal barrier coating material for the first time in the internal combustion engine to convert the standard engine into low heat rejection engine. Initially, the biodiesel is prepared from sunflower oil by using trans-esterification process. The piton crown, cylinder head and valves of the engine is coated with lanthanum aluminate for a thickness of around 200 microns. However, the analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a standard diesel is carried out with diesel/biodiesel to compare with the low heat rejection engine. The lanthanum aluminate coated engine fueled with sunflower methyl ester shows better performance and emission. But the emission of NOx founds to be higher in the coated engine. Further, a small quantity of carbon nanotubes is added onto the biodiesel to carry out the experiments. Based on the results, the carbon nanotubes are added with the biodiesel to reduce the emission of NOx.

  9. An Advanced Loop Heat Pipe for Cryogenic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Hoang, Triem

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe (LHP) is a very versatile heat transfer device which can transport a large heat load over a long distance with a small temperature difference. All LHPs currently servicing orbiting spacecraft are designed to operate in the room temperature range. Future space telescopes and space-based Earth resource imaging satellites require passive cryogenic heat transport devices that can thermally couple remote cryocoolers to sensor or instrument of interest while providing the capability of payload vibration/jitter isolation, implementation of redundant coolers, and coupling of multiple sensors to a common heat sink. All of these requirements can be satisfied by using a cryogenic LHP (CLHP). Although the development of CLHPs faces several technical challenges, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has devoted extensive efforts in developing CLHP technology over the past decade and has made significant progress. In particular, the combination of the innovative ideas of using a secondary capillary pump to manage the parasitic heat gain and using a hot reservoir to reduce the system pressure under the ambient condition has led to the successful development of the CLHP. Several CLHPs charged with nitrogen and hydrogen were built and tested in thermal vacuum chambers. These CLHPs demonstrated reliable start-up and robust operation during power cycle and sink temperature cycle tests.

  10. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine Gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Jessica L.

    2015-07-16

    © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2015 by the American Chemical Society. Incremental but fundamental changes are currently being made to fuel composition and combustion strategies to diversify energy feedstocks, decrease pollution, and increase engine efficiency. The increase in parameter space (by having many variables in play simultaneously) makes it difficult at best to propose strategic changes to engine and fuel design by use of conventional build-and-test methodology. To make changes in the most time- and cost-effective manner, it is imperative that new computational tools and surrogate fuels are developed. Currently, sets of fuels are being characterized by industry groups, such as the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and other entities, so that researchers in different laboratories have access to fuels with consistent properties. In this work, six gasolines (FACE A, C, F, G, I, and J) are characterized by the advanced distillation curve (ADC) method to determine the composition and enthalpy of combustion in various distillate volume fractions. Tracking the composition and enthalpy of distillate fractions provides valuable information for determining structure property relationships, and moreover, it provides the basis for the development of equations of state that can describe the thermodynamic properties of these complex mixtures and lead to development of surrogate fuels composed of major hydrocarbon classes found in target fuels.

  11. Reprint of : Three-terminal heat engine and refrigerator based on superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunjin; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a three-terminal heat engine based on semiconductor superlattices for energy harvesting. The periodicity of the superlattice structure creates an energy miniband, giving an energy window for allowed electron transport. We find that this device delivers a large power, nearly twice than the heat engine based on quantum wells, with a small reduction of efficiency. This engine also works as a refrigerator in a different regime of the system's parameters. The thermoelectric performance of the refrigerator is analyzed, including the cooling power and coefficient of performance in the optimized condition. We also calculate phonon heat current through the system and explore the reduction of phonon heat current compared to the bulk material. The direct phonon heat current is negligible at low temperatures, but dominates over the electronic at room temperature and we discuss ways to reduce it.

  12. The conference of Russian Association of Engineers for Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, Heat Supply and Building Thermal Physics (ABOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Yakubson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On April, 11th, in Lenexpo the XVI conference of Russian Association of Engineers for Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, Heat Supply and Building Thermal Physics (ABOK “Effective HVAC and Heat Supply Systems” took place. There were a lot of presentations of new equipment for building systems and networks. All these reports were dedicated to the ways to make buildings more comfortable for people, to increase the energy efficiency, to reduce expenses and to improve the production efficiency. But besides the specific equipment, there were some reports dedicated to more general problems in design, installation and maintenance of building systems and networks

  13. The Research of Simplification Of 1.9 TDI Diesel Engine Heat Release Parameters Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Žaglinskis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of modified methodology of Audi 1.9 TDI 1Z diesel engine heat release parameters’ determination is represented in the article. In this research the AVL BOOST BURN and IMPULS software was used to treat data and to simulate engine work process. The reverse task of indicated pressure determination from heat release data was solved here. T. Bulaty and W. Glanzman methodology was modified for purpose to simplify the determination of heat release parameters. The maximal cylinder pressure, which requires additional expensive equipment, was changed into the objective indicator – exhaust gas temperature. This modification allowed to simplify the experimental engine tests and also gave simulation results in an error range up to 2% of main engine operating parameters. The study results are assessed as an important point for the simplification of engine test under field conditions.

  14. Recent Advances and Future Directions for Quality Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vining, Geoff; Kulahci, Murat; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The origins of quality engineering are in manufacturing, where quality engineers apply basic statistical methodologies to improve the quality and productivity of products and processes. In the past decade, people have discovered that these methodologies are effective for improving almost any type...... quality engineering needs to evolve in order to make significant contributions to these new areas. © 2015 The Authors Quality and Reliability Engineering International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  15. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Thermoeconomic Evaluation Criteria for an Actual Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Gülcan; Açıkkalp, Emin; Savaş, Ahmet Fevzi; Yamık, Hasan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an actual heat engine is investigated by using different thermoeconomic evaluation criteria in the literature. A criteria that has not been investigated in detail is considered and it is called as ecologico-economical criteria (F_{EC}). It is the difference of power cost and exergy destruction rate cost of the system. All four criteria are applied to an irreversible Carnot heat engine, results are presented numerically and some suggestions are made.

  17. Maximum efficiency of steady-state heat engines at arbitrary power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Artem; Holubec, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the efficiency of a heat engine operating in a nonequilibrium steady state maintained by two heat reservoirs. Within the general framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics we derive a universal upper bound on the efficiency of the engine operating at arbitrary fixed power. Furthermore, we show that a slight decrease of the power below its maximal value can lead to a significant gain in efficiency. The presented analysis yields the exact expression for this gain and the corresponding upper bound.

  18. Experimental study on waste heat recovery from an IC engine using thermoelectric technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major part of the heat supplied in an IC engine is not realized as work output, but dumped into the atmosphere as waste heat. If this waste heat energy is tapped and converted into usable energy, the overall efficiency of the engine can be improved. The percentage of energy rejected to the environment through exhaust gas which can be potentially recovered is approximately 30-40% of the energy supplied by the fuel depending on engine load. Thermoelectric modules (TEM which are used as Thermoelectric generators (TEG are solid state devices that are used to convert thermal energy from a temperature gradient to electrical energy and it works on basic principle of Seebeck effect. This paper demonstrates the potential of thermoelectric generation. A detailed experimental work was carried to study the performance of TEG under various engine operating conditions. A heat exchanger with 18 TEG modules was designed and tested in the engine test rig. Thermoelectric modules were selected according to the temperature difference between exhaust gases side and the engine coolant side. Various designs of the heat exchangers were modeled using CAD and analysis was done using a CFD code which is commercially available to study the flow & heat transfer characteristics. From the simulated results it was found that rectangular shaped heat exchanger met our requirements and also satisfied the space and weight constraint. A rectangular heat exchanger was fabricated and the thermo electric modules were incorporated on the heat exchanger for performance analysis. The study also revealed that energy can be tapped efficiently from the engine exhaust and in near future TEG can reduce the size of the alternator or eliminate them in automobiles.

  19. Heat Reduction FromIc Engine By Using Al2o3Nanofluid In Engine Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sharma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooling system plays important roles to control the temperature of car‟s engine. One of the important elements in the car cooling system is cooling fluid. The usage of wrong cooling fluid can give negatives impact to the car‟s engine and shorten engine life. An efficient cooling system can prevent engine from overheating and assists the vehicle running at its optimal performance. With the development of new technology in the fields of „nano-materials‟ and „nano-fluids‟, it seems very promising to use this technology as a coolant in the internal combustion engines. In this study, a nano-fluid (Al2O3-Water/Ethylene Glycol (EG is used as an engine coolant along with an optimized heat exchanger to reduce the warm-up timing. The effect of nano-fluid concentration is considered here by using their corresponding governing equations, such as momentum and energy. The engine coolant thermal behaviour calculation is carried out based on the lumped method. The obtained results indicated that using different percentage of nano-fluid mixtures (by volume, such as Al2O3-Water/EG as engine coolant enhances the heat transfer coefficient and reduces the warm-up timing which, in turn, results in reduced emissions and fuel consumption.

  20. Advanced Design Heat PumpRadiator for EVA Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Passow, Christian; Phillips, Scott; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Absorption cooling using a LiCl/water heat pump can enable lightweight and effective thermal control for EVA suits without venting water to the environment. The key components in the system are an absorber/radiator that rejects heat to space and a flexible evaporation cooling garment that absorbs heat from the crew member. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of the absorber/radiator and evaporation cooling garment. New design concepts and fabrication approaches will significantly reduce the mass of the absorber/radiator. We have also identified materials and demonstrated fabrication approaches for production of a flexible evaporation cooling garment. Data from tests of the absorber/radiator s modular components have validated the design models and allowed predictions of the size and weight of a complete system.

  1. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hern, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Evans, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Miller, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Cooper, Marcia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetic Components Realization Center; Torczynski, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  2. Exergy, Economic and Environmental Analysis for Simple and Combined Heat and Power IC Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Aliehyaei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of exergy, economic and environmental analyses of simple and combined heat and power internal combustion engines. Values of entropy production, second law efficiency are calculated, and an objective function, including initial, operation, maintenance and fuel costs, as well as the external costs of environmental pollutants, such as CO2, CO and NOx, are presented for the flue gas of the internal combustion engine. The results show that entropy generation in the combined heat and power mode is 30% lower than that in the simple internal combustion engine. Also, by excessively increasing the air ratio, the system entropy generation decreases in both cases of simple and combined heat and power IC engines. The greatest portion of entropy generation is related to the combined heat and power internal combustion engine. The gas heat exchanger generates more entropy than the jacket heat exchanger. Lower values of electricity cost and external costs of air pollution are provided by higher values of molar air to fuel ratio. The environmental aspects depend on location of the system and time of engine operation.

  3. Thermodynamics of the mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine beyond the linear-response regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Mesoscopic thermoelectric heat engine is much anticipated as a device that allows us to utilize with high efficiency wasted heat inaccessible by conventional heat engines. However, the derivation of the heat current in this engine seems to be either not general or described too briefly, even inappropriately in some cases. In this paper, we give a clear-cut derivation of the heat current of the engine with suitable assumptions beyond the linear-response regime. It resolves the confusion in the definition of the heat current in the linear-response regime. After verifying that we can construct the same formalism as that of the cyclic engine, we find the following two interesting results within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism: the efficiency of the mesoscopic thermoelectric engine reaches the Carnot efficiency if and only if the transmission probability is finite at a specific energy and zero otherwise; the unitarity of the transmission probability guarantees the second law of thermodynamics, invalidating Benenti et al.'s argument in the linear-response regime that one could obtain a finite power with the Carnot efficiency under a broken time-reversal symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230602 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.230602]. These results demonstrate how quantum mechanics constrains thermodynamics.

  4. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.

  5. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-08-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  6. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.

  7. An experimental study of energy balance in low heat rejection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, I. [University of Sakarya, Adapazari (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-03-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition, another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on diesel engine energy balance system was investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and inter-cooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and load conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces were coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic-coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic-coated engine. (author)

  8. Comparative evaluation of three alternative power cycles for waste heat recovery from the exhaust of adiabatic diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.M.

    1985-07-01

    Three alternative power cycles were compared in application as an exhaust-gas heat-recovery system for use with advanced ''adiabatic'' diesel engines. The power cycle alternatives considered were steam Rankine, organic Rankine with RC-1 as the working fluid, and variations of an air Brayton cycle. The comparison was made in terms of fuel economy and economic payback potential for heavy-duty trucks operating in line-haul service. The results indicate that, in terms of engine rated specific fuel consumption, a diesel/alternative-power-cycle engine offers a significant improvement over the turbocompound diesel used as the baseline for comparison. The maximum improvement resulted from the use of a Rankine cycle heat-recovery system in series with turbocompounding. The air Brayton cycle alternatives studied, which included both simple-cycle and compression-intercooled configurations, were less effective and provided about half the fuel consumption improvement of the Rankine cycle alternatives under the same conditions. Capital and maintenance cost estimates were also developed for each of the heat-recovery power cycle systems. These costs were integrated with the fuel savings to identify the time required for net annual savings to pay back the initial capital investment. The sensitivity of capital payback time to arbitrary increases in fuel price, not accompanied by corresponding hardware cost inflation, was also examined. The results indicate that a fuel price increase is required for the alternative power cycles to pay back capital within an acceptable time period.

  9. Comparative evaluation of three alternative power cycles for waste heat recovery from the exhaust of adiabatic diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Three alternative power cycles were compared in application as an exhaust-gas heat-recovery system for use with advanced adiabatic diesel engines. The power cycle alternatives considered were steam Rankine, organic Rankine with RC-1 as the working fluid, and variations of an air Brayton cycle. The comparison was made in terms of fuel economy and economic payback potential for heavy-duty trucks operating in line-haul service. The results indicate that, in terms of engine rated specific fuel consumption, a diesel/alternative-power-cycle engine offers a significant improvement over the turbocompound diesel used as the baseline for comparison. The maximum imporvement resulted from the use of a Rankine cycle heat-recovery system in series with turbocompounding. The air Brayton cycle alternatives studied, which included both simple-cycle and compression-intercooled configurations, were less effective and provided about half the fuel consumption improvement of the Rankine cycle alternatives under the same conditions. Capital and maintenance cost estimates were also developed for each of the heat-recovery power cycle systems. These costs were integrated with the fuel savings to identify the time required for net annual savings to pay back the initial capital investment. The sensitivity of capital payback time to arbitrary increases in fuel price, not accompanied by corresponding hardware cost inflation, was also examined. The results indicate that a fuel price increase is required for the alternative power cycles to pay back capital within an acceptable time period.

  10. CMC Technology Advancements for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    CMC research at NASA Glenn is focused on aircraft propulsion applications. The objective is to enable reduced engine emissions and fuel consumption for more environmentally friendly aircraft. Engine system studies show that incorporation of ceramic composites into turbine engines will enable significant reductions in emissions and fuel burn due to increased engine efficiency resulting from reduced cooling requirements for hot section components. This presentation will describe recent progress and challenges in developing fiber and matrix constituents for 2700 F CMC turbine applications. In addition, ongoing research in the development of durable environmental barrier coatings, ceramic joining integration technologies and life prediction methods for CMC engine components will be reviewed.

  11. Power optimization of chemically driven heat engine based on first and second order reaction kinetic theory and probability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-03-01

    The finite-time thermodynamic method based on probability analysis can more accurately describe various performance parameters of thermodynamic systems. Based on the relation between optimal efficiency and power output of a generalized Carnot heat engine with a finite high-temperature heat reservoir (heat source) and an infinite low-temperature heat reservoir (heat sink) and with the only irreversibility of heat transfer, this paper studies the problem of power optimization of chemically driven heat engine based on first and second order reaction kinetic theory, puts forward a model of the coupling heat engine which can be run periodically and obtains the effects of the finite-time thermodynamic characteristics of the coupling relation between chemical reaction and heat engine on the power optimization. The results show that the first order reaction kinetics model can use fuel more effectively, and can provide heat engine with higher temperature heat source to increase the power output of the heat engine. Moreover, the power fluctuation bounds of the chemically driven heat engine are obtained by using the probability analysis method. The results may provide some guidelines for the character analysis and power optimization of the chemically driven heat engines.

  12. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  13. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  14. Finite-Time Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Solar-Driven Heat Engine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Angulo-Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the thermoeconomic optimization of an irreversible solar-driven heat engine model has been carried out by using finite-time/finite-size thermodynamic theory. In our study we take into account losses due to heat transfer across finite time temperature differences, heat leakage between thermal reservoirs and internal irreversibilities in terms of a parameter which comes from the Clausius inequality. In the considered heat engine model, the heat transfer from the hot reservoir to the working fluid is assumed to be Dulong-Petit type and the heat transfer to the cold reservoir is assumed of the Newtonian type. In this work, the optimum performance and two design parameters have been investigated under two objective functions: the power output per unit total cost and the ecological function per unit total cost. The effects of the technical and economical parameters on the thermoeconomic performance have been also discussed under the aforementioned two criteria of performance.

  15. The Amount of Regenerated Heat Inside the Regenerator of a Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Škorpík

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analytical computing of the regenerated heat inside the regenerator of a Stirling engine. The total sum of the regenerated heat is constructed as a function of the crank angle in the case of Schmidt’s idealization. 

  16. Building an Understanding of Heat Transfer Concepts in Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Prince, Michael J.; Vigeant, Margot A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the distinctions among heat, energy and temperature can be difficult for students at all levels of instruction, including those in engineering. Misconceptions about heat transfer have been found to persist, even after students successfully complete relevant coursework. New instructional methods are needed to address these…

  17. Model predictive control of a waste heat recovery system for automotive diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.; De Jager, B.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is designed for an automotive Waste Heat Recovery system with two parallel evaporators. The objective is to maximize Waste Heat Recovery system output power, while satisfying safe operation under highly dynamic disturbances from the engine

  18. Spin-dependent Otto quantum heat engine based on a molecular substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Lefkidis, Georgios; Dong, Chuanding; Chaudhuri, Debapriya; Chotorlishvili, Levan; Berakdar, Jamal

    2015-03-01

    We explore the potential of single molecules for thermodynamic cycles. To this end we propose two molecular heat engines based on the realistic Ni2 dimer: a quantum Otto engine and a modified quantum Otto engine for which laser-induced optical excitations substitute for one of the heat-exchange points. For reliable predictions and to inspect the role of spin and electronic correlations we perform fully correlated ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and the excited states. We analyze the efficiency and the word output of the derived engines and find an enhancement when the spin degree of freedom is included. We also use the von Neumann entropy to describe correlations and entanglement of the engines during the cycles. Furthermore, we link our results to previous results regarding an isobaric stroke and a magnetic quantum Diesel engine on the same substance.

  19. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  20. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  1. Improvement of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in ceramics low heat rejection engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hideo; Higashino, Akira; Sasaki, Hiroshi [Isuzu Ceramics Research Inst. Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to improve fuel consumption and eliminate the cooling system on a diesel engine having low fuel consumption, a low heat rejection (LHR) engine constructed with the thermos structure was studied. Since air temperature at the end of the compression stroke in a LHR engine are much higher than that of a water-cooled engine, the combustion of LHR engine deteriorated and the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions degraded. The combustion phenomenon in the LHR engine were observed. The reason of deterioration in combustion was insufficient air and fuel mixing. In order to improve the mixing, a new pre-combustion chamber was located in the center of the cylinder. Drilled connecting holes radiating to cylinder wall were developed. The desired characteristics at the LHR engine including fuel consumption and exhaust emissions was achieved in the LHR engine with the new precombustion chamber.

  2. Combustion and Heat Transfer Studies Utilizing Advanced Diagnostics: Combustion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Appendices D, E, and F). The two main modeling approaches that enabled the calculation of stability from thermochemistry considera- tions are those of...Parallel TEACH -1Te Code Using an Approximately Implicit Algorithm." Proc. Tie prime authors of this report (G. Sturgess, D. Ballal S"ym Recem Advances and

  3. Maximum power output of a class of irreversible non-regeneration heat engines with a non-uniform working fluid and linear phenomenological heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Maximum power output of a class of irreversible non-regeneration heat engines with non-uniform working fluid,in which heat transfers between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs obey the linear phenomenological heat transfer law [q ∝Δ(T-1)],are studied in this paper. Optimal control theory is used to determine the upper bounds of power of the heat engine for the lumped-parameter model and the distributed-parameter model,respectively. The results show that the maximum power output of the heat engine in the distributed-parameter model is less than or equal to that in the lumped-parameter model,which could provide more realistic guidelines for real heat engines. Analytical solutions of the maximum power output are obtained for the irreversible heat engines working between constant temperature reservoirs. For the irreversible heat engine operating between variable temperature reservoirs,a numerical example for the lumped-parameter model is provided by numerical calculation. The effects of changes of reservoir’s temperature on the maximum power of the heat engine are analyzed. The obtained results are,in addition,compared with those obtained with Newtonian heat transfer law [q ∝Δ(T)].

  4. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    ``Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes`` is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal`s heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  5. Thermodynamic formalism of minimum heat source temperature for driving advanced adsorption cooling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Koyama, Shigeru; Srinivasan, Kandadai; Ng, Kim Choon; Kashiwagi, Takao; Dutta, Pradip

    2007-09-01

    This letter presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the minimum driving heat source temperature of an advanced solid sorption cooling device, and it is validated with experimental data. This formalism has been developed from the rigor of the Boltzmann distribution function and the condensation approximation of adsorptive molecules. An interesting and useful finding has been established from this formalism that it is possible to construct a solid sorption refrigeration device that operates in a cycle transferring heat from a low temperature source to a heat sink with a driving heat source at a temperature close to but above ambient.

  6. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems Vol 1 - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-15

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food under further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. This volume of the IEA Annex 26 final report contains a detailed summary of the Annex activities including principal conclusions from each participant.

  7. Recent advances in electrical engineering and control applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bououden, Sofiane; Zelinka, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This book of proceedings includes papers presenting the state of art in electrical engineering and control theory as well as their applications. The topics focus on classical as well as modern methods for modeling, control, identification and simulation of complex systems with applications in science and engineering. The papers were selected from the hottest topic areas, such as control and systems engineering, renewable energy, faults diagnosis—faults tolerant control, large-scale systems, fractional order systems, unconventional algorithms in control engineering, signals and communications. The control and design of complex systems dynamics, analysis and modeling of its behavior and structure is vitally important in engineering, economics and in science generally science today. Examples of such systems can be seen in the world around us and are a part of our everyday life. Application of modern methods for control, electronics, signal processing and more can be found in our mobile phones, car engines, hom...

  8. The influence of fuel type on the cooling system heat exchanger parameters in heavy-duty engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsztynowicz, B.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discuses the problem of selection of cooling systems for heavy-duty engines fitted in city buses. Aside from diesel engines, engine manufacturers also have in their portfolio engines fueled with natural gas, whose design is based on that of a conventional diesel engine. Based on the parameters of the engines from this type-series (the same displacement and rated power) an analysis has been performed of the influence of the applied fuel on the heat flows directed to the radiators and charge air coolers, hence, their size and space necessary for their proper installation. A replacement of a diesel engine with a natural gas fueled engine of the same operating parameters results in an increased amount of heat released to the coolant and a reduced heat from the engine charging system. This forces a selection of different heat exchangers that require more space for installation. A universal cooling module for different engines is not an optimal solution.

  9. Influence of nonlinearities on the power output of the Self-Oscillating Fluidic Heat Engine (SOFHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier-Poirier, A.; Monin, T.; Léveillé, E.; Formosa, F.; Monfray, S.; Fréchette, L. G.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, it is shown that two non-linearities drive the oscillations amplitude and the potential power density of the Self-Oscillating Fluidic Heat Engine (SOFHE). This new type of engine converts thermal energy into mechanical energy by producing self-sustained oscillations of a liquid column from a continuous heat source to power wireless sensors from waste heat. The underlying theoretical modeling shows that the pressure and the temperature nonlinearities limit the final oscillations amplitude, hence its achievable power density.

  10. Electrical performances of pyroelectric bimetallic strip heat engines describing a Stirling cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A.; Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Boeuf, F.; Cugat, O.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the analytical modeling of pyroelectric bimetallic strip heat engines. These devices are designed to exploit the snap-through of a thermo-mechanically bistable membrane to transform a part of the heat flowing through the membrane into mechanical energy and to convert it into electric energy by means of a piezoelectric layer deposited on the surface of the bistable membrane. In this paper, we describe the properties of these heat engines in the case when they complete a Stirling cycle, and we evaluate the performances (available energy, Carnot efficiency...) of these harvesters at the macro- and micro-scale.

  11. Implementation of transmission functions for an optimized three-terminal quantum dot heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiegg, Christian H.; Dzierzawa, Michael; Eckern, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    We consider two modifications of a recently proposed three-terminal quantum dot heat engine. First, we investigate the necessity of the thermalization assumption, namely that electrons are always thermalized by inelastic processes when traveling across the cavity where the heat is supplied. Second, we analyze various arrangements of tunneling-coupled quantum dots in order to implement a transmission function that is superior to the Lorentzian transmission function of a single quantum dot. We show that the maximum power of the heat engine can be improved by about a factor of two, even for a small number of dots, by choosing an optimal structure.

  12. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei;

    2015-01-01

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and prod......The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals...

  13. Born-Infeld AdS black holes as heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2016-07-01

    We study the efficiency of heat engines that perform mechanical work via the pdV terms present in the first law in extended gravitational thermodynamics. We use charged black holes as the working substance, for a particular choice of engine cycle. The context is Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant and a Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics sector. We compare the results for these ‘holographic’ heat engines to previous results obtained for Einstein-Maxwell black holes, and for the case where there is a Gauss-Bonnet sector.

  14. Born-Infeld AdS Black Holes as Heat Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2015-01-01

    We study the efficiency of heat engines that perform mechanical work via the pdV terms present in the First Law in extended gravitational thermodynamics. We use charged black holes as the working substance, for a particular choice of engine cycle. The context is Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant and a Born-Infeld non-linear electrodynamics sector. We compare the results for these `holographic' heat engines to previous results obtained for Einstein-Maxwell black holes, and for the case where there is a Gauss-Bonnet sector.

  15. Low Temperature Heat Source Utilization Current and Advanced Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, James H. Jr.; Dambly, Benjamin W.

    1992-06-01

    Once a geothermal heat source has been identified as having the potential for development, and its thermal, physical, and chemical characteristics have been determined, a method of utilization must be decided upon. This compendium will touch upon some of these concerns, and hopefully will provide the reader with a better understanding of technologies being developed that will be applicable to geothermal development in East Africa, as well as other parts of the world. The appendices contain detailed reports on Down-the-Well Turbo Pump, The Vapor-Turbine Cycle for Geothermal Power Generation, Heat Exchanger Design for Geothermal Power Plants, and a Feasibility Study of Combined Power and Water Desalting Plant Using Hot Geothermal Water. [DJE-2005

  16. Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASE(TM)) Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    AND SUBTITLE Developing Systems Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM...Engineering Graduate Programs Aligned to the Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (BKCASETM) Guidelines Abstract The Body...develop new systems engineering graduate programs . One method is to develop the program within an existing department by combining new curriculum into a

  17. Modeling of Transient Heat Flux in Spark Ignition Engine During Combustion and Comparisons with Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Yusaf

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-one dimensional engine cycle simulation program was developed to predict the transient heat flux during combustion in a spark ignition engine. A two-zone heat release model was utilized to model the combustion process inside the combustion chamber. The fuel, air and burned gas properties throughout the engine cycle were calculated using variable specific heats. The transient heat flux inside the combustion chamber due to the change in the in-cylinder gas temperature and pressure during combustion was determined using the Woschni heat transfer model. The program was written in MATLAB together with the Graphical User Interface (GUI. Numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements and good agreement was obtained. Four thermocouples were used and positioned equi-spaced at 5mm intervals along a ray from the spark plug location on the engine head. These thermocouples were able to capture the heat flux release by the burned gas to the wall during the combustion process including the cycle-to-cycle variations. Pressure sensor was installed at the engine head to capture the pressure change throughout the cycle.

  18. Prototype solar-heating system-engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Space and domestic-water solar-heating prototype was tested in three phases: simulated energy function, winter normal operation, summer normal operation. Prototype was judged suitable for field installation.

  19. Atmospheric dynamics. Constrained work output of the moist atmospheric heat engine in a warming climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, F; Zika, J; Mudryk, L; Kushner, P J; Kjellsson, J; Döös, K

    2015-01-30

    Incoming and outgoing solar radiation couple with heat exchange at Earth's surface to drive weather patterns that redistribute heat and moisture around the globe, creating an atmospheric heat engine. Here, we investigate the engine's work output using thermodynamic diagrams computed from reanalyzed observations and from a climate model simulation with anthropogenic forcing. We show that the work output is always less than that of an equivalent Carnot cycle and that it is constrained by the power necessary to maintain the hydrological cycle. In the climate simulation, the hydrological cycle increases more rapidly than the equivalent Carnot cycle. We conclude that the intensification of the hydrological cycle in warmer climates might limit the heat engine's ability to generate work.

  20. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

    2005-07-05

    Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

  1. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  2. Thermal Analysis on Plume Heating of the Main Engine on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Yuko, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The crew exploration vehicle (CEV) service module (SM) main engine plume heating is analyzed using multiple numerical tools. The chemical equilibrium compositions and applications (CEA) code is used to compute the flow field inside the engine nozzle. The plume expansion into ambient atmosphere is simulated using an axisymmetric space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) Euler code, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The thermal analysis including both convection and radiation heat transfers from the hot gas inside the engine nozzle and gas radiation from the plume is performed using Thermal Desktop. Three SM configurations, Lockheed Martin (LM) designed 604, 605, and 606 configurations, are considered. Design of multilayer insulation (MLI) for the stowed solar arrays, which is subject to plume heating from the main engine, among the passive thermal control system (PTCS), are proposed and validated.

  3. Bearings and gears for advanced turbine engines and transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The improved technology is discussed of engine main-shaft ball bearings, and spur gears in power transmission drive trains. Much of the technology can be applied to other ball and roller bearings, and to other spur and bevel gears throughout the engine, drive train, and accessory systems.

  4. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  5. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurpreet [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  6. Artificial Sight Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Humayun, Mark S; Chader, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Artificial sight is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, biological physics, and psychophysical testing. Many scientific, engineering, and surgical challenges must be surmounted before widespread practical applications can be realized. The goal of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state-of-the-art research in this exciting area, and to describe some of the current approaches and initiatives that may help patients in a clinical setting. The Editors are active researchers in the fields of artificial sight, biomedical engineering and biological physics. They have received numerous professional awards and recognition for their work. The artificial sight team at the Doheny Eye Institute, led by Dr. Mark Humayun, is a world leader in this area of biomedical engineering and clinical research. Key Features Introduces and assesses the state of the art for a broad audience of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and clinical...

  7. Maximum Power Point Characteristics of Generalized Heat Engines with Finite Time and Finite Heat Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the problem of optimal power extraction in four-step cycles (two adiabatic and two heat-transfer branches when the finite-rate heat transfer obeys a linear law and the heat reservoirs have finite heat capacities. The heat-transfer branch follows a polytropic process in which the heat capacity of the working fluid stays constant. For the case of ideal gas as working fluid and a given switching time, it is shown that maximum work is obtained at Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. Our expressions clearly show the dependence on the relative magnitudes of heat capacities of the fluid and the reservoirs. Many previous formulae, including infinite reservoirs, infinite-time cycles, and Carnot-like and non-Carnot-like cycles, are recovered as special cases of our model.

  8. The effect of heat transfer laws and thermal conductances on the local stability of an endoreversible heat engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Vargas, L [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN No. 2580, L. Ticoman, Mexico D.F. 07340 (Mexico); Reyes-Ramirez, I [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN No. 2580, L. Ticoman, Mexico D.F. 07340 (Mexico); Sanchez, N [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. No. 9 U.P. Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2005-04-21

    In a recent paper (Santillan et al 2001 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 2068-72) the local stability of a Curzon-Ahlborn-Novikov (CAN) engine with equal conductances in the coupling with thermal baths was analysed. In this work, we present a local stability analysis of an endoreversible engine operating at maximum power output, for common heat transfer laws, and for different heat conductances {alpha} and {beta}, in the isothermal couplings of the working substance with the thermal sources T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} (T{sub 1} > T{sub 2}). We find that the relaxation times, in the cases analysed here, are a function of {alpha}, {beta}, the heat capacity C, T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}. Besides, the eigendirections in a phase portrait are also functions of {tau} = T{sub 1}/T{sub 2} and the ratio {beta}/{alpha}. From these findings, phase portraits for the trajectories after a small perturbation over the steady-state values of internal temperatures are presented, for some significant situations. Finally, we discuss the local stability and energetic properties of the endoreversible CAN heat engine.

  9. An improved heat transfer configuration for a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.; Walton, James T.; Mcguire, Melissa L.

    1992-01-01

    Interrupted flow, impingement cooling, and axial power distribution are employed to enhance the heat-transfer configuration of a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine. Impingement cooling is introduced to increase the local heat-transfer coefficients between the reactor material and the coolants. Increased fuel loading is used at the inlet end of the reactor to enhance heat-transfer capability where the temperature differences are the greatest. A thermal-hydraulics computer program for an unfueled NERVA reactor core is employed to analyze the proposed configuration with attention given to uniform fuel loading, number of channels through the impingement wafers, fuel-element length, mass-flow rate, and wafer gap. The impingement wafer concept (IWC) is shown to have heat-transfer characteristics that are better than those of the NERVA-derived reactor at 2500 K. The IWC concept is argued to be an effective heat-transfer configuration for solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engines.

  10. The Importance of Thermal Heat Bridges in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tokar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the heat transfer characteristics of a construction, the expected temperatures along interior surfaces must be evaluated in order to predict (and avoid areas of potential moisture condensation. Beyond preventing damage to building materials caused by mould growth, adequate surface temperatures are also a relevant factor in the thermal comfort of an interior environment. An agreable climate in a room can be obtained, when relative humidity is between 40 and 60%. As the air in a room is warmer, the more vapor can absorb (and vice versa, influencing the thermal comfort index. Heat losses are influenced largely by thermal bridges of construction. The importance of the thermal heat bridges is strongly increasing today. In new developments the thermal optimization of junctions in today common low energy constructions receives very special standing. The subject of avoiding thermal bridges in passive houses became predominant.

  11. CRISPR/Cas9 advances engineering of microbial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociunas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) have become the method of choice for precision genome engineering in many organisms due to their orthogonality, versatility and efficacy. Here we review the strategies adopted for implementation of RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing......-RNAs will be highlighted. Finally, this review will provide a perspective on the immediate challenges and opportunities foreseen by the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering and regulation in the context of metabolic engineering....

  12. An Approach to Enhance the Efficiency of a Brownian Heat Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-Ping; HE Ji-Zhou; XIAO Yu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    A Brownian microscopic heat engine, driven by temperature difference and consisting of a Brownian particle moving in a sawtooth potential with an external load, is investigated. The heat Hows, driven by both potential and kinetic energies, are taken into account. Based on the master equation, the expressions for efficiency and power output are derived analytically, and performance characteristic curves are plotted. It is shown that the heat How via the kinetic energy of the particle decreases. The efficiency of the engine is enhanced, but the power output reduces as the a shape parameter of the sawtooth potential increases. The influence of the a shape parameter on efficiency and power output is then analyzed in detail.%A Brownian microscopic heat engine,driven by temperature difference and consisting of a Brownian particle moving in a sawtooth potential with an external load,is investigated.The heat flows,driven by both potential and kinetic energies,are taken into account.Based on the master equation,the expressions for efficiency and power output are derived analytically,and performance characteristic curves are plotted.It is shown that the heat flow via the kinetic energy of the particle decreases.The efficiency of the engine is enhanced,but the power output reduces as the α shape parameter of the sawtooth potential increases.The influence of the α shape parameter on efficiency and power output is then analyzed in detail.Like the Carnot cycle,the Brownian heat engine can extract work from the temperature difference between heat reservoirs,where the Brownian working material operates as a transducer of thermal energy into mechanical work.In the last few decades,the study of Brownian heat engines has received considerable attention,not only for the construction of the miniaturized engine that helps us utilize energy resources at microscopic scales,but also for a better understanding of nonequilibrium statistical physics.[1-3] The thermodynamic properties of the

  13. Conventional and Advanced Silicagel-water Adsorption Cycles Driven by Near - environmental Temperature Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Elisa; B. Saha, Bidyut; Tanaka, Aiharu; Kashiwagi, Takao

    This work aims at clarifying the possible operating temperature ranges for silica gel-water adsorption refrigeration cycles driven by near-environmental temperature heat sources (between 50°C and 85°C), with relatively small regenerating temperature lifts (10 K to 65 K). A newly developed three stage advanced silica gel-water cycle, which is operational with 50°C driving heat source and 30°C cooling source is introduced and compared with a conventional single stage cycle. The cycles are evaluated in terms of cooling capacity, COP and the viability of operation with near-environmental temperature driving heat sources. The analysis is based on experimental and cycle simulation work. The results showed the advanced three stage cycle to be particularly suited for operation with low grade waste heat driving sources, since it worked with small regenerating temperature lifts (ΔTregen)of 10K to 30K. Another significant advantage of operation with small ΔTregen is the possibility to reduce irreversible heat losses from batched cycle operation. Experiments carried out on full-size machine suggested that, even with smallΔTregen, adsorber /desorber heat exchanger improvements such as higher thermal conductance and smaller heat capacitance can contribute to reduce heat losses while improving cycle performance in terms of cooling capacity and COP.

  14. Advancement of Double Effect Absorption Cycle by Input of Low Temperature Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hiroshi; Edera, Masaru; Nakamura, Makoto; Oka, Masahiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Energy conservation is becoming important for global environmental protection. New simple techniques of more efficient1y using the waste heat of gas co-generation systems for refrigerationare required. In first report, a new method of using the low temperature waste heat for refrigeration was proposed, and the basic characteristics of the promising methods of recovering waste heat were c1arified. In this report, the more detailed simulation model of the series flow type double effect absorption refrigerator with auxiliary heat exchanger was constructed and the static characteristics were investigated. Then experiments on this advanced absorption refrigerator were carried out, and the results of the calculation and experiments were compared and discussed. Moreover, the betterment of the simulation model of this advanced absorption refrigerator was carried out.

  15. Advances In Mining Engineering Education: A Case For Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hitch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mining engineering involves the design, planning and management of operations for the development, production and eventual rehabilitation of resource extraction. These activities draw on a diverse set of skills. University of British Columbia mining engineers have traditionally been highly regarded for their strengths in the technical aspects of mining and mineral process but also for their understanding of the application of principles of sustainability and social responsibility. The current view of the UBC Mining curriculum demands the integration of aspects of environmental and social sciences shaping the future of tertiary engineering education. The solution is developing a curriculum that is focused on key learning objectives that are a reflection of all these external pressures. This paper examines the challenge of curriculum reform and the emergence of learning communities at the Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering at the University of British Columbia, Canada.

  16. CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul D. Ronney

    2003-09-12

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

  17. Integrated Heat Exchange For Recuperation In Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    other aspect of this collection of information , including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services , Directorate for...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. INTEGRATED HEAT...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources

  18. Evaluation of Advanced Models for PAFS Condensation Heat Transfer in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Byong-Jo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is operated by the natural circulation to remove the core decay heat through the PCHX (Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger) which is composed of the nearly horizontal tubes. For validation of the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop) facility was constructed and the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS was experimentally investigated at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). From the PASCAL experimental result, it was found that conventional system analysis code underestimated the condensation heat transfer. In this study, advanced condensation heat transfer models which can treat the heat transfer mechanisms with the different flow regimes in the nearly horizontal heat exchanger tube were analyzed. The models were implemented in a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code, SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plant), and it was evaluated with the PASCAL experimental data. With an aim of enhancing the prediction capability for the condensation phenomenon inside the PCHX tube of the PAFS, advanced models for the condensation heat transfer were implemented into the wall condensation model of the SPACE code, so that the PASCAL experimental result was utilized to validate the condensation models. Calculation results showed that the improved model for the condensation heat transfer coefficient enhanced the prediction capability of the SPACE code. This result confirms that the mechanistic modeling for the film condensation in the steam phase and the convection in the condensate liquid contributed to enhance the prediction capability of the wall condensation model of the SPACE code and reduce conservatism in prediction of condensation heat transfer.

  19. Korea Superconducting tokamak advanced research project - Development of heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-10-01

    The heating and current drive systems for KSTAR based on multiple technologies (neutral beam, ion cyclotron, lower hybrid and electron cyclotron) have been designed to provide heating and current drive capabilities as well as flexibility in the control of current density and pressure profiles needed to meet the mission and research objectives of the machine. They are designed to operate for long-pulse lengths of up to 300 s. The NBI system initially delivers 8 MW of neutral beam power to the plasma from one co-directed beam line and shall be upgraded to provide 20 MW of neutral beam power with two co-directed beam lines plus one counter-directed beam line. It will be capable of being reconfigured such that the source arrangement is changed from horizontal to vertical stacking, with 6 MW beam power to the plasmas per beam line, in order to facilitate profile control. The RF system initially delivers 6 MW of rf power to the plasma, using a single four-strap antenna mounted in a midplane port. The system will be upgraded to proved 12 MW of rf power through 2 adjacent ports. In the first phase, we completed the basic design of RF system and the system have the capabilities to be operationable for pulse length up to 300 sec and in the 25-60 MHz frequency range. Lower hybrid system initially provides 1.5 MW LH rf power to the plasma at 3.7 GHz through a horizontal port, which has a capability to be operated for pulse length up to 300 sec, and shall be upgraded to provide 4.5 MW of LH rf power to the plasma. In the first phase, we completed the basic design of LHCD system which incorporate the TPX-type launcher and independently phase-changeable transmission system for the fully phased coupler. The ECH system will deliver up to 0.5 MW of power to the plasma for up to 0.5 sec. In the first phase, we completed the basic design of ECH system which includes an 84 GHz gyrotron system, a transmission system, and a launcher. The basic design of the low loss transmission system

  20. Heat exchanger modeling and identification for control of waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rojer, C.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    To meet future CO2 emission targets, Waste Heat Recovery systems have recently attracted much attention for automotive applications, especially for long haul trucks. This paper focuses on the development of a dynamic counter-flow heat exchanger model for control purposes. The model captures the dyna

  1. Ecological optimization of quantum spin-1/2 heat engine at the classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T-H [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dahan Institute of Technology, 1 Sujen Street, Dahan, Hsincheng, Hualien 97145, Taiwan (China)

    2006-04-07

    The purpose of this paper is to present a study of finite-time thermodynamics applied to evaluate the ecological performance of a quantum heat engine which operates between two thermal reservoirs using the working substance of spin-1/2 systems. The quantum heat engine cycle is composed of two isothermal processes, an adiabatic process and an isomagnetic field process. A sequence of time evolution was determined from the quantum angular momentum rate based on the semigroup approach and the quantum master equation. The individual time duration is added to account for the total cycle time. The objective ecological function representing a compromise between power output and irreversibility is maximized with respect to cycle temperature ratio. Effects of thermal reservoir temperature ratio and magnetic field ratio on the ecological function have been discussed. A comparison of quantum heat engine performance under maximum ecological function and maximum power conditions is also presented.

  2. The maximum efficiency of nano heat engines depends on more than temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Mischa; Ng, Nelly; Wehner, Stephanie

    Sadi Carnot's theorem regarding the maximum efficiency of heat engines is considered to be of fundamental importance in the theory of heat engines and thermodynamics. Here, we show that at the nano and quantum scale, this law needs to be revised in the sense that more information about the bath other than its temperature is required to decide whether maximum efficiency can be achieved. In particular, we derive new fundamental limitations of the efficiency of heat engines at the nano and quantum scale that show that the Carnot efficiency can only be achieved under special circumstances, and we derive a new maximum efficiency for others. A preprint can be found here arXiv:1506.02322 [quant-ph] Singapore's MOE Tier 3A Grant & STW, Netherlands.

  3. Identifying Student Difficulties with Entropy, Heat Engines, and the Carnot Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Trevor I; Mountcastle, Donald B; Thompson, John R

    2015-01-01

    We report on several specific student difficulties regarding the Second Law of Thermodynamics in the context of heat engines within upper-division undergraduates thermal physics courses. Data come from ungraded written surveys, graded homework assignments, and videotaped classroom observations of tutorial activities. Written data show that students in these courses do not clearly articulate the connection between the Carnot cycle and the Second Law after lecture instruction. This result is consistent both within and across student populations. Observation data provide evidence for myriad difficulties related to entropy and heat engines, including students' struggles in reasoning about situations that are physically impossible and failures to differentiate between differential and net changes of state properties of a system. Results herein may be seen as the application of previously documented difficulties in the context of heat engines, but others are novel and emphasize the subtle and complex nature of cycl...

  4. The Second Law of Thermodynamics in a Quantum Heat Engine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Cai, Li-Feng; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2006-03-01

    The second law of thermodynamics has been proven by many facts in classical world. Is there any new property of it in quantum world? In this paper, we calculate the change of entropy in T.D. Kieu's model for quantum heat engine (QHE) and prove the broad validity of the second law of thermodynamics. It is shown that the entropy of the quantum heat engine neither decreases in a whole cycle, nor decreases in either stage of the cycle. The second law of thermodynamics still holds in this QHE model. Moreover, although the modified quantum heat engine is capable of extracting more work, its efficiency does not improve at all. It is neither beyond the efficiency of T.D. Kieu's initial model, nor greater than the reversible Carnot efficiency.

  5. Operational characteristics of single-particle heat engines and refrigerators with time-asymmetric protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the single-particle heat engine and refrigerator driven by time-asymmetric protocol of finite duration. Our system consists of a particle in a harmonic trap with time-periodic strength that drives the particle cyclically between two baths. Each cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps connecting them. The system works in irreversible mode of operation even in the quasistatic regime. This is indicated by finite entropy production even in the large cycle time limit. Consequently, Carnot efficiency for heat engine or Carnot coefficient of performance (COP) for refrigerators is not achievable. We further analyzed the phase diagram of heat engines and refrigerators. They are sensitive to time-asymmetry of the protocol. Phase diagram shows several interesting features, often counterintuitive. The distribution of stochastic efficiency and COP is broad and exhibits power-law tails.

  6. The Second Law of Thermodynamics in a Quantum Heat Engine Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics has been proven by many facts in classical world. Is there any new property of it in quantum world? In this paper, we calculate the change of entropy in T.D. Kieu's model for quantum heat engine (QHE) and prove the broad validity of the second law of thermodynamics. It is shown that the entropy of the quantum heat engine neither decreases in a whole cycle, nor decreases in either stage of the cycle. The second law of thermodynamics still holds in this QHE model. Moreover, although the modified quantum heat engine is capable of extracting more work, its efficiency does not improve at all. It is neither beyond the efficiency of T.D. Kieu's initial model, nor greater than the reversible Carnot efficiency.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 advances engineering of microbial cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-01

    One of the key drivers for successful metabolic engineering in microbes is the efficacy by which genomes can be edited. As such there are many methods to choose from when aiming to modify genomes, especially those of model organisms like yeast and bacteria. In recent years, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) have become the method of choice for precision genome engineering in many organisms due to their orthogonality, versatility and efficacy. Here we review the strategies adopted for implementation of RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing with special emphasis on their application for metabolic engineering of yeast and bacteria. Also, examples of how nuclease-deficient Cas9 has been applied for RNA-guided transcriptional regulation of target genes will be reviewed, as well as tools available for computer-aided design of guide-RNAs will be highlighted. Finally, this review will provide a perspective on the immediate challenges and opportunities foreseen by the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering and regulation in the context of metabolic engineering.

  8. An engineering procedure for air side performance evaluation of flat tube heat exchangers with louvered fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Dragi

    2013-01-01

    An accurate evaluation of possible air side heat transfer surface geometries is a prerequisite for optimal heat exchanger design. Aiming for practical engineering applicability a simplified and transparent analytical procedure for the assessment of louvered fin and flat tube heat exchanger geometries and the calculation of fin parameters that enable maximal performance for given boundary conditions has been developed. The proposed method comprises determining fins temperature profiles and effective heat transfer temperature difference, introduction of a relative heat transfer surface area, as well as the utilization of recent experimentally obtained heat transfer correlations confirmed for the observed range of boundary conditions. The proposed methodology is validated through comparison with experimental and numerical results of other authors.

  9. HEAT RECOVERY FROM A NATURAL GAS POWERED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BY CO2 TRANSCRITICAL POWER CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides details of energy accounting of a natural gas powered internal combustion engine and achievable work of a utilized CO2 power cycle. Based on experimental performance analysis of a new designed IKCO (Iran Khodro Company 1.7 litre natural gas powered engine, full energy accounting of the engine were carried out on various engine speeds and loads. Further, various CO2 transcritical power cycle configurations have been appointed to take advantages of exhaust and coolant water heat lost. Based on thermodynamic analysis, the amount of recoverable work obtainable by CO2 transcritical power cycles have been calculated on various engine conditions. The results show that as much as 18 kW power could be generated by the power cycle. This would be considerable amount of power especially if compared with the engine brake power.

  10. Advanced thermal energy management: A thermal test bed and heat pipe simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Ronald G.

    1986-01-01

    Work initiated on a common-module thermal test simulation was continued, and a second project on heat pipe simulation was begun. The test bed, constructed from surplus Skylab equipment, was modeled and solved for various thermal load and flow conditions. Low thermal load caused the radiator fluid, Coolanol 25, to thicken due to its temperature avoided by using a regenerator-heat-exchanger. Other possible solutions modeled include a radiator heater and shunting heat from the central thermal bus to the radiator. Also, module air temperature can become excessive with high avionics load. A second preoject concerning advanced heat pipe concepts was initiated. A program was written which calculates fluid physical properties, liquid and vapor pressure in the evaporator and condenser, fluid flow rates, and thermal flux. The program is directed to evaluating newer heat pipe wicks and geometries, especially water in an artery surrounded by six vapor channels. Effects of temperature, groove and slot dimensions, and wick properties are reported.

  11. Non-heat pipe receiver/p-40 Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The technology for a full-up hybrid dish-Stirling Solar Thermal Power system is discussed. Overall solar-to-electric efficiency for the dish-Stirling system demonstration is approximately 30%. Hybrid operation is provided by fossil fuel combustion augmentation, which enables the Stirling engine to operate continuously at constant speed and power, regardless of insolation level, thus providing the capability to operate on cloudy days and at night.

  12. First experimental demonstration of a Self-Oscillating Fluidic Heat Engine (SOFHE) with piezoelectric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, T.; Tessier-Poirier, A.; Léveillé, E.; Juneau-Fecteau, A.; Skotnicki, T.; Formosa, F.; Monfray, S.; Fréchette, L. G.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present the working principle and first experimental demonstration of an innovative approach to harvest low-quality heat sources, the Self-Oscillating Fluidic Heat Engine (SOFHE). Thermal energy is first converted into pressure pulsations by a selfexcited thermo-fluidic oscillator driven by periodic phase change of a fluid in an enclosed channel. A piezoelectric membrane then converts this mechanical energy into an electrical power. After describing the working principle, an experimental demonstration is presented. The P-V diagram of this new thermodynamic cycle is measured, showing a mechanical power of 3.3mW. Combined with a piezoelectric spiral membrane, the converted electrical power generation achieved is close to 1μ W in a 1MΩ load. This work sets the basis for future development of this new type of heat engine for waste heat recovery and to power wireless sensors.

  13. Optimal paths for a light-driven engine with a linear phenomenological heat transfer law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An irreversible light-driven engine is described in this paper, in which the heat transfer between the working fluid and the environment obeys a linear phenomenological heat transfer law [ q ∝Δ(T -1)], with a working fluid composed of the bimolecular reacting system 2SO 3 F■S 2 O 6 F2. Piston trajectories maximizing work output and minimizing entropy generation are determined for such an engine with rate-dependent loss mechanisms of friction and heat leakage. The optimal control theory is applied to determine the optimal configurations of the piston motion trajectory and the fluid temperature. Numerical examples for the optimal configuration are provided, and the obtained results are compared with those derived with Newtonian heat transfer law [ q ∝Δ(T )].

  14. Advances in cryogenic engineering, Volume 39, Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, P. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    This volume presents the latest international work in the field of cryogenic engineering, in a broad range of applications. It can serve as a reference to the field of cryogenic applications for researchers and engineers working in cryogenics, materials science, low-temperature physics, polymer science, and solid-state physics. Section headings for this volume are: transportation applications; wind tunnels; space applications; magnet: design and performance; magnet: cooling; magnet: technology and applications; large scale systems; large hadron collider; superconducting super collider; superconducting magnetic energy storage; compressors and expanders; mechanisms and machinery; safety. Separate articles from this report have been indexed into the database.

  15. Recent advances in rational approaches for enzyme engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Steiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are an attractive alternative in the asymmetric syntheses of chiral building blocks. To meet the requirements of industrial biotechnology and to introduce new functionalities, the enzymes need to be optimized by protein engineering. This article specifically reviews rational approaches for enzyme engineering and de novo enzyme design involving structure-based approaches developed in recent years for improvement of the enzymes’ performance, broadened substrate range, and creation of novel functionalities to obtain products with high added value for industrial applications.

  16. Advanced FDTD methods parallelization, acceleration, and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. Here's a cutting-edge book that focuses on the performance optimization and engineering applications of FDTD simulation systems. Covering the latest developments in this area, this unique resource offer you expert advice on the FDTD method, hardware platforms, and network systems. Moreover the book offers guidance in distinguishing between the many different electromagnetics software packages on the market today. You also find a complete chapter dedicated to large multi-scale pro

  17. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using intake air heating for a GDCI engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Gregory T.; Sellnau, Mark C.

    2016-08-09

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of heaters, at least one heater per cylinder, with each heater configured to heat air introduced into a cylinder. Independent control of the heaters is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the heater for that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in a cylinder of the engine and controlling a heater configured to heat air introduced into that cylinder, is also provided.

  18. Comparison of Waste Heat Recovery from the Exhaust of a Spark Ignition and a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, K. T.; Schmidt, M.; Zybala, R.; Merkisz, J.; Fuć, P.; Lijewski, P.

    2010-09-01

    We present herein a design for and performance measurements of a prototype thermoelectric generator (TEG) mounted on both a spark ignition engine (0.9 dm3) and a self-ignition engine (1.3 dm3). Using the prototype TEG as a tool, benchmark studies were performed in order to compare its parameters in terms of heat recovery from exhaust gases of both engine types. The test bed study was performed with an Automex AMX-210/100 eddy-current brake dynamometer. To provide a comprehensive overview of the TEG operating conditions, characterization of its parameters such as temperature distribution, heat flux density, and efficiency was done at engine speeds and loads similar to those within the range of operation of real road conditions.

  19. Maximum efficiency of low-dissipation heat engines at arbitrary power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Viktor; Ryabov, Artem

    2016-07-01

    We investigate maximum efficiency at a given power for low-dissipation heat engines. Close to maximum power, the maximum gain in efficiency scales as a square root of relative loss in power and this scaling is universal for a broad class of systems. For low-dissipation engines, we calculate the maximum gain in efficiency for an arbitrary fixed power. We show that engines working close to maximum power can operate at considerably larger efficiency compared to the efficiency at maximum power. Furthermore, we introduce universal bounds on maximum efficiency at a given power for low-dissipation heat engines. These bounds represent direct generalization of the bounds on efficiency at maximum power obtained by Esposito et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 150603). We derive the bounds analytically in the regime close to maximum power and for small power values. For the intermediate regime we present strong numerical evidence for the validity of the bounds.

  20. Polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdanels, D. L.; Serafini, T. T.; Dicarlo, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis is being focused on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  1. Finite element analysis of welding residual stress of aero engine blisk by controlling heat input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xueqiu; Yang Jianguo; Chen Xuhui; Fang Hongyuan; Qu Shen; Wang Licheng

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve aero engine performance, it is necessary to reduce the welding residual stress of aero engine blisk. In this paper, finite element method was employed to simulate electron beam welding process of blisk, in accordance with the deducing formula (p = kh) , the heat input is changed with the weld depth to control welding residual stress of blisk. The calculation results show that welding residual stress of blisk can be controlled effectively by reducing the heat input on the conditions of meeting the demand of weld penetration and guaranteeing the welding quality, a new theoretical method and some numerical data are provided for controlling welding residual stress of blisk.

  2. Methods for Increasing Power Efficiency of Heating Furnaces Applied in Metallurgical and Mechanical Engineering Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. German

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper analyzes experimental data and results of balance tests of two continuous heating furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries. Furnace power technological characteristics  and dependences of these characteristics on equipment productivity have been determined in the paper. The analysis has made it possible to reveal reasons of higher efficiency of a heating furnace used at BSW Rolling Mill-320 and formulate recommendations on reduction of fuel consumption in operating and designed combustion furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries.

  3. Rabi model as a quantum coherent heat engine: From quantum biology to superconducting circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 91, 023816 (2015) Rabi model as a quantum coherent heat engine: From quantum biology to superconducting circuits Ferdi Altintas,1 Ali U¨ . C. Hardal,2 and O¨ zgu¨r E. Mu¨stecaplıog˘lu2,* 1Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 14280, Turkey 2Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, Sarıyer, ˙Istanbul, 34450, Turkey (Received 10 November 2014; published 12 February 2015) We propose a multilevel quantum heat engine with a working medium de...

  4. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  5. Auto-Ignition and Heat Release Correlations for Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion in Gasoline Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Auto-ignition and heat release correlations for controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion were derived from extensive in-cylinder pressure data of a four-stroke gasoline engine operating in CAI combustion mode. Abundant experiments were carried out under a wide range of air/fuel ratio,speed and residual gas fraction to ensure that the combustion correlations can be used in the entire CAI engine operation range. Furthermore, a more accurate method to compute the residual gas fraction was proposed by calculating the working fluid temperature at the exhaust valve close timing in the experiments. The heat release correlation was described in two parts, one is for the first slower heat release process at low temperature, and the other is for the second faster heat release process at high temperature. Finally the heat release correlation was evaluated on the single cylinder gasoline engine running with CAI combustion by comparing the experimental data with the 1-D engine simulation results obtained with the aid of the GT-Power simulation program. The results show that the predicted loads and ignition timings match closely with the measurements.

  6. Performance of a multilevel quantum heat engine of an ideal N-particle Fermi system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2012-08-01

    We generalize the quantum heat engine (QHE) model which was first proposed by Bender [J. Phys. A10.1088/0305-4470/33/24/302 33, 4427 (2000)] to the case in which an ideal Fermi gas with an arbitrary number N of particles in a box trap is used as the working substance. Besides two quantum adiabatic processes, the engine model contains two isoenergetic processes, during which the particles are coupled to energy baths at a high constant energy Eh and a low constant energy Ec, respectively. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, we find that the power output is enhanced by increasing particle number N (or decreasing minimum trap size LA) for given LA (or N), without reduction in the efficiency. By use of global optimization, the efficiency at possible maximum power output (EPMP) is found to be universal and independent of any parameter contained in the engine model. For an engine model with any particle-number N, the efficiency at maximum power output (EMP) can be determined under the condition that it should be closest to the EPMP. Moreover, we extend the heat engine to a more general multilevel engine model with an arbitrary 1D power-law potential. Comparison between our engine model and the Carnot cycle shows that, under the same conditions, the efficiency η=1-(Ec)/(Eh) of the engine cycle is bounded from above the Carnot value ηc=1-(Tc)/(Th).

  7. Performance characteristics of a glowplug assisted low heat rejection diesel engine using ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, B.; Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamilnadu 625 015 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Conventional diesel engines with ethanol as fuel are associated with problems due to high self-ignition temperature of the fuel. The hot surface ignition method, wherein a part of the injected fuel is made to touch an electrically heated hot surface (glowplug) for ignition, is an effective way of utilizing ethanol in conventional diesel engines. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of thermal insulation on ethanol fueled compression ignition engine. One of the important ethanol properties to be considered in the high compression ratio engine is the long ignition delay of the fuel, normally characterized by lower cetane number. In the present study, the ignition delay was controlled by partial insulation of the combustion chamber (low heat rejection engine) by plasma spray coating of yttria stabilized zirconia for a thickness of 300 {mu}m. Experiments were carried out on the glowplug assisted engine with and without insulation in order to find out the possible benefits of combustion chamber insulation in ethanol and diesel operation. Highest brake thermal efficiency of 32% was obtained with ethanol fuel by insulating the combustion chamber. Emissions of the unburnt hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxides were higher than that of diesel. But the smoke intensity and was less than that of diesel engine. Volumetric efficiency of the engine was reduced by a maximum of 9% in LHR mode of operation. (author)

  8. Irreversibilities and efficiency at maximum power of heat engines: the illustrative case of a thermoelectric generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph

    2012-03-01

    Energy conversion efficiency at maximum output power, which embodies the essential characteristics of heat engines, is the main focus of the present work. The so-called Curzon and Ahlborn efficiency η(CA) is commonly believed to be an absolute reference for real heat engines; however, a different but general expression for the case of stochastic heat engines, η(SS), was recently found and then extended to low-dissipation engines. The discrepancy between η(CA) and η(SS) is here analyzed considering different irreversibility sources of heat engines, of both internal and external types. To this end, we choose a thermoelectric generator operating in the strong-coupling regime as a physical system to qualitatively and quantitatively study the impact of the nature of irreversibility on the efficiency at maximum output power. In the limit of pure external dissipation, we obtain η(CA), while η(SS) corresponds to the case of pure internal dissipation. A continuous transition between from one extreme to the other, which may be operated by tuning the different sources of irreversibility, also is evidenced.

  9. Recent advances in the science and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Gaj, Michael P.; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Choi, Sangmoo; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhang, Yadong; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.; Voit, Walter E.; Wei, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    In this talk, we will discuss recent advances in the science and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). First, we will focus on materials in which light emission involves the process of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). In these materials, triplet excited states can convert into optically emissive singlet excited states by reverse intersystem crossing, allowing for nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency. This process can be used to design a new class of materials that are all organic, offering a lower cost alternative to conventional electrophosphorescent materials that contain heavy and expensive elements such as Pt and Ir. We will discuss molecular design strategies and present examples of materials that can be used as emitters or hosts in the emissive layer. In a second part of this talk, we will review recent progress in fabricating OLEDs on shape memory polymer substrates (SMPs). SMPs are mechanically active, smart materials that can exhibit a significant drop in modulus once an external stimulus such as temperature is applied. In their rubbery state upon heating, the SMP can be easily deformed by external stresses into a temporary geometric configuration that can be retained even after the stress is removed by cooling the SMP to below the glass transition temperature. Reheating the SMP causes strain relaxation within the polymer network and induces recovery of its original shape. We will discuss how these unique mechanical properties can also be extended to a new class of OLEDs.

  10. Proceedings of the NITINOL Heat Engine Conference, 26-27 September 1978, Silver Spring, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-27

    34 concept. There, focussing mirrors-- heliostats --drive the temperatures up, focus them on a central boiler, and get high efficiencies with a steam turbine... precisely the difference between the latent heat of the stress-free transformation and the latent heat of the S See footnote 6 on page 6-1. See footnote 9...migration from the problem of predicting the precise location of the FLT state within the bounded volume, and also incidentally, to stabilize engine

  11. Energy analysis of the engineering-economic optimization of convective heat-transfer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, N. M.

    1991-07-01

    The influence of the specific costs of the heat transfer surface, 1 kW of installed power of the blower and motor, 1 kW·h of electrical energy consumption by it, operating time of the surface, and other factors on the optimum specific power expenditure to force heat-transfer fluids through the ducts of heattransfer surfaces is investigated. The minimum engineering-economically justified operating time of the surface is determined.

  12. Conflict between internal combustion engine and thermoelectric generator during waste heat recovery in cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    It is shown that an internal combustion engine and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) arranged on the exhaust pipe of this engine come into the conflict of thermal machines that is related to using the same energy resource. The conflict grows with increasing useful electric power W e of the TEG, which leads to the limitation of both the maximum TEG output power ( W {e/max}) and the possibility of waste heat recovery in cars.

  13. Using Advanced Search Operators on Web Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    Studies show that the majority of Web searchers enter extremely simple queries, so a reasonable system design approach would be to build search engines to compensate for this user characteristic. One hundred representative queries were selected from the transaction log of a major Web search service. These 100 queries were then modified using the…

  14. Review on Recent Advances in Pulse Detonation Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse detonation engines (PDEs are new exciting propulsion technologies for future propulsion applications. The operating cycles of PDE consist of fuel-air mixture, combustion, blowdown, and purging. The combustion process in pulse detonation engine is the most important phenomenon as it produces reliable and repeatable detonation waves. The detonation wave initiation in detonation tube in practical system is a combination of multistage combustion phenomena. Detonation combustion causes rapid burning of fuel-air mixture, which is a thousand times faster than deflagration mode of combustion process. PDE utilizes repetitive detonation wave to produce propulsion thrust. In the present paper, detailed review of various experimental studies and computational analysis addressing the detonation mode of combustion in pulse detonation engines are discussed. The effect of different parameters on the improvement of propulsion performance of pulse detonation engine has been presented in detail in this research paper. It is observed that the design of detonation wave flow path in detonation tube, ejectors at exit section of detonation tube, and operating parameters such as Mach numbers are mainly responsible for improving the propulsion performance of PDE. In the present review work, further scope of research in this area has also been suggested.

  15. Advancements in electrospinning of polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingavle, Ganesh C; Leach, J Kent

    2014-08-01

    Polymeric nanofibers have potential as tissue engineering scaffolds, as they mimic the nanoscale properties and structural characteristics of native extracellular matrix (ECM). Nanofibers composed of natural and synthetic polymers, biomimetic composites, ceramics, and metals have been fabricated by electrospinning for various tissue engineering applications. The inherent advantages of electrospinning nanofibers include the generation of substrata with high surface area-to-volume ratios, the capacity to precisely control material and mechanical properties, and a tendency for cellular in-growth due to interconnectivity within the pores. Furthermore, the electrospinning process affords the opportunity to engineer scaffolds with micro- to nanoscale topography similar to the natural ECM. This review describes the fundamental aspects of the electrospinning process when applied to spinnable natural and synthetic polymers; particularly, those parameters that influence fiber geometry, morphology, mesh porosity, and scaffold mechanical properties. We describe cellular responses to fiber morphology achieved by varying processing parameters and highlight successful applications of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds when used to tissue engineer bone, skin, and vascular grafts.

  16. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 2. Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, Volume 1, Executive Summary, as report (HPP-AN26-2); and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports (described in this record). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  17. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration - Heat Recovery Systems. Annex 26. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. (ed.) [Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Annex 26 has produced three deliverables: (1) Workshop (October 2000) proceedings Stockholm, Sweden, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-1); (2) Final report, described in this record; and (3) Final report, Volume 2, Country reports, on CD-ROM (HPP-AN26-3). Each of these reports, available from the HPC, provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration systems. Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating purposes seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because there are world-wide a great number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase substantially in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable conclusions as far as energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusions justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system cost analyses and proposals for cost reductions are given.

  18. Advanced electric heat pump dual-stroke compressor and system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S. E.; Fagan, T. J.

    1983-12-01

    The development of an advanced electric heat pump is discussed. A two-capacity, residential, advanced electric heat pump utilizing a unique dual-stroke compressor was developed. Two nearly identical preprototype split systems of nominally 3.5 tons maximum cooling capacity were designed, built and laboratory tested. The estimated annual energy efficiency of this advanced system is 20 percent better than a two-speed electric heat pump available at contract inception in 1979. This superior performance is due to the synergism of a high-efficiency, dual-stroke reciprocating compressor, a dual-strength high-efficiency single-speed single-phase hermetic drive motor, a single-width, single-entry high-efficiency indoor blower with backward curved cambered plate blades, a high-efficiency multivane axial flow outdoor fan, high-efficiency two-speed air mover motors and a microprocessor control system. The relative proportions of heat exchangers, air flows and compressor size as well as the ratio between high and low capacity were optimized so as to minimize the annual cost of ownership in a northern climate. Constraints placed upon the optimization and design process to ensure comfort provide heating air with a temperature of at least 90(0)F and provide cooling with a sensible-to-total capacity ratio of not more than 0.7. System performance was measured in the laboratory in accordance with applicable codes and procedures. Performance data plus hardware details are provided.

  19. Seal Technology Development for Advanced Component for Airbreathing Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Key aspects of the design of sealing systems for On Rotor Combustion/Wave Rotor (ORC/WR) systems were addressed. ORC/WR systems generally fit within a broad class of pressure gain Constant Volume Combustors (CVCs) or Pulse Detonation Combustors (PDCs) which are currently being considered for use in many classes of turbine engines for dramatic efficiency improvement. Technology readiness level of this ORC/WR approaches are presently at 2.0. The results of detailed modeling of an ORC/WR system as applied to a regional jet engine application were shown to capture a high degree of pressure gain capabilities. The results of engine cycle analysis indicated the level of specific fuel consumption (SFC) benefits to be 17 percent. The potential losses in pressure gain due to leakage were found to be closely coupled to the wave processes at the rotor endpoints of the ORC/WR system. Extensive investigation into the sealing approaches is reported. Sensitivity studies show that SFC gains of 10 percent remain available even when pressure gain levels are highly penalized. This indicates ORC/WR systems to have a high degree of tolerance to rotor leakage effects but also emphasizes their importance. An engine demonstration of an ORC/WR system is seen as key to progressing the TRL of this technology. An industrial engine was judged to be a highly advantageous platform for demonstration of a first generation ORC/WR system. Prior to such a demonstration, the existing NASA pressure exchanger wave rotor rig was identified as an opportunity to apply both expanded analytical modeling capabilities developed within this program and to identify and fix identified leakage issues existing within this rig. Extensive leakage analysis of the rig was performed and a detailed design of additional sealing strategies for this rig was generated.

  20. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalomba Mboyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the emitting material with the radioisotope decay heat and by powering the different valves of the plasma rocket engine with the same radioisotope decay heat using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This rocket engine is then benchmarked against a 1 N hydrazine thruster configuration operated on one of the Pleiades-HR-1 constellation spacecraft. A maximal specific impulse and power saving of respectively 529 s and 32% are achieved with helium as propellant. Its advantages are its power saving capability, high specific impulses and simultaneous ease of storage and restart. It can however be extremely voluminous and potentially hazardous. The Kabila rocket is found to bring great benefits to the existing spacecraft and further research should optimize its geometric characteristics and investigate the physical principals of its operation.

  1. Characteristics of the Limit Cycle of a Reciprocating Quantum Heat Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmann, T; Feldmann, Tova; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2004-01-01

    When a reciprocating heat engine is started it eventually settles to a stable mode of operation. The approach of a first principle quantum heat engine toward this stable limit cycle is studied. The engine is based on a working medium consisting of an ensemble of quantum systems composed of two coupled spins. A four stroke cycle of operation is studied, with two {\\em isochore} branches where heat is transferred from the hot/cold baths and two {\\em adiabats} where work is exchanged. The dynamics is generated by a completely positive map. It has been shown that the performance of this model resembles an engine with intrinsic friction. The quantum conditional entropy is employed to prove the monotonic approach to a limit cycle. Other convex measures, such as the quantum distance display the same monotonic approach. The equations of motion of the engine are solved for the different branches and are combined to a global propagator that relates the state of the engine in the beginning of the cycle to the state after...

  2. On the validity of representing hurricanes as Carnot heat engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Makarieva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It is argued, on the basis of detailed critique of published literature, that the existing thermodynamic theory of hurricanes, where it is assumed that the hurricane power is formed due to heat input from the ocean, is not physically consistent, as it comes in conflict with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. A quantitative perspective of describing hurricane energetics as that of an adiabatic atmospheric process occurring at the expense of condensation of water vapor that creates drop of local air pressure, is outlined.

  3. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-08-05

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

  4. Multidisciplinary teaching – Engineering course in advanced building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Karlshøj, Jan; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2011-01-01

    Collaboration within the building process is difficult. This calls for employees who are experienced in collaborating in interdisciplinary teams. To fulfil this demand a multidisciplinary course in “Advanced building design” has been developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The goal...

  5. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  6. Some Recent Advances on Ice Related Problems in Offshore Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段梦兰; 刘杰鸣; 樊晓东; 朱守铭; 赵秀菊

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with several hot topics in ice related problems. In recent years, advances have been made on ice breaking modes, dynamic ice loads on offshore structures, ice-induced structural vibrations, fatigue and fracture by ice-structure interaction, and design of jackets in the Bohai Gulf.

  7. The Center for Advanced Systems and Engineering (CASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    project of advanced reconfigurable memristor circuit, new models based on Verilog - A was developed for simulating memristor devices with industry-standard...EDA (Electronic Design Automation) tools. Comparing to the previous models which are written in Matlab and LTSpice, the new Verilog -A models work

  8. Adapting advanced engineering design approaches to building design. Potential benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhms, M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of industries continuously progress advancing their design approaches based on the changing market constraints. Examples such as car, ship and airplane manufacturing industries utilize process setups and techniques, that differ significantly from the processes and techniques used by the tra

  9. Elements of learning technologies designing of engineering networks heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorkina Irina G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational systems function as a medium fast analysis of shared information that defines them as analytical. The purpose of analytical information processing systems: working with distributed data on a global computer networks, mining and processing of semi structured information, knowledge. Existing mathematical and heuristic methods for the automated synthesis of electronic courses and their corresponding algorithms do not allow the full compliance of development realized in the form of adequate criteria for the totality of the properties distributed educational systems within acceptable time limits and characteristic. Therefore, the development of electronic educational applications must be accompanied by a variety of software support intelligent and adaptive functions. In addition, there is no theoretical justification for integrative aspects and their practical applications for intelligent and adaptive systems of designing distance learning courses. Currently, this type of problem may be considered as a potentially promising. The article presents the functionality of the e-learning course on the design engineering of thermal networks, process modeling in engineering networks with the solution of energy efficiency, detection of problem areas; identify the irrational layout of heaters and others.

  10. Heat Transfer Analysis of an Engine Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Evaporation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Deng, Yadong; Zhang, Hongguang; Yang, Kai

    2016-03-01

    Engine exhaust can be used by thermoelectric generators for improving thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. In his paper, the performance of a thermoelectric evaporation system is investigated. First, the thermal characteristics of diesel engines are obtained according to the experiment data. Then, mathematical models are created based on the specified conditions of the coolant cycle and the evaporator geometric parameters. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics and power performance of the thermoelectric evaporation system are estimated, and a comparison with the system in which the heat exchanger operates with all-liquid coolant is investigated. The results show that the overall heat transfer rate of the thermoelectric evaporator system increases with engine power. At the rated condition, the two-phase zone with an area of 0.8689 m2 dominates the evaporator's heat transfer area compared with the preheated zone area of 0.0055 m2, and for the thermoelectric module, the cold-side temperature is stable at 74°C while the hot-side temperature drops from 341.8°C to 304.9°C along the exhaust direction. For certain thermoelectric cells, the temperature difference between the cold side and hot side rises with the engine load, and the temperature difference drops from 266.9°C to 230.6°C along the exhaust direction. For two cold-side systems with the same heat transfer, coolant mass flow rate in the evaporator with two-phase state is much less, and the temperature difference along with equivalent heat transfer length L is significantly larger than in the all-liquid one. At rated power point, power generated by thermoelectric cells in the two-phase evaporation system is 508.4 W, while the other is only 328.8 W.

  11. Waste Heat Recovery from the Advanced Test Reactor Secondary Coolant Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) to recover heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) secondary coolant system (SCS). This heat would be used to preheat air for space heating of the reactor building, thus reducing energy consumption, carbon footprint, and energy costs. Currently, the waste heat from the reactor is rejected to the atmosphere via a four-cell, induced-draft cooling tower. Potential energy and cost savings are 929 kW and $285K/yr. The WHRS would extract a tertiary coolant stream from the SCS loop and pump it to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, from which the heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air supplied to the heating and ventilation system. The use of glycol was proposed to avoid the freezing issues that plagued and ultimately caused the failure of a WHRS installed at the ATR in the 1980s. This study assessed the potential installation of a new WHRS for technical, logistical, and economic feasibility.

  12. Review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer for agriculture produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhel, M.I. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Alghoul, M.A. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Over the past three decades there has been nearly exponential growth in drying R and D on a global scale. Improving of the drying operation to save energy, improve product quality as well as reduce environmental effect remained as the main objectives of any development of drying system. A solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is a new solar drying system, which have contributed to better cost-effectiveness and better quality dried products as well as saving energy. A solar collector is adapted to provide thermal energy in a reactor so a chemical reaction can take place. This reduces the dependency of the drying technology on fossil energy for heating. In this paper a review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is presented (the system model and the results from experimental studies on the system performance are discussed). The review of heat pump dryers and solar assisted heat pump dryer is presented. Description of chemical heat pump types and the overview of chemical heat pump dryer are discussed. The combination of chemical heat pump and solar technology gives extra efficiency in utilizing energy. (author)

  13. Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    CSIE2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Computer Science and Information Engineering . In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Computer Science and Information Engineering of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  14. Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    CSIE2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Computer Science and Information Engineering . In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Computer Science and Information Engineering of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  15. Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    intelligentes, la fluorescence induite par laser et les capteurs extensometriques pour les tres grands maillages. Ce symposium represente une...frequence d’emission et d’un Systeme de calagc et de pilotage en frequence dit Autoscan. En utilisant comme milieu actif le colorant Pyromethene 556...tool for research engineers. 1- INTRODUCTION Les capteurs ultrasonores sont largement utilises en contröle non destructif dans 1’industrie pour

  16. Recent advances in engineering microbial rhodopsins for optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, R Scott; Bedbrook, Claire N; Arnold, Frances H

    2015-08-01

    Protein engineering of microbial rhodopsins has been successful in generating variants with improved properties for applications in optogenetics. Members of this membrane protein family can act as both actuators and sensors of neuronal activity. Chimeragenesis, structure-guided mutagenesis, and directed evolution have proven effective strategies for tuning absorption wavelength, altering ion specificity and increasing fluorescence. These approaches facilitate the development of useful optogenetic tools and, in some cases, have yielded insights into rhodopsin structure-function relationships.

  17. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  18. Advances and Computational Tools towards Predictable Design in Biological Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pasotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated.

  19. Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, J.; West, B.; Toops, T.; Adelman, B. (Navistar, Inc.); Derybowski, E. (Navistar, Inc.)

    2011-09-30

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT, also known as NOx adsorber catalyst) regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  20. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.