WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced fracture characterization

  1. Advanced characterization of pores and fractures in coals by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates capabilities of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and microfocus X-ray computed tomography (μCT) in advanced, nondestructive, and quantitative characterization of pore types, producible porosity, pore structure, and spatial disposition of pore-fractures in coals. Results show that the NMR transverse relaxation time (T2) at 0.5–2.5, 20–50, and >100 ms correspond to pores of <0.1 μm, >0.1 μm, and fractures, respectively. A much higher T2 spectrum peak reflects a much better development of pores (or fractures) corresponding to the T2, and vice versa. Three basic components in coals, i.e., the pores (or fractures), coal matrix, and minerals have their distinctive range of CT numbers. Among these, the CT number of pores is commonly less than 600 HU. The producible porosity, which is a determination of permeability, can be calculated by T2 cutoff value (T2C) of coal NMR. The coal pore structure can be efficiently estimated by the newly proposed "T2C based model". Finally, μCT scan was proven capable of modeling and spatial visualization of pores and fractures.

  2. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  3. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration. Plotting and examination of these data show that contrary to most depictions, the Michigan Basin is in fact extensively faulted and fractured, particularly in the central portion of the basin. This is in contrast to most of the existing work on the Michigan Basin, which tends to show relatively simple structure with few or minor faults. It also appears that these fractures and faults control the Paleozoic sediment deposition, the subsequent hydrocarbon traps and very likely the regional dolomitization patterns. Recent work has revealed that a detailed fracture pattern exists in the interior of the Central Michigan Basin, which is related to the mid-continent gravity high. The inference is that early Precambrian, ({approx}1 Ga) rifting events presumed by many to account for the gravity anomaly subsequently controlled Paleozoic sedimentation and later hydrocarbon accumulation. There is a systematic relationship between the faults and a number of gas and oil reservoirs: major hydrocarbon accumulations consistently occur in small anticlines on the upthrown side of the faults. The main tools used in this study to map the fault/fracture patterns are detailed, close-interval (CI = 10 feet) contouring of the formation top picks accompanied by a new way of visualizing the data using a special color spectrum to bring out the third dimension. In addition, recent improvements in visualization and contouring software were instrumental in the study. Dolomitization is common in the

  4. Fracture Toughness Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Beltrán Z

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the fracture toughness ( , or also known as critical stress intensity Factor, according to conditions of Lineal Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM. The characterization of the mechanical properties in tensile and fracture toughness of structural steel pipes API-5L used in hydrocarbons transportation was performed. For fracture toughness, the material was tested through fatigue crack propagation on standardized compact specimen (CT according to ASTM E-399 norm. A thickness (B equal to and a crack size (a equal to 0.5w were used. With the porpoise of establishing the adequate conditions at the crack tip, the specimens were subjected to fatigue pre-cracking by application of repeated cycles of load in tensile-tensile and constant load amplitude with a load ratio of R = 0.1. The experimental Compliance method was used based on data obtained from load vs. Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD. The results show a Stress Intensity factor of 35.88 MPa√m for a 25 mm crack size specimen. The device used for testing is a MTS-810 machine with capacity of 100KN and 6 kHz sampling rate, which meets the conditions of the ASTM E-399 standard. The cracking susceptibility of steel is influenced by the size, morphology and distribution of non-metallic inclusions, thermochemical interaction with the environment and microstructure.

  5. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2000-04-01

    Progress in year 2 of this project is highlighted by the completing of the writing and testing of the project database, ''Atlas'', and populating it with all the project data gathered to date. This includes digitization of 17,000+ original Scout Tickets for the Michigan Basin. Work continues on the Driller's Reports, where they have scanned about 50,000 pages out of an estimated 300,000 pages. All of the scanned images have been attached to ''Atlas'', the visual database viewer developed for this project. A complete set of the 1/24,000 USGS DEM (Digital Elevation Models) for the State of Michigan has been downloaded from the USGS Web sites, decompressed and converted to ArcView Grid files. A large-scale map (48 inches x 84 inches) has been constructed by mosaicking of the high-resolution files. This map shows excellent ground surface detail and has drawn much comment and requests for copies at the venues where it has been displayed. Although it was generated for mapping of surface lineations the map has other uses, particularly analysis of the glacial drift in Michigan. It presents unusual problems due to its size and they are working with vendors on compression and display algorithms (e.g. MrSID{copyright}) in an attempt to make it available over the Internet, both for viewing and download. A set of aeromagnetic data for the Michigan Basin has been acquired and is being incorporated into the study. As reported previously, the general fracture picture in the Michigan Basin is a dominant NW-SE trend with a conjugate NE-SW trend. Subsurface, DEM and gravity data support the interpretation of a graben-type deep basement structural trend coincident with the Michigan Basin Gravity High. They plan to incorporate the aeromagnetic data into this interpretation as well.

  6. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of C02 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Sprayberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    1998-04-30

    The objective is to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding of the naturally fractured Straberry Trend Area in west Texas. Research is being conducted in the extensive characterization of the reservoirs, the experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, the analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and the experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores.

  7. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  8. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  9. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO2 gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the Spraberry CO{sub 2} pilot project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of continuous CO{sub 2} injection in the naturally fractured reservoirs of the Spraberry Trend. In order to describe, understand, and model CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry reservoirs, characterization of the fracture system is a must. Additional reservoir characterization was based on horizontal coring in the second year of the project. In addition to characterization of natural fractures, horizontal coring has confirmed a previously developed rock model for describing the Spraberry Trend shaly sands. A better method for identifying Spraberry pay zones has been verified. The authors have completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. The authors have completed extensive imbibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. The authors have also made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. They have completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix.

  10. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P. [Batelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  11. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.

  12. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); McEvilly, T.V. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Morrison, H.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  13. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as

  14. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.

    2003-01-08

    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  15. Fractal characterization of fracture surfaces in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saouma, V.E.; Barton, C.C.; Gamaleldin, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fractal geometry is used to characterize the roughness of cracked concrete surfaces through a specially built profilometer, and the fractal dimension is subsequently correlated to the fracture toughness and direction of crack propagation. Preliminary results indicate that the fracture surface is indeed fractal over two orders of magnitudes with a dimension of approximately 1.20. ?? 1990.

  16. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Tracy; Schechter, David S.

    2000-04-11

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO{sub 2}.

  17. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the second year of the five-year project for each of the four areas. In the first area, the author has completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. In the second area, the author has completed extensive inhibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. In the third area, the author has made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. In the fourth area, the author has completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix. The final three years of this project involves implementation of the CO{sub 2} pilot. Up to twelve new wells are planned in the pilot area; water injection wells to contain the CO{sub 2}, three production wells to monitor performance of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} injection wells including one horizontal injection well and logging observation wells to monitor CO{sub 2} flood fronts. Results of drilling

  18. Advances and disputes of posterior malleolus fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Su; ZOU Zhen-yu; MEI Gang; JIN Dan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to summarize the development of evaluation and treatment of posterior malleolus fracture (PMF).Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from English literature of PubMed data base.Study selection Articles were included in this review if they were related to the PMF or trimalleolar fracture.Results No consensus was found regarding what sizes of posterior malleolus fragments would lead to ankle instability thus affecting prognosis and should be fixed.Ⅹ-ray measurement is unreliable,while CT scan is widely recommended and it can recognize the occult posterior malleolus fractures associated with tibia shaft fractures,which are always undetected previously.Direct posterior malleolus fixation is suitable to stabilize syndesmotic injury.The basic and clinical researches support direct reduction and buttress plate fixation of posterior malleolus fracture through the posterolateral approach.Operative indications and timing of weight bearing are still in discussion.Conclusions Knowing whether ankle instability occurs and the proper methods to diagnose,evaluate,and operate can help manage the fracture.Further biomechanical research on ankle stability and clinical study to compare various treatment methods are required.

  19. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, B. (ed.)

    1999-02-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the International Symposium ''Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances'' held at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on February 10-12, 1999. This Symposium is organized in Honor of the 80th Birthday of Paul A. Witherspoon, who initiated some of the early investigations on flow and transport in fractured rocks at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a key figure in the development of basic concepts, modeling, and field measurements of fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock systems. The technical problems of assessing fluid flow, radionuclide transport, site characterization, modeling, and performance assessment in fractured rocks remain the most challenging aspects of subsurface flow and transport investigations. An understanding of these important aspects of hydrogeology is needed to assess disposal of nu clear wastes, development of geothermal resources, production of oil and gas resources, and remediation of contaminated sites. These Proceedings of more than 100 papers from 12 countries discuss recent scientific and practical developments and the status of our understanding of fluid flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rocks. The main topics of the papers are: Theoretical studies of fluid flow in fractured rocks; Multi-phase flow and reactive chemical transport in fractured rocks; Fracture/matrix interactions; Hydrogeological and transport testing; Fracture flow models; Vadose zone studies; Isotopic studies of flow in fractured systems; Fractures in geothermal systems; Remediation and colloid transport in fractured systems; and Nuclear waste disposal in fractured rocks.

  20. Sensors for hydraulic-induced fracturing characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Jose, Jr.; Estrada, Horacio; Ambrosio, Roberto C.

    2011-06-01

    Hydraulic induced fracturing (HIF) in oil wells is used to increase oil productivity by making the subterranean terrain more deep and permeable. In some cases HIF connects multiple oil pockets to the main well. Currently there is a need to understand and control with a high degree of precision the geometry, direction, and the physical properties of fractures. By knowing these characteristics (the specifications of fractures), other drill well locations and set-ups of wells can be designed to increase the probability of connection of the oil pockets to main well(s), thus, increasing productivity. The current state of the art of HIF characterization does not meet the requirements of the oil industry. In Mexico, the SENER-CONACyT funding program recently supported a three party collaborative effort between the Mexican Petroleum Institute, Schlumberger Dowell Mexico, and the Autonomous University of Juarez to develop a sensing scheme to measure physical parameters of a HIF like, but not limited to pressure, temperature, density and viscosity. We present in this paper a review of HIF process, its challenges and the progress of sensing development for down hole measurement parameters of wells for the Chicontepec region of Mexico.

  1. Characterization of borehole fractures by the body and interface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, F.

    2005-01-01

    The success of the fracturing process in the oil and gas industry depends on our ability to define the hydraulic fracture geometry. To have a method of measurement for characterizing completely the fracture dimensions from a single well in reliable way, will be a primordial importance, in term of ec

  2. Linking advanced fracture models to structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, Matteo

    2001-07-01

    Shell structures with defects occur in many situations. The defects are usually introduced during the welding process necessary for joining different parts of the structure. Higher utilization of structural materials leads to a need for accurate numerical tools for reliable prediction of structural response. The direct discretization of the cracked shell structure with solid finite elements in order to perform an integrity assessment of the structure in question leads to large size problems, and makes such analysis infeasible in structural application. In this study a link between local material models and structural analysis is outlined. An ''ad hoc'' element formulation is used in order to connect complex material models to the finite element framework used for structural analysis. An improved elasto-plastic line spring finite element formulation, used in order to take cracks into account, is linked to shell elements which are further linked to beam elements. In this way one obtain a global model of the shell structure that also accounts for local flexibilities and fractures due to defects. An important advantage with such an approach is a direct fracture mechanics assessment e.g. via computed J-integral or CTOD. A recent development in this approach is the notion of two-parameter fracture assessment. This means that the crack tip stress tri-axiality (constraint) is employed in determining the corresponding fracture toughness, giving a much more realistic capacity of cracked structures. The present thesis is organized in six research articles and an introductory chapter that reviews important background literature related to this work. Paper I and II address the performance of shell and line spring finite elements as a cost effective tool for performing the numerical calculation needed to perform a fracture assessment. In Paper II a failure assessment, based on the testing of a constraint-corrected fracture mechanics specimen under tension, is

  3. Methodologies used for the multiscale characterization of fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, K.E.S.; Gravesen, P.; Rosenbom, A. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Sanchez, F.; Molinelli, L. [CH2M-Hill Espana S.A., Parque Empresarial San Fernando Edificio Berlin, Madrid (Spain); Tsakiroglou, C.D. [Inst. of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes - Foundation for Research and Technology, Patras (Greece)

    2002-07-01

    The role of fractures as hydraulic highways for the spreading of pollutants in aquifers has been recognised during the last decade, and the need for the introduction of high quality fracture properties to hydraulic models has accordingly become more evident. The majority of fracture models need accurate input data concerning the orientation, the size distribution, the fracture density and the opening diameter (aperture) of fractures. In the present study a new integrated methodology is developed to characterise fractures and calculate properties that are used as input parameters in hydraulic models. The methodology is based on field-scale measurements of fractured outcrops, lab-scale treatment of fractured core samples, and SEM image analysis of 2-D sections of resin-impregnated single fractures. The most significant fracture characteristics are identified, classified and quantified at several different scales, so that information useful for the calculation of the hydraulic properties of fractured media is obtained. The methodology of characterization is demonstrated with its application to two contaminated fractured sites of very different geological settings. One is a fractured clayey till in Denmark and the other one is a fractured granite in Spain. (orig.)

  4. Advanced studies on Simulation Methodologies for very Complicated Fracture Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Toshihisa

    2010-06-01

    Although nowadays, computational techniques are well developed, for Extremely Complicated Fracture Phenomena, they are still very difficult to simulate, for general engineers, researchers. To overcome many difficulties in those simulations, we have developed not only Simulation Methodologies but also theoretical basis and concepts. We sometimes observe extremely complicated fracture patterns, especially in dynamic fracture phenomena such as dynamic crack branching, kinking, curving, etc. For examples, although the humankind, from primitive men to modern scientists such as Albert Einstein had watched the post-mortem patterns of dynamic crack branching, the governing condition for the onset of the phenomena had been unsolved until our experimental study. From in these studies, we found the governing condition of dynamic crack bifurcation, as follows. When the total energy flux per unit time into a propagating crack tip reaches the material crack resistance, the crack braches into two cracks [total energy flux criterion]. The crack branches many times whenever the criterion is satisfied. Furthermore, the complexities also arise due to their time-dependence and/or their-deformation dependence. In order to make it possible to simulate such extremely complicated fracture phenomena, we developed many original advanced computational methods and technologies. These are (i)moving finite element method based on Delaunay automatic triangulation (MFEMBOAT), path independent,(ii) equivalent domain integral expression of the dynamic J integral associated with a continuous auxiliary function,(iii) Mixed phase path-prediction mode simulation, (iv) implicit path prediction criterion. In this paper, these advanced computational methods are thoroughly explained together with successful comparison with the experimental results. Since multiple dynamic crack branching phenomena may be most complicated fracture due to complicated fracture paths, and its time dependence (transient), this

  5. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queen, John H. [Hi-Geophysical, Inc., Ponca, OK (United States)

    2016-05-09

    effective seismic tools for getting information on the internal structure of faults and fractures in support of fluid flow pathway management and EGS treatment. Scattered events similar to those expected from faults and fractures are seen in the VSP reported here. Unfortunately, the source offset and well depth coverage do not allow for detailed analysis of these events. This limited coverage also precluded the use of advanced migration and imaging algorithms. More extensive acquisition is needed to support fault and fracture characterization in the geothermal reservoir at Brady's Hot Springs. The VSP was effective in generating interval velocity estimates over the depths covered by the array. Upgoing reflection events are also visible in the VSP results at locations corresponding to reflection events in the surface seismic. Overall, the high temperature rated fiber optic sensors used in the VSP produced useful results. Modeling has been found useful in the interpretation of both surface reflection seismic and VSP data. It has helped identify possible near surface scattering in the surface seismic data. It has highlighted potential scattering events from deeper faults in the VSP data. Inclusion of more detailed fault and fracture specific stiffness parameters are needed to fully interpret fault and fracture scattered events for flow properties (Pyrak-Nolte and Morris, 2000, Zhu and Snieder, 2002). Shear wave methods were applied in both the surface seismic reflection and VSP work. They were not found to be effective in the Brady's Hot Springs area. This was due to the extreme attenuation of shear waves in the near surface at Brady's. This does not imply that they will be ineffective in general. In geothermal areas where good shear waves can be recorded, modeling suggests they should be very useful for characterizing faults and fractures.

  6. FTIR characterization of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the characterization of advanced materials. FTIR sampling techniques including internal and external reflectance and photoacoustic spectroscopy are discussed. Representative examples from the literature of the analysis of resins, fibers, prepregs and composites are reviewed. A discussion of several promising specialized FTIR techniques is also presented.

  7. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Harris, Joel [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-05-08

    The aim of this proposal is to develop, through novel high-temperature-tracing approaches, three technologies for characterizing fracture creation within Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The objective of a first task is to identify, develop and demonstrate adsorbing tracers for characterizing interwell reservoir-rock surface areas and fracture spacing. The objective of a second task is to develop and demonstrate a methodology for measuring fracture surface areas adjacent to single wells. The objective of a third task is to design, fabricate and test an instrument that makes use of tracers for measuring fluid flow between newly created fractures and wellbores. In one method of deployment, it will be used to identify qualitatively which fractures were activated during a hydraulic stimulation experiment. In a second method of deployment, it will serve to measure quantitatively the rate of fluid flowing from one or more activated fracture during a production test following a hydraulic stimulation.

  8. Characterization of a hydraulically induced bedrock fracture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a controversial practice because of concerns about environmental impacts due to its widespread use in recovering unconventional petroleum and natural gas deposits. However, water-only hydraulic fracturing has been used safely and successfully for many years to increase the permeability of aquifers used for drinking and irrigation water supply. This process extends and widens existing bedrock fractures, allowing groundwater storage to increase. Researchers have studied ...

  9. Characterization of reservoir fractures using conventional geophysical logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitoon Laongsakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In hydrocarbon exploration fractures play an important role as possible pathways for the hydrocarbon flow and bythis enhancing the overall formation’s permeability. Advanced logging methods for fracture analysis, like the boreholeacoustic televiewer and Formation Microscanner (FMS are available, but these are additional and expensive tools. However,open and with water or hydrocarbon filled fractures are also sensitive to electrical and other conventional logging methods.For this study conventional logging data (electric, seismic, etc were available plus additional fracture information from FMS.Taking into account the borehole environment the results show that the micro-spherically focused log indicates fractures byshowing low resistivity spikes opposite open fractures, and high resistivity spikes opposite sealed ones. Compressional andshear wave velocities are reduced when passing trough the fracture zone, which are assumed to be more or less perpendicularto borehole axis. The photoelectric absorption curve exhibit a very sharp peak in front of a fracture filled with bariteloaded mud cake. The density log shows low density spikes that are not seen by the neutron log, usually where fractures,large vugs, or caverns exist. Borehole breakouts can cause a similar effect on the logging response than fractures, but fracturesare often present when this occurs. The fracture index calculation by using threshold and input weight was calculatedand there was in general a good agreement with the fracture data from FMS especially in fracture zones, which mainlycontribute to the hydraulic system of the reservoir. Finally, the overall results from this study using one well are promising,however further research in the combination of different tools for fracture identification is recommended as well as the useof core for further validation.

  10. Characterizing Fracture Spatial Patterns by Using Semivariograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Semivariogram is applied to fracture data obtained from detailed scanline surveys of nine field sites in western New York, USA in order to investigate the spatial patterns of natural fractures. The length of the scanline is up to 36 m. How both fracture spacing and fracture length vary with distance is determined through semivariogram calculations. In this study, the authors developed a FORTRAN program to resample the fracture data from the scanline survey. By calculating experimental semivariogram, the authors found five different types of spatial patterns that can be described by linear, spherical, reversed spherical, polynomial I (for a0) models, of which the last three are newly proposed in this study. The well-structured semivariograms of fracture spacing and length indicate that both the location of the fractures and the length distribution within their structure domains are not random. The results of this study also suggest that semivariograms can provide useful information in terms of spatial correlation distance for fracture location and fracture length. These semivariograms can also be utilized to design more efficient sampling schemes for further surveys, as well as to define the limits of highly probable extrapolation of a structure domain.

  11. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2002-04-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful redevelopment and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  12. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  13. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2006-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  14. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2005-08-01

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  15. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Steve; Ershaghi, Iraj

    2006-06-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to over 10,000,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intended to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. In the first phase of the project, state of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic, interference tests and production logs were employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database were used in the construction of a new geologic model of the fracture network. An innovative fracture network reservoir simulator was developed to better understand and manage the aquifer’s role in pressure maintenance and water production. In the second phase of this project, simulation models were used to plan the redevelopment of the field using high angle wells. Correct placement of the wells is critical to intersect the best-developed fracture zones and to avoid producing large volumes of water from the water leg. Particula r attention was paid to those areas of the field that have not been adequately developed with the existing producers. In cooperation with the DOE and the PTTC, the new data and the new fracture simulation model were shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the methodologies developed in this project. This report presents a summary of all technical work conducted during Budget Periods I

  16. Characterization of fracture loci in metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Tekkaya, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Fracture in metal forming can occur in three different modes: (i) tensile; (ii) in-plane shear; and (iii) out-of-plane shear (respectively the same as modes I, II and III of fracture mechanics). The circumstances under which each mode will occur are identified in terms of plastic flow and microst...

  17. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  18. Characterization of fracture toughness of epoxy resin after hygrothermal aging

    KAUST Repository

    Quispe, Gustavo Q.

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of fracture toughness of epoxy resin after hygrothermal ageing Gustavo Quino Quispe The aim of this work is to characterize the e ects of hygrothermal aging in the plain strain fracture toughness of the epoxy system composed by cycloaliphatic epoxy resin and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA). For this, after having been under hygrothermal aging in a climatic chamber, epoxy samples were studied using ASTM D5045 fracture toughness test, and micrography and roughness measurements of the fracture surface. It is reported a rapid decrease of GIc and KIc during the rst 2 days. Moreover, a numerical model [13] was used to simulate and see with more detail the water absorption in the aged samples. From that, it was observed the heterogeneous distribution of water. Accordingly, it was proposed that the results should be correlated with the water content at the vicinity of the crack tip. Consequently, it was possible to obtain, by quasi-static simulations, the ideal load-displacement curves of crack propagation in the heterogeneous samples. Finally, another contribution of this work is the study of the fracture surface, that gives a clue of the relationship among the fracture energy, the appearance of microcracks in the fracture surface, and the roughness (Ra).

  19. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  20. High Resolution Geophysical Characterization of Fractures within a Granitic Pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Estaún, A.; Carbonell, R.

    2007-12-01

    The FEBEX underground gallery was excavated in the Aar Granite (Switzerland), a heterogeneous granite containing from very leucocratic facies to granodiorites. The geology of the gallery shows the existence of various sets of fractures with different attributes: geometry, kinematics, fracture infilling, etc. The study of the structural data, new observations on the FEBEX gallery itself and borehole televiewer data acquired in the newly drilled boreholes, have allowed to identify four sets of fractures. The first group of fractures has a typical distribution and characteristics of en echelon tension fractures and were formed in late magmatic stages, according with the paragenesis of the minerals that filled the craks. The main strike is around 300 (280-300). These fractures are deformed and displaced by the other group of faults. The second group corresponds to the lamprophyre dikes, of mantelic origin, with an orientation oblique to the tunnel, and slightly oblique to the first group of fractures (strike, 310-330). They were formed during an extension event well evidenced by their irregular margins and flame structures into the granite. The margins of these dikes show several reactivations as strike slip faults. Geophysical data has been acquired to characterized the fracture network of the surrounding volume within the FEBEX gallery. The geophysic data include new borehole logging such as Natural Gamma and Borehole Ground Penetrating radar. The processing and integration of these different data sets indicates that the GPR record can provide images of a third set of fractures, which are probably fluid filled. This set of fractures a subparallel to the tunnel axis and appear to intersect older boreholes which are nearly perpendicular to the axis of the FEBEX gallery.

  1. Characterization of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arko, A.J.; Heffner, R.H.; Hundley, M.F. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our goal has been to extend the Laboratory`s competency in nuclear and advanced materials by characterizing (measuring and interpreting) physical properties of advanced electronic materials and in this process to bridge the gap between materials synthesis and theoretical understanding. Attention has focused on discovering new physics by understanding the ground states of materials in which electronic correlations dominate their properties. Among several accomplishments, we have discovered and interpreted pressure-induced superconductivity in CeRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, boron content in UBe{sub 13-x}B{sub x} and the origin of small gaps in the spin and charge excitation spectra of Ce{sub 3}Bi{sub 4}Pt{sub 3}, and we provided seminal understanding of large magnetoresistive effects in La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}. This work has established new research directions at LANL and elsewhere, involved numerous collaborators from throughout the world and attracted several postdoctoral fellows.

  2. Characterization of EGS Fracture Network Lifecycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillian R. Foulger

    2008-03-31

    Geothermal energy is relatively clean, and is an important non-hydrocarbon source of energy. It can potentially reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reduction in carbon emissions. High-temperature geothermal areas can be used for electricity generation if they contain permeable reservoirs of hot water or steam that can be extracted. The biggest challenge to achieving the full potential of the nation’s resources of this kind is maintaining and creating the fracture networks required for the circulation, heating, and extraction of hot fluids. The fundamental objective of the present research was to understand how fracture networks are created in hydraulic borehole injection experiments, and how they subsequently evolve. When high-pressure fluids are injected into boreholes in geothermal areas, they flow into hot rock at depth inducing thermal cracking and activating critically stressed pre-existing faults. This causes earthquake activity which, if monitored, can provide information on the locations of the cracks formed, their time-development and the type of cracking underway, e.g., whether shear movement on faults occurred or whether cracks opened up. Ultimately it may be possible to monitor the critical earthquake parameters in near-real-time so the information can be used to guide the hydraulic injection while it is in progress, e.g., how to adjust factors such as injectate pressure, volume and temperature. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to mature analysis techniques and software that were, at the start of this project, in an embryonic developmental state. Task 1 of the present project was to develop state-of-the-art techniques and software for calculating highly accurate earthquake locations, earthquake source mechanisms (moment tensors) and temporal changes in reservoir structure. Task 2 was to apply the new techniques to hydrofracturing (Enhanced Geothermal Systems, or “EGS”) experiments performed at the Coso geothermal field

  3. Syn- and postkinematic cement textures in fractured carbonate rocks: Insights from advanced cathodoluminescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2016-10-01

    In calcite and dolomite deposits in fractures, transmitted light and optical cathodoluminescence methods detect crack-seal texture in some fractures, but scanning electron microscope-based cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) combined with secondary-electron images and element maps, reveals crack-seal and cement growth textures where previous SEM-CL imaging methods found massive or featureless deposits. In a range of fractured carbonate rocks, patterns and textures of calcite and dolomite cements precipitated during and after fracture growth resemble complex accumulation patterns found in quartz in sandstone fractures, suggesting that some apparent differences between carbonate mineral and quartz deposits in fractures reflect the limits of previous imaging methods. Advances in delineating textures in widespread carbonate mineral deposits in fractures provide evidence for growth and occlusion of fracture porosity.

  4. Characterization of EGS Fracture Network Lifecycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillian R. Foulger

    2008-03-31

    Geothermal energy is relatively clean, and is an important non-hydrocarbon source of energy. It can potentially reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reduction in carbon emissions. High-temperature geothermal areas can be used for electricity generation if they contain permeable reservoirs of hot water or steam that can be extracted. The biggest challenge to achieving the full potential of the nation’s resources of this kind is maintaining and creating the fracture networks required for the circulation, heating, and extraction of hot fluids. The fundamental objective of the present research was to understand how fracture networks are created in hydraulic borehole injection experiments, and how they subsequently evolve. When high-pressure fluids are injected into boreholes in geothermal areas, they flow into hot rock at depth inducing thermal cracking and activating critically stressed pre-existing faults. This causes earthquake activity which, if monitored, can provide information on the locations of the cracks formed, their time-development and the type of cracking underway, e.g., whether shear movement on faults occurred or whether cracks opened up. Ultimately it may be possible to monitor the critical earthquake parameters in near-real-time so the information can be used to guide the hydraulic injection while it is in progress, e.g., how to adjust factors such as injectate pressure, volume and temperature. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to mature analysis techniques and software that were, at the start of this project, in an embryonic developmental state. Task 1 of the present project was to develop state-of-the-art techniques and software for calculating highly accurate earthquake locations, earthquake source mechanisms (moment tensors) and temporal changes in reservoir structure. Task 2 was to apply the new techniques to hydrofracturing (Enhanced Geothermal Systems, or “EGS”) experiments performed at the Coso geothermal field

  5. Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

  6. Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Warpinski; Steve Wolhart; Larry Griffin; Eric Davis

    2007-01-31

    The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Disorder and Fracture

    CERN Document Server

    Roux, S; Guyon, E

    1990-01-01

    Fracture, and particularly brittle fracture, is a good example of an instability. For a homogeneous solid, subjected to a uniform stress field, a crack may appear anywhere in the structure once the threshold stress is reached. However, once a crack has been nucleated in some place, further damage in the solid will in most cases propagate from the initial crack, and not somewhere else in the solid. In this sense fracture is an unstable process. This property makes the process extremely sensitive to any heterogeneity present in the medium, which selects the location of the first crack nucleated. In particular, fracture appears to be very sensitive to disorder, which can favor or impede local cracks. Therefore, in most realistic cases, a good description of fracture mechanics should include the effect of disorder. Recently this need has motivated work in this direction starting from the usual description of fracture mechanics. Parallel with this first trend, statistical physics underwent a very important develop...

  8. Rib Fracture Protocol Advancing the Care of the Elderly Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Susan

    This article discusses unique factors associated with rib fractures in the elderly patient population and explains the process used in one facility to develop a revised protocol for the management of elderly patients with a rib fracture. The goals were to eliminate gaps in early trauma care management and employ a care routine that would improve outcomes for this vulnerable group of patients with fracture.

  9. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  10. Research advances in fracturing mechanism of amorphous materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The fracture behavior of brittle materials is a timehonored problem. Archeologists discover that prehistoric people created their primitive tools using this behavior. During the Stone Age, for example, they made simple wooden butchery implements by taking advantage of a sharp edge caused by the brittle fracture on flint. According to archeologists, the application of brittle fracture to the tool-making was one of monumental inventions to mark the very beginning of human civilization.Afterwards, ancient potters succeeded in decorating their works by having the surface of pottery inlaid with cracks and fissures.

  11. Formability Prediction of Advanced High Strength Steel with a New Ductile Fracture Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanshan; Lim, Sungjun; Huh, Jeehyang; Huh, Hoon

    2011-08-01

    A ductile fracture criterion is newly proposed to accurately predict forming limit diagrams (FLD) of sheet metals. The new ductile fracture criterion is based on the effect of the non-dimensional stress triaxiality, the stress concentration factor and the effective plastic strain on the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. The new ductile fracture criterion has been applied to estimate the formability of four kind advanced high strength steels (AHSS): DP780, DP980, TRIP590, and TWIP980. FLDs predicted are compared with experimental results and those predicted by other ductile fracture criteria. The comparison demonstrates that FLDs predicted by the new ductile fracture criterion are in better agreement with experimental FLDs than those predicted by other ductile fracture criteria. The better agreement of FLDs predicted by the new ductile fracture criterion is because conventional ductile fracture criteria were proposed for fracture prediction in bulk metal forming while the new one is proposed to predict the onset of fracture in sheet metal forming processes.

  12. Characterization of preferential flow paths between boreholes in fractured rock using a nanoscale zero-valent iron tracer test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Yu; Chia, Yeeping; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Teng, Mao-Hua; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lee, Tsai-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in borehole geophysical techniques have improved characterization of cross-hole fracture flow. The direct detection of preferential flow paths in fractured rock, however, remains to be resolved. In this study, a novel approach using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI or `nano-iron') as a tracer was developed for detecting fracture flow paths directly. Generally, only a few rock fractures are permeable while most are much less permeable. A heat-pulse flowmeter can be used to detect changes in flow velocity for delineating permeable fracture zones in the borehole and providing the design basis for the tracer test. When nano-iron particles are released in an injection well, they can migrate through the connecting permeable fracture and be attracted to a magnet array when arriving in an observation well. Such an attraction of incoming iron nanoparticles by the magnet can provide quantitative information for locating the position of the tracer inlet. A series of field experiments were conducted in two wells in fractured rock at a hydrogeological research station in Taiwan, to test the cross-hole migration of the nano-iron tracer through permeable connected fractures. The fluid conductivity recorded in the observation well confirmed the arrival of the injected nano-iron slurry. All of the iron nanoparticles attracted to the magnet array in the observation well were found at the depth of a permeable fracture zone delineated by the flowmeter. This study has demonstrated that integrating the nano-iron tracer test with flowmeter measurement has the potential to characterize preferential flow paths in fractured rock.

  13. Analog site for fractured rock characterization. Annual report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.C.S.; Loughty, C.; Faybishenko, B. [and others

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the accomplishments of the Analog Site for Fracture Rock Characterization Project during fiscal year 1995. This project is designed to address the problem of characterizing contaminated fractured rock. In order to locate contaminant plumes, develop monitoring schemes, and predict future fate and transport, the project will address the following questions: What parts of the system control flow-geometry of a fracture network? What physical processes control flow and transport? What are the limits on measurements to determine the above? What instrumentation should be used? How should it be designed and implemented? How can field tests be designed to provide information for predicting behavior? What numerical models are good predictors of the behavior of the system? The answers to these question can be used to help plan drilling programs that are likely to intersect plumes and provide effective monitoring of plume movement. The work is done at an {open_quotes}analogue{close_quotes} site, i.e., a site that is not contaminated, but has similar geology to sites that are contaminated, in order to develop tools and techniques without the financial, time and legal burdens of a contaminated site. The idea is to develop conceptual models and investigations tools and methodology that will apply to the contaminated sites in the same geologic regimes. The Box Canyon site, chosen for most of this work represents a unique opportunity because the Canyon walls allow us to see a vertical plane through the rock. The work represents a collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), Stanford University (Stanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Parsons Environmental Engineering (Parsons). LBL and Stanford bring extensive experience in research in fractured rock systems. INEL and Parsons bring significant experience with the contamination problem at INEL.

  14. Characterization of fracture processes by continuum and discrete modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliske, M.; Dal, H.; Fleischhauer, R.; Jenkel, C.; Netzker, C.

    2012-09-01

    A large number of methods to describe fracture mechanical features of structures on basis of computational algorithms have been developed in the past due to the importance of the topic. In this paper, current and promising numerical approaches for the characterization of fracture processes are presented. A fracture phenomenon can either be depicted by a continuum formulation or a discrete notch. Thus, starting point of the description is a micromechanically motivated formulation for the development of a local failure situation. A current, generalized method without any restriction to material modelling and loading situation in order to describe an existing crack in a structure is available through the material force approach. One possible strategy to simulate arbitrary crack growth is based on an adaptive implementation of cohesive elements in combination with the standard discretization of the body. In this case, crack growth criteria and the determination of the crack propagation direction in combination with the modification of the finite element mesh are required. The nonlinear structural behaviour of a fibre reinforced composite material is based on the heterogeneous microstructure. A two-scale simulation is therefore an appropriate and effective way to take into account the scale differences of macroscopic structures with microscopic elements. In addition, fracture mechanical structural properties are far from being sharp and deterministic. Moreover, a wide range of uncertainties influence the ultimate load bearing behaviour. Therefore, it is evident that the deterministic modelling has to be expanded by a characterization of the uncertainty in order to achieve a reliable and realistic simulation result. The employed methods are illustrated by numerical examples.

  15. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  16. Advanced methods for bioreactor characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbert, A

    1992-08-01

    Bioreactors are characterized by the transport capacities they provide to optimally supply the microorganisms during production process. The transport is performed by flows induced in their cultivation media. In order to understand the extremely complex mixing, mass and heat transfer phenomena encountered, and to perceive their influences on bioreactor performance, sophisticated measuring techniques are required. This review compiles the developments currently in progress to surmount today's shortage of reliable measuring techniques. Measuring techniques are distinguished which can be used on different scales and their application spectra are illustrated by recently obtained results. Several new measuring techniques, which can be employed to resolve the flow structures, are discussed in detail. Only those techniques are considered which can be used to advantage during real cultivations in industrial-scale reactors.

  17. Impacts of transient heat transfer modeling on prediction of advanced cladding fracture during LWR LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youho, E-mail: euo@kaist.ac.kr; Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr; NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Use of constant heat transfer coefficient for fracture analysis is not sound. • On-time heat transfer coefficient should be used for thermal fracture prediction. • ∼90% of the actual fracture stresses were predicted with the on-time transient h. • Thermal-hydraulic codes can be used to better predict brittle cladding fracture. • Effects of surface oxides on thermal shock fracture should be accounted by h. - Abstract: This study presents the importance of coherency in modeling thermal-hydraulics and mechanical behavior of a solid for an advanced prediction of cladding thermal shock fracture. In water quenching, a solid experiences dynamic heat transfer rate evolutions with phase changes of the fluid over a short quenching period. Yet, such a dynamic change of heat transfer rates has been overlooked in the analysis of thermal shock fracture. In this study, we are presenting quantitative evidence against the prevailing use of a constant heat transfer coefficient for thermal shock fracture analysis in water. We conclude that no single constant heat transfer could suffice to depict the actual stress evolution subject to dynamic fluid phase changes. Use of the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will remarkably increase predictability of thermal shock fracture of brittle materials. The presented results show a remarkable stress prediction improvement up to 80–90% of the actual stress with the use of the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient. For thermal shock fracture analysis of brittle fuel cladding such as oxidized zirconium-based alloy or silicon carbide during LWR reflood, transient subchannel heat transfer coefficients obtained from a thermal-hydraulics code should be used as input for stress analysis. Such efforts will lead to a fundamental improvement in thermal shock fracture predictability over the current experimental empiricism for cladding fracture analysis during reflood.

  18. A new device for characterizing fracture networks and measuring groundwater and contaminant fluxes in fractured rock aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk; Newman, Mark A.; Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.; Perminova, Irina

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the fundamental theory and laboratory test results on a new device that is deployed in boreholes in fractured rock aquifers to characterize vertical distributions of water and contaminant fluxes, aquifer hydraulic properties, and fracture network properties (e.g., active fracture density and orientation). The device, a fractured rock passive flux meter (FRPFM), consists of an inflatable core assembled with upper and lower packers that isolate the zone of interest from vertical gradients within the borehole. The outer layer of the core consists of an elastic fabric mesh equilibrated with a visible dye which is used to provide visual indications of active fractures and measures of fracture location, orientation, groundwater flux, and the direction of that flux. Beneath the outer layer is a permeable sorbent that is preloaded with known amounts of water soluble tracers which are eluted at rates proportional to groundwater flow. This sorbent also captures target contaminants present in intercepted groundwater. The mass of contaminant sorbed is used to quantify cumulative contaminant flux; whereas, the mass fractions of resident tracers lost are used to provide measures of water flux. In this paper, the FRPFM is bench tested over a range of fracture velocities (2-20 m/day) using a single fracture flow apparatus (fracture aperture = 0.5 mm). Test results show a discoloration in visible dye corresponding to the location of the active fracture. The geometry of the discoloration can be used to discern fracture orientation as well as direction and magnitude of flow in the fracture. Average contaminant fluxes were measured within 16% and water fluxes within 25% of known imposed fluxes.

  19. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, L. [FRx Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Siegrist, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vesper, S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months.

  20. Mixed mode fracture toughness characterization of sandwich interfaces using the modified TSD specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Andreasen, J.H.; Carlsson, L.A.;

    2009-01-01

    An extensive parametric analysis shows that the modified Tilted Sandwich Debond (TSD) specimen provides a methodology for characterization of the face/core fracture resistance over a range of mode-mixities. A pilot experimental mixed mode characterization of the fracture toughness of sandwich spe...

  1. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  2. Predicting Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 using Phase Properties Characterized by In-Situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2010-05-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is a typical representative of 1st generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to its multiphase microstructure. In this paper, we study the crack propagation behavior and fracture resistance of a TRIP 800 steel using a microstructure-based finite element method with the various phase properties characterized by in-situ high energy Xray diffraction (HEXRD) technique. Uniaxial tensile tests on the notched TRIP 800 sheet specimens were also conducted, and the experimentally measured tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were used to calibrate the modeling parameters and to validate the overall modeling results. The comparison between the simulated and experimentally measured results suggests that the micromechanics based modeling procedure can well capture the overall complex crack propagation behaviors and the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. The methodology adopted here may be used to estimate the fracture resistance of various multiphase materials.

  3. Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Characterization of a Graphite Epoxy Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Johnston, William M.; Toland, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and delamination onset and growth characterization data were generated for IM7/8552 graphite epoxy composite materials from two suppliers for use in fracture mechanics analyses. Both the fracture toughness testing and the fatigue testing were conducted using the End-notched Flexure (ENF) test. The ENF test for mode II fracture toughness is currently under review by ASTM as a potential standard test method. This current draft ASTM protocol was used as a guide to conduct the tests on the IM7/8552 material. This report summarizes the test approach, methods, procedures and results of this characterization effort.

  4. The plane strain shear fracture of the advanced high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li

    2013-12-01

    The "shear fracture" which occurs at the high-curvature die radii in the sheet metal forming has been reported to remarkably limit the application of the advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automobile industry. However, this unusual fracture behavior generally cannot be predicted by the traditional forming limit diagram (FLD). In this research, a new experimental system was developed in order to simulate the shear fracture, especially at the plane strain state which is the most common state in the auto-industry and difficult to achieve in the lab due to sample size. Furthermore, the system has the capability to operate in a strain rate range from quasi-static state to the industrial forming state. One kinds of AHSS, Quenching-Partitioning (QP) steels have been performed in this test and the results show that the limiting fracture strain is related to the bending ratio and strain rate. The experimental data support that deformation-induced heating is an important cause of "shear fracture" phenomena for AHSS: a deformation-induced quasi-heating caused by smaller bending ratio and high strain rate produce a smaller limiting plane strain and lead a "shear fracture" in the component.

  5. Investigation of the Kinetic Energy Characterization of Advanced Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    ARL-TR-7263 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Investigation of the Kinetic Energy Characterization of Advanced Ceramics ...Kinetic Energy Characterization of Advanced Ceramics by Tyrone L Jones Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Kinetic Energy Characterization of Advanced Ceramics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tyrone L

  6. Fracture and Plasticity Characterization of DH-36 Navy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    composite material. The performance limit to this material during an impact is ductile fracture. The prediction follows that the onset of fracture...first step in creating an accurate model of the composite material. The performance limit to this material during an impact is ductile fracture. The...is widely used as a surface coating in many applications to include water treatment inflow/outflow piping, oil pipelines, concrete structures, bridges

  7. MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2000-10-01

    This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

  8. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

  9. Analysis of microseismicity using fuzzy logic and fractals for fracture network characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, F.; Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Maity, D.; Boyle, K.; Sahimi, M.; Sammis, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    The area where microseismic events occur may be correlated with the fracture network at a geothermal field. For an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir, an extensive fracture network with a large aerial distribution is required. Pore-pressure increase, temperature changes, volume change due to fluid withdrawal/injection and chemical alteration of fracture surfaces are all mechanisms that may explain microseismic events at a geothermal field. If these mechanisms are operative, any fuzzy cluster of the microseismic events should represent a connected fracture network. Drilling new EGS wells (both injection and production wells) in these locations may facilitate the creation of an EGS reservoir. In this article we use the fuzzy clustering technique to find the location and characteristics of fracture networks in the Geysers geothermal field. We also show that the centers of these fuzzy clusters move in time, which may represent fracture propagation or fluid movement within the fracture network. Furthermore, analyzing the distribution of fuzzy hypocenters and quantifying their fractal structure helps us to develop an accurate fracture map for the reservoir. Combining the fuzzy clustering results with the fractal analysis allows us to better understand the mechanisms for fracture stimulation and better characterize the evolution of the fracture network. We also show how micro-earthquake date collected in different time periods can be correlated with drastic changes in the distribution of active fractures resulting from injection, production or other transient events.

  10. Characterizing and Modelling Preferential Flow Path in Fractured Rock Aquifer: A Case Study at Shuangliou Fractured Rock Hydrogeology Research Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Meng; Ke, Chien-Chung; Lo, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Yen-Tsu; Huang, Chi-Chao

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of a relatively sparse data set, fractured aquifers are difficult to be characterized and modelled. The three-dimensional configuration of transmissive fractures and fracture zones is needed to be understood flow heterogeneity in the aquifer. Innovative technologies for the improved interpretation are necessary to facilitate the development of accurate predictive models of ground-water flow and solute transport or to precisely estimate groundwater potential. To this end, this paper presents a procedure for characterizing and modelling preferential flow path in the fractured rock aquifer carried out at Fractured Rock Hydrogeology Research Site in Shuangliou Forest Recreation Area, Pingtung County, Southern Taiwan. The Shuangliou well field is a 40 by 30-meter area consisting of 6 wells (one geological well, one pumping well and four hydrogeological testing wells). The bedrock at the site is mainly composed of slate and intercalated by meta-sandstone. The overburden consists of about 5.6 m of gravel deposits. Based on results of 100 m geological borehole with borehole televiewer logging, vertical flow logging and full-wave sonic logging, high transmissivity zones in the bedrock underlying the well field were identified. One of transmissivity zone (at the depths of 30~32 m) and its fracture orientation(N56/54) selected for devising a multiple well system with 4 boreholes (borehole depths :45m, 35m, 35m and 25m, respectively), which were utilized to perform cross-borehole flow velocity data under the ambient flow and pumped flow conditions to identify preferential flow paths. Results from the cross-borehole test show the preferential flow pathways are corresponding to the predicted ones. Subsequently, a 3-D discrete fracture network model based on outcrop data was generated by the FracMan code. A validation between observed and simulated data has proved that the present model can accurately predict the hydrogeological properties (e.g., number of fractures

  11. Fractal model and Lattice Boltzmann Method for Characterization of Non-Darcy Flow in Rough Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yang; Zhang, Qingang; Zheng, Jiangtao; Chang, Chun; Xie, Heping

    2017-02-01

    The irregular morphology of single rock fracture significantly influences subsurface fluid flow and gives rise to a complex and unsteady flow state that typically cannot be appropriately described using simple laws. Yet the fluid flow in rough fractures of underground rock is poorly understood. Here we present a numerical method and experimental measurements to probe the effect of fracture roughness on the properties of fluid flow in fractured rock. We develop a series of fracture models with various degrees of roughness characterized by fractal dimensions that are based on the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot fractal function. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), a discrete numerical algorithm, is employed for characterizing the complex unsteady non-Darcy flow through the single rough fractures and validated by experimental observations under the same conditions. Comparison indicates that the LBM effectively characterizes the unsteady non-Darcy flow in single rough fractures. Our LBM model predicts experimental measurements of unsteady fluid flow through single rough fractures with great satisfactory, but significant deviation is obtained from the conventional cubic law, showing the superiority of LBM models of single rough fractures.

  12. 3D Seismic Flexure Analysis for Subsurface Fault Detection and Fracture Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Haibin; Gao, Dengliang

    2017-03-01

    Seismic flexure is a new geometric attribute with the potential of delineating subtle faults and fractures from three-dimensional (3D) seismic surveys, especially those overlooked by the popular discontinuity and curvature attributes. Although the concept of flexure and its related algorithms have been published in the literature, the attribute has not been sufficiently applied to subsurface fault detection and fracture characterization. This paper provides a comprehensive study of the flexure attribute, including its definition, computation, as well as geologic implications for evaluating the fundamental fracture properties that are essential to fracture characterization and network modeling in the subsurface, through applications to the fractured reservoir at Teapot Dome, Wyoming (USA). Specifically, flexure measures the third-order variation of the geometry of a seismic reflector and is dependent on the measuring direction in 3D space; among all possible directions, flexure is considered most useful when extracted perpendicular to the orientation of dominant deformation; and flexure offers new insights into qualitative/quantitative fracture characterization, with its magnitude indicating the intensity of faulting and fracturing, its azimuth defining the orientation of most-likely fracture trends, and its sign differentiating the sense of displacement of faults and fractures.

  13. Fracture toughness of advanced alumina ceramics and alumina matrix composites used for cutting tool edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szutkowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Specific characteristics in fracture toughness measurements of advanced alumina ceramics and alumina matrix composites with particular reference to α-Al2O3, Al2O3-ZrO2, Al2O3-ZrO2-TiC and Al2O3-Ti(C,N has been presented.Design/methodology/approach: The present study reports fracture toughness obtained by means of the conventional method and direct measurements of the Vickers crack length (DCM method of selected tool ceramics based on alumina: pure alumina, alumina-zirconia composite with unstabilized and stabilized zirconia, alumina–zirconia composite with addition of TiC and alumina–nitride-carbide titanium composite with 2wt% of zirconia. Specimens were prepared from submicro-scale trade powders. Vicker’s hardness (HV1, fracture toughness (KIC at room temperature, the indentation fracture toughness, Young’s modulus and apparent density were also evaluated. The microstructure was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Findings: The lowest value of KIC is revealed by pure alumina ceramics. The addition of (10 wt% unstabilized zirconia to alumina or a small amount (5 wt% of TiC to alumina–zirconia composite improve fracture toughness of these ceramics in comparison to alumina ceramics. Alumina ceramics and alumina-zirconia ceramics reveal the pronounced character of R-curve because of an increasing dependence on crack growth resistance with crack extension as opposed to the titanium carbide-nitride reinforced composite based on alumina. R-curve has not been observed for this composite.Practical implications: The results show the method of fracture toughness improvement of alumina tool ceramics.Originality/value: Taking into account the values of fracture toughness a rational use of existing ceramic tools should be expected.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  15. Fracture behavior of advanced ceramic hot gas filters: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of mechanical/microstructural evaluation, thermal shock/fatigue testing, and stress analyses of advanced hot-gas filters obtained from different manufacturers. These filters were fabricated from both monolithic ceramics and composites. The composite filters, made of both oxide and nonoxide materials, were in both as-fabricated and exposed conditions, whereas the monolithic filters were made only of nonoxide materials. Mechanical property measurement of composite filters included diametral compression testing with O-ring specimens and burst-testing of short filter segments with rubber plugs. In-situ strength of fibers in the composite filters was evaluated by microscopic technique. Thermal shock/fatigue resistance was estimated by measuring the strengths of filter specimens before and after thermal cycling from an air environment at elevated temperatures to a room temperature oil bath. Filter performance during mechanical and thermal shock/fatigue loadings was correlated with microstructural observations. Micromechanical models were developed to derive properties of composite filter constituents on the basis of measured mechanical properties of the filters. Subsequently, these properties were used to analytically predict the performance of composite filters during thermal shock loading.

  16. Acoustic emission characterization of fracture toughness for fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Hui, E-mail: phdhuimei@yahoo.com [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710072 (China); Sun, Yuyao; Zhang, Lidong; Wang, Hongqin; Cheng, Laifei [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2013-01-10

    The fracture toughness of a carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite was investigated relating to classical critical stress intensity factor K{sub IC}, work of fracture, and acoustic emission energy. The K{sub IC} was obtained by the single edge notch beam method and the work of fracture was calculated using the featured area under the load-displacement curves. The K{sub IC}, work of fracture, and acoustic emission energy were compared for the composites before and after heat treatment and then analyzed associated with toughening microstructures of fiber pullout. It indicates that the work of fracture and acoustic emission energy can be more suitable to reflect the toughness rather than the traditional K{sub IC}, which has certain limitation for the fracture toughness characterization of the crack tolerant fiber ceramic composites.

  17. Tensile Fracture Location Characterizations of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Different Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijie LIU; Hidetoshi FUJII; Masakatsu MAEDA; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2004-01-01

    The tensile fracture location characterizations of the friction stir welded joints of the AA1050-H24 and AA6061-T6Al alloys were evaluated in this study. The experimental results show that the fracture locations of the joints are different for the different Al alloys, and they are affected by the FSW parameters. When the joints are free of welding defects, the AA1050-H24 joints are fractured in the HAZ and TMAZ on the AS and the fracture parts undergo a large amount of plastic deformation, while the AA6061-T6 joints are fractured in the HAZ on the RS and the fracture surfaces are inclined a certain degree to the bottom surfaces of the joints. When some welding defects exist in the joints, the AA1050-H24 joints are fractured on the RS or AS, the AA6061-T6 joints are fractured on the RS, and all the fracture locations are near to the weld center. The fracture locations of the joints are dependent on the internal structures of the joints and can be explained by the microhardness profiles and defect morphologies of the joints.

  18. Improved fracture behavior and microstructural characterization of thin tungsten foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladica Nikolic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused towards the development of the technique for investigating the fracture behaviour of 100µm thick rolled tungsten foils, with a purity of 99.97%. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD scans reveal that the grains are elongated along the rolling direction of the foil, which has a very strong {100} texture. The test specimens were fabricated by electrical discharge machining (EDM and cracks were initiated by consecutively using a diamond wire saw, a razor blade and a focused ion beam (FIB workstation. Fracture experiments were performed at temperatures from −196°C to 800°C. The investigation of fracture appearance shows an improved behavior and significantly higher values of conditional fracture toughness Kq compared to bulk W-materials, which can be related to a higher degree of deformation during the production process. A high toughness at room temperature (RT and 200°C, slowly decreases when approaching the highest testing temperature of 800°C. The most significant result reveals that the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT is around RT, which is an extraordinary result for any tungsten material. The fracture surfaces, investigated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, show a transition from cleavage fracture at liquid nitrogen temperature, through pronounced delamination within the foil plane at ambient temperatures to ductile fracture at the highest testing temperatures.

  19. Characterization of hydraulic fractures and reservoir properties of shale using natural tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Gardner, P.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Malama, B.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing plays a major role in the economic production of hydrocarbon from shale. Current fracture characterization techniques are limited in diagnosing the transport properties of the fractures on the near wellbore scale to that of the entire stimulated reservoir volume. Microseismic reveals information on fracture geometries, but not transport properties. Production analysis (e.g., rate transient analysis using produced fluids) estimates fracture and reservoir flow characteristics, but often relies on simplified models in terms of fracture geometries and fluid storage and transport. We present the approach and potential benefits of incorporating natural tracers with production data analysis for fracture and reservoir characterization. Hydraulic fracturing releases omnipresent natural tracers that accumulate in low permeability rocks over geologic time (e.g., radiogenic 4He and 40Ar). Key reservoir characteristics govern the tracer release, which include: the number, connectivity, and geometry of fractures; the distribution of fracture-surface-area to matrix-block-volume; and the nature of hydrocarbon phases within the reservoir (e.g., methane dissolved in groundwater or present as a separate gas phase). We explore natural tracer systematics using numerical techniques under relevant shale-reservoir conditions. We evaluate the impact on natural tracer transport due to a variety of conceptual models of reservoir-transport properties and boundary conditions. Favorable attributes for analysis of natural tracers include the following: tracer concentrations start with a well-defined initial condition (i.e., equilibrium between matrix and any natural fractures); there is a large suite of tracers that cover a range of at least 7x in diffusion coefficients; and diffusive mass-transfer out of the matrix into hydraulic fractures will cause elemental and isotopic fractionation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by

  20. Characterization of Metacarpal Fractures in a Military Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichiera, Robert; Dunn, John; Bader, Julia; Bulken-Hoover, Jamie; Pallis, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and type of metacarpal (MC) fractures in a military population, and whether these fractures are related to age, military occupational specialty, aggression, or accidental injury. A retrospective record-based review was conducted at a single military center over a 5-year period. Service members with index finger through small finger MC fracture were identified. Data were collected utilizing Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application and electronic profile (e-profile) databases. Data collected included demographic information, mechanism of injury, nature of injury, total number of visits, and estimated time on physical restriction. 400 patients met inclusion criteria. Males accounted for 94% of the study population, 75% of fractures were of the small finger MC, 54% of patients were between 20 and 24 years, 90% were sustained by junior enlisted personnel, and most occurred by punching. Men aged readiness.

  1. Advancement in polymer therapeutics and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Pratik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The beauty of the discipline, polymers in drug delivery, is its longevity and self-transforming quality. Polymers have, for decades, performed a valuable function as excipients in tablet and capsule formulations, moving steadily into the parenteral arena as blood circulation time enhancers, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions (such as drug targeting to medicine. Polymers have unique cooperative properties that are not found with low-molecular weight compounds and therein lies the root of their success. Polymers are used as carriers for the delivery of drugs, proteins, targeting moieties, and imaging agents. Several polymers, polyethylene glycol, N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide, and polylactide-co-glycolidecopolymers have been successfully utilized in clinical research. Recently, interest in polymer conjugation with biologically active components has increased remarkably as such conjugates are preferably accumulated in solid tumors and can reduce systemic toxicity. Further, it is essential to elucidate the structure-activity relationshipof a drug when it is conjugated with a polymer using different conjugation sites as this can vary the efficacy and mechanism of action when compared with its free form. This review will discuss the current advancement in drug targeting with polymers, smart polymers and recombinant polymers for drug delivery. Finally, it will also highlight on various methods of polymer characterization, including various techniques for polymer molecular weight measurement.

  2. Application of artificial intelligence to characterize naturally fractured zones in Hassi Messaoud Oil Field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouahed, Abdelkader Kouider; Mazouzi, Amine [Sonatrach, Rue Djenane Malik, Hydra, Algiers (Algeria); Tiab, Djebbar [Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, 100 East Boyd Street, SEC T310, Norman, OK, 73019 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    In highly heterogeneous reservoirs classical characterization methods often fail to detect the location and orientation of the fractures. Recent applications of Artificial Intelligence to the area of reservoir characterization have made this challenge a possible practice. Such a practice consists of seeking the complex relationship between the fracture index and some geological and geomechanical drivers (facies, porosity, permeability, bed thickness, proximity to faults, slopes and curvatures of the structure) in order to obtain a fracture intensity map using Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network. This paper shows the successful application of Artificial Intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. A 2D fracture intensity map and fracture network map in a large block of Hassi Messaoud field have been developed using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic. This was achieved by first building the geological model of the permeability, porosity and shale volume using stochastic conditional simulation. Then by applying some geomechanical concepts first and second structure directional derivatives, distance to the nearest fault, and bed thickness were calculated throughout the entire area of interest. Two methods were then used to select the appropriate fracture intensity index. In the first method well performance was used as a fracture index. In the second method a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was built. Using this FIS, static and dynamic data were coupled to reduce the uncertainty, which resulted in a more reliable Fracture Index. The different geological and geomechanical drivers were ranked with the corresponding fracture index for both methods using a Fuzzy Ranking algorithm. Only important and measurable data were selected to be mapped with the appropriate fracture index using a feed forward Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). The neural network was then used to obtain a fracture intensity

  3. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. These are characterized by specific impulse, overall efficiency, input power, average thrust, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. Several important physical characteristics such as dry system mass, accelerator length, bore size and current pulse requirement are also evaluated in appropriate cases. Only the ion engine can operate at a specific impulse beyond 2000 sec. Rail gun, MPD thruster and free radical thruster are currently characterized by low efficiencies. Mass drivers have the best performance characteristics in terms of overall efficiency, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. But, they can only operate at low specific impulses due to large power requirements and are extremely long due to limitations of driving current. Mercury ion engines have the next best performance characteristics while operating at higher specific impulses. It is concluded that, overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  4. Multi-Attribute Seismic/Rock Physics Approach to Characterizing Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-30

    Most current seismic methods to seismically characterize fractures in tight reservoirs depend on a few anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. While seismic anisotropy can be a powerful fracture diagnostic, a number of situations can lessen its usefulness or introduce interpretation ambiguities. Fortunately, laboratory and theoretical work in rock physics indicates that a much broader spectrum of fracture seismic signatures can occur, including a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities, a change in Poisson's ratio, an increase in velocity dispersion and wave attenuation, as well as well as indirect images of structural features that can control fracture occurrence. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a practical interpretation and integration strategy for detecting and characterizing natural fractures in rocks. The approach was to exploit as many sources of information as possible, and to use the principles of rock physics as the link among seismic, geologic, and log data. Since no single seismic attribute is a reliable fracture indicator in all situations, the focus was to develop a quantitative scheme for integrating the diverse sources of information. The integrated study incorporated three key elements: The first element was establishing prior constraints on fracture occurrence, based on laboratory data, previous field observations, and geologic patterns of fracturing. The geologic aspects include analysis of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic environments of the field sites. Field observations and geomechanical analysis indicates that fractures tend to occur in the more brittle facies, for example, in tight sands and carbonates. In contrast, strain in shale is more likely to be accommodated by ductile flow. Hence, prior knowledge of bed thickness and facies architecture, calibrated to outcrops, are powerful constraints on the interpreted fracture distribution. Another important constraint is that

  5. INCIDENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ELDERLY IN THE ORTHOPEDIC CLINIC FOR FEMUR FRACTURE, CACERES MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Costa Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The elderly population is growing gradually in recent years, it increases theincidence of elderly people at risk of falls and hip fractures develop.Objective:To identifythe incidence and characterize elderly patients hospitalized with hip fractures in theOrthopedic Clinic of the Hospital Regional Dr º Antonio Cáceres sources.Methodology:Thisis an epidemiological, descriptive, quantitative and retrospective data collection documentbasis. The study population comprised 105.Results:It was found that the fracture of thefemur showed predominance in females, comprising 40.90% of the cases and the right lowerlimb most affected. As for location, the trochanteric fractures showed 39.04%, followed byfractures of the femoral shaftwith 27.61% of the cases. The treatment applied in 62.85% ofpatients went to surgery.Conclusion:It is concluded that the femur fracture may preclude theelderly in their daily activities.

  6. Multi-Attribute Seismic/Rock Physics Approach to Characterizing Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-30

    Most current seismic methods to seismically characterize fractures in tight reservoirs depend on a few anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. While seismic anisotropy can be a powerful fracture diagnostic, a number of situations can lessen its usefulness or introduce interpretation ambiguities. Fortunately, laboratory and theoretical work in rock physics indicates that a much broader spectrum of fracture seismic signatures can occur, including a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities, a change in Poisson's ratio, an increase in velocity dispersion and wave attenuation, as well as well as indirect images of structural features that can control fracture occurrence. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a practical interpretation and integration strategy for detecting and characterizing natural fractures in rocks. The approach was to exploit as many sources of information as possible, and to use the principles of rock physics as the link among seismic, geologic, and log data. Since no single seismic attribute is a reliable fracture indicator in all situations, the focus was to develop a quantitative scheme for integrating the diverse sources of information. The integrated study incorporated three key elements: The first element was establishing prior constraints on fracture occurrence, based on laboratory data, previous field observations, and geologic patterns of fracturing. The geologic aspects include analysis of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic environments of the field sites. Field observations and geomechanical analysis indicates that fractures tend to occur in the more brittle facies, for example, in tight sands and carbonates. In contrast, strain in shale is more likely to be accommodated by ductile flow. Hence, prior knowledge of bed thickness and facies architecture, calibrated to outcrops, are powerful constraints on the interpreted fracture distribution. Another important constraint is that

  7. Semi-analytical model of cross-borehole flow experiments for fractured medium characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.; Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a wide variety of research fields where the fractures and faults can represent either rapid access to some resource of interest or potential pathways for the migration of contaminants in the subsurface. Identification of their presence and determination of their properties are critical and challenging tasks that have led to numerous fracture characterization methods. Among these methods, cross-borehole flowmeter analysis aims to evaluate fracture connections and hydraulic properties from vertical-flow-velocity measurements conducted in one or more observation boreholes under forced hydraulic conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that analysis of these data can provide important information on fracture connectivity, transmissivity, and storativity. Estimating these properties requires the development of analytical and/or numerical modeling tools that are well adapted to the complexity of the problem. Quantitative analysis of cross-borehole flowmeter experiments, in particular, requires modeling formulations that: (i) can be adapted to a variety of fracture and experimental configurations; (ii) can take into account interactions between the boreholes because their radii of influence may overlap; and (iii) can be readily cast into an inversion framework that allows for not only the estimation of fracture hydraulic properties, but also an assessment of estimation error. To this end, we present a new semi-analytical formulation for cross-borehole flow in fractured media that links transient vertical-flow velocities measured in one or a series of observation wells during hydraulic forcing to the transmissivity and storativity of the fractures intersected by these wells. Our model addresses the above needs and provides a flexible and computationally efficient semi-analytical framework having strong potential for future adaptation to more complex configurations. The proposed modeling approach is demonstrated

  8. Characterization of Acoustic Emission Source to Identify Fracture in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Hardy, "An Approach to Acoustic Emission Signal Analysis," Materials Evaluation, 35, 1977 , pp. 100-106. [5] Hsu, N.N. and F.R. Breckenridge...Measurements," Journal of Applied Mechanics, 53, 1986, pp. 61-68. [17] Mindess , S., "The Fracture Process Zone in Concrete," Toughening Mechanisms in

  9. Characterization of Hydraulic Fracture with Inflated Dislocation Moving Within a Semi-infinite Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Zhi-hua; ELSWORTH Derek; LI Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is accompanied by a change in pore fluid pressure. As a result, this may be conveniently represented as inflated dislocation moving within a semi-infinite medium. Theory is developed to describe the pore pressures that build up around an inflated volumetric dislocation migrating within a saturated porous-elastic semi-infinite medium as analog to hydraulic fracturing emplacement. The solution is capable of evaluating the system behavior of both constant fluid pressure and zero flux surface conditions through application of a superposition. Characterization of horizontal moving dislocation processes is conducted as an application of these techniques. Where the mechanical and hydraulic parameters are defined, a priori, type curve matching of responses may be used to evaluate emplacement location uniquely. Pore pressure response elicited at a dilation, subject to pressure control is of interest in representing hydraulic fracturing where leak-off is an important component. The effect of hydraulic fracturing on fracture fluid pressure is evaluated in a poroelastic hydraulic fracture model utilizing dislocation theory. A minimum set of dimensionless parameters are defined that describe the system. Pore fluid pressures recorded during hydraulic fracturing of a well in the San Joaquin Valley of Central California is examined using the proposed model. The estimated geometry of the hydraulic fracture is matched with reasonable fidelity with the measured data.

  10. Advanced electron microscopy characterization of multimetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Subarna Raj

    Research in noble metal nanoparticles has led to exciting progress in a versatile array of applications. For the purpose of better tailoring of nanoparticles activities and understanding the correlation between their structures and properties, control over the composition, shape, size and architecture of bimetallic and multimetallic nanomaterials plays an important role on revealing their new or enhanced functions for potentials application. Advance electron microscopy techniques were used to provide atomic scale insights into the structure-properties of different materials: PtPd, Au-Au3Cu, Cu-Pt, AgPd/Pt and AuCu/Pt nanoparticles. The objective of this work is to understand the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials and describe synthesis, characterization, surface properties and growth mechanism of various bimetallic and multimetallic nanoparticles. The findings have provided us with novel and significant insights into the physical and chemical properties of noble metal nanoparticles. Different synthesis routes allowed us to synthesize bimetallic: Pt-Pd, Au-Au3Cu, Cu-Pt and trimetallic: AgPd/Pt, AuCu/Pt, core-shell and alloyed nanoparticles with monodispersed sizes, controlled shapes and tunable surface properties. For example, we have synthesized the polyhedral PtPd core-shell nanoparticles with octahedral, decahedral, and triangular plates. Decahedral PtPd core-shell structures are novel morphologies for this system. For the first time we fabricated that the Au core and Au3Cu alloyed shell nanoparticles passivated with CuS2 surface layers and characterized by Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the high-resolution micrographs reveals that these nanoparticles have decahedral structure with shell periodicity, and that each of the particles is composed by Au core and Au3Cu ordered superlattice alloyed shell surrounded by CuS 2 surface layer. Additionally, we have described both experimental and theoretical methods of

  11. The detection and characterization of natural fractures using P-wave reflection data, multicomponent VSP, borehole image logs and the in-situ stress field determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, P. [Coleman Research Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to detect and characterize fractures in a naturally fractured tight gas reservoir, using surface seismic methods, borehole imaging logs, and in-situ stress field data. Further, the project aims to evaluate the various seismic methods as to their effectiveness in characterizing the fractures, and to formulate the optimum employment of the seismic methods as regards fracture characterization.

  12. Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Reeves

    2005-01-31

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

  13. PREFACE: International Symposium on Dynamic Deformation and Fracture of Advanced Materials (D2FAM 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2013-07-01

    Intensification of manufacturing processes and expansion of usability envelopes of modern components and structures in many cases result in dynamic loading regimes that cannot be resented adequately employing quasi-static formulations of respective problems of solid mechanics. Specific features of dynamic deformation, damage and fracture processes are linked to various factors, most important among them being: a transient character of load application; complex scenarios of propagation, attenuation and reflection of stress waves in real materials, components and structures; strain-rate sensitivity of materials properties; various thermo-mechanical regimes. All these factors make both experimental characterisation and theoretical (analytical and numerical) analysis of dynamic deformation and fracture rather challenging; for instance, besides dealing with a spatial realisation of these processes, their evolution with time should be also accounted for. To meet these challenges, an International Symposium on Dynamic Deformation and Fracture of Advanced Materials D2FAM 2013 was held on 9-11 September 2013 in Loughborough, UK. Its aim was to bring together specialists in mechanics of materials, applied mathematics, physics, continuum mechanics, materials science as well as various areas of engineering to discuss advances in experimental and theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations of dynamic mechanical phenomena. Some 50 papers presented at the Symposium by researchers from 12 countries covered various topics including: high-strain-rate loading and deformation; dynamic fracture; impact and blast loading; high-speed penetration; impact fatigue; damping properties of advanced materials; thermomechanics of dynamic loading; stress waves in micro-structured materials; simulation of failure mechanisms and damage accumulation; processes in materials under dynamic loading; a response of components and structures to harsh environment. The materials discussed at D2FAM 2013

  14. The plane strain shear fracture of the advanced high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li, E-mail: li.sun@gm.com [General Motors China Science Lab, No.56 Jinwan Road, Shanghai, 201206 (China)

    2013-12-16

    The “shear fracture” which occurs at the high-curvature die radii in the sheet metal forming has been reported to remarkably limit the application of the advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automobile industry. However, this unusual fracture behavior generally cannot be predicted by the traditional forming limit diagram (FLD). In this research, a new experimental system was developed in order to simulate the shear fracture, especially at the plane strain state which is the most common state in the auto-industry and difficult to achieve in the lab due to sample size. Furthermore, the system has the capability to operate in a strain rate range from quasi-static state to the industrial forming state. One kinds of AHSS, Quenching-Partitioning (QP) steels have been performed in this test and the results show that the limiting fracture strain is related to the bending ratio and strain rate. The experimental data support that deformation-induced heating is an important cause of “shear fracture” phenomena for AHSS: a deformation-induced quasi-heating caused by smaller bending ratio and high strain rate produce a smaller limiting plane strain and lead a “shear fracture” in the component.

  15. A New Method to Calculate Threshold Values of Ductile Fracture Criteria for Advanced High-Strength Sheet Blanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changsheng; Chen, Jun; Xia, Cedric; Ren, Feng; Chen, Jieshi

    2014-04-01

    A new approach is presented in this paper to calculate the critical threshold value of fracture initiation. It is based on the experimental data for forming limit curves and fracture forming limit curves. The deformation path for finally a fractured material point is assumed as two-stage proportional loading: biaxial loading from the beginning to the onset of incipient necking, followed plane strain deformation within the incipient neck until the final fracture. The fracture threshold value is determined by analytical integration and validated by numerical simulation. Four phenomenological models for ductile fracture are selected in this study, i.e., Brozzo, McClintock, Rice-Tracey, and Oyane models. The threshold value for each model is obtained through best-fitting of experimental data. The results are compared with each other and test data. These fracture criteria are implemented in ABAQUS/EXPLICIT through user subroutine VUMAT to simulate the blanking process of advanced high-strength steels. The simulated fracture surfaces are examined to determine the initiation of ductile fracture during the process, and compared with experimental results for DP780 sheet steel blanking. The comparisons between FE simulated results coupled with different fracture models and experimental one show good agreements on punching edge quality. The study demonstrates that the proposed approach to calculate threshold values of fracture models is efficient and reliable. The results also suggest that the McClintock and Oyane fracture models are more accurate than the Rice-Tracey or Brozzo models in predicting load-stroke curves. However, the predicted blanking edge quality does not have appreciable differences.

  16. Improved fracture behavior and microstructural characterization of thin tungsten foils

    OpenAIRE

    Vladica Nikolic; Stefan Wurster; Daniel Firneis; Reinhard Pippan

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused towards the development of the technique for investigating the fracture behaviour of 100µm thick rolled tungsten foils, with a purity of 99.97%. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) scans reveal that the grains are elongated along the rolling direction of the foil, which has a very strong {100} texture. The test specimens were fabricated by electrical discharge machining (EDM) and cracks were initiated by consecutively using a diamond wire saw, a razor blade and a foc...

  17. Quantitative characterization of the fracture surface of Si single crystals by confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Y.B.; Hsia, K.J.; Lange, D.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Experiments are conducted to study the dislocation nucleation conditions at the crack tip in {l_brace}110{r_brace}<110> oriented Si single crystals. Specimens with surface cracks are first statically loaded at elevated temperatures for a prolonged period of time to initiate and move dislocations away from the crack tip, then cooled down to room temperature and loaded to fracture to measure the fracture toughness. Fractographic analysis of the fracture surfaces is performed. Distinct wavy patterns on the fracture surface at the initial cleavage crack front are observed, which is attributed to the existence of local mixed mode 1/mode 3 stresses resulting from the inhomogeneous dislocation activity. Confocal microscopy is employed to quantify the fracture surface roughness. The results show that the increase of fracture toughness is directly associated with the increased area of the rough surface, which is characterized by the roughness number or the fractal dimension increment. The results also demonstrate that dislocation nucleation can occur only at discrete sites. The spacing between these dislocation nucleation sources is of the order of 1 {micro}m. A simple model is developed for the relationship between the fracture toughness and the surface roughness parameters, which is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Tibial crest fracture correction after tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA using a modified TTA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Carmagnani Prada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrective osteotomies are challenging techniques that require specialized training and acquisition of specific materials. Nevertheless, they have been increasingly studied and used in clinical routine in the world. Several variations on the model and the application technique have been developed and refined in search of the improvement of surgical techniques and development of implants more affordable to purchase. The tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA consists on stabilization of tibial plateau perpendicular to the patellar tendon through the tibial tuberosity advancement. Our goal is to report a surgical complication of fracture of the tibial crest after TTA procedure. A dog with a confirmed diagnosis of rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCLR was operated using conventional technique of TTA. After 3 days of surgery, the same animal had a fracture of the proximal tibial crest. The animal was sent back to surgery and was used a variation of TTA technique, with autologous iliac wing and three cortical screws. This variation of the technique was able to replace the original technique successfully.

  19. Growth And Characterization Studies Of Advanced Infrared Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0126 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0126 GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF ADVANCED INFRARED HETEROSTRUCTURES Sanjay Krishna...To) 15 Feb 2013 – 09 May 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Growth And Characterization Studies Of Advanced Infrared Heterostructures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...DISCUSSION After growth , the epitaxial wafers were characterized by x-ray diffraction to monitor crystal quality and layer thicknesses. The

  20. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)]|[Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Deyhim, P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Lab. for Computational Geodynamics

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  1. Impact of Geological Characterization Uncertainties on Subsurface Flow & Transport Using a Stochastic Discrete Fracture Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Fractures and fracture networks are the principal pathways for transport of water and contaminants in groundwater systems, enhanced geothermal system fluids, migration of oil and gas, carbon dioxide leakage from carbon sequestration sites, and of radioactive and toxic industrial wastes from underground storage repositories. A major issue to overcome when characterizing a fractured reservoir is that of data limitation due to accessibility and affordability. Moreover, the ability to map discontinuities in the rock with available geological and geophysical tools tends to decrease particularly as the scale of the discontinuity goes down. Geological characterization data include measurements of fracture density, orientation, extent, and aperture, and are based on analysis of outcrops, borehole optical and acoustic televiewer logs, aerial photographs, and core samples, among other techniques. All of these measurements are taken at the field scale through a very sparse limited number of deep boreholes. These types of data are often reduced to probability distribution functions for predictive modeling and simulation in a stochastic framework such as a stochastic discrete fracture network. Stochastic discrete fracture network models enable, through Monte Carlo realizations and simulations, probabilistic assessment of flow and transport phenomena that are not adequately captured using continuum models. Despite the fundamental uncertainties inherited within the probabilistic reduction of the sparse data collected, very little work has been conducted on quantifying uncertainty on the reduced probabilistic distribution functions. In the current study, using nested Monte Carlo simulations, we present the impact of parameter uncertainties of the distribution functions of fracture density, orientation, aperture and size on the flow and transport using topological measures such as fracture connectivity, physical characteristics such as effective hydraulic conductivity tensors, and

  2. Fractal characterization of fracture networks: An improved box-counting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ankur; Perfect, Edmund; Dunne, William M.; McKay, Larry D.

    2007-12-01

    Box counting is widely used for characterizing fracture networks as fractals and estimating their fractal dimensions (D). If this analysis yields a power law distribution given by N ∝ r-D, where N is the number of boxes containing one or more fractures and r is the box size, then the network is considered to be fractal. However, researchers are divided in their opinion about which is the best box-counting algorithm to use, or whether fracture networks are indeed fractals. A synthetic fractal fracture network with a known D value was used to develop a new algorithm for the box-counting method that returns improved estimates of D. The method is based on identifying the lower limit of fractal behavior (rcutoff) using the condition ds/dr → 0, where s is the standard deviation from a linear regression equation fitted to log(N) versus log(r) with data for r sequentially excluded. A set of 7 nested fracture maps from the Hornelen Basin, Norway was used to test the improved method and demonstrate its accuracy for natural patterns. We also reanalyzed a suite of 17 fracture trace maps that had previously been evaluated for their fractal nature. The improved estimates of D for these maps ranged from 1.56 ± 0.02 to 1.79 ± 0.02, and were much greater than the original estimates. These higher D values imply a greater degree of fracture connectivity and thus increased propensity for fracture flow and the transport of miscible or immiscible chemicals.

  3. Techniques for Source Zone and Plume Characterization of Tetrachloroethene in Fractured Limestone Aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Mosthaf, Klaus; Janniche, Gry S.;

    Characterization of chlorinated solvents in fractured limestone aquifers is essential for proper development of site specific conceptual models and subsequent risk assessment and remediation. High resolution characterization is challenged by the difficulties involved in collection of intact core...... samples as water flushing during drilling often results in extensive core losses, especially from zones with soft limestone in contact with flint beds. Field investigations with alternative characterization techniques have been carried out at two Danish sites with tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated...... fractured limestone aquifers. The two sites represent different scales (source and plume) and contaminant levels (DNAPL and dissolved). The scope of the investigations was to evaluate different techniques for characterization of the contaminant distribution in the limestone aquifers and to obtain...

  4. Electrical characterization of advanced gate dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degraeve, R.; Schmitz, J.; Pantisano, L.; Simoen, E.; Houssa, M.; Kaczer, B.; Groeseneken, G.; Baklanov, M.; Green, M.; Maex, K.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of thin films is an area of increasing importance in materials science, electrical engineering and applied solid state physics; with both research and industrial applications in microelectronics, computer manufacturing, and physical devices. Advanced, high-performance computers, high-defin

  5. Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotte, F.P.; Doughty, C.; Birkholzer, J.

    2010-11-01

    The ability to reliably predict flow and transport in fractured porous rock is an essential condition for performance evaluation of geologic (underground) nuclear waste repositories. In this report, a suite of programs (TRIPOLY code) for calculating and analyzing flow and transport in two-dimensional fracture-matrix systems is used to model single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests. The SWIW test, a tracer test using one well, is proposed as a useful means of collecting data for site characterization, as well as estimating parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. After some specific code adaptations, we numerically generated a complex fracture-matrix system for computation of steady-state flow and tracer advection and dispersion in the fracture network, along with solute exchange processes between the fractures and the porous matrix. We then conducted simulations for a hypothetical but workable SWIW test design and completed parameter sensitivity studies on three physical parameters of the rock matrix - namely porosity, diffusion coefficient, and retardation coefficient - in order to investigate their impact on the fracture-matrix solute exchange process. Hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, is also modeled in this study, in two different ways: (1) by increasing the hydraulic aperture for flow in existing fractures and (2) by adding a new set of fractures to the field. The results of all these different tests are analyzed by studying the population of matrix blocks, the tracer spatial distribution, and the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained, while performing mass-balance checks and being careful to avoid some numerical mistakes that could occur. This study clearly demonstrates the importance of matrix effects in the solute transport process, with the sensitivity studies illustrating the increased importance of the matrix in providing a retardation mechanism for radionuclides as matrix porosity, diffusion coefficient, or retardation

  6. Advances on models, characterizations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Gebizlioglu, O L

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceContributorsThe Shapes of the Probability Density, Hazard, and Reverse Hazard FunctionsMasaaki SibuyaStochastic Ordering of Risks, Influence of Dependence, and A.S. ConstructionsLudger RüschendorfThe q-Factorial Moments of Discrete q-Distributions and a Characterization of the Euler DistributionCh.A. Charalambides and N. PapadatosOn the Characterization of Distributions Through the Properties of Conditional Expectations of Order StatisticsI. Bairamov and O. GebizliogluCharacterization of the Exponential Distribution by Conditional Expectations of Generalized SpacingsErhard Cramer and Ud

  7. A Weibull characterization for tensile fracture of multicomponent brittle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Necessary to the development and understanding of brittle fiber reinforced composites is a means to statistically describe fiber strength and strain-to-failure behavior. A statistical characterization for multicomponent brittle fibers is presented. The method, which is an extension of usual Weibull distribution procedures, statistically considers the components making up a fiber (e.g., substrate, sheath, and surface) as separate entities and taken together as in a fiber. Tensile data for silicon carbide fiber and for an experimental carbon-boron alloy fiber are evaluated in terms of the proposed multicomponent Weibull characterization.

  8. Joint geophysical and flow inversion to characterize fracture networks in subsurface systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mudunuru, M K; Makedonska, N; Chen, T

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface applications including geothermal, geological carbon sequestration, oil and gas, etc., typically involve maximizing either the extraction of energy or the storage of fluids. Characterizing the subsurface is extremely complex due to heterogeneity and anisotropy. Due to this complexity, there are uncertainties in the subsurface parameters, which need to be estimated from multiple diverse as well as fragmented data streams. In this paper, we present a non-intrusive joint inversion framework, for integrating data from geophysical and flow sources to constraint subsurface Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN). In this approach, we first estimate bounds on the statistics for the DFN fracture orientations using microseismic data. These bounds are estimated through a combination of a focal mechanism (physics-based approach) and clustering analysis (statistical approach) of seismic data. Then, the fracture lengths are constrained based on the flow data. The efficacy of this multi-physics based joint inversion is...

  9. Laser characterization with advanced digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Zibar, Darko

    2015-01-01

    The use of machine learning techniques to characterize lasers with low output power is reviewed. Optimized phase tracking algorithms that can produce accurate noise spectra are discussed, and a method for inferring the amplitude noise spectrum and rate equation model of the laser under test is pr...

  10. Evaluation of common tests for fracture characterisation of advanced high-strength sheet steels with the help of the FEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshekhodov, I.; Dykiert, M.; Vucetic, M.; Behrens, B.-A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents results of evaluation of common tests for fracture characterization of advanced high-strength sheet steels with the help of the FEA. The tests include three in-plane shear tests, two uniaxial tension tests, two plane strain tension tests and two equibiaxial tension tests. Three high-strength steels with different yield loci, strain hardening rates and strengths in three different thicknesses each were used. The evaluation was performed based on the spatial distribution of the equivalent plastic strain and damage variable in the specimen at the moment of crack initiation as well as on the time variation of the stress state at the crack initiation location. For in-plane shear, uniaxial tension and plane strain tension, no test can be unconditionally recommended as disadvantages of all studied tests in these groups cannot be neglected. However, in each of these groups, a test can be chosen, which represents an acceptable compromise between its advantages and disadvantages: the shear test on an IFUM butterfly specimen for in-plane shear, the tensile test on a holed specimen for uniaxial tension and the tensile test on a waisted specimen for plane strain tension. On the contrary, the bulge test on a circular specimen with a punch of Ø 100 mm can be unconditionally recommended for equibiaxial tension. In the future, optimisation of the studied tests for in-plane shear, uniaxial tension and plane strain tension appears to be necessary.

  11. Correlation of microstructure and fracture toughness of advanced 9Cr/CrMoV dissimilarly welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui, E-mail: Lfg119@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Xia [Shanghai Turbine Plant of Shanghai Electric Power Generation Equipment Co. Ltd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Renjie [Shanghai Turbine Works Company, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cui, Haichao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yulai, E-mail: ylgao@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-06-25

    In this paper, the fracture toughness and the related microstructure characteristics of dissimilarly welded joint manufactured by advanced 9Cr and CrMoV steels were systematically investigated. The dissimilarly welded joint was fabricated by narrow gap submerged arc welding (NG-SAW) applying multi-layer and multi-pass technique. Fracture toughness, as one of the most important property to assess the reliability of welded joint, was studied for different regions including CrMoV base metal (CrMoV-BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) of CrMoV side (CrMoV-HAZ), weld metal (WM), heat affected zone of 9Cr side (9Cr-HAZ) and 9Cr base metal (9Cr-BM). It was found that the fracture toughness of CrMoV-BM, CrMoV-HAZ and WM was better than that of 9Cr-HAZ and 9Cr-BM. In order to illustrate these results, the microstructure of the whole welded joint was observed by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) detailedly. It was found that the fine high-temperature tempered martensite and bainite in WM, CrMoV-BM and CrMoV-HAZ contribute to the higher fracture toughness, while lower fracture toughness for 9Cr-BM and HAZ was caused by coarse tempered lath-martensite. Furthermore, the fracture morphology showed that ductile fracture occurred in WM and CrMoV side, while brittle fracture appeared in BM and HAZ of 9Cr side.

  12. ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul M. Sharma

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those

  13. Characterizing Fractures in Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sammis, Charles [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sahimi, Mohammad [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Okaya, David [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The ultimate objective of the project was to develop new methodologies to characterize the northwestern part of The Geysers geothermal reservoir (Sonoma County, California). The goal is to gain a better knowledge of the reservoir porosity, permeability, fracture size, fracture spacing, reservoir discontinuities (leaky barriers) and impermeable boundaries.

  14. Wafer hot spot identification through advanced photomask characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yohan; Green, Michael; McMurran, Jeff; Ham, Young; Lin, Howard; Lan, Andy; Yang, Richer; Lung, Mike

    2016-10-01

    As device manufacturers progress through advanced technology nodes, limitations in standard 1-dimensional (1D) mask Critical Dimension (CD) metrics are becoming apparent. Historically, 1D metrics such as Mean to Target (MTT) and CD Uniformity (CDU) have been adequate for end users to evaluate and predict the mask impact on the wafer process. However, the wafer lithographer's process margin is shrinking at advanced nodes to a point that the classical mask CD metrics are no longer adequate to gauge the mask contribution to wafer process error. For example, wafer CDU error at advanced nodes is impacted by mask factors such as 3-dimensional (3D) effects and mask pattern fidelity on subresolution assist features (SRAFs) used in Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) models of ever-increasing complexity. These items are not quantifiable with the 1D metrology techniques of today. Likewise, the mask maker needs advanced characterization methods in order to optimize the mask process to meet the wafer lithographer's needs. These advanced characterization metrics are what is needed to harmonize mask and wafer processes for enhanced wafer hot spot analysis. In this paper, we study advanced mask pattern characterization techniques and their correlation with modeled wafer performance.

  15. Advanced nozzle characterization for hydrogen fluoride overtone chemical lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, William A.; Patterson, Stanley P.; Graves, Bruce R.; Sollee, Jeffrey L.; Yonehara, Gordon N.; Dering, John P.

    1992-07-01

    The parametric characterization and optimization of the hypersonic, low-temperature (HYLTE) nozzle concept for the hydrogen fluoride (HF) overtone and HF fundamental performance are reviewed. The HF fundamental space-based laser for weapons systems is considered to be more mature, nearer term potential application than the overtone. Emphasis is placed on the Task 3 advanced gain generator technology configurations (AGGTC) aimed at a thorough characterization in the fundamental regime. The experiments were based on advanced multilayer dielectric coatings on uncooled silicon substrates. It is concluded that the Task 3 AGGTC hardware functioned quite well in optimizing the performance of the HYLTE nozzle concept.

  16. Advanced NMR characterization of zeolite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, L. B.

    1985-04-01

    The program discussed in this report is a two-year two-phase joint UOP-University of Illinois study of the application of improved high resolution solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to the characterization of zeolite catalysts. During the first phase of this program very pure, and in some cases isotopically enriched faujasites will be prepared and studied by magic angle sample spinning NMR (MASS NMR) and variable engine sample spinning NMR (VASS NMR) on 500 and 360 MHz (proton frequency) NMR spectrometers. The NMR techniques that will be emphasized are the measurement and analysis of the (17)O NMR properties, (27)Al NMR intensity quantitation, and (27)Al and (29)Si NMR relaxation rates. During the second phase of this program these NMR techniques will be used to study the effects of impurity concentration, dealumination treatments and cation exchange on the NMR properties of faujasites. The initial emphasis of this program during Phase I is on the preparation and measurement of the NMR properties of (17)O enriched Na-Y faujasties.

  17. Ssismic Methodologies Applied To The Characterization Of Fractured Rock Massifs: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, D.; Carbonell, R.; Flecha, I.; Palomeras, I.; Font-Capo, J.; Vazquez-Sune, E.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2007-05-01

    The detailed characterization of fractured media in the shallow subsurface is becoming important. The detailed knowledge of the fracture network is mandatory in any hydrogeological model to constrain the potential pathways for water circulation. The geophysical methodolgies can provide a detailed image of the fractured rock and also the 3D distribution of physical properties. Two case studies are discussed in this work. The characterization of fractures in a waste disposal site and, the design and construction of a subway tunnel. In the first case, a multiseismic experiment was carried out in an old abandoned uranium mine. 2D and 3D seismic experiments including VSP, surface seismic reflection and travel time seismic tomography provided a 3D image of the internal structure of a granitic massif for hydrogeological studies of the preferred paths for the migration of contaminants. The tectonic stability of the site was also addressed by means of seismic measurements. The joint interpretation of all the available data enabled the interpretation of the low velocity anomalies in the 3D seismic tomography image as the fragile fractures and the alteration associated to them. A 3D image of the geometry of the heterogeneous weathered surface layer was also obtained. This surface is controlled by the complex network of faults and dykes observed in the area. The second case study involves 2D and 3D seismic experiments to aid the horizontal drilling of tunnels for a new subway line in Barcelona (Spain). Seismic data acquisition in a densely populated city is very difficult. The street layout determines the geometry of the acquisition experiments. The instrumentation can not always be located on the surface projection of the tunnel trace, therefore, pseudo 3D acquisition is required, deploying the instrumentation were it is possible. Furthermore, the shallow subsurface features extremely heterogeneous "weathered" layer of variable thickness (building fundations, sewage system

  18. Seismic geometric attribute analysis for fracture characterization: New methodologies and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Haibin

    In 3D subsurface exploration, detection of faults and fractures from 3D seismic data is vital to robust structural and stratigraphic analysis in the subsurface, and great efforts have been made in the development and application of various seismic attributes (e.g. coherence, semblance, curvature, and flexure). However, the existing algorithms and workflows are not accurate and efficient enough for robust fracture detection, especially in naturally fractured reservoirs with complicated structural geometry and fracture network. My Ph.D. research is proposing the following scopes of work to enhance our capability and to help improve the resolution on fracture characterization and prediction. For discontinuity attribute, previous methods have difficulty highlighting subtle discontinuities from seismic data in cases where the local amplitude variation is non-zero mean. This study proposes implementing a gray-level transformation and the Canny edge detector for improved imaging of discontinuities. Specifically, the new process transforms seismic signals to be zero mean and helps amplify subtle discontinuities, leading to an enhanced visualization for structural and stratigraphic details. Applications to various 3D seismic datasets demonstrate that the new algorithm is superior to previous discontinuity-detection methods. Integrating both discontinuity magnitude and discontinuity azimuth helps better define channels, faults and fractures, than the traditional similarity, amplitude gradient and semblance attributes. For flexure attribute, the existing algorithm is computationally intensive and limited by the lateral resolution for steeply-dipping formations. This study proposes a new and robust volume-based algorithm that evaluate flexure attribute more accurately and effectively. The algorithms first volumetrically fit a cubic surface by using a diamond 13-node grid cell to seismic data, and then compute flexure using the spatial derivatives of the built surface. To avoid

  19. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2005-08-01

    naturally fractured reservoirs with changing field conditions. This considerably broadens the applicability of the streamline-based analysis of tracer data and field production history for characterization of heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs.

  20. Quantitative characterization of fractures and pores in shale beds of the Lower Silurian, Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuman Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractures and pores are important storage and percolation spaces in tight reservoirs, and the identification, characterization and quantitative evaluation on them are the key aspects and difficulties in shale gas reservoir evaluation. In view of this, quantitative evaluation was performed on the fracture porosity of organic-rich shale intervals of Longmaxi Fm, Lower Silurian, Sichuan Basin (Wufeng Fm, Upper Ordovician included, after a dual-porosity medium porosity interpretation model was built on the basis of drilling data of Fuling Gasfield and Changning gas block in the Sichuan Basin. And then, the following conclusions are reached. First, shale fracture porosity interpretation by using dual-porosity medium model is the effective method to evaluate quantitatively the fracture porosity of shale reservoirs, and the development of quantitative characterization techniques of marine shale reservoir spaces. Second, the matrix pore volume of the principal pay zones in this area and its constitution regions are stably distributed with matrix porosity generally in the range of 4.6%–5.4%. And third, the development characteristics of fracture porosity vary largely in different tectonic regions and indifferent wellblocks and intervals even in the same tectonic region, presenting strong heterogeneity in terms of shale reservoir storage and percolation properties. It is indicated by quantitative characterization of fractures and pores that there are two types of shale gas reservoirs in Wufeng Fm – Longmaxi Fm, Sichuan Basin, including matrix porosity + fracture type and matrix porosity type. The former are mainly developed in the areas with special structure settings and they are characterized by developed fracture pores, high gas content, high free gas content, thick pay zones and high single-well production rate. And in the Sichuan Basin, its distribution is possibly in a restricted range. The latter are characterized by high matrix porosity

  1. Characterizing trabecular bone structure for assessing vertebral fracture risk on volumetric quantitative computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Checefsky, Walter A.; Abidin, Anas Z.; Tsai, Halley; Wang, Xixi; Hobbs, Susan K.; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-03-01

    While the proximal femur is preferred for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in fracture risk estimation, the introduction of volumetric quantitative computed tomography has revealed stronger associations between BMD and spinal fracture status. In this study, we propose to capture properties of trabecular bone structure in spinal vertebrae with advanced second-order statistical features for purposes of fracture risk assessment. For this purpose, axial multi-detector CT (MDCT) images were acquired from 28 spinal vertebrae specimens using a whole-body 256-row CT scanner with a dedicated calibration phantom. A semi-automated method was used to annotate the trabecular compartment in the central vertebral slice with a circular region of interest (ROI) to exclude cortical bone; pixels within were converted to values indicative of BMD. Six second-order statistical features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) and the mean BMD within the ROI were then extracted and used in conjunction with a generalized radial basis functions (GRBF) neural network to predict the failure load of the specimens; true failure load was measured through biomechanical testing. Prediction performance was evaluated with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) metric. The best prediction performance was observed with GLCM feature `correlation' (RMSE = 1.02 ± 0.18), which significantly outperformed all other GLCM features (p GLCM feature correlation also significantly outperformed MDCTmeasured mean BMD (RMSE = 1.11 ± 0.17) (pGLCM-derived texture features.

  2. Characterization of fractured reservoirs using tracer and flow-rate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliusson, Egill; Horne, Roland N.

    2013-05-01

    This article introduces a robust method for characterizing fractured reservoirs using tracer and flow-rate data. The flow-rate data are used to infer the interwell connectivity matrix, which describes how injected fluids are divided between producers in the reservoir. The tracer data are used to find a function called the tracer kernel for each injector-producer connection. The tracer kernel describes the volume and dispersive properties of the interwell flow path. A combination of parametric and nonparametric regression methods was developed to estimate the tracer kernels in situations where data are collected at variable flow rate or variable-injected concentration conditions. This characterization method was developed to describe enhanced geothermal systems, although it works well in general for characterizing incompressible flow in fractured reservoirs (e.g., geothermal, carbon sequestration, radioactive waste and waterfloods of oil fields) where transverse dispersivity can be considered negligible and production takes place at constant bottomhole pressure conditions. The inferred metrics can be used to sketch informative field maps and predict tracer breakthrough curves at variable flow-rate conditions.

  3. Fracture toughness master curve characterization of Linde 1092 weld metal for Beaver valley 1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Sang; Yang, Won Jon; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2000-12-01

    This report summarizes the test results obtained from the Korean contribution to the integrity assessment of low toughness Beaver Valley reactor vessel by characterizing the fracture toughness of Linde 1092 (No. 305414) weld metal. 10 PCVN specimens and 10 1T-CT specimens were tested in accordance with the ASTM E 1921-97 standard, 'Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, T{sub o}, for ferritic steels in the transition range'. This results can also be useful for assessment of Linde 80 low toughness welds of Kori-1.

  4. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    2013-04-06

    The objective of this 3-year project is to use various geophysical methods for reservoir and fracture characterization. The targeted field is the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field in Utah operated by ENEL North America (ENA). Our effort has been focused on 1) understanding the regional and local geological settings around the geothermal field; 2) collecting and assembling various geophysical data sets including heat flow, gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) and seismic surface and body wave data; 3) installing the local temporary seismic network around the geothermal site; 4) imaging the regional and local seismic velocity structure around the geothermal field using seismic travel time tomography; and (5) determining the fracture direction using the shear-wave splitting analysis and focal mechanism analysis. Various geophysical data sets indicate that beneath the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field, there is a strong anomaly of low seismic velocity, low gravity, high heat flow and high electrical conductivity. These suggest that there is a heat source in the crust beneath the geothermal field. The high-temperature body is on average 150 °C – 200 °C hotter than the surrounding rock. The local seismic velocity and attenuation tomography gives a detailed velocity and attenuation model around the geothermal site, which shows that the major geothermal development target is a high velocity body near surface, composed mainly of monzonite. The major fracture direction points to NNE. The detailed velocity model along with the fracture direction will be helpful for guiding the geothermal development in the Cove Fort area.

  5. Comparison of membrane punching experiments with biaxial tension/shear testing for characterization of fracture of uncracked bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    A high strength steel (DP780was characterized for fracture with the Modified Mohr Coulomb (MMCaccumulated damage approach. Two different methods were used for the characterization and are compared in this paper. The first method, which is representative of procedures used in the sheet metal forming

  6. Integrated Methods for Site Characterization and Conceptual Model Development for a Contaminated Fractured-Bedrock Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. D.; Kastrinos, J. R.; Haeni, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-disciplined and team-based approach was used to integrate geophysical, hydrologic, and chemical data to characterize lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties of fractured crystalline bedrock and to determine the nature and extent of ground-water contamination from a landfill and former chemical-waste disposal pits at the University of Connecticut. Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in domestic bedrock wells in the mid-1980s led to this investigation, in which a team comprised of hydrologists, engineers, geophysicists, geologists, chemists, toxicologists, and community-involvement personnel collected, analyzed, and evaluated data; developed and refined a conceptual model of the ground-water flow and contaminant distribution at the site; and evaluated alternatives and implemented a final remediation plan. The characterization phase began in 1999 and the remediation phase is currently ongoing. An integrated and iterative approach of using multiple methods in phases was important for corroborating the interpretation of individual methods and essential for guiding the design and implementation of additional testing at the site. The use of geophysical data early in the investigation allowed the study team to obtain detailed subsurface information using a minimum of boreholes. Surface geophysical methods were used to target potential discharge of contaminants from the landfill for further investigation. Borehole geophysical methods were used to investigate the anomalies identified by surface geophysical methods, the location and orientation of fractures that intersect and surround each well, the direction and magnitude of ambient flow in the wells, and the transmissive fractures that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. Borehole geophysical and hydraulic data were used to design discrete-zone monitoring systems for the collection of hydraulic head and chemical data and to prevent cross contamination through the boreholes. The results

  7. Characterization of Fractures and Flow Zones in a Contaminated Shale at the Watervliet Arsenal, Albany County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Flow zones in a fractured shale in and near a plume of volatile organic compounds at the Watervliet Arsenal in Albany County, N. Y. were characterized through the integrated analysis of geophysical logs and single- and cross-hole flow tests. Information on the fracture-flow network at the site was needed to design an effective groundwater monitoring system, estimate offsite contaminant migration, and evaluate potential containment and remedial actions.Four newly drilled coreholes and four older monitoring wells were logged and tested to define the distribution and orientation of fractures that intersected a combined total of 500 feet of open hole. Analysis of borehole-wall image logs obtained with acoustic and optical televiewers indicated 79 subhorizontal to steeply dipping fractures with a wide range of dip directions. Analysis of fluid resistivity, temperature, and heat-pulse and electromagnetic flowmeter logs obtained under ambient and short-term stressed conditions identified 14 flow zones, which consist of one to several fractures and whose estimated transmissivity values range from 0.1 to more than 250 feet squared per day.Cross-hole flow tests, which were used to characterize the hydraulic connection between fracture-flow zones intersected by the boreholes, entailed (1) injection into or extraction from boreholes that penetrated a single fracture-flow zone or whose zones were isolated by an inflatable packer, and (2) measurement of the transient response of water levels and flow in surrounding boreholes. Results indicate a wellconnected fracture network with an estimated transmissivity of 80 to 250 feet squared per day that extends for at least 200 feet across the site. This interconnected fracture-flow network greatly affects the hydrology of the site and has important implications for contaminant monitoring and remedial actions.

  8. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Roland N.; Li, Kewen; Alaskar, Mohammed; Ames, Morgan; Co, Carla; Juliusson, Egill; Magnusdottir, Lilja

    2012-06-30

    This report highlights the work that was done to characterize fractured geothermal reservoirs using production data. That includes methods that were developed to infer characteristic functions from production data and models that were designed to optimize reinjection scheduling into geothermal reservoirs, based on these characteristic functions. The characterization method provides a robust way of interpreting tracer and flow rate data from fractured reservoirs. The flow-rate data are used to infer the interwell connectivity, which describes how injected fluids are divided between producers in the reservoir. The tracer data are used to find the tracer kernel for each injector-producer connection. The tracer kernel describes the volume and dispersive properties of the interwell flow path. A combination of parametric and nonparametric regression methods were developed to estimate the tracer kernels for situations where data is collected at variable flow-rate or variable injected concentration conditions. The characteristic functions can be used to calibrate thermal transport models, which can in turn be used to predict the productivity of geothermal systems. This predictive model can be used to optimize injection scheduling in a geothermal reservoir, as is illustrated in this report.

  9. Hydrogeloogic characterization of fractured rock formations: A guide for groundwater remediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.J.B.

    1995-10-01

    A field site was developed in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of ground water flow and transport in fractured rocks. Nine boreholes were drilled into the granitic bedrock, and a wide variety of new and traditional subsurface characterization tools were implemented. The hydrogeologic structure and properties of the field site were deduced by integrating results from the various geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and other investigative methods. The findings of this work are synthesized into this report, which is structured in a guidebook format. The applications of the new and traditional technologies, suggestions on how best to use, integrate, and analyze field data, and comparisons of the shortcoming and benefits of the different methods are presented.

  10. Pathogenesis of osteoporotic hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized late in the course of the disease by an increased risk of fracture, particularly in the elderly. It occurs in both sexes, affecting approximately 8 million women and 2 million men aged > or = 50 years (1). While low bone density is a predictor of fractures, it is not the only determinant of fracture risk. Other factors include advanced age, altered bone quality, a personal or family history of falls, frailty, poor eyesight, debilitating diseases, and high bone turnover. A diet with sufficient calcium and vitamin D is important to minimize bone loss and, along with regular exercise, to maintain muscle strength. Bisphosphonates have been shown to reduce the risk of hip fracture. For elderly patients, the use of hip protectors may be used as a treatment of last resort. Regardless of the age of the patient, individual patient risk factors must be considered to target appropriate treatment and prevent fracture.

  11. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  12. Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

  13. Recent Advances in the Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Lori E. [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Allan, Alison L., E-mail: alison.allan@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 4L6 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON N6C 2R5 (Canada)

    2014-03-13

    Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were first observed over a century ago, lack of sensitive methodology precluded detailed study of these cells until recently. However, technological advances have now facilitated the identification, enumeration, and characterization of CTCs using a variety of methods. The majority of evidence supporting the use of CTCs in clinical decision-making has been related to enumeration using the CellSearch{sup ®} system and correlation with prognosis. Growing evidence also suggests that CTC monitoring can provide an early indication of patient treatment response based on comparison of CTC levels before and after therapy. However, perhaps the greatest potential that CTCs hold for oncology lies at the level of molecular characterization. Clinical treatment decisions may be more effective if they are based on molecular characteristics of metastatic cells rather than on those of the primary tumor alone. Molecular characterization of CTCs (which can be repeatedly isolated in a minimally invasive fashion) provides the opportunity for a “real-time liquid biopsy” that allows assessment of genetic drift, investigation of molecular disease evolution, and identification of actionable genomic characteristics. This review focuses on recent advances in this area, including approaches involving immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex RT-PCR, microarray, and genomic sequencing.

  14. Recent Advances in the Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. Lowes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs were first observed over a century ago, lack of sensitive methodology precluded detailed study of these cells until recently. However, technological advances have now facilitated the identification, enumeration, and characterization of CTCs using a variety of methods. The majority of evidence supporting the use of CTCs in clinical decision-making has been related to enumeration using the CellSearch® system and correlation with prognosis. Growing evidence also suggests that CTC monitoring can provide an early indication of patient treatment response based on comparison of CTC levels before and after therapy. However, perhaps the greatest potential that CTCs hold for oncology lies at the level of molecular characterization. Clinical treatment decisions may be more effective if they are based on molecular characteristics of metastatic cells rather than on those of the primary tumor alone. Molecular characterization of CTCs (which can be repeatedly isolated in a minimally invasive fashion provides the opportunity for a “real-time liquid biopsy” that allows assessment of genetic drift, investigation of molecular disease evolution, and identification of actionable genomic characteristics. This review focuses on recent advances in this area, including approaches involving immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, multiplex RT-PCR, microarray, and genomic sequencing.

  15. Characterization of mudrocks: a practical application of advanced laboratory testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard J.JARDINE

    2011-01-01

    An integrated approach to geomaterial characterization is advocated that combines geology, in-situ testing, fabric studies, routine index experiments and advanced laboratory testing. It is shown that advanced laboratory testing can explore features such as kinematic yielding and anisotropy in stiffness or shear strength that would otherwise be impossible to quantify. A detailed study performed in London clay at the new Heathrow Terminal 5 site is used to illustrate the arguments made. It is shown that the London clay has strong anisotropy in stiffness, is highly non-linear over the strain range of engineering interest, has markedly anisotropic shear strength characteristics and exhibits a pronounced degree of brittleness. These features can impact significantly on the practical design and analysis of civil engineering works including shallow and deep foundations, tunnels and excavations, and the stability of slopes.

  16. Characterization of freeze-fractured epithelial plasma membranes on nanometer scale with ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draude, Felix; Körsgen, Martin; Pelster, Andreas; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Müthing, Johannes; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2015-03-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to characterize the freeze-fracturing process of human epithelial PANC-1 and UROtsa cells. For this purpose, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine standard samples were investigated to find specific signals with both high specificity and signal intensity. The results were used to investigate single cells of subconfluent cell layers prepared with a special silicon wafer sandwich preparation technique. This freeze-fracturing technique strips cell membranes off the cells, isolating them on opposing silicon wafer substrates. Criteria were found for defining regions with stripped off cell membranes and, on the opposing wafer, complementary regions with the remaining cells. Measured ethanolamine/choline and serine/choline ratios in these regions clearly showed that in the freeze-fracturing process, the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is split along its central zone. Accordingly, only the outer lipid monolayer is stripped off the cell, while the inner lipid monolayer remains attached to the cell on the opposing wafer, thus allowing detailed analysis of a single lipid monolayer. Furthermore, it could be shown that using different washing procedures did not influence the transmembrane lipid distribution. Under optimized preparation conditions, it became feasible to detect lipids with a lateral resolution of approximately 100 nm. The data indicate that ToF-SIMS would be a very useful technique to study with very high lateral resolution changes in lipid composition caused, for example, by lipid storage diseases or pharmaceuticals that interfere with the lipid metabolism.

  17. Characterizing Fractures Across the Astronaut Corps: Preliminary Findings from Population-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Meredith M.; Charvat, Jacqueline; Sibonga, Jean; Sieker, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence of bone loss during spaceflight and operational countermeasures to mitigate this loss, the subsequent risk of fracture among astronauts is not known. The physiologic process of diminished bone density and bone recovery during or following spaceflight is multifactorial. Such factors as age, sex, fracture history, and others may combine to increase fracture risk among astronauts. As part of the 2016 Bone Research and Clinical Advisory Panel (RCAP), the authors analyzed data collected on 338 NASA astronauts to describe the demographics, bone-relevant characteristics, and fracture history of the astronaut population. The majority of the population are male (n=286, 84.6%), have flown at least one mission (n=306, 90.5%), and were between the ages of 30 and 49 at first mission (n=296, 96.7% of those with at least one mission). Of the 338 astronauts, 241 (71.3%) experienced a fracture over the course of their lifetime. One hundred and five (43.5%) of these 241 astronauts only experienced a fracture prior to being selected into the Astronaut Corps, whereas 53 (22.0%) only experienced a fracture after selection as an astronaut. An additional 80 astronauts (33.2%) had both pre- and post-selection fractures. The remaining 3 astronauts had a fracture of unknown date, which could not be categorized as pre- or post-selection. Among the 133 astronauts with at least one post-selection fracture, males comprised 90.2% (n=120) compared to 84.5% of the entire Corps, and females accounted for 9.8% (n=13) compared to 15.4% of the Corps. Ninety-seven of the 133 astronauts with post-selection fractures (72.9%) had one fracture event, 22 (16.5%) had two fractures, and 14 (10.5%) had three or more fractures. Some astronauts with multiple fractures suffered these in a single event, such as an automobile accident. The 133 astronauts with a post-selection fracture accounted for a total of 188 fracture events. One hundred and four (78.2%) of astronauts with post

  18. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-08-01

    This report presents an efficient trajectory-based approach to integrate transient pressure data into high-resolution reservoir and aquifer models. The method involves alternating travel time and peak amplitude matching of pressure response using inverse modeling and is particularly well-suited for high resolution subsurface characterization using hydraulic tomography or pressure interference tests. Compared to travel time inversion only, our proposed approach results in a significantly improved match of the pressure response at the wells and also better estimates of subsurface properties. This is accomplished with very little increase in computational cost. Utilizing the concept of a ''diffusive'' time of flight derived from an asymptotic solution of the diffusivity equation, we develop analytical approaches to estimate the sensitivities for travel time and peak amplitude of pressure response to subsurface properties. The sensitivities are then used in an iterative least-squared minimization to match the pressure data. We illustrate our approach using synthetic and field examples. In the field application at a fractured limestone formation, the predominant fracture patterns emerging from the inversion are shown to be consistent with independent geophysical experiments and borehole data.

  19. Characterization of the Oriskany and Berea Sandstones: Evaluating Biogeochemical Reactions of Potential Sandstone–Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Harris, Aubrey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-07-07

    , guar gum, and isopropanol]; 3) reviews the known research about the interactions between several hydraulic fracturing chemicals [e.g. polyacrylamide, ethylene glycol, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and glutaraldehyde] with the minerals (quartz, clay, pyrite, and carbonates) common to the lithologies of the Marcellus shale and its surrounding sandstones; and 4) characterizes the Berea sandstone and analyzes the physical and chemical effects of flowing guar gum through a Berea sandstone core.

  20. On the analysis of a mixed mode bending sandwich specimen for debond fracture characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2009-01-01

    The mixed mode bending specimen originally developed for mixed mode delamination fracture characterization of unidirectional composites has been extended to the study of debond propagation in foam cored sandwich specimens. The compliance and strain energy release rate expressions for the mixed mode...... bending sandwich specimen are derived based on a superposition analysis of solutions for the double cantilever beam and cracked sandwich beam specimens by applying a proper kinematic relationship for the specimen deformation combined with the loading provided by the test rig. This analysis provides also...... expressions for the global mode mixities. An extensive parametric analysis to improve the understanding of the influence of loading conditions, specimen geometry and mechanical properties of the face and core materials has been performed using the derived expressions and finite element analysis. The mixed...

  1. Energy dissipation and contour integral characterizing fracture behavior of incremental plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Lin He; Lin-Zhi Wu; Ming Li; Hong-Bo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Jep-integral is derived for characterizing the fracture behavior of elastic-plastic materials. The Jep-integral differs from Rice's J-integral in that the free energy density rather than the stress working density is employed to define energy-momentum tensor. The Jep-integral is proved to be path-dependent regardless of incremental plasticity and deformation plasticity. The Jep-integral possesses clearly clear physical meaning: (1) the value Jeptjp evaluated on the infinitely small contour surrounding the crack tip represents the crack tip energy dissipation; (2) when the global steadystate crack growth condition is approached, the value of Jepfar-ss calculated along the boundary contour equals to the sum of crack tip dissipation and bulk dissipation of plastic zone. The theoretical results are verified by simulating mode I crack problems.

  2. Characterization and Management of Mandibular Fractures: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Traction on the anterior mandible will elicit pain in the fracture sites. If the patient is conscious , a neurologic examination will find sensory deficits...Nondisplaced mandibular fractures without occlusal dis- turbances can be treated with a nonchewing diet . When occlusal disturbances are present and...patient’s age, health , and fracture type. Displaced fractures generally require open reduction with internal fixation using titanium screws and plates

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; Nafi Toksoz

    2006-03-16

    Using a 3-D finite difference method with a rotated-staggered-grid (RSG) scheme we generated synthetic seismograms for a reservoir model consisting of three horizontal layers with the middle layer containing parallel, equally spaced fractures. By separating and analyzing the backscattered signals in the FK domain, we can obtain an estimate of the fracture spacing. The fracture spacing is estimated by taking one-half of the reciprocal of the dominant wavenumber of the backscattered energy in data acquired normal to the fractures. FK analysis for fracture spacing estimation was successfully applied to these model results, with particular focus on PS converted waves. The method was then tested on data from the Emilio Field. The estimated fracture spacing from the dominant wavenumber values in time windows at and below the reservoir level is 25-40m. A second approach for fracture spacing estimation is based on the observation that interference of forward and backscattered energy from fractures introduces notches in the frequency spectra of the scattered wavefield for data acquired normal to the fracture strike. The frequency of these notches is related to the spacing of the fractures. This Spectral Notch Method was also applied to the Emilio data, with the resulting range of fracture spacing estimates being 25-50m throughout the field. The dominant spacing fracture spacing estimate is about 30-40 m, which is very similar to the estimates obtained from the FK method.

  4. Implementing ground surface deformation tools to characterize field-scale properties of a fractured aquifer during a short hydraulic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Boudin, Frédérick; Durand, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    In naturally fractured reservoirs, fluid flow is governed by the structural and hydromechanical properties of fracture networks or conductive fault zones. In order to ensure a sustained exploitation of resources or to assess the safety of underground storage, it is necessary to evaluate these properties. As they generally form highly heterogeneous and anisotropic reservoirs, fractured media may be well characterized by means of several complementary experimental methods or sounding techniques. In this framework, the observation of ground deformation has been proved useful to gain insight of a fractured reservoir's geometry and hydraulic properties. Commonly, large conductive structures like faults can be studied from surface deformation from satellite methods at monthly time scales, whereas meter scale fractures have to be examined under short-term in situ experiments using high accuracy intruments like tiltmeters or extensometers installed in boreholes or at the ground's surface. To the best of our knowledge, the feasability of a field scale (~ 100 m) characterization of a fractured reservoir with geodetic tools in a short term experiment has not yet been addressed. In the present study, we implement two complementary ground surface geodetic tools, namely tiltmetry and optical leveling, to monitor the deformation induced by a hydraulic recovery test at the Ploemeur hydrological observatory (France). Employing a simple purely elastic modeling approach, we show that the joint use of time constraining data (tilt) and spatially constraining data (vertical displacement) makes it possible to evaluate the geometry (dip, root depth and lateral extent) and the storativity of a hydraulically active fault zone, in good agreement with previous studies. Hence we demonstrate that the adequate use of two complementary ground surface deformation methods offer a rich insight of large conductive structure's properties using a single short term hydraulic load. Ground surface

  5. Fracture characterization of flysch formation by terrestrial digital photogrammetry: an example in the Antola Formation (upper Staffora Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisina, Claudia; Menegoni, Niccolò; Perotti, Cesare

    2016-04-01

    Geomechanical characterization of flysch formations plays an important role for its implication in slope stability and fluids circulation, especially in Apenninic areas. The Antola Formation of Upper Cretaceous age crops out extensively in the Northern Apennines and provides an important case of study. It consists of turbiditic graded units of calcareous sandstones, sandstones, marlstones, and shales and is interpreted as a deep-sea basin plain deposit, with lateral facies variations which range from proximal, thick-bedded turbidities to distal turbidites that show predominantly thickening upward cycles and have a high percentage of shale. It is in general characterized by folds developed in absence of metamorphism and a usually high degree of fracturation. The presence of well developed fracture networks enhances circulation of fluid and therefore alteration of the less competent layers causing problems of slope stability. Fracture characterization of Antola Formation based on field survey is very time consuming and often limited by the insufficient availability and inaccessibility of outcrops. For this reason, terrestrial remote sensing and in particular terrestrial digital photogrammetry has been applied to investigate the geomechanical features of the formation in the upper Staffora Valley (Northern Italy). Digital photogrammetry allows to generate by Structure from Motion (SfM) technique a 3D point cloud that represents the Digital Outcrop Model (DOM). New technologies allow to associate appropriate texture to the point cloud from the images, in order to preserve important visual information. The analysis of several textured 3D DOMs allows to digitally acquire a large amount of data on discontinuities parameters such as orientation, spacing, aperture, persistence and filling, in order to better characterize the rock mass. Some tests performed by field survey data acquisition to validate the digitally collected data, gave positive results, showing differences

  6. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  7. Mars Atmospheric Characterization Using Advanced 2-Micron Orbiting Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U.; Engelund, W.; Refaat, T.; Kavaya, M.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mars atmospheric characterization is critical for exploring the planet. Future Mars missions require landing massive payloads to the surface with high accuracy. The accuracy of entry, descent and landing (EDL) of a payload is a major technical challenge for future Mars missions. Mars EDL depends on atmospheric conditions such as density, wind and dust as well as surface topography. A Mars orbiting 2-micron lidar system is presented in this paper. This advanced lidar is capable of measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles using the most abundant atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on Mars. In addition Martian winds and surface altimetry can be mapped, independent of background radiation or geographical location. This orbiting lidar is a valuable tool for developing EDL models for future Mars missions.

  8. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  9. Characterization of advanced polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) targets for TNSA laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: Lorenzo.Torrisi@unime.it [Department of Physics and Earth Science, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cutroneo, M.; Semian, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Ceccio, G. [Department of Physics and Earth Science, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The manuscript presents the procedure to prepare thin advanced targets based on PMMA polymer in order to obtain high ion acceleration in laser-generated plasma. • The manuscript is original for the procedures of polymer preparation and preliminary techniques used. - Abstract: Characterization of advanced micrometric foils suitable for TNSA regime were performed using optical spectroscopy, microscopy and Nd:YAG low laser intensity. Micrometric acrylic beads were produced in polymethylmethacrylate foils through complex physical and technical procedures in order to enhance the absorption coefficient in the IR region. Moreover, Au nanoparticles were embedded in the polymer in order to induce surface plasmon resonance absorption and plasma electron density enhancement. The suitably prepared polymers were investigated at low laser intensity to have evidence of their capability to absorb IR wavelength radiations and promote enhancement of the plasma temperature and density. Results indicate that the high transparence of PMMA foils can be strongly reduced by the presences of the micrometric acrylic beads and that the obtainable laser-generated plasma improves the ion acceleration when high beads density and high Au nanoparticles concentrations are employed.

  10. Characterization of In-Situ Stress and Permeability in Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2006-06-30

    Fracture orientation and spacing are important parameters in reservoir development. This project resulted in the development and testing of a new method for estimating fracture orientation and two new methods for estimating fracture spacing from seismic data. The methods developed were successfully applied to field data from fractured carbonate reservoirs. Specific results include: the development a new method for estimating fracture orientation from scattered energy in seismic data; the development of two new methods for estimating fracture spacing from scattered energy in seismic data; the successful testing of these methods on numerical model data and field data from two fractured carbonate reservoirs; and the validation of fracture orientation results with borehole data from the two fields. Researchers developed a new method for determining the reflection and scattering characteristics of seismic energy from subsurface fractured formations. The method is based upon observations made from 3D finite difference modeling of the reflected and scattered seismic energy over discrete systems of vertical fractures. Regularly spaced, discrete vertical fractures impart a ringing coda type signature to seismic energy that is transmitted through or reflected off of them. This signature varies in amplitude and coherence as a function of several parameters including: (1) the difference in angle between the orientation of the fractures and the acquisition direction, (2) the fracture spacing, (3) the wavelength of the illuminating seismic energy, and (4) the compliance, or stiffness, of the fractures. This coda energy is the most coherent when the acquisition direction is parallel to the strike of the fractures. It has the largest amplitude when the seismic wavelengths are tuned to the fracture spacing, and when the fractures have low stiffness. The method uses surface seismic reflection traces to derive a transfer function that quantifies the change in the apparent source

  11. Integrating 3D seismic curvature and curvature gradient attributes for fracture characterization: Methodologies and interpretational implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dengliang

    2013-03-01

    In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

  12. An unsteady state tracer method for characterizing fractures in bedrock wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Jill L; Robbins, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating contaminants impacting wells in fractured crystalline rock requires knowledge of the individual fractures contributing water. This typically involves using a sequence of tools including downhole geophysics, flow meters, and straddle packers. In conjunction with each other these methods are expensive, time consuming, and can be logistically difficult to implement. This study demonstrates an unsteady state tracer method as a cost-effective alternative for gathering fracture information in wells. The method entails introducing tracer dye throughout the well, inducing fracture flow into the well by conducting a slug test and then profiling the tracer concentration in the well to locate water contributing fractures where the dye has been diluted. By monitoring the development of the dilution zones within the wellbore with time, the transmissivity and the hydraulic head of the water contributing fractures can be determined. Ambient flow conditions and the contaminant concentration within the fractures can also be determined from the tracer dilution. This method was tested on a large physical model well and a bedrock well. The model well was used to test the theory underlying the method and to refine method logistics. The approach located the fracture and generated transmissivity values that were in excellent agreement with those calculated by slug testing. For the bedrock well tested, two major active fractures were located. Fracture location and ambient well conditions matched results from conventional methods. Estimates of transmissivity values by the tracer method were within an order of magnitude of those calculated using heat-pulse flow meter data.

  13. Application of fractured aquifer characterization techniques in the development of a wellfield protection plan, Springdale, south central New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches, A.J.; Butler, K.E. [University of New Brunswick (Canada)], email: aaron.desroches@unb.ca; Pelkey, S.; Banks, V. [GEMTEC Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    There is a fractured sandstone and mudstone aquifer underlying the Springdale wellfield near Sussex, New Brunswick, Canada. The aim of this paper is to present work carried out to characterize the bedrock fracture network and assess drawdown magnitude around the production wells in order to build a wellfield protection plan. An integrated hydrogeological and borehole geophysical study was performed and borehole logging methods were used to determine bedrock fractures. Results confirmed that groundwater flow conditions were anisotropic and drawdowns of 1.31m and 1.23 m were found respectively in the pumping well and 592 meters away to the southeast, while observation wells located southwest and northeast had minimal drawdown. This paper provided a better understanding of the groundwater flow system's anisotropic conditions which will help in building a hydrogeological model.

  14. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzon, G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy gabriella.bolzon@polimi.it (Italy)

    2015-10-28

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  15. Advanced Technology Development: Solid-Liquid Interface Characterization Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the solid-liquid interface during directional solidification is key to understanding and improving material properties. The goal of this Advanced Technology Development (ATD) has been to develop hardware, which will enable real-time characterization of practical materials, such as aluminum (Al) alloys, to unprecedented levels. Required measurements include furnace and sample temperature gradients, undercooling at the growing interface, interface shape, or morphology, and furnace translation and sample growth rates (related). These and other parameters are correlated with each other and time. A major challenge was to design and develop all of the necessary hardware to measure the characteristics, nearly simultaneously, in a smaller integral furnace compatible with existing X-ray Transmission Microscopes, XTMs. Most of the desired goals have been accomplished through three generations of Seebeck furnace brassboards, several varieties of film thermocouple arrays, heaters, thermal modeling of the furnaces, and data acquisition and control (DAC) software. Presentations and publications have resulted from these activities, and proposals to use this hardware for further materials studies have been submitted as sequels to this last year of the ATD.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2003-07-10

    A 3-D elastic wave propagation finite difference model, including effects of attenuation, has been implemented and compared with other existing modeling codes for validation. Models of seismic scattering from discrete large-scale fractures as well as equivalent anisotropic medium representations of small-scale fractures have been generated and used to develop data analysis methods for applications to seismic field data. An inversion scheme has been developed to estimate fracture orientation and fracture density from amplitude variations with offset and azimuth (AVOA). The method has been tested on synthetic data and field data from an offshore fractured carbonate reservoir with promising results. Spectral characteristics of the numerical model data of the seismic wavefield scattered from aligned fractures with different spacing between fracture zones have been analyzed. Results indicate that the spacing of these large, open fracture zones can be estimated from the wavenumber spectra of the scattered wave amplitude as a function of offset in pre-stack data. Two approaches for converting seismically derived fracture parameters into fluid-flow parameters for use in reservoir simulators have been identified. The first is the numerical modeling of Stoke's flow in fracture networks, and the second uses a statistical model of a fracture distribution that allows for the calculation of the elastic properties and permeability tensor of the resulting equivalent medium. These approaches will be compared in the coming year. Multiple meetings have been held with our industry partner, Shell Oil, to identify a field test site for the project. We are focusing our efforts on a fractured carbonate field. The field application test site selection and data transfer will be completed in the coming year.

  17. Effect of microstructure on the fracture response of advanced high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    The materials selected to observe microstructural effects on formability included four 780 MPa strength, and four 980 MPa strength AHSS grades produced with varying processing conditions. The grades were an uncoated DP780, a high yield DP780, a galvanized DP780, a TRIP780, a galvannealed DP980, a galvanized DP980, an uncoated DP980, and a fine grained DP980. All AHSS grades were tensile tested to obtain values for ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent uniform and total elongation. An analysis was performed to quantify the average grain size of the primary and second phase constituents, as well as the second phase volume fraction present in each AHSS grade. Nanoindentation was performed for each AHSS grade to determine the average hardness of the primary and second phase constituents present. Evolution of microstructural damage in response to deformation was analyzed using a plane strain tensile method developed to impose a localized through-thickness shear fracture. Samples of each AHSS grade were strained to progressively higher percentages of their failure displacement, and microstructural damage was observed using a scanning electron microscope on a metallographic section removed from the localized shear deformation region. Micrographs were analyzed using ImageJ®, and the resulting void percent and number of voids were determined for each test performed. A direct correlation was observed between the number of voids and hardness ratio. The strength of the microstructural constituents affected mechanical properties, suggesting that constituent strength values should be considered when predicting formability limits for higher strength AHSS grades. Since all AHSS grades experienced some critical number of voids before fracture, it was concluded that suppression of void formation can extend the formability limits to higher strains. After observing a percent failure displacement value of 95%, it was determined that the final stage of fracture (void

  18. Fracture characterization by fusion of geophysical and geomechanical data: a case study from the Asmari reservoir, the Central Zagros fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosari, Ehsan; Ghareh-Cheloo, Sajjad; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Bahroudi, Abbas

    2015-02-01

    Fractured reservoirs contain a large proportion of hydrocarbon reserves in the Middle East. In these types of reservoirs, a variety of fracture types and networks provide the required permeability for hydrocarbon storage and flow. Fractured reservoir characterization has been challenging to petroleum geoscientists and reservoir engineers in terms of developing new approaches in this direction. A variety of techniques have been developed in the literature to study the distribution and the impact of fracture pore types on reservoir characterization. However, such techniques are not suitable for subsurface cases where prediction of fractures become troublesome and each of the developed techniques has its own advantages and limitations. In this study, an integrated approach is proposed for fracture characterization by employing different sources of data including 3D seismic attributes, geomechanical parameters, unconventional logs (image log and nuclear magnetic response (NMR) log), velocity-deviation log (VDL), conventional well logs, and routine core analysis data. Based on the azimuths of horizontal principal stresses and natural fractures, location of the wells over the structure hanging wall is determined. Interpretation of the seismic profiles from the study area indicated a fault-related fold structure style with fault throws controlling the magnitude of curvature. Moreover, fracture distribution of the Asmari reservoir is predicted by using curvature attribute, geomechanical parameters and horizontal slices of VDL. It seems that fractures probably have a much higher distribution at zone 1 and zone 3 of the Asmari formation.

  19. QEMSCAN° (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy): capability and application to fracture characterization in geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayling, B.; Rose, P. E.; Zemach, E.; Drakos, P. S.; Petty, S.

    2011-12-01

    Fractures are important conduits for fluids in geothermal systems, and the creation and maintenance of fracture permeability is a fundamental aspect of EGS (Engineered Geothermal System) development. Hydraulic or chemical stimulation techniques are often employed to achieve this. In the case of chemical stimulation, an understanding of the minerals present in the fractures themselves is desirable to better design a stimulation effort (i.e. which chemical to use and how much). Borehole televiewer surveys provide important information about regional and local stress regimes and fracture characteristics (e.g. fracture aperture), and XRD is useful for examining bulk rock mineralogy, but neither technique is able to quantify the distribution of these minerals in fractures. QEMSCAN° is a fully-automated micro-analysis system that enables quantitative chemical analysis of materials and generation of high-resolution mineral maps and images as well as porosity structure. It uses a scanning electron microscopy platform (SEM) with an electron beam source in combination with four energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS). The measured backscattered electron and electron-induced secondary X-ray emission spectra are used to classify sample mineralogy. Initial applications of QEMSCAN° technology were predominantly in the minerals industry and application to geothermal problems has remained limited to date. In this pilot study, the potential application of QEMSCAN° technology to fracture characterization was evaluated using samples of representative mineralized fractures in two geothermal systems (Newberry Volcano, Oregon and Brady's geothermal field, Nevada). QEMSCAN° results were compared with XRD and petrographic techniques. Nine samples were analyzed from each field, collected from the drill core in the 1000-1500 m depth range in two shallow wells (GEO-N2 at Newberry Volcano and BCH-3 at Brady's). The samples were prepared as polished thin sections for QEMSCAN° analysis

  20. Characterization of fracture patterns and hygric properties for moisture flow modelling in cracked concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouchier, Simon; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    Several years after their installation, building materials such as concrete present signs of ageing in the form of fractures covering a wide range of sizes, from microscopic to macroscopic cracks. All sizes of fractures can have a strong influence on heat and moisture flow in the building envelop...

  1. A synoptic approach to the seismic sensing of heterogeneous fractures: from geometric reconstruction to interfacial characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Pourahmadian, Fatemeh; Haddar, Houssem

    2016-01-01

    A non-iterative waveform sensing approach is proposed toward (i) geometric reconstruction of penetrable fractures, and (ii) quantitative identification of their heterogeneous contact condition by seismic i.e. elastic waves. To this end, the fracture support $\\Gamma$ (which may be non-planar and unconnected) is first recovered without prior knowledge of the interfacial condition by way of the recently established approaches to non-iterative waveform tomography of heterogeneous fractures, e.g. the methods of generalized linear sampling and topological sensitivity. Given suitable approximation $\\breve\\Gamma$ of the fracture geometry, the jump in the displacement field across $\\breve\\Gamma$ i.e. the fracture opening displacement (FOD) profile is computed from remote sensory data via a regularized inversion of the boundary integral representation mapping the FOD to remote observations of the scattered field. Thus obtained FOD is then used as input for solving the traction boundary integral equation on $\\breve\\Gamm...

  2. Advancing sensitivity analysis to precisely characterize temporal parameter dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guse, Björn; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Strauch, Michael; Reusser, Dominik; Lüdtke, Stefan; Volk, Martin; Gupta, Hoshin; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Parameter sensitivity analysis is a strategy for detecting dominant model parameters. A temporal sensitivity analysis calculates daily sensitivities of model parameters. This allows a precise characterization of temporal patterns of parameter dominance and an identification of the related discharge conditions. To achieve this goal, the diagnostic information as derived from the temporal parameter sensitivity is advanced by including discharge information in three steps. In a first step, the temporal dynamics are analyzed by means of daily time series of parameter sensitivities. As sensitivity analysis method, we used the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) applied directly onto the modelled discharge. Next, the daily sensitivities are analyzed in combination with the flow duration curve (FDC). Through this step, we determine whether high sensitivities of model parameters are related to specific discharges. Finally, parameter sensitivities are separately analyzed for five segments of the FDC and presented as monthly averaged sensitivities. In this way, seasonal patterns of dominant model parameter are provided for each FDC segment. For this methodical approach, we used two contrasting catchments (upland and lowland catchment) to illustrate how parameter dominances change seasonally in different catchments. For all of the FDC segments, the groundwater parameters are dominant in the lowland catchment, while in the upland catchment the controlling parameters change seasonally between parameters from different runoff components. The three methodical steps lead to clear temporal patterns, which represent the typical characteristics of the study catchments. Our methodical approach thus provides a clear idea of how the hydrological dynamics are controlled by model parameters for certain discharge magnitudes during the year. Overall, these three methodical steps precisely characterize model parameters and improve the understanding of process dynamics in hydrological

  3. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Ringe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR, the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask `how are nanoshapes created?', `how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?', `how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?'. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed.

  4. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator EU2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-watt radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA GRC recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's ASC-E3 Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included: measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency, quantification of control authority of the controller, disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude, and measurement of the effect of spacecraft DC bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  5. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-11-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask 'how are nanoshapes created?', 'how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?', 'how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?'. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed.

  6. Burnout prediction using advance image analysis coal characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Lester; Dave Watts; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The link between petrographic composition and burnout has been investigated previously by the authors. However, these predictions were based on 'bulk' properties of the coal, including the proportion of each maceral or the reflectance of the macerals in the whole sample. Combustion studies relating burnout with microlithotype analysis, or similar, remain less common partly because the technique is more complex than maceral analysis. Despite this, it is likely that any burnout prediction based on petrographic characteristics will become more accurate if it includes information about the maceral associations and the size of each particle. Chars from 13 coals, 106-125 micron size fractions, were prepared using a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) at 1300{degree}C and 200 millisecond and 1% Oxygen. These chars were then refired in the DTF at 1300{degree}C 5% oxygen and residence times of 200, 400 and 600 milliseconds. The progressive burnout of each char was compared with the characteristics of the initial coals. This paper presents an extension of previous studies in that it relates combustion behaviour to coals that have been characterized on a particle by particle basis using advanced image analysis techniques. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask ‘how are nanoshapes created?’, ‘how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?’, ‘how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?’. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed. PMID:25485133

  8. Application of Advanced Master Curve Approaches to the EURO Fracture Toughness Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.

    2007-01-15

    The so-called EURO data set is the largest set ever assembled, consisting of fracture toughness results obtained in the ductile-to-brittle transition region. It was the outcome of a large EU sponsored project which involved ten European laboratories in the second half of the 90ies. Several post-project investigations have identified one of the blocks from which specimens were extracted (block SX9) as macroscopically inhomogeneous and significantly tougher than the remaining blocks. In this study, the variability of block SX9 has been investigated using the conventional Master Curve (MC) methodology and some recent MC extensions, namely the SINTAP lower tail, the single point estimation, the bi-modal Master Curve and the multi-modal Master Curve. The basic MC method is intended for macroscopically homogeneous ferritic steels only, and the alternative approaches have been developed for the investigation of inhomogeneous materials. Therefore, these methods can be used to study the behaviour of block SX9 within the EURO data set. It has been found that the bi-modal and multi-modal MC approaches are quite effective in detecting the anomaly represented by block SX9, but only when analyses are performed on data sets of comparable size.

  9. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada`s radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. , Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1998-09-01

    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro`s used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2005-02-04

    Numerical modeling and field data tests are presented on the Transfer Function/Scattering Index Method for estimating fracture orientation and density in subsurface reservoirs from the ''coda'' or scattered energy in the seismic trace. Azimuthal stacks indicate that scattered energy is enhanced along the fracture strike direction. A transfer function method is used to more effectively indicate fracture orientation. The transfer function method, which involves a comparison of the seismic signature above and below a reservoir interval, effectively eliminates overburden effects and acquisition imprints in the analysis. The transfer function signature is simplified into a scattering index attribute value that gives fracture orientation and spatial variations of the fracture density within a field. The method is applied to two field data sets, a 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) seismic data set from an offshore fractured carbonate reservoir in the Adriatic Sea and a 3-D seismic data set from an onshore fractured carbonate field in the Middle East. Scattering index values are computed in both fields at the reservoir level, and the results are compared to borehole breakout data and Formation MicroImager (FMI) logs in nearby wells. In both cases the scattering index results are in very good agreement with the well data. Field data tests and well validation will continue. In the area of technology transfer, we have made presentations of our results to industry groups at MIT technical review meetings, international technical conferences, industry workshops, and numerous exploration and production company visits.

  11. Characterization of the increase in bone 66 kDa protein component with healing rat fractures: stimulatory effect of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, A; Yamaguchi, M

    2002-05-01

    The characterization of protein components produced from bone tissues with fracture healing was investigated. Weanling rats were sacrificed between 1 and 7 days after the femoral fracture. Protein content in the femoral-diaphyseal tissues was markedly elevated by fracture healing. Moreover, when the femoral-diaphyseal tissues with fracture healing were cultured for 24 h in a serum-free medium, many proteins in the bone tissues were released into the medium. Analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that many protein molecules were released from the diaphyseal tissues with fracture healing. Especially, a protein molecule of approximately 66 kDa was markedly increased by fracture healing. This protein molecule was significantly increased, when the diaphyseal tissues with fracture healing were cultured in the presence of zinc acexamate (10(-6)-10(-4) M). Zinc acexamate (10(-4) M)-induced increase in medium 66 kDa protein molecule was significantly inhibited in the presence of actinomycin D (10(-7) M) or cycloheximide (10(-6) M). The zinc effect was completely blocked in the presence of PD98059 (10(-5) M), an inhibitor of MAPK kinase, or staurosporine (10(-6) M), an inhibitor of protein kinase C. The medium 66 kDa protein molecule was significantly elevated in the presence of parathyroid hormone (1-34) (10(-7) M), insulin-like growth factor-I (10(-8) M) or transforming growth factor-beta (10(-11) M), while 17beta-estradiol (10(-9) M) did not have an effect. The effect of these bone-stimulating factors was equal to the zinc effect. Zinc did not significantly enhance the effect of insulin-like growth factor-I in increasing medium 66 kDa protein molecule. The present study demonstrates that fracture healing increases production of the approximately 66 kDa protein molecule which is a major component produced from femoral-diaphyseal tissues of weanling rats, and that this elevation is enhanced by zinc treatment.

  12. Effect of microstructure on the fracture response of advanced high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark David

    steels showed that, whether by cold-rolling or tensile deformation, a DP microstructure heterogeneously accommodates strains imparted by plastic deformation. Strain maps generated using digital image correlation on deformed tensile specimens for both DP steels showed that strains heterogeneously develop in the microstructure at locations consistent with preferential fracture sites in DP steels, such as ferrite/martensite interfaces. The hardness ratio primarily affected the magnitude of the strain gradients, with a larger hardness ratio yielding a greater strain gradient. With further deformation, isolated regions of high strain linked to form bands of strain localization throughout the microstructure. A plane strain tensile analysis showed the DP steel with lower hardness ratio to have a lower void population, a finding consistent with results established in the M.Sc. thesis of M. D. Taylor. Using fractured tensile specimens, a lower void area pct at equivalent stress and strain was observed for the DP steel with lower hardness ratio, confirming a lower hardness ratio suppresses microstructural damage.

  13. Face/core interface fracture characterization of mixed mode bending sandwich specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    application point (lever arm distance). Finite element analysis was performed to determine the mode‐mixity at the crack tip. The results showed that the face/core interface fracture toughness increased with increased mode II loading. Post failure analysis of the fractured specimens revealed that the crack......Debonding of the core from the face sheets is a critical failure mode in sandwich structures. This paper presents an experimental study on face/core debond fracture of foam core sandwich specimens under a wide range of mixed mode loading conditions. Sandwich beams with E‐glass fibre face sheets...... and PVC H45, H100 and H250 foam core materials were evaluated. A methodology to perform precracking on fracture specimens in order to achieve a sharp and representative crack front is outlined. The mixed mode loading was controlled in the mixed mode bending (MMB) test rig by changing the loading...

  14. Characterization of cryogenic Fe-6Ni steel fracture modes: A three dimensional quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, G. O.; Morris, J. W.

    1986-05-01

    Quantitative three dimensional analyses of fracture surfaces of Fe-6Ni cryogenic steel were used to study the effect of temperature variations on the geometry of the characteristic features in different fracture modes. Stereo SEM techniques combined with stereo photogrametry provide the tools to perform such analysis on standard Charpy specimens tested with appropriate instrumentation over a 300 deg temperature range. The characteristic features of the ductile fracture mode were found to maintain a constant aspect ratio for these temperatures, while the brittle fracture modes exhibit an aspect ratio that is temperature dependent. This geometrical factor dependence of temperature in the nonductile case resembles that of the Charpy impact energy for the same temperature range.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2005-08-01

    During the past six months we have adapted our 3-D elastic, anisotropic finite difference code by implementing the rotated staggered grid (RSG) method to more accurately represent large contrasts of elastic moduli between the fractures and surrounding formation, and applying the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition to minimize boundary reflections. Two approaches for estimating fracture spacing from scattered seismic energy were developed. The first relates notches in the amplitude spectra of the scattered wavefield to the dominant fracture spacing that caused the scattering. The second uses conventional FK filtering to isolate the backscattered signals and then recovers an estimate of the fracture spacing from the dominant wavelength of those signals. Both methods were tested on synthetic data and then applied to the Emilio field data. The spectral notch method estimated the Emilio fracture spacing to be about 30 to 40 m, while the FK method found fracture spacing of about 48 to 53 m. We continue to work on two field data sets from fractured carbonate reservoirs provided by our industry sponsors--the offshore Emilio Field data (provided by ENIAGIP), and an onshore reservoir from the Middle East (provided by Shell). Calibration data in the form of well logs and previous fracture studies are available for both data sets. In previous reports we showed the spatial distribution fractures in the Emilio Field based on our calculated scattering index values. To improve these results we performed a map migration of all the scattering indices. The results of this migration process show a very strong correlation between the spatial distribution and orientation of our estimated fracture distribution and the fault system in the field. We observe that the scattering index clusters tend to congregate around the fault zones, particularly near multiple faults and at fault tips. We have also processed a swath of data from the second data set (the onshore

  16. Using advanced electron microscopy for the characterization of catalytic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrz, William D.

    Catalysis will continue to be vitally important to the advancement and sustainability of industrialized societies. Unfortunately, the petroleum-based resources that currently fuel the energy and consumer product needs of an advancing society are becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to extract as supplies diminish and the quality of sources degrade. Therefore, the development of sustainable energy sources and the improvement of the carbon efficiency of existing chemical processes are critical. Further challenges require that these initiatives are accomplished in an environmentally friendly fashion since the effects of carbon-based emissions are proving to be a serious threat to global climate stability. In this dissertation, materials being developed for sustainable energy and process improvement initiatives are studied. Our approach is to use materials characterization, namely advanced electron microscopy, to analyze the targeted systems at the nano- or Angstrom-scale with the goal of developing useful relationships between structure, composition, crystalline order, morphology, and catalytic performance. One area of interest is the complex Mo-V-M-O (M=Te, Sb, Ta, Nb) oxide system currently being developed for the selective oxidation/ammoxidation of propane to acrylic acid or acrylonitrile, respectively. Currently, the production of acrylic acid and acrylonitrile rely on propylene-based processes, yet significant cost savings could be realized if the olefin-based feeds could be replaced by paraffin-based ones. The major challenge preventing this feedstock replacement is the development of a suitable paraffin-activating catalyst. Currently, the best candidate is the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O complex oxide catalyst that is composed of two majority phases that are commonly referred to as M1 and M2. However, there is a limited understanding of the roles of each component with respect to how they contribute to catalyst stability and the reaction mechanism. Aberration

  17. Application of acoustic emission on the characterization of fracture in textile reinforced cement laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, J; Wastiels, J; Aggelis, D G

    2014-01-01

    This work studies the acoustic emission (AE) behavior of textile reinforced cementitious (TRC) composites under flexural loading. The main objective is to link specific AE parameters to the fracture mechanisms that are successively dominating the failure of this laminated material. At relatively low load, fracture is initiated by matrix cracking while, at the moment of peak load and thereafter, the fiber pull-out stage is reached. Stress modeling of the material under bending reveals that initiation of shear phenomena can also be activated depending on the shape (curvature) of the plate specimens. Preliminary results show that AE waveform parameters like frequency and energy are changing during loading, following the shift of fracturing mechanisms. Additionally, the AE behavior of specimens with different curvature is very indicative of the stress mode confirming the results of modeling. Moreover, AE source location shows the extent of the fracture process zone and its development in relation to the load. It is seen that AE monitoring yields valuable real time information on the fracture of the material and at the same time supplies valuable feedback to the stress modeling.

  18. Characterization of plasticity and fracture of shell casing of lithium-ion cylindrical battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Most of the literature on lithium-ion battery cells is concerned with modeling of jellyroll with little attention to properties of shell casing. However, shell casing provides substantial strength and fracture resistance under mechanical loading and therefore must be an important part of modeling of lithium-ion batteries. The paper reports on a comprehensive test program on commercially available empty shell casing of 18650 lithium-ion cylindrical cells. Part of the tests was used to determine plastic and fracture properties from sub-size specimens cut from lateral part of the cans. The other part served to validate plasticity and fracture models under various loading conditions. The associated flow rule was used to simulate plasticity behavior and Modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC) fracture model was adopted to predict crack initiation and propagation of shell casing. Simulation results confirmed that present plasticity and fracture models could predict global plastic behavior of the cells under different loading conditions. The jellyroll model with volumetric hardening was introduced to compare the performance of empty shell casing, bare jellyroll and complete battery cell. It was shown that in many loading situations, for example, three point bending of the cylindrical cells, the metallic shell casing provides most of mechanical resistance.

  19. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  20. In-situ stress and fracture characterization for planning of a hydraulic stimulation in the Desert Peak Geothermal Field, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, S.; Davatzes, N. C.

    2009-12-01

    A suite of geophysical logs and a hydraulic fracturing stress measurement were conducted in well 27-15 in the Desert Peak Geothermal Field, Nevada, to constrain the state of stress and the geometry and relative permeability of natural fractures in preparation for development of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) through hydraulic stimulation. Advanced Logic Technologies Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) and Schlumberger Formation MicroScanner (FMS) image logs reveal extensive drilling-induced tensile fractures, showing that the current minimum horizontal principal stress, Shmin, in the vicinity of well 27-15 is oriented 114 ± 17°. This orientation is consistent with down-dip extensional slip on a set of ESE and WNW dipping normal faults mapped at the surface. Similarly, all formations imaged in the BHTV and FMS logs include significant sub-populations of fractures that are well oriented for normal faulting given this direction of Shmin. Although the bulk permeability of the well is quite low, temperature and spinner flowmeter surveys reveal several minor flowing fractures. Some of these relatively permeable fractures are well oriented for normal faulting, in addition to fluid flow that is preferentially developed at low-angle formation boundaries. A hydraulic fracturing stress measurement conducted at the top of the intended stimulation interval (931 m) indicates that the magnitude of Shmin is 13.8 MPa, which is 0.609 of the calculated vertical (overburden) stress at this depth. Given the current water table depth (122 m below ground level), this Shmin magnitude is somewhat higher than expected for frictional failure on optimally oriented normal faults given typical laboratory measurements of sliding friction (Byerlee’s Law). Coulomb failure calculations assuming cohesionless pre-existing fractures with coefficients of friction of 0.6 or higher (consistent with Byerlee’s Law and with tests on representative core samples from nearby wells) indicate that shear

  1. Comparative study of large scale simulation of underground explosions inalluvium and in fractured granite using stochastic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.; Glenn, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a methodology used for large scale modeling of wave propagation fromunderground explosions conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in two different geological settings:fractured granitic rock mass and in alluvium deposition. We show that the discrete nature of rockmasses as well as the spatial variability of the fabric of alluvium is very important to understand groundmotions induced by underground explosions. In order to build a credible conceptual model of thesubsurface we integrated the geological, geomechanical and geophysical characterizations conductedduring recent test at the NTS as well as historical data from the characterization during the undergroundnuclear test conducted at the NTS. Because detailed site characterization is limited, expensive and, insome instances, impossible we have numerically investigated the effects of the characterization gaps onthe overall response of the system. We performed several computational studies to identify the keyimportant geologic features specific to fractured media mainly the joints; and those specific foralluvium porous media mainly the spatial variability of geological alluvium facies characterized bytheir variances and their integral scales. We have also explored common key features to both geologicalenvironments such as saturation and topography and assess which characteristics affect the most theground motion in the near-field and in the far-field. Stochastic representation of these features based onthe field characterizations have been implemented in Geodyn and GeodynL hydrocodes. Both codeswere used to guide site characterization efforts in order to provide the essential data to the modelingcommunity. We validate our computational results by comparing the measured and computed groundmotion at various ranges. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence LivermoreNational Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. An example of using oil-production induced microseismicity in characterizing a naturally fractured reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, J.T.; Phillips, W.S. [Nambe Geophysical, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Schuessler, B.K.; Anderson, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Microseismic monitoring was conducted using downhole geophone tools deployed in the Seventy-Six oil field, Clinton County, Kentucky. Over a 7-month monitoring period, 3237 microearthquakes were detected during primary oil production; no injection operations were conducted. Gross changes in production rate correlate with microearthquake event rate with event rate lagging production-rate changes by about 2 weeks. Hypocenters and first-motion data have revealed low-angle, thrust fracture zones above and below the currently drained depth interval. Production history, well logs and drill tests indicate the seismically-active fractures are previously drained intervals that have subsequently recovered to hydrostatic pressure via brine invasion. The microseismic data have revealed, for the first time, the importance of the low-angle fractures in the storage and production of oil in the study area. The seismic behavior is consistent with poroelastic models that predict slight increases in compressive stress above and below currently drained volumes.

  3. Fracture characterization in patterned thin films by cross-sectional nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana, I. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Molina-Aldareguia, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Gonzalez, D. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Elizalde, M.R. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: relizalde@ceit.es; Sanchez, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez-Esnaola, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Gil Sevillano, J. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Scherban, T.. E-mail: Tracey_Scherban@Hotmail.com; Pantuso, D. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Sun, B. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Xu, G. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Miner, B. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); He, J. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Maiz, J. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    A testing technique based on cross-sectional nanoindentation has been used to assess the mechanical reliability of interconnect structures. A Berkovich indenter was used to initiate fracture in a silicon substrate and cracks propagated through the structure. To better control crack growth and to convert the problem into two dimensions, a trench parallel to the indentation surface was previously machined using a focused ion beam. The crack lengths obtained for different material systems in the interconnect structure correlate well with the fracture energies measured for the same materials in blanket films. Finite element model simulations incorporating cohesive elements have been used to model the fracture processes and to explain the different cracking behaviour observed.

  4. Characterization of short-fibre reinforced thermoplastics for fracture fixation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Hastings, R S; Mason, J J; Moet, A

    1990-10-01

    This study focuses on determining the effects of clinically relevant procedures on the flexural and fracture toughness properties of three short-fibre thermoplastic composites for potential application as fracture fixation devices. The procedures included sterilization, heat contouring and saline soaking. The three materials tested were polysulphone, polybutylene terephthalate and polyetheretherketone, all reinforced with 30% short carbon fibres. The polysulphone composite showed significant degradation in mechanical properties due to saline soaking. The polybutylene terephthalate exhibited significant degradation of mechanical properties following both contouring and saline soaking. The polyetheretherketone composite, however, exhibited no degradation in mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that flexion and fracture toughness testing were effective for determining the response of the composites to different applied conditions and demonstrated the stability of polyetheretherketone subjected to these treatments. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the most effective fibre-matrix bonding to be in the polyetheretherketone.

  5. Face/core mixed mode debond fracture toughness characterization using the modified TSD test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Costache, Andrei;

    2014-01-01

    The modified tilted sandwich debond (TSD) test method is used to examine face/core debond fracture toughness of sandwich specimens with glass/polyester face sheets and PVC H45 and H100 foam cores over a large range of mode-mixities. The modification was achieved by reinforcing the loaded face sheet....... The fracture process was inspected visually during and after testing. For specimens with H45 core the crack propagated in the core. For specimens with an H100 core, the crack propagated between the resin-rich layer and the face sheet. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub...

  6. Characterization of injection wells in a fractured reservoir using PTS logs, Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field, Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin; Combs, Jim

    1995-01-26

    The Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field in northwestern Nevada, about 15 km south of Reno, is a shallow (150m to 825m) moderate temperature (155 C to 168 C) liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir situated in highly-fractured granodiorite. Three injection wells were drilled and completed in granodiorite to dispose of spent geothermal fluids from the Steamboat II and III power plants (a 30 MW air-cooled binary-type facility). Injection wells were targeted to depths below 300m to inject spent fluids below producing fractures. First, quasi-static downhole pressure-temperature-spinner (PTS) logs were obtained. Then, the three wells were injection-tested using fluids between 80 C and 106 C at rates from 70 kg/s to 200 kg/s. PTS logs were run both up and down the wells during these injection tests. These PTS surveys have delineated the subsurface fracture zones which will accept fluid. The relative injectivity of the wells was also established. Shut-in interzonal flow within the wells was identified and characterized.

  7. Hydro-geophysical characterization for groundwater resources potential of fractured limestone reservoirs in Amdoun Monts (North-western Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhaounia, Belgacem; Bédir, Mourad; Gabtni, Hakim; Batobo, Ountsche Ilondo; Dhaoui, Mohamed; Chabaane, Achref; Khomsi, Sami

    2016-05-01

    This study has led to the identification of the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Eocene (Abiod, Boudabbous/El Gueria Formations) fractured and karstic aquifers in the Amdoun region (Northwestern Tunisia). Geological information (litho-stratigraphy and fractures network study) and geophysical (gravity, wells analysis, seismic reflection, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT)) investigations performed in the area have highlighted, with some detail, images of structures of carbonate aquifers near anticline flanks and along perched synclines. Some factors such as fracture intensity, karsts evolution and structural position have an important influence on the hydrologic productivity of Abiod and Boudabbous/El Gueria reservoirs. Different methodologies were used to characterize the geological and hydro-geological perched aquifers and produce the 3D geo-electrical model of near surface karstic features and cavities of the carbonate limestone in the Aïn Sallem site. This study integrates the geological and geophysical information available and can serve as a representative example in the description of the most important hydraulic reserves in the North-western Tunisia.

  8. Characterization and Quantification of Pneumatic Fracturing Effects at a Clay Till Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Camilla Maymann; Riis, Charlotte; Christensen, Stine Brok;

    2008-01-01

    on direct documentation of fracture propagation patterns and spacing, was performed at a typical basal clay till site. The study applied a novel package of documentation methods, including injection of five tracers with different characteristics (bromide, uvitex, fluorescein, rhodamine WT, and brilliant...

  9. Preferential flow characterization in fractured aquifer by injecting dissolved oxygen in boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Michele; Donnaloia, Mietta; Masciopinto, Costantino; Pennetta, Luigi; Robbins, Gary; Vitale, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    A new approach to identify contributing fractures and wellbore flow in fractured and karst aquifers is presented. It is time efficient, low cost and based on a benign tracer: the dissolved oxygen (DO). The method was already applied by other scientists to test fractured crystalline rock wells. The DO method consists in elevating water DO concentration in a borehole by bubbling air at assigned water depths using a porous polypropylene tube (bubbler) connected to a compressed air tank with tubing. After the aeration, the resulting profile should be a linear increase in DO with depth due to the effects of water pressure on oxygen solubility. Any changes in the DO profile will be then observed when water flows into and through the well. DO dilution can be used to locate inflowing fractures and to define active flow zones in wells. If there is no change in the DO profile, a "dead zones" in the well is present, that is to say no flow is taking place or can be identified. The DO tests in this work have been carried out in the industrial area of Bari, at the experimental station, constituted by five wells drilled at the CNR-IRSA. The wells penetrate karstic limestone. Results show enhanced flow through at depths between 32 and 37 meters below the water level: DO concentrations decrease until they reach values close to 0 mg/l. DO curves show also the presence of inflowing fractures, as testified by the decrease in the DO concentrations due to the effects of water dilution, at depths of 4 and 9 meters (below the water table) in the north well, at 4 and 10 meters in the central well, and at 30 meters in the south well. The benefits of utilizing DO as a tracer include ease of accessibility, low cost and time-efficiency as well as non-toxic nature of the tracer and no impact on flow conditions.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2002-12-31

    We have extended a three-dimensional finite difference elastic wave propagation model previously developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) for modeling and analyzing the effect of fractures on seismic waves. The code has been translated into C language and parallelized [using message passing interface (MPI)] to allow for larger models to be run on Linux PC computer clusters. We have also obtained another 3-D code from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, which we will use for verification of our ERL code results and also to run discrete fracture models. Testing of both codes is underway. We are working on a new finite difference model of borehole wave propagation for stressed formations. This code includes coordinate stretching to provide stable, variable grid sizes that will allow us to model the thin fluid annulus layers in borehole problems, especially for acoustic logging while drilling (LWD) applications. We are also extending our analysis routines for the inversion of flexural wave dispersion measurements for in situ stress estimates. Initial results on synthetic and limited field data are promising for a method to invert cross dipole data for the rotation angle and stress state simultaneously. A meeting is being scheduled between MIT and Shell Oil Company scientists to look at data from a fractured carbonate reservoir that may be made available to the project. The Focus/Disco seismic processing system from Paradigm Geophysical has been installed at ERL for field data analysis and as a platform for new analysis modules. We have begun to evaluate the flow properties of discrete fracture distributions through a simple 2D numerical model. Initial results illustrate how fluid flow pathways are very sensitive to variations in the geometry and apertures of fracture network.

  11. Characterization of fractures and flow zones in a contaminated crystalline-rock aquifer in the Tylerville section of Haddam, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carole D.; Kiel, Kristal F.; Joesten, Peter K.; Pappas, Katherine L.

    2016-10-04

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, investigated the characteristics of the bedrock aquifer in the Tylerville section of Haddam, Connecticut, from June to August 2014. As part of this investigation, geophysical logs were collected from six water-supply wells and were analyzed to (1) identify well construction, (2) determine the rock type and orientation of the foliation and layering of the rock, (3) characterize the depth and orientation of fractures, (4) evaluate fluid properties of the water in the well, and (5) determine the relative transmissivity and head of discrete fractures or fracture zones. The logs included the following: caliper, electromagnetic induction, gamma, acoustic and (or) optical televiewer, heat-pulse flowmeter under ambient and pumped conditions, hydraulic head data, fluid electrical conductivity and temperature under postpumping conditions, and borehole-radar reflection collected in single-hole mode. In a seventh borehole, a former water-supply well, only caliper, fluid electrical conductivty, and temperature logs were collected, because of a constriction in the borehole.This report includes a description of the methods used to collect and process the borehole geophysical data, the description of the data collected in each of the wells, and a comparison of the results collected in all of the wells. The data are presented in plots of the borehole geophysical logs, tables, and figures. Collectively these data provide valuable characterizations that can be used to improve or inform site conceptual models of groundwater flow in the study area.

  12. Method development and strategy for the characterization of complexly faulted and fractured rhyolitic tuffs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Galloway, D. [Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The planned high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would exist in unsaturated, fractured welded tuff. One possible contaminant pathway to the accessible environment is transport by groundwater infiltrating to the water table and flowing through the saturated zone. Therefore, an effort to characterize the hydrology of the saturated zone is being undertaken in parallel with that of the unsaturated zone. As a part of the saturated zone investigation, there wells-UE-25c{number_sign}1, UE-25c{number_sign}2, and UE-25c{number_sign}3 (hereafter called the c-holes)-were drilled to study hydraulic and transport properties of rock formations underlying the planned waste repository. The location of the c-holes is such that the formations penetrated in the unsaturated zone occur at similar depths and with similar thicknesses as at the planned repository site. In characterizing a highly heterogeneous flow system, several issues emerge. (1) The characterization strategy should allow for the virtual impossibility to enumerate and characterize all heterogeneities. (2) The methodology to characterize the heterogeneous flow system at the scale of the well tests needs to be established. (3) Tools need to be developed for scaling up the information obtained at the well-test scale to the larger scale of the site. In the present paper, the characterization strategy and the methods under development are discussed with the focus on the design and analysis of the field experiments at the c-holes.

  13. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2001-04-01

    Among the accomplishments of this past reporting period are obtaining a complete landgrid for the State of Michigan and the digital processing of the high and medium resolution DEM files. We can now extract lineations from the DEMs automatically using machine algorithms. One tentative result that may be very significant is that we may be seeing manifestations of buried structures in the DEM data. We are looking at a set of extracted lineations in the northern lower peninsula that appear to follow the trend of the pinnacle reefs (Silurian) which had relief approaching 300 feet but are now buried to greater than 3000 feet. We have also extracted the dolomite alteration data from all fields and can show that this is mainly confined to the basin center. It may be related to the paleo-rift suggested by the paleomagnetic and gravity data. As reported last time, the acquisition of a 3D seismic dataset over Stoney Point Field from Marathon Oil Company, is complete and attention is being devoted to incorporating the data into the project database and utilizing it. The surface lineation study is focusing on Stoney Point Field using the high-resolution DEM data and plotting of subsurface formation top data for the main reservoir, the Trenton (Ordovician) Formation. The fault pattern at Stoney Point is well documented by Marathon and we are looking for any manifestations on the surface. The main project database is now about as complete as it will be for this project. The main goals have been met, although the scanning of the paper records will have to continue beyond the scheduled end of the project due to the sheer number of records and the increased donations of data from companies as word spread of the project. One of the unanticipated benefits of the project has been the cooperation of gas and oil companies that are or were active in the Michigan Basin in donating material to the project. Both Michigan Tech and Western Michigan continue to receive donations at an accelerating pace. The data management software developed to handle the data, Atlas, is scheduled to undergo a 3rd revision before the project ends. The goals are to streamline access to the data by improving the display and add several new features, including the ability to turn the landgrid on and off. We may also be able to include the capability to calculate or recalculate footage calls as well. We discovered the reason that some of the 1/24,000 USGS DEM (Digital Elevation Models) for the State of Michigan contain high levels of noise and are making one last attempt to acquire a set of good files before the project ends. This will greatly improve the large-scale map (48 inches x 84 inches) that has been constructed by mosaicking of the high-resolution files. This map shows excellent ground surface detail and has drawn much comment and requests for copies at the venues where it has been displayed. Although it was generated for mapping of surface lineations the map has other uses, particularly analysis of the glacial drift in Michigan.

  14. Electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock for geological disposal studies of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Ermutlu, M. [Nokia Research Center, Helsinki (Finland); Flykt, M.; Lindell, I.; Nikoskinen, K.; Sihvola, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Electromagnetics Lab.

    1998-04-01

    In the report, the results of a joint research project carried out in 1991-1997 by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the Electromagnetics Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Technology are presented. The main purpose was to create computational models for electric potential responses when the medium is anisotropic and is bounded by a perfect magnetic conductor, a perfect electric conductor, and an anisotropic impedance surface. Furthermore, the geometry of two anisotropic half spaces and a layered medium were considered. The solutions of the problems were made using image theory. For modeling the electric potential in anisotropic medium with inhomogeneities, an integral equation was formulated. Also a wedge structure was treated as an extension to the traditional two parallel plate model of fracture geometry. The equivalentization of fracturing with anisotropy is a research area that still continues that still continues 46 refs. The publication contains also fourteen previous publications by authors

  15. Plastic flow properties and fracture toughness characterization of unirradiated and irradiated tempered martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spätig, P.; Bonadé, R.; Odette, G. R.; Rensman, J. W.; Campitelli, E. N.; Mueller, P.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the plastic flow properties at low and high temperature of the tempered martensitic steel Eurofer97. We show that below room temperature, where the Peierls friction on the screw dislocation is active, it is necessary to modify the usual Taylor's equation between the flow stress and the square root of the dislocation density and to include explicitly the Peierls friction stress in the equation. Then, we compare the fracture properties of the Eurofer97 with those of the F82H steel. A clear difference of the fracture toughness-temperature behavior was found in the low transition region. The results indicate a sharper transition for Eurofer97 than for the F82H. Finally, the shift of the median toughness-temperature curve of the F82H steel was determined after two neutron irradiations performed in the High Flux Reactor in Petten.

  16. Characterization and prevention of formation damage for fractured carbonate reservoir formations with low permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Yong; Yan Jienian

    2008-01-01

    Stress sensitivity and water blocking in fractured carbonate reservoir formations with low permeability were determined as the main potential damage mechanisms during drilling and completion operations in the ancient buried hill Ordovician reservoirs in the Tarim Basin. Geological structure,lithology, porosity, permeability and mineral components all affect the potential for formation damage.The experimental results showed that the permeability loss was 83.8%-98.6% caused by stress sensitivity,and was 27.9%-48.1% caused by water blocking. Based on the experimental results, several main conclusions concerning stress sensitivity can be drawn as follows: the lower the core permeability and the smaller the core fracture width, the higher the stress sensitivity. Also, stress sensitivity results in lag effect for both permeability recovery and fracture closure. Aimed at the mechanisms of formation damage, a modified low-damage mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid system was developed,which was mainly composed of low-fluorescence shale control agent, filtration control agent, lowfluorescence lubricant and surfactant. The results of experimental evaluation and field test showed that the newly-developed drilling fluid and engineering techniques provided could dramatically increase the return permeability (over 85%) of core samples. This drilling fluid had such advantages as good rheological and lubricating properties, high temperature stability, and low filtration rate (API filtration less than 5 ml after aging at 120 ℃ for 4 hours). Therefore, fractured carbonate formations with low permeability could be protected effectively when drilling with the newly-developed drilling fluid.Meanwhile, field test showed that both penetration rate and bore stability were improved and the soaking time of the drilling fluid with formation was sharply shortened, indicating that the modified MMH drilling fluid could meet the requirements of drilling engineering and geology.

  17. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2004-08-01

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling and analysis partitioning interwell tracer tests in heterogeneous and fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects. The approach is very fast and avoids much of the subjective judgments and time-consuming trial-and-errors associated with manual history matching. We demonstrate the power and utility of our approach using a synthetic example and two field examples. Finally, we discuss several alternative ways of using partitioning interwell tracer tests (PITTs) in oil fields for the calculation of oil saturation, swept pore volume and sweep efficiency, and assess the accuracy of such tests under a variety of reservoir conditions.

  18. 破胶—絮凝—深度氧化法处理残余压裂液实验研究%Experimental research on residual fracturing fluid of gel breaking-coagulation-advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 徐良伟; 刘源; 白波

    2012-01-01

    The residual fracturing fluid after fracturing operation from Shengli Oilfield is characterized by high COD, viscosity and turbidity. Gel breaking-coagulation-advanced oxidation process has been used for treating the residual fracturing fluid. The gel-breaker, inorganic coagulants, organic flocculants, which have excellent characteristics, and advanced oxidation system have been screened out and the optimum experimental conditions ascertained. Finally, the indoor treatment formula of residual fraws:0.5 g of JPC, 0.25 g of polyaluminum, 3 mL of polyacrylamide solution,and 5 mL of Fenton reagent[n(FeSO4·7H2O) : n(H2O2)=8:l ]. The indoor experiment results indicate that the pollutants in the treated residual fracturing fluid have dropped significantly. Except COD, all other pollutants are much lower than these of the second class of Standard GB 8978-1996.%胜利油田压裂作业后产生的残余压裂液具有COD、黏度、浊度高的特点,采用破胶—絮凝—深度氧化法来处理残余压裂液.筛选出性能优良的破胶剂、无机混凝剂、有机絮凝剂和深度氧化体系并确定最佳实验条件,最终得到胜利油田残余压裂液室内处理配方:每100 mL残余压裂液需加破胶剂JPC 0.5 g、聚铝0.25 g、聚丙烯酰胺溶液3 mL、5 mL Fenton试剂[n(FeSO4· 7H2O)∶n( H2O2)=8∶1].室内实验结果表明:处理后残余压裂液的各项污染物大幅下降,除COD外,其余污染物含量已经远低于GB 8978-1996的Ⅱ级排放标准.

  19. Optical design and characterization of an advanced computational imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, R. Hamilton; Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Raskar, Ramesh; Shi, Boxin; Barsi, Christopher; Zhao, Hang

    2014-09-01

    We describe an advanced computational imaging system with an optical architecture that enables simultaneous and dynamic pupil-plane and image-plane coding accommodating several task-specific applications. We assess the optical requirement trades associated with custom and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) optics and converge on the development of two low-cost and robust COTS testbeds. The first is a coded-aperture programmable pixel imager employing a digital micromirror device (DMD) for image plane per-pixel oversampling and spatial super-resolution experiments. The second is a simultaneous pupil-encoded and time-encoded imager employing a DMD for pupil apodization or a deformable mirror for wavefront coding experiments. These two testbeds are built to leverage two MIT Lincoln Laboratory focal plane arrays - an orthogonal transfer CCD with non-uniform pixel sampling and on-chip dithering and a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) with advanced on-chip per-pixel processing capabilities. This paper discusses the derivation of optical component requirements, optical design metrics, and performance analyses for the two testbeds built.

  20. Autofluorescence characterization of advanced glycation end products of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam; Bijukumar, Gopalakrishnapillai; Karmakar, Nivedita; Anand, Sneh; Misra, Anoop

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the analysis of autofluorescence of advanced glycation end products of hemoglobin (Hb-AGE). Formed as a result of slow, spontaneous and non-enzymatic glycation reactions, Hb-AGE possesses a characteristic autofluorescence at 308/345 nm (lambda(ex)/lambda(em)). Even in the presence of heme as a quenching molecule, the surface presence of the glycated adduct gave rise to autofluorescence with the quantum yield of 0.19. The specificity of monoclonal antibody developed against common AGE structure with Hb-AGE was demonstrated using reduction in fluorescence polarization value due to increased molecular volume while binding. The formation of fluorescent adduct in hemoglobin in the advanced stage of glycation and the non-fluorescent HbA(1c) will be of major use in distinguishing and to know the past status of diabetes mellitus. While autofluorescence correlated highly with HbA(1c) value under in vivo condition (r = 0.85), it was moderate in the clinical samples (r = 0.55). The results suggest a non-linear relation between glycemia and glycation, indicating the application of Hb-AGE as a measure of susceptibility to glycation rather than glycation itself.

  1. SR-1447 Fracture Mechanics Characterization of Aluminum Alloys for Marine Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    plus en plus les alliages d’aluminium dans la construction maritime. Dans le cadre du projet SR-1447 du SSC, on a donné un contrat à la société...1447), on a donné un contrat à la société Fracture Technology Associates pour qu’elle caractérise, grâce à des expériences de mécanique de la rupture...alloys (See Annex A). Dirats Laboratories was contracted to provide the following services : 1. 3 chemical analysis (one for each alloy) 2. 18 tensile

  2. Materials characterization and fracture mechanics of a space grade dielectric silicone insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, A. I.; Tweedie, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the DC 93-500 high voltage silicone insulation material employed to pot the gun and the collector end of a traveling wave tube (TWT) used on the Landsat D Satellite. The fracture mechanics behavior of the silicone resin was evaluated by measuring the slow crack velocity as a function of the opening mode of the stress intensity factor at +25 and -10 C, taking into account various uniaxial discrete strain values. It was found that the silicone resins slow crack growth is faster than that for a high voltage insulation polyurethane material at the same stress intensity factor value and room temperature.

  3. Advances in characterizing ubiquitylation sites by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvestersen, K.B.; Young, C.; Nielsen, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    The attachment of one or more ubiquitin moieties to proteins plays a central regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Protein ubiquitylation regulates numerous cellular processes, including protein degradation, signal transduction, DNA repair and cell division. The characterization of ubiquityla......The attachment of one or more ubiquitin moieties to proteins plays a central regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Protein ubiquitylation regulates numerous cellular processes, including protein degradation, signal transduction, DNA repair and cell division. The characterization......-scale identification of ubiquitylation sites by peptide-level enrichment strategies. The discovery that ubiquitylation is a widespread modification similar to phosphorylation and acetylation suggests cross-talk may also occur at the post translational modification level. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  4. Characterization of UMT2013 Performance on Advanced Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Louis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents part of a larger effort to make detailed assessments of several proxy applications on various advanced architectures, with the eventual goal of extending these assessments to codes of programmatic interest running more realistic simulations. The focus here is on UMT2013, a proxy implementation of deterministic transport for unstructured meshes. I present weak and strong MPI scaling results and studies of OpenMP efficiency on the Sequoia BG/Q system at LLNL, with comparison against similar tests on an Intel Sandy Bridge TLCC2 system. The hardware counters on BG/Q provide detailed information on many aspects of on-node performance, while information from the mpiP tool gives insight into the reasons for the differing scaling behavior on these two different architectures. Preliminary tests that exploit NVRAM as extended memory on an Ivy Bridge machine designed for “Big Data” applications are also included.

  5. A Site Characterization Protocol for Evaluating the Potential for Triggered or Induced Seismicity Resulting from Wastewater Injection and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Zoback, M. D.; Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Beroza, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory and governmental agencies, individual companies and industry groups and others have recently proposed, or are developing, guidelines aimed at reducing the risk associated with earthquakes triggered by waste water injection or hydraulic fracturing. While there are a number of elements common to the guidelines proposed, not surprisingly, there are also some significant differences among them and, in a number of cases, important considerations that are not addressed. The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive protocol for site characterization based on a rigorous scientific understanding of the responsible processes. Topics addressed will include the geologic setting (emphasizing faults that might be affected), historical seismicity, hydraulic characterization of injection and adjacent intervals, geomechanical characterization to identify potentially active faults, plans for seismic monitoring and reporting, plans for monitoring and reporting injection (pressure, volumes, and rates), other factors contributing to risk (potentially affected population centers, structures, and facilities), and implementing a modified Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The guidelines will be risk based and adaptable, rather than prescriptive, for a proposed activity and region of interest. They will be goal oriented and will rely, to the degree possible, on established best practice procedures, referring to existing procedures and recommendations. By developing a risk-based site characterization protocol, we hope to contribute to the development of rational and effective measures for reducing the risk posed by activities that potentially trigger earthquakes.

  6. Characterization of an injectable, degradable polymer for mechanical stabilization of mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Allan M; Yoon, Diana M; Lu, Benjamin Y; Yu, Joseph; Arango, Andrew A; Marruffo, Liann P; Seng, Luke; Anver, Tamir D; Ather, Hunaiza; Nair, Manitha B; Piper, Sean O; Demian, Nagi; Wong, Mark E K; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the use of injectable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) formulations for mandibular fracture stabilization applications. A full factorial design with main effects analysis was employed to evaluate the effects of the PPF:N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP, crosslinking agent) ratio and dimethyl toluidine (DMT, accelerator) concentration on key physicochemical properties including setting time, maximum temperature, mechanical properties, sol fraction, and swelling ratio. Additionally, the effects of formulation crosslinking time on the mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The results showed that increasing the PPF:NVP ratio from 3:1 to 4:1 or decreasing the DMT concentration from 0.05 to 0.01 v/w % significantly decreased all mechanical properties as well as significantly increased the sol fraction and swelling ratio. Also, increasing the crosslinking time at 37°C from 1 to 7 days significantly increased all mechanical properties and decreased both the sol fraction and swelling ratio. This study further showed that the flexural stiffness of ex vivo stabilized rabbit mandibles increased from 1.7 ± 0.3 N/mm with a traditional mini-plate fixator to 14.5 ± 4.1 N/mm for the 4:1 (0.05 v/w % DMT) PPF formulation at day 1. Overall, the formulations tested in this study were found to have properties suitable for potential further consideration in mandibular fracture fixation applications.

  7. Characterizing a fractured aquifer in Mexico using geological attributes related to open-pit groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Enrique; Garfias, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    A multivariable analysis of the Rock Quality Designation ( RQD) and its relation with the hydraulic conductivity of 17 dewatering wells in an open-pit mine (central Mexico) is presented as a tool for groundwater exploration in fractured aquifers. A solid model was constructed with the RQD data using three sizes for each grid cell and four interpolation methods. The inverse-distance method with a small grid gives the best results. The resulting RQD solid model was used to locate 22 pilot holes, on which an air-lift test was performed as a qualitative assessment of their usefulness. The results showed a lower water production (1.8 l/s) in shale that has low alteration, whereas in highly altered shale, breccias, and intrusive rock, the flow rate was 3.9 l/s. This implies an important relationship between the pilot-hole performance, the lithology, and the rock alteration, but it was also found that some fractures or faults, which cannot be detected clearly by the RQD, play an important role in the hydrodynamics of the aquifer. In conclusion, it is necessary to consider all available factors that can help to identify the hydrodynamic behavior of the aquifer because using only RQD data can lead to errors in prospecting for groundwater.

  8. Characterization of the role of heterogeneous advection and diffusion on transport in weathered and fractured granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, N.; Boisson, A.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Marechal, J.; Nigon, B.; Wajiddudin, M.; Ahmed, S.

    2013-12-01

    The prediction of transport in weathered and fractured rocks is critical as it represents the primary control of contaminant transfer from the subsurface in many parts of the world. This is the case in Southern India, where the subsurface is composed mainly of weathered and fractured granite and where the overexploitation of the groundwater resource since the 70's has led to high water table depletion and strong groundwater quality deterioration. One key issue for modelling transport in such systems is to quantify the respective role of advective heterogeneities and matrix diffusion, which can both lead to strongly non Fickian transport properties. We investigate this question by analysing tracer test experiments performed under different flow configurations at a fractured granite experimental site located in Andhra Pradesh (India). We performed both convergent and push-pull tracer tests within the same fracture and at different scales. Three convergent tracer tests were performed with a solution of fluorescein for different pumping rate and for different distances between injection and pumping boreholes: 6, 30 and 41 meters. To evaluate diffusive process, we performed two long-duration push-pull tests (push time of 3 hours) with a solution of two conservative tracers of different diffusion coefficient (fluorescein and sodium chloride). We performed also six others push-pull tests with only fluorescein but for a variable push times of 14 min and 55 min with or without resting time of about 60 min. The late-time behaviour on the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained for all convergent tracer tests showed a power-law slope of -2. Two of them showed an inflexion in the BTCs suggesting the existence of two independent flow paths and thus a highly channelized flow. The long-duration push-pull tests showed similar late-time behaviour with a power-law slope of -2.2 for both tracers. The six others push-pull tests showed a variation of power-law exponent from -3 to -2

  9. Advanced characterization of microscopic kidney biopsies utilizing image analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudas, Theodosios; Doukas, Charalampos; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Correct annotation and identification of salient regions in Kidney biopsy images can provide an estimation of pathogenesis in obstructive nephropathy. This paper presents a tool for the automatic or manual segmentation of such regions along with methodology for their characterization in terms of the exhibited pathology. The proposed implementation is based on custom code written in Java and the utilization of open source tools (i.e. RapidMiner, ImageJ). The corresponding implementation details along with the initial evaluation of the proposed integrated system are also presented in the paper.

  10. Advanced Modelling and Functional Characterization of B2 Bradykinin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (giant hives is an autosomal dominant malady characterized by repetitive episodes of probably life-threatening angioedema due to a partial deficiency of C1 inhibitor. B2 Bradykinin Receptor's (BKRB2 amino acid sequence is deposited within UniProt under accession number P30411. The Physicochemical properties of BKRB2 sequence are determined by using ProtParam. BKRB2's secondary structure was predicted through PROTEUS. Pfam domain was used for functional characterization of BKRB2. PSI-BLAST was used to find homologs of known structure. Modelling by satisfaction of spatial restraints, either uses distance geometry or optimization techniques to satisfy spatial restraints performed by MODELLER. The quality of the generated model was evaluated with PROCHECK by Ramachandran plot analysis. Validation of the generated models was further performed by WHAT IF. ProSA was used for the analysis of Z-scores and energy plots. The 3D structures of the modeled proteins were analyzed using UCSF Chimera. Clustal Omega is used for multiple sequence alignment that uses seeded guide trees and HMM profile-profile techniques to generate alignments.

  11. Advanced reflector characterization with ultrasonic phased arrays in NDE applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Paul D; Holmes, Caroline; Drinkwater, Bruce W

    2007-08-01

    Ultrasonic arrays are increasingly widely used in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their greater flexibility and potentially superior performance compared to conventional monolithic probes. The characterization of small defects remains a challenge for NDE and is of great importance for determining the impact of a defect on the integrity of a structure. In this paper, a technique for characterizing reflectors with subwavelength dimensions is described. This is achieved by post-processing the complete data set of time traces obtained from an ultrasonic array using two algorithms. The first algorithm is used to obtain information about reflector orientation and the second algorithm is used to distinguish between point-like reflectors that reflect uniformly in all directions and specular reflectors that have distinct orientations. Experimental results are presented using a commercial 64-element, 5-MHZ array on two aluminum test specimens that contain a number of machined slots and side-drilled holes. The results show that the orientation of 1-mm-long slots can be determined to within a few degrees and that the signals from 1-mm-long slots can be distinguished from that from a 1-mm-diameter circular hole. Techniques for quantifying both the orientation and the specularity of measured signals are presented and the effect of processing parameters on the accuracy of results is discussed.

  12. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  13. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Steven Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  14. Fracture Toughness, Mechanical Property, And Chemical Characterization Of A Critical Modification To The NASA SLS Solid Booster Internal Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoast, Justin; Garrett, William; Moe, Gulia

    2015-01-01

    A modified propellant-liner-insulation (PLI) bondline in the Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket booster required characterization for flight certification. The chemical changes to the PLI bondline and the required additional processing have been correlated to mechanical responses of the materials across the bondline. Mechanical properties testing and analyses included fracture toughness, tensile, and shear tests. Chemical properties testing and analyses included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cross-link density, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and wave dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The testing identified the presence of the expected new materials and found the functional bondline performance of the new PLI system was not significantly changed from the old system.

  15. Effects of simplifying fracture network representation on inert chemical migration in fracture-controlled aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, T.P.; Shapiro, A.M.; Hill, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    While it is widely recognized that highly permeable 'large-scale' fractures dominate chemical migration in many fractured aquifers, recent studies suggest that the pervasive 'small-scale' fracturing once considered of less significance can be equally important for characterizing the spatial extent and residence time associated with transport processes. A detailed examination of chemical migration through fracture-controlled aquifers is used to advance this conceptual understanding. The influence of fracture structure is evaluated by quantifying the effects to transport caused by a systematic removal of fractures from three-dimensional discrete fracture models whose attributes are derived from geologic and hydrologic conditions at multiple field sites. Results indicate that the effects to transport caused by network simplification are sensitive to the fracture network characteristics, degree of network simplification, and plume travel distance, but primarily in an indirect sense since correlation to individual attributes is limited. Transport processes can be 'enhanced' or 'restricted' from network simplification meaning that the elimination of fractures may increase or decrease mass migration, mean travel time, dispersion, and tailing of the concentration plume. The results demonstrate why, for instance, chemical migration may not follow the classic advection-dispersion equation where dispersion approximates the effect of the ignored geologic structure as a strictly additive process to the mean flow. The analyses further reveal that the prediction error caused by fracture network simplification is reduced by at least 50% using the median estimate from an ensemble of simplified fracture network models, and that the error from network simplification is at least 70% less than the stochastic variability from multiple realizations. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Advanced Metrology for Characterization of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel

    solutions to take products to the next node and the field of memory technology is no exception. Over the past decade research and development in a novel, non-volatile memory type known as MRAM has intensified, and commercial MRAM devices are now available. MRAM holds an extremely favorable position......-plane tunneling (CIPT) for characterization of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), which constitutes the key component not only in MRAM but also the read-heads of modern hard disk drives. MTJs are described by their tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), which is the relative difference of the resistance area products (RA...... the turn-around time for measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions shortened dramatically from two days to one or two minutes. As one happy user put it, it was like going from a tricycle to a Ferrari in one step, and the tool is now in use in all major memory companies throughout the world. However...

  17. Characterization of PTFE Using Advanced Thermal Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumm, J.; Lindemann, A.; Meyer, M.; Strasser, C.

    2010-10-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in numerous industrial applications. It is often referred to by its trademark name, Teflon. Thermal characterization of a PTFE material was carried out using various thermal analysis and thermophysical properties test techniques. The transformation energetics and specific heat were measured employing differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal expansion and the density changes were determined employing pushrod dilatometry. The viscoelastic properties (storage and loss modulus) were analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash technique. Combining thermal diffusivity data with specific heat and density allows calculation of the thermal conductivity of the polymer. Measurements were carried out from - 125 °C up to 150 °C. Additionally, measurements of the mechanical properties were carried out down to - 170 °C. The specific heat tests were conducted into the fully molten regions up to 370 °C.

  18. Advances in the analysis and characterization of DLC coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido-Gonzalez, V.; Hampshire, J.; Jones, A.H.S.; Allen, T.J.; Witts, J.; Teer, D.G.; Pierret, B. [Teer Coatings Ltd., Hartlebury Trading Estate, Worcestershire (United Kingdom)

    1998-01-01

    A series of new DLC coatings have been produced by magnetron sputtering using standard in-house equipment. Different tests have been carried out for the analysis and characterization of the coatings. By combining ball cratering with pin-on-disc, standard scratch and multiscratch tests, interesting information has been obtained (failure mechanism, wear properties, etc.). In addition, in combination with ball cratering, a novel method has been developed for the assessment of the refractive index of transparent and semi-transparent DLC films. In the pin-on-disc and multiscratch tests, the conductivity of the film was used to follow the wear progression (DLC has a relatively low electrical conductivity). This device can show local failures produced in the coating (indicated by an increase of film conductivity) which normally remains undetected in a frictional record. (orig.) 14 refs.

  19. Carbon nanotube catalysts: recent advances in synthesis, characterization and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yibo; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Zhihong; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Yang, Hong Bin; Liu, Bin; Yang, Yanhui

    2015-05-21

    Carbon nanotubes are promising materials for various applications. In recent years, progress in manufacturing and functionalizing carbon nanotubes has been made to achieve the control of bulk and surface properties including the wettability, acid-base properties, adsorption, electric conductivity and capacitance. In order to gain the optimal benefit of carbon nanotubes, comprehensive understanding on manufacturing and functionalizing carbon nanotubes ought to be systematically developed. This review summarizes methodologies of manufacturing carbon nanotubes via arc discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapor deposition and functionalizing carbon nanotubes through surface oxidation and activation, doping of heteroatoms, halogenation, sulfonation, grafting, polymer coating, noncovalent functionalization and nanoparticle attachment. The characterization techniques detecting the bulk nature and surface properties as well as the effects of various functionalization approaches on modifying the surface properties for specific applications in catalysis including heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis and electrocatalysis are highlighted.

  20. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.; Rosensteel, B.; Awl, D. [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action.

  1. Characterization of thermal tracer tests and heat exchanges in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Le Lay, Hugo; Koch, Florian; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Lavenant, Nicolas; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source particularly attractive due to associated low greenhouse gas emission rates. Crystalline rocks are in general considered of poor interest for geothermal applications at shallow depths (loop heat exchanger (standing column well). For doing so, several heat tracer tests have been achieved along a borehole between two connected fractures. The heat tracer tests have been achieved at the experimental site of Ploemeur (H+ observatory network). The tracer tests consist in monitoring the temperature in the upper fracture while injecting hot water in the deeper one thanks to a field boiler. For such an experimental setup, the main difficulty to interpret the data comes from the requirement for separating the temperature advective signal of the tracer test (temperature recovery) from the heat increase due to injection of hot water through the borehole which induces heat losses all along the injection tube in the water column. For doing so, in addition to a double straddle packer used for isolating the injection chamber, the particularity of the experimental set up is the use of fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS); an innovative technology which allows spatial and temporal monitoring of the temperature all along the well. Thanks to this tool, we were able to estimate heat increases coming from diffusion along the injection tube which is found much lower than localized temperature increases resulting from tracer test recovery. With local temperatures probes, separating both effects would not have been feasible. We also show through signal processing how diffusive and advective effects may be differentiated. This allowed us to estimate temperature recovery for different heat tracer durations and setups. In particular we show that temperature recovery is highly dependent on hydraulic configuration such as perfect dipole or fully convergent heat tracer tests.

  2. Development and characterization of advanced electron beam resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankur

    Over the past twenty years, the amount of research and development work for electron beam resists has seriously lagged that performed for optical resists. This has been due mainly to the relatively low volume use of electron beam lithography for production purposes. However, as electron beam lithography is now becoming the primary solution for achieving future critical dimension requirements in mask making and appears to be a promising NGL technology, interest in electron beam resist development has increased in recent years. The primary issue in electron beam resist design centers around finding a single resist system that combines the required sensitivity and etch resistance that is needed to enable high volume production. In this work, the primary goal was to explore the development of a novel two-component non-chemically amplified electron beam resist material for high keV (>10 keV) patterning for mask-making with: (1) high contrast, (2) high sensitivity, (3) high resolution, and, (4) high etch resistance. Poly (2-methyl-1-pentene co 2-ethoxyethyl-methallyl ether sulfone) was used as a polymeric e-beam sensitive material conjunction with a series of commercial novolac resins to formulate electron beam resists. These two-component resists have been termed sulfone-novolac system (SNS) resists. The approach used in this project is to develop a suite of experimental tools and simulation models that can be used to aid in the rational design, formulation, and characterization of new electron beam resists. The main tasks that have been addressed are: (1) development of the electron beam resist characterization tool set, (2) understanding the fundamental material behavior of a non-chemically amplified polysulfone-novolac (SNS) e-beam resist for next generation mask making, (3) lithographic process development and optimization for the SNS resists, (4) evaluation of the lithographic performance of the SNS resists using the optimized processing conditions, and (5) develop

  3. Production and characterization of antibodies to advanced glycation products on proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, H; Taneda, S; Kuwajima, S; Aoki, S; Kuroda, Y; Misawa, K; Nakagawa, S

    1989-07-31

    Antibodies directed against advanced glycation products formed during Maillard reaction have been generated and characterized. These antibodies reacted specifically with advanced glycation products in common among proteins incubated with glucose, but not early-stage compounds such as a Schiff base adduct and Amadori rearrangement products. Incubation of bovine serum albumin with glucose caused a time-related increase in immunoreactivity and a concomitant increase in fluorescence intensity. These antibodies may serve as a useful tool to elucidate pathophysiological roles of advanced Maillard reaction in diabetic complications and aging processes.

  4. Recent advances on separation and characterization of human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are unique due to their highly complex nature and important emerging biological and protective functions during early life such as prebiotic activity, pathogen deflection, and epithelial and immune cell modulation. Moreover, four genetically determined heterogeneous HMO secretory groups are known to be based on their structure and composition. Over the years, several analytical techniques have been applied to characterize and quantitate HMOs, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high pH anion-exchange chromatography, off-line and on-line mass spectrometry (MS), and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Even if these techniques have proven to be efficient and simple, most glycans have no significant UV absorption and derivatization with fluorophore groups prior to separation usually results in higher sensitivity and an improved chromatographic/electrophoretic profile. Consequently, the analysis by HPLC/CE of derivatized milk oligosaccharides with different chromophoric active tags has been developed. However, UV or fluorescence detection does not provide specific structural information and this is a key point in particular related to the highly complex nature of the milk glycan mixtures. As a consequence, for a specific determination of complex mixtures of oligomers, analytical separation is usually required with evaluation by means of MS, which has been successfully applied to HMOs, resulting in efficient compositional analysis and profiling in various milk samples. This review aims to give an overview of the current state-of-the-art techniques used in HMO analysis.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of advanced neutron multipliers for DEMO blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Nakamichi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prototypic pebbles with Be12V composition, which do not undergo a peritectic reaction during cooling, were fabricated and characterized, because this composition is not only unnecessary for the homogenization treatment, but also able to prevent increase of specific surface area. The results of granulation experiments indicated that the prototypic pebbles of single-phase Be12V were successfully fabricated without a homogenization treatment. The results of hydrogen generation reaction experiments showed that the prototypic pebbles with Be12V composition exhibited superior oxidation properties compared to pure Be pebbles and similar to those of as-granulated Be–Ti beryllide pebbles: as-granulated Be12V pebbles exhibited good resistance to water vapor. The results of deuterium retention experiments indicated that beryllides exhibit lower deuterium-trapping efficiency than other tested materials. Because of a small desorption from beryllides, the total retention of deuterium in Be12V was evaluated to be approximately 20% of that in pure Be.

  6. Solid-Liquid Interface Characterization Hardware: Advanced Technology Development (ATD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, R. C.; Sen, S.; Kaukler, W. F.; Curreri, Peter A.; Wang, F. C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This ATD has the goal of enabling the integration of three separate measurement techniques to characterize the solid-liquid interface of directionally solidified materials in real-time. Arrays of film-based metal thermocouple elements are under development along with compact Seebeck furnaces suitable for interfacing with separately developed X-ray Transmission Microscopes. Results of applying film arrays to furnace profiling are shown, demonstrating their ability to identify a previously undetected hardware flaw in the development of a second-generation compact furnace. Results of real-time furnace profiling also confirmed that the compact furnace design effectively isolates the temperature profiles in two halves of the furnace, a necessary feature. This isolation had only been inferred previously from the characteristics of Seebeck data reported. Results from a 24-thermocouple array successfully monitoring heating and isothermal cooling of a tin sample are shown. The importance of non-intrusion by the arrays, as well as furnace design, on the profiling of temperature gradients is illustrated with example measurements. Further developments underway for effectively combining all three measurements are assessed in terms of improved x-ray transmission, increased magnification, integral arrays with minimum intrusion, integral scales for velocity measurements and other features being incorporated into the third generation Seebeck furnace under construction.

  7. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

    2009-09-01

    Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

  8. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  9. Recent advances in processing and characterization of edgeless detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Kalliopuska, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2012-02-01

    During past five years VTT has actively developed edgeless detector fabrication process. The straightforward and high yield process relies on ion-implantation to activate the edges of the detector. A recent fabrication process was performed at VTT to provide p-on-n edgeless detectors. The layout contained DC- and AC-coupled strip detector and pixel detectors for Medipix/Timepix readouts. The fabricated detector thicknesses were 50, 100 and 150 μm. Electrical characterization was done for 5 × 5 mm2 edgeless diodes on wafer level. All measured electrical parameters showed a dramatic dependence on the diode thickness. Leakage current was measured below 10 nA/cm2 at full depletion. Calculation using a theoretical approximation indicates the diode surface generation current of less than 300 pA. The breakdown voltages were measured to be above 140 V and increased as a function of diode thickness. Reverse bias of 10 V is enough to fully deplete designed edgeless diodes. Leakage current dependence of temperature was investigated for both p-on-n and previous n-on-n edgeless detectors and results show that the leakage current doubles for every 8.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature. TCAD device simulations reveal that breakdown occurs at the lateral p-n junction where the electric field reaches its highest value. Thick edgeless diodes have wider bulk space that allows electric potential to drop and causes smaller curvature of the equipotential lines. This releases the accumulation of electric field at the corner of anode and increases the breakdown voltage. A good match of the simulated and the measured capacitance-voltage curves enables identification of proper parameters used in the simulation.

  10. Quantifying Fracture Heterogeneity in Different Domains of Folded Carbonate Rocks to Improve Fractured Reservoir Analog Fluid Flow Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Gauthier, B.D.M.; Hardebol, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs is largely controlled by multiscale fracture networks. Significant variations of fracture network porosity and permeability are caused by the 3D heterogeneity of the fracture network characteristics, such as intensity, orientation and size. Characterizing fracture

  11. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-12-31

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have investigated the relative merits of the traditional history matching ('amplitude inversion') and a novel travel time inversion in terms of robustness of the method and convergence behavior of the solution. We show that the traditional amplitude inversion is orders of magnitude more non-linear and the solution here is likely to get trapped in local minimum, leading to inadequate history match. The proposed travel time inversion is shown to be extremely efficient and robust for practical field applications. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects

  12. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.

    2012-04-01

    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  13. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    performance. Reversible-addition fragmentation polymerization techniques were employed to create a new class of acrylic-alkyd hybrid materials. Medium and long oil alkyds made from the monoglyceride process using soybean oil, glycerol, and phthalic anhydride were modified with a RAFT chain transfer agent. The alkyd macro-RAFT agents were reached by end-capping a medium oil soya-based alkyd with a carboxy-functional trithiocarbonate. The alkyd macro-RAFT agents were then used to create acrylic-alkyd block structures by polymerizing different acrylic monomers, including both acrylates and methacrylates in the presence of the macro-RAFT agent and 2, 2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). Co-acrylic segments were reached by complete polymerization of one monomer followed by the addition of a second monomer and additional free radical initiator. The alkyds, macro-RAFT agents and, acrylic-alkyd blocks were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), FTIR, and 1H-NMR. Pseudo-first-order kinetics behavior and conversion vs. molecular weight plots show that the RAFT-mediated reaction afforded a more controlled process for the synthesis of acrylated-alkyd materials. Preliminary coatings tests showed that material properties of acrylated-alkyds achieved by RAFT polymerization exhibit good overall coatings properties including adhesion, gloss, hardness, and impact resistance.

  14. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FRACTURE WORK FOR DUCTILE FILM UNDERGOING THE MICRO-SCRATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏悦广; 赵满洪; 唐山

    2002-01-01

    The interface adhesion strength (or interface toughness) of a thinfilm/substrate system is often assessed by the micro-scratch test. For a brittle filmmaterial, the interface adhesion strength is easily obtained through measuring thescratch driving forces. However, to measure the interface adhesion strength (or in-terface toughness) for a metal thin film material (the ductile material) by the micro-scratch test is very difficult, because intense plastic deformation is involved and theproblem is a three-dimensional elastic-plastic one. In the present research, usinga double-cohesive zone model, the failure characteristics of the thin film/substratesystem can be described and further simulated. For a steady-state scratching pro-cess, a three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method based on the doublecohesive zone model is developed and adopted, and the steady-state fracture workof the total system is calculated. The parameter relations between the horizontaldriving forces (or energy release rate of the scratching process) and the separationstrength of thin film/substrate interface, and the material shear strength, as well asthe material parameters are developed. Furthermore, a scratch experiment for theAl/Si film/substrate system is carried out and the failure mechanisms are explored.Finally, the prediction results are applied to a scratch experiment for the Pt/NiOmaterial system given in the literature.

  16. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2003-08-01

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have adopted an integrated approach whereby we combine data from multiple sources to minimize the uncertainty and non-uniqueness in the interpreted results. For partitioning interwell tracer tests, these are primarily the distribution of reservoir permeability and oil saturation distribution. A novel approach to multiscale data integration using Markov Random Fields (MRF) has been developed to integrate static data sources from the reservoir such as core, well log and 3-D seismic data. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, the behavior of partitioning tracer tests in fractured reservoirs is investigated using a dual-porosity finite-difference model.

  17. Characterization of Fatty Acid Composition in Bone Marrow Fluid From Postmenopausal Women: Modification After Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Melissa; Pino, Ana María; Fuenzalida, Karen; Rosen, Clifford J; Seitz, Germán; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is associated with low bone mass, although the functional consequences for skeletal maintenance of increased BMAT are currently unclear. BMAT might have a role in systemic energy metabolism, and could be an energy source as well as an endocrine organ for neighboring bone cells, releasing cytokines, adipokines and free fatty acids into the bone marrow microenvironment. The aim of the present report was to compare the fatty acid composition in the bone marrow supernatant fluid (BMSF) and blood plasma of postmenopausal women women (65-80 years old). BMSF was obtained after spinning the aspirated bone marrow samples; donors were classified as control, osteopenic or osteoporotic after dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total lipids from human bone marrow fluid and plasma were extracted, converted to the corresponding methyl esters, and finally analyzed by a gas chromatographer coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results showed that fatty acid composition in BMSF was dynamic and distinct from blood plasma, implying significance in the locally produced lipids. The fatty acid composition in the BMSF was enriched in saturated fatty acid and decreased in unsaturated fatty acids as compared to blood plasma, but this relationship switched in women who suffered a hip fracture. On the other hand, there was no relationship between BMSF and bone mineral density. In conclusion, lipid composition of BMSF is distinct from the circulatory compartment, most likely reflecting the energy needs of the marrow compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2370-2376, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Advanced approaches for the characterization of a de novo designed antiparallel coiled coil peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagel, K; Seeger, K; Seiwert, B; Villa, Alessandra; Mark, AE; Berger, S; Koksch, B

    2005-01-01

    We report here an advanced approach for the characterization of the folding pattern of a de novo designed antiparallel coiled coil peptide by high-resolution methods. Incorporation of two fluorescence labels at the C- and N-terminus of the peptide chain as well as modi. cation of two hydrophobic cor

  19. Advanced approaches to characterize the human intestinal microbiota by computational meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkilä, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2010-01-01

    GOALS: We describe advanced approaches for the computational meta-analysis of a collection of independent studies, including over 1000 phylogenetic array datasets, as a means to characterize the variability of human intestinal microbiota. BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiota is a complex micr

  20. Fractures in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Siyi

    Rocks may be composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of a rock to be anisotropic. Coexisting fractures and layers in rock give rise to competing mechanisms of anisotropy. For example: (1) at low fracture stiffness, apparent shear-wave anisotropy induced by matrix layering can be masked or enhanced by the presence of a fracture, depending on the fracture orientation with respect to layering, and (2) compressional-wave guided modes generated by parallel fractures can also mask the presence of matrix layerings for particular fracture orientations and fracture specific stiffness. This report focuses on two anisotropic sources that are widely encountered in rock engineering: fractures (mechanical discontinuity) and matrix layering (impedance discontinuity), by investigating: (1) matrix property characterization, i.e., to determine elastic constants in anisotropic solids, (2) interface wave behavior in single-fractured anisotropic media, (3) compressional wave guided modes in parallel-fractured anisotropic media (single fracture orientation) and (4) the elastic response of orthogonal fracture networks. Elastic constants of a medium are required to understand and quantify wave propagation in anisotropic media but are affected by fractures and matrix properties. Experimental observations and analytical analysis demonstrate that behaviors of both fracture interface waves and compressional-wave guided modes for fractures in anisotropic media, are affected by fracture specific stiffness (controlled by external stresses), signal frequency and relative orientation between layerings in the matrix and fractures. A fractured layered medium exhibits: (1) fracture-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are weakly coupled; (2) isotropic behavior when fractures delay waves that are usually fast in a layered medium; and (3) matrix-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are closed and no longer delay the signal. The

  1. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  2. Characterization of the Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 Sheet Steels Using Microstructure-Based Finite Element Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, several studies conducted by automotive industry revealed the tremendous advantages of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is one of the typical representative of AHSS. This kind of materials exhibits high strength as well as high formability. Analyzing the crack behaviour in TRIP steels is a challenging task due to the microstructure level inhomogeneities between the different phases (Ferrite, Bainite, Austenite, Martensite) that constitute these materials. This paper aims at investigating the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. For this purpose, a micromechanical finite element model is developed based on the actual microstructure of a TRIP 800 steel. Uniaxial tensile tests on TRIP 800 sheet notched specimens were also conducted and tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were determined. The comparison between simulation and experimental results leads us to the conclusion that the method using microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) captures well enough the complex behavior of TRIP steels. The effect of phase transformation, which occurs during the deformation process, on the toughness is observed and discussed.

  3. Pre- and post-stimulation characterization of geothermal well GRT-1, Rittershoffen, France: insights from acoustic image logs of hard fractured rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jeanne; Genter, Albert; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Geothermal well GRT-1 (Rittershoffen, Alsace) was drilled in 2012. Its open-hole section (extending down to a depth of 2.6 km) penetrated fractured sandstones and granite. In 2013, the well was subjected to Thermal, Chemical and Hydraulic (TCH) stimulation, which improved the injectivity index fivefold. The goal of the study was to assess the impact of the stimulation by comparing pre- and post-stimulation well-logging (acoustic and temperature [T] logs) and mud-logging data. This comparison revealed modifications of almost all the natural fractures. However, not all of these fractures are associated with permeability enhancement, and the post-stimulation T logs are important for characterizing this enhancement. Chemical alteration due to mechanical erosion at the tops and bottoms of the fractures was observed in the sandstones. These zones display indications of very small new permeability after the TCH stimulation. Because a major fault zone caved extensively where it crosses the borehole, it was not imaged in the acoustic logs. However, this originally permeable zone was enhanced as demonstrated by the T logs. Based on the natural injectivity of this fault zone, hydraulic erosion and thermal microcracking of its internal quartz veins are associated with this permeability enhancement. Although local changes in the borehole wall observed in the acoustic images cannot be directly linked to the improved injectivity index, the comparison of the acoustic image logs allows for identification of fracture zones impacted by the TCH stimulation.

  4. Characterization and simulation of an exhumed fractured petroleum reservoir. Final report, March 18, 1996--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, C.B.; Nielson, D.L.; Deo, M.

    1998-12-01

    An exhumed fractured reservoir located near Alligator Ridge in central Nevada provides the basis for developing and testing different approaches for simulating fractured petroleum reservoirs. The fractured analog reservoir comprises a 90 m thickness of silty limestone and shaly interbeds within the Devonian Pilot Shale. A period of regional compression followed by ongoing basin and range extension has created faults and fractures that, in tern, have controlled the migration of both oil and gold ore-forming fluids. Open pit gold mines provide access for observing oil seepage, collecting the detailed fracture data needed to map variations in fracture intensity near faults, build discrete fracture network models and create equivalent permeability structures. Fault trace patterns mapped at the ground surface provide a foundation for creating synthetic fault trace maps using a stochastic procedure conditioned by the outcrop data. Conventional simulations of petroleum production from a 900 by 900 m sub-domain within the reservoir analog illustrate the possible influence of faults and fractures on production. The consequences of incorporating the impact of different stress states (e.g., extension, compression or lithostatic) are also explored. Simulating multiphase fluid flow using a discrete fracture, finite element simulator illustrates how faults acting as conduits might be poorly represented by the upscaling procedures used to assign equivalent permeability values within reservoir models. The parallelized reservoir simulators developed during this project provide a vehicle to evaluate when it might be necessary to incorporate very fine scale grid networks in conventional reservoir simulators or to use finely gridded discrete fracture reservoir simulators.

  5. Role of the advanced microstructures characterization in modeling of mechanical properties of AHSS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwański, Krzysztof, E-mail: kradwanski@imz.pl; Wrożyna, Andrzej, E-mail: awrozyna@imz.pl; Kuziak, Roman, E-mail: rkuziak@imz.pl

    2015-07-15

    Detailed knowledge of the fraction, morphology and chemical composition of phase constituents and their effect on the mechanical properties play a crucial role in understanding of the mechanisms influencing the properties of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). On the other hand, the most important microstructural features of these steels are characterized by different size, starting from the nano- and ending on the microscale. Therefore, a detailed characterization of the AHSS microstructure must involve many methods capable of tracing the microstructure at different scale levels. The paper presents selected capabilities of advanced analytical techniques, in combination with conventional light optical microscopy (LOM), for quantitative characterization of the microstructure developed in AHSS steels during thermomechanical processing or continuous annealing. The material used for the investigation comprised the samples of DP steel sheet produced at the industrial scale. Special emphasis was focused on the capabilities of the Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG SEM) combined with EBSD of microstructural characterization. The significance of accurate microstructure characterization for the modeling of mechanical properties of AHSS steels was demonstrated for the case of numerical calculation of the stress–strain curve in the standard tensile test. The work results indicate that such an engineering approach is useful for prediction of material properties.

  6. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  7. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Hackett, C.L.; Brown, R.L.; Collier, H.A.; Datta-Gupta, A.

    1998-10-01

    To characterize the Buena Vista Hills field, the authors have implemented methods of modeling, processing and interpretation. The modeling methods are based on deterministic and stochastic solutions. Deterministic solutions were developed in Phase 1 and applied in Phase 2 to simulate acoustic responses of laminated reservoirs. Specifically, the simulations were aimed at implementing processing techniques to correct P-wave and S-wave velocity logs for scattering effects caused by thin layering. The authors are also including a summary of the theory and the processing steps of this new method for predicting intrinsic dispersion and attenuation in Section 2. Since the objective for correcting velocity scattering effects is to predict intrinsic dispersion from velocity data, they are presenting an application to illustrate how to relate permeability anisotropy with intrinsic dispersion. Also, the theoretical solution for calculating full waveform dipole sonic that was developed in Phase 1 was applied to simulate dipole responses at different azimuthal source orientations. The results will be used to interpret the effects of anisotropy associated with the presence of vertical fractures at Buena Vista Hills. The results of the integration of core, well logs, and geology of Buena Vista Hills is also given in Section 2. The results of this integration will be considered as the input model for the inversion technique for processing production data. Section 3 summarizes accomplishments. In Section 4 the authors present a summary of the technology transfer and promotion efforts associated with this project. In the last section, they address the work to be done in the next six months and future work by applying the processing, modeling and inversion techniques developed in Phases 1 and 2 of this project.

  8. Master curve characterization of the fracture toughness behavior in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-08-01

    The fracture toughness properties of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessels were investigated by using the master curve concept. These results were compared to those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which is a commercial RPV material. The fracture toughness tests were conducted by 3-point bending with pre-cracked charpy (PCVN) specimens according to the ASTM E1921-09c standard method. The temperature dependency of the fracture toughness was steeper than those predicted by the standard master curve, while the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 steel fitted well with the standard prediction. In order to properly evaluate the fracture toughness of the Gr.4N steels, the exponential coefficient of the master curve equation was changed and the modified curve was applied to the fracture toughness test results of model alloys that have various chemical compositions. It was found that the modified curve provided a better description for the overall fracture toughness behavior and adequate T0 determination for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steels.

  9. Characterization of triboluminescent enhanced discontinuous glass–fiber composite beams for micro-damage detection and fracture assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, Tarik, E-mail: dickens@eng.fsu.edu [Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, 2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310-6046 (United States); Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc., Tallahassee, FL 32311 (United States); Armbrister, Chelsea [Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, 2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310-6046 (United States); Olawale, David [Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, 2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310-6046 (United States); Nanotechnology Patronas Group Inc., Tallahassee, FL 32311 (United States); Okoli, Okenwa [Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, 2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310-6046 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This work reports the micro-emissions of triboluminescent (TL) concentrated composites and their evaluation at the onset of damage and crack propagation. Unreinforced vinyl ester resin and discontinuous glass–fiber reinforced non-prismatic beams were fabricated incorporating 10 wt% concentration of a highly triboluminescent material (ZnS:Mn). Triboluminescent observations were seen in both two- and three-phase composite systems throughout the failure loading-cycle. Results indicate emissions occur at various intensities corresponding to initial notch-length and imminent micro-matrix fracture. The fracturing or deformation energy was estimated by an experimental method of the J-integral analysis [1], where a lower threshold for excitation was found to be approximately less than 0.5 J m{sup −2}, below its respective critical composite fracture energy (~3 and 7 J m{sup −2}). Initiation of micro-cracks was observed for reinforced samples and were subjected to three-point bend tests in lieu of the multiple signatures of the transient signal response. - Highlights: • We examined triboluminescence of reinforced and unreinforced beams. • The addition of J-integral fracture analysis indicates low energy excitation. • Excitation is related to matrix fracture in unreinforced samples. • Excitation is related to micro-matrix fracture and potential fiber failure.

  10. Fracture Toughness to Understand Stretch-Flangeability and Edge Cracking Resistance in AHSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, Daniel; Lara, Antoni; Frómeta, David; Gutiérrez, David; Molas, Sílvia; Pérez, Lluís; Rehrl, Johannes; Suppan, Clemens

    2016-10-01

    The edge fracture is considered as a high risk for automotive parts, especially for parts made of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The limited ductility of AHSS makes them more sensitive to the edge damage. The traditional approaches, such as those based on ductility measurements or forming limit diagrams, are unable to predict this type of fractures. Thus, stretch-flangeability has become an important formability parameter in addition to tensile and formability properties. The damage induced in sheared edges in AHSS parts affects stretch-flangeability, because the generated microcracks propagate from the edge. Accordingly, a fracture mechanics approach may be followed to characterize the crack propagation resistance. With this aim, this work addresses the applicability of fracture toughness as a tool to understand crack-related problems, as stretch-flangeability and edge cracking, in different AHSS grades. Fracture toughness was determined by following the essential work of fracture methodology and stretch-flangeability was characterized by means of hole expansions tests. Results show a good correlation between stretch-flangeability and fracture toughness. It allows postulating fracture toughness, measured by the essential work of fracture methodology, as a key material property to rationalize crack propagation phenomena in AHSS.

  11. Fracture Toughness to Understand Stretch-Flangeability and Edge Cracking Resistance in AHSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, Daniel; Lara, Antoni; Frómeta, David; Gutiérrez, David; Molas, Sílvia; Pérez, Lluís; Rehrl, Johannes; Suppan, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    The edge fracture is considered as a high risk for automotive parts, especially for parts made of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The limited ductility of AHSS makes them more sensitive to the edge damage. The traditional approaches, such as those based on ductility measurements or forming limit diagrams, are unable to predict this type of fractures. Thus, stretch-flangeability has become an important formability parameter in addition to tensile and formability properties. The damage induced in sheared edges in AHSS parts affects stretch-flangeability, because the generated microcracks propagate from the edge. Accordingly, a fracture mechanics approach may be followed to characterize the crack propagation resistance. With this aim, this work addresses the applicability of fracture toughness as a tool to understand crack-related problems, as stretch-flangeability and edge cracking, in different AHSS grades. Fracture toughness was determined by following the essential work of fracture methodology and stretch-flangeability was characterized by means of hole expansions tests. Results show a good correlation between stretch-flangeability and fracture toughness. It allows postulating fracture toughness, measured by the essential work of fracture methodology, as a key material property to rationalize crack propagation phenomena in AHSS.

  12. State-of-the-art characterization techniques for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Tianpin; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-01

    To meet future needs for industries from personal devices to automobiles, state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium-ion batteries will require both improved durability and lowered costs. To enhance battery performance and lifetime, understanding electrode degradation mechanisms is of critical importance. Various advanced in situ and operando characterization tools developed during the past few years have proven indispensable for optimizing battery materials, understanding cell degradation mechanisms, and ultimately improving the overall battery performance. Here we review recent progress in the development and application of advanced characterization techniques such as in situ transmission electron microscopy for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Using three representative electrode systems—layered metal oxides, Li-rich layered oxides and Si-based or Sn-based alloys—we discuss how these tools help researchers understand the battery process and design better battery systems. We also summarize the application of the characterization techniques to lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries and highlight the importance of those techniques in the development of next-generation batteries.

  13. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas

    2000-01-18

    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  14. Bulge Testing and Interface Fracture Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed and HIP Bonded Zr Coatings on U-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, K.; Liu, C.; Leckie, R.; Lovato, M.

    2015-01-01

    Bulge testing using a pressurized fluid to fracture the interface between bonded material layers along with three-dimensional digital image correlation to measure the sample distortion caused by pressurized fluid was applied to plasma-sprayed coatings. The initiation fracture toughness associated with the bonded materials was measured during the testing. The bulge testing of the uranium-molybdenum alloy plasma sprayed with zirconium and clad in aluminum is presented. The initiation fracture toughness was observed to increase with the increasing cathodic arc-cleaning current and the use of alternating polarity transferred arc current. This dependence was linked to the interface composition of oxide and mixed metal phases along with the interface temperature during spray deposition.

  15. Advances in cryogenic transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of dynamic self-assembling nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Christina J; Moyer, Tyson J; Lee, Sungsoo S; Stupp, Samuel I

    2012-12-01

    Elucidating the structural information of nanoscale materials in their solvent-exposed state is crucial, as a result, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has become an increasingly popular technique in the materials science, chemistry, and biology communities. Cryo-TEM provides a method to directly visualize the specimen structure in a solution-state through a thin film of vitrified solvent. This technique complements X-ray, neutron, and light scattering methods that probe the statistical average of all species present; furthermore, cryo-TEM can be used to observe changes in structure over time. In the area of self-assembly, this tool has been particularly powerful for the characterization of natural and synthetic small molecule assemblies, as well as hybrid organic-inorganic composites. In this review, we discuss recent advances in cryogenic TEM in the context of self-assembling systems with emphasis on characterization of transitions observed in response to external stimuli.

  16. Hydraulic fracture monitoring in hard rock at 410 m depth with an advanced fluid-injection protocol and extensive sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Arno; Stephansson, Ove; Stenberg, Leif; Plenkers, Katrin; Specht, Sebastian; Milkereit, Claus; Schill, Eva; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Zimmermann, Günter; Dahm, Torsten; Weber, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an underground experiment at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is described. Main goal is optimizing geothermal heat exchange in crystalline rock mass at depth by multistage hydraulic fracturing with minimal impact on the environment, that is, seismic events. For this, three arrays with acoustic emission, microseismicity and electromagnetic sensors are installed mapping hydraulic fracture initiation and growth. Fractures are driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive and pulse pressurization). After a brief review of hydraulic fracture operations in crystalline rock mass at mine scale, the site geology and the stress conditions at Äspö HRL are described. Then, the continuous, single-flow rate and alternative, multiple-flow rate fracture breakdown tests in a horizontal borehole at depth level 410 m are described together with the monitoring networks and sensitivity. Monitoring results include the primary catalogue of acoustic emission hypocentres obtained from four hydraulic fractures with the in situ trigger and localizing network. The continuous versus alternative water injection schemes are discussed in terms of the fracture breakdown pressure, the fracture pattern from impression packer result and the monitoring at the arrays. An example of multistage hydraulic fracturing with several phases of opening and closing of fracture walls is evaluated using data from acoustic emissions, seismic broad-band recordings and electromagnetic signal response. Based on our limited amount of in situ tests (six) and evaluation of three tests in Ävrö granodiorite, in the multiple-flow rate test with progressively increasing target pressure, the acoustic emission activity starts at a later stage in the fracturing process compared to the conventional fracturing case with continuous water injection. In tendency, also the total number and magnitude of acoustic events are found to be smaller in the progressive treatment with

  17. Hydraulic fracture monitoring in hard rock at 410 m depth with an advanced fluid-injection protocol and extensive sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, A.; Stephansson, O.; Stenberg, L.; Plenkers, K.; Specht, S.; Milkereit, C.; Schill, E.; Kwiatek, G.; Dresen, G.; Zimmermann, G.; Dahm, T.; Weber, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, an underground experiment at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is described. Main goal is optimizing geothermal heat exchange in crystalline rock mass at depth by multi-stage hydraulic fracturing with minimal impact on the environment, i.e. seismic events. For this, three arrays with acoustic emission, microseismicity and electromagnetic sensors are installed mapping hydraulic fracture initiation and growth. Fractures are driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive, pulse pressurization). After a brief review of hydraulic fracture operations in crystalline rock mass at mine scale, the site geology and the stress conditions at Äspö HRL are described. Then, the continuous, single-flow rate and alternative, multiple-flow rate fracture breakdown tests in a horizontal borehole at depth level 410 m are described together with the monitoring networks and sensitivity. Monitoring results include the primary catalogue of acoustic emission hypocenters obtained from four hydraulic fractures with the in situ trigger and localizing network. The continuous versus alternative water injection schemes are discussed in terms of the fracture breakdown pressure, the fracture pattern from impression packer result and the monitoring at the arrays. An example of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing with several phases of opening and closing of fracture walls is evaluated using data from acoustic emissions, seismic broadband recordings and electromagnetic signal response. Based on our limited amount of in situ tests (six) and evaluation of three tests in Ävrö granodiorite, in the multiple-flow rate test with progressively increasing target pressure, the acoustic emission activity starts at a later stage in the fracturing process compared to the conventional fracturing case with continuous water injection. In tendency, also the total number and magnitude of acoustic events is found to be smaller in the progressive treatment with frequent

  18. [Atlas fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, S; Jeanneret, B

    1999-05-01

    Fractures of the atlas account for 1-2% of all vertebral fractures. We divide atlas fractures into 5 groups: isolated fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas, isolated fractures of the posterior arch, combined fractures of the anterior and posterior arch (so-called Jefferson fractures), isolated fractures of the lateral mass and fractures of the transverse process. Isolated fractures of the anterior or posterior arch are benign and are treated conservatively with a soft collar until the neck pain has disappeared. Jefferson fractures are divided into stable and unstable fracture depending on the integrity of the transverse ligament. Stable Jefferson fractures are treated conservatively with good outcome while unstable Jefferson fractures are probably best treated operatively with a posterior atlanto-axial or occipito-axial stabilization and fusion. The authors preferred treatment modality is the immediate open reduction of the dislocated lateral masses combined with a stabilization in the reduced position using a transarticular screw fixation C1/C2 according to Magerl. This has the advantage of saving the atlanto-occipital joints and offering an immediate stability which makes immobilization in an halo or Minerva cast superfluous. In late instabilities C1/2 with incongruency of the lateral masses occurring after primary conservative treatment, an occipito-cervical fusion is indicated. Isolated fractures of the lateral masses are very rare and may, if the lateral mass is totally destroyed, be a reason for an occipito-cervical fusion. Fractures of the transverse processes may be the cause for a thrombosis of the vertebral artery. No treatment is necessary for the fracture itself.

  19. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  20. Isolation and characterization of connective tissue progenitor cells derived from human fracture-induced hemarthrosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yang; Miwa, Masahiko; Sakai, Yoshitada; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Oe, Keisuke; Niikura, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Doita, Minoru; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2008-02-01

    In our search for alternative sources of connective tissue progenitor cells that can be obtained with minimal invasion, we studied human intraarticular fracture-induced hemarthrosis of the knee and attempted to isolate connective tissue progenitors from the hemarthrosis. Hemarthrosis was aspirated from the knee joints of 13 patients suffering from intraarticular osteochondral fractures of the knee. Mononuclear cells were isolated from the aspirated hemarthrosis by density gradient separation, and cultured. We were able to obtain fibroblastic adherent cells from the mononuclear cell fractions. Flow cytometry analysis after in vitro expansion on tissue culture plastic revealed that the fibroblastic cells were positive for CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166, and negative for CD14, CD34, CD45, and CD133. These cells could differentiate in vitro into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cells in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. These results demonstrate that human intraarticular fracture-induced knee hemarthrosis contains connective tissue progenitor cells with morphologic features, immunophenotypic markers, and differentiation potential that are similar to bone marrow stromal cells. This suggests that hemarthrosis, which is easy to harvest without unnecessary invasion to the patient, has possible future clinical applications such as in tissue-engineered therapies for severe osteochondral defects, posttraumatic osteoarthritis, and delayed fracture unions or nonunions.

  1. Advanced glycation end product ligands for the receptor for advanced glycation end products: Biochemical characterization and formation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valencia, J.V.; Weldon, S.C.; Quinn, D.; Kiers, G.H.; Groot, J. de; TeKoppele, J.M.; Hughes, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate with age and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. AGEs bind cell-surface receptors including the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The dependence of RAGE binding on specific biochemical characteristics of AGEs is currently unknown.

  2. Mineralogical, Chemical, and Isotopic Characterization of Fracture-Coating Minerals in Borehole Samples from Western Pahute Mesa and Oasis Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, F C; Rose, T P; Zhou, X

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a mineralogical and geochemical investigation of fracture-coating phases obtained from archived borehole core and cuttings samples from the western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley region. The objective is to provide data needed to validate UGTA flow and transport models for this region. Fracture-lining minerals were characterized using micrographic techniques (SEM-EDS), and selected calcite samples were analyzed for their stable isotope ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) and rare earth element (REE) abundances. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The distribution of fracture-lining mineral phases is a function of primary rock type, the style and degree of syn-depositional alteration, effects of post-depositional hydrothermal alteration, and fracture location relative to recharge waters (in the unsaturated zone) or through going groundwater (in the saturated zone). (2) Fracture-lining minerals within the welded tuff aquifers (principally the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Tuffs) are characterized by the assemblage calcite + chalcedony + Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides + mixed illite/smectite (in approximate decreasing order of abundance). The predominant mode of host rock alteration is quartzofeldspathic. (3) Interbedded rhyolitic lava flow aquifers are characterized by the fracture-lining assemblage chalcedony + mixed illite/smectite + Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides {+-} calcite {+-} quartz {+-} K-feldspar (in approximate decreasing order of abundance). These include lava flow aquifers from the Thirsty Canyon, Beatty Wash, Paintbrush, and Quartz Mountain groups. The predominant mode of host rock alteration is quartzofeldspathic. (4) Fracture-lining zeolite minerals are abundant only within one of the basaltic lava flow aquifers (Trachyte of Ribbon Cliff) where they occur with chalcedony + calcite + clay minerals. (5) Stable isotope analyses ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) of secondary calcite samples were used to

  3. Advances of pedicle screw fixation for thoracolumbar fractures%椎弓根螺钉内固定术治疗胸腰椎骨折的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁浩洋; 柯珍勇

    2014-01-01

    0BJECTIVE:To systemic il ustrate advances of pedicle screw internal fixation in treating thoracolumbar fracture. METHODS:A computer-based online search(1993-01/2014-01) of PubMed database(http://www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) and WANFANG database (http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/) was performed for related articles with keywords“pedicular screw,internal fixation,thoracolumbar fracture”in English and in Chinese.A total of 65 articles were col ected,and 28 were included according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS:Pedicle screws have a good biomechanical characteristic.Cooperated with different ways of operation,pedicle screws can be used for reconstructing the stability of vertebral fracture,providing three-dimensional correction,restoring the hight of vertebral body and physiological bending of the spine,and decompressing spinal canal.With the technological development in recent years,the application of intermediate screw and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation optimized the surgical approach, reduced the trauma and postoperative adverse reactions. CONCLUSION:With the application of various kinds of techniques,pedicle screw fixation can be used for the treatment of various types of thoracolumbar fractures.%目的:系统阐述椎弓根螺钉内固定术应用于胸腰椎骨折治疗的进展。方法使用计算机及因特网检索(1993-01/2014-01) PubMed数据库(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/)、中国万方数据库(http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/)中相关文章,英文关键词为“pedicular screw,internal fixation,thoracolumbar fracture”,中文关键词为“椎弓根螺钉,内固定,胸腰椎骨折”。共检索到65篇文献,根据纳入及排除标准,共纳入28篇文章。结果椎弓根螺钉具有良好生物力学特性,配合不同的手术方式,可重建骨折椎稳定性,提供三维矫正,恢复椎体高度及脊柱的生理弯曲,行椎管减压。而近年来随技术发展,伤椎内固定

  4. US Geological Survey Committee for the Advancement of Science in the Yucca Mountain Project symposium on {open_quotes}Fractures, Hydrology, and Yucca Mountain{close_quotes}: Abstracts and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomberg, J. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    The principal objective of this symposium is to review the available information on fractured/faulted terrains in terms of a coherent hydrogeologic model of ground-water fluid flow and transport, particularly as it pertains to the Yucca Mountain region. This review addresses the influence and significance of fractures on ground-water flow and the transport of conservative-species solutes within the context of the hydrogeologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The relations between fluid flow and fractured or faulted host rock are examined integrally from information on geologic, seismologic, hydrologic, and geomechanical properties of the system. The development of new hydrogeologic approaches that incorporate information from this integrated database are contrasted with more standard approaches toward understanding flow in fractured reservoirs. Ground-water flow in both the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone are considered. The application of various models of flow is addressed, examples include porous-media equivalent and discontinuum fracture-network models. Data and interpretations from the Yucca Mountain area are presented to establish a context for information exchange. The symposium includes discussions relevant to technical considerations for characterizing the Yucca Mountain area hydrogeology. On the basis of these discussions, CASY has compiled this document in order to formally summarize the proceedings and communicate recommendations for future directions of research and investigation.

  5. Characterization of Tubing from Advanced ODS alloy (FCRD-NFA1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aydogan, Eda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lavender, Curt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Rieken, Joel [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Lewandowski, John [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hoelzer, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odette, George R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Fabrication methods are being developed and tested for producing fuel clad tubing of the advanced ODS 14YWT and FCRD-NFA1 ferritic alloys. Three fabrication methods were based on plastically deforming a machined thick wall tube sample of the ODS alloys by pilgering, hydrostatic extrusion or drawing to decrease the outer diameter and wall thickness and increase the length of the final tube. The fourth fabrication method consisted of the additive manufacturing approach involving solid-state spray deposition (SSSD) of ball milled and annealed powder of 14YWT for producing thin wall tubes. The details of these fabrication methods are described in ORNL/TM-2015/499 “Status of producing 5 inch long clad tubing of ODS ferritic alloys.” Of the four fabrication methods, two methods were successful at producing tubing for further characterization: production of tubing by High velocity oxy-fuel spray forming and production of tubing using high temperature hydrostatic extrusion. The characterization described in the following report shows through neutron diffraction the texture produced during extrusion while maintaining the beneficial oxide dispersion. Future work will center on extending these processes to producing longer tubing for characterization and irradiation testing.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin

    The performance of advanced energy storage devices is intimately connected to the designs of electrodes. To enable significant developments in this research field, we need detailed information and knowledge about how the functions and performances of the electrodes depend on their chemical compositions, dimensions, morphologies, and surface properties. This thesis presents my successes in synthesizing and characterizing electrode materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, with much attention given to understanding the operation and fading mechanism of battery electrodes, as well as methods to improve their performances and stabilities. This dissertation is presented within the framework of two energy storage technologies: lithium ion batteries and lithium oxygen batteries. The energy density of lithium ion batteries is determined by the density of electrode materials and their lithium storage capabilities. To improve the overall energy densities of lithium ion batteries, silicon has been proposed to replace lithium intercalation compounds in the battery anodes. However, with a ~400% volume expansion upon fully lithiation, silicon-based anodes face serious capacity degradation in battery operation. To overcome this challenge, heteronanostructure-based Si/TiSi2 were designed and synthesized as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with long cycling life. The performance and morphology relationship was also carefully studied through comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional heteronanostructure-based silicon anodes. Lithium oxygen batteries, on the other hand, are devices based on lithium conversion chemistries and they offer higher energy densities compared to lithium ion batteries. However, existing carbon based electrodes in lithium oxygen batteries only allow for battery operation with limited capacity, poor stability and low round-trip efficiency. The degradation of electrolytes and carbon electrodes have been found to both contribute

  7. Advances in Multi-Pixel Photon Counter technology: First characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, G., E-mail: gbonanno@oact.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marano, D.; Romeo, G.; Garozzo, S.; Grillo, A.; Timpanaro, M.C. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S.; Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Sottile, G. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo Italy (Italy)

    2016-01-11

    Due to the recent advances in silicon photomultiplier technology, new types of Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), also named Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) detectors have become recently available, demonstrating superior performance in terms of their most important electrical and optical parameters. This paper presents the latest characterization results of the novel Low Cross-Talk (LCT) MPPC families from Hamamatsu, where a noticeable fill-factor enhancement and cross-talk reduction is achieved. In addition, the newly adopted resin coating has been proven to yield improved photon detection capabilities in the 280–320 nm spectral range, making the new LCT MPPCs particularly suitable for emerging applications like Cherenkov Telescope Array, and Astroparticle Physics.

  8. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Characterizing Habitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, M; Krist, J; Stapelfeldt, K; Brown, R; Oegerle, W; Lo, A; Clampin, M; Soummer, R; Wiseman, J; Mountain, M

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation UV-Optical-Near Infrared space telescope with an aperture size of 8 to 16 meters. ATLAST, using an internal coronagraph or an external occulter, can characterize the atmosphere and surface of an Earth-sized exoplanet in the Habitable Zone of long-lived stars at distances up to ~45 pc, including its rotation rate, climate, and habitability. ATLAST will also allow us to glean information on the nature of the dominant surface features, changes in cloud cover and climate, and, potentially, seasonal variations in surface vegetation. ATLAST will be able to visit up to 200 stars in 5 years, at least three times each, depending on the technique used for starlight suppression and the telescope aperture. More frequent visits can be made for interesting systems.

  9. Recent Advances in Cloning and Characterization of Disease Resistance Genes in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Ying Dai; Xiong-Lun Liu; Ying-Hui Xiao; Guo-Liang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Rice diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses are one of the major constraints for sustainable rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. The use of resistant cultivars is considered the most economical and effective method to control rice diseases. In the last decade, a dozen resistance genes against the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea and the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae have been cloned. Approximately half of them encode nuclear binding site (NBS) and leucine rich repeat (LRR)-containing proteins, the most common type of cloned plant resistance genes. Interestingly, four of them encode novel proteins which have not been identified in other plant species, suggesting that unique mechanisms might be involved in rice defense responses. This review summarizes the recent advances in cloning and characterization of disease resistance genes in rice and presents future perspectives for in-depth molecular analysis of the function and evolution of rice resistance genes and their interaction with avirulence genes in pathogens.

  10. From Historical Backgrounds to Recent Advances in 3D Characterization of Materials: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Paciornik, Sidnei

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional pictures and x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns have for a long time been the standard techniques most frequently used to analyze a material structure. In the past decades, owing to advances in imaging and computer technology, three-dimensional (3D) techniques have provided new insights into how phase distribution, crystallographic interfaces and defect arrangements contribute to build a material structure. Moreover, theoretical modeling is now able to disclose a more accurate structural simulation with the support of 3D characterization. In this work, a concise overview of the major 3D imaging techniques is presented to update the reader with the main related achievements in automated serial sectioning, focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) and x-ray microtomography (microCT). Examples addressed in the literature for engineering materials illustrate each technique.

  11. Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run-Cang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for efficient utilization of biomass induces a detailed analysis of the fundamental chemical structures of biomass, especially the complex structures of lignin polymers, which have long been recognized for their negative impact on biorefinery. Traditionally, it has been attempted to reveal the complicated and heterogeneous structure of lignin by a series of chemical analyses, such as thioacidolysis (TA, nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO, and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC. Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR technology undoubtedly have made solution-state NMR become the most widely used technique in structural characterization of lignin due to its versatility in illustrating structural features and structural transformations of lignin polymers. As one of the most promising diagnostic tools, NMR provides unambiguous evidence for specific structures as well as quantitative structural information. The recent advances in two-dimensional solution-state NMR techniques for structural analysis of lignin in isolated and whole cell wall states (in situ, as well as their applications are reviewed.

  12. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  13. New Generation of High Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging Technique for Advanced Material Characterization: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, R. Gr.

    The role of non-destructive material characterization and NDT is changing at a rapid rate, continuing to evolve alongside the dramatic development of novel techniques based on the principles of high-resolution imaging. The modern use of advanced optical, thermal, ultrasonic, laser-ultrasound, acoustic emission, vibration, electro-magnetic, and X-ray techniques, etc., as well as refined measurement and signal/data processing devices, allows for continuous generation of on-line information. As a result real-time process monitoring can be achieved, leading to the more effective and efficient control of numerous processes, greatly improving manufacturing as a whole. Indeed, concurrent quality inspection has become an attainable reality. With the advent of new materials for use in various structures, joints, and parts, however, innovative applications of modern NDT imaging techniques are necessary to monitor as many stages of manufacturing as possible. Simply put, intelligent advance manufacturing is impossible without actively integrating modern non-destructive evaluation into the production system.

  14. Advanced Characterization of Molecular Interactions in TALSPEAK-like Separations Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Guelis, Artem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Combining unit operations in advanced aqueous reprocessing schemes brings obvious process compactness advantages, but at the same time greater complexity in process design and operation. Unraveling these interactions requires increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and unique approaches for adequate analysis and characterization that probe molecular scale interactions. Conventional slope analysis methods of solvent extraction are too indirect to provide much insight into such interactions. This project proposed the development and verification of several analytical tools based on studies of TALSPEAK-like aqueous processes. As such, the chemistry of trivalent fission product lanthanides, americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium and uranium figure prominently in these studies. As the project was executed, the primary focus fell upon the chemistry or trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The intent of the investigation was to compare and contrast the results from these various complementary techniques/studies to provide a stronger basis for predicting the performance of extractant/diluent mixtures as media for metal ion separations. As many/most of these techniques require the presence of metal ions at elevated concentrations, it was expected that these studies would take this investigation into the realm of patterns of supramolecular organization of metal complexes and extractants in concentrated aqueous/organic media. We expected to advance knowledge of the processes that enable and limit solvent extraction reactions as a result of the application of fundamental chemical principles to explaining interactions in complex media.

  15. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Doug [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Leggett, Jim [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  16. Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosdowech, Darren S; Faber, Kenneth J; Athwal, George S

    2008-10-01

    Open reduction of proximal humeral fractures has the advantage of providing direct control over each fracture fragment and permitting anatomic reduction and fixation with advanced devices. Modern fixed-angle locking plates designed specifically for proximal humerus fractures have allowed the expansion of surgical indications permitting surgeons to address more complicated fractures. Advanced preoperative imaging and fluoroscopy allow a better understanding of fracture patterns and permit the surgeon to use this knowledge intraoperatively. Research is required to further validate fracture classification systems, to develop surgical guidelines for decision making, and to compare the outcomes of the various treatments options for proximal humerus fractures.

  17. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge

  18. Subtrochanteric Fractures in Bisphosphonate-Naive Patients: Results from the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the risks of osteoporosis-related subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive individuals. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial with a study-qualifying hip fracture were examined, comparing those who sustained incident subtrochanteric fractures with those sustaining other hip fractures. Subjects were bisphosphonate-naive or had a bisphosphonate washout period of 6–24 months and subsequently received an annu...

  19. Mask characterization for critical dimension uniformity budget breakdown in advanced extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2013-04-01

    As the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors critical dimension uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. We will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for advanced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography with 1D (dense lines) and 2D (dense contacts) feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CDs and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples. Mask stack reflectivity variations should also be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We also observed mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) through field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may play a role towards the total intrafield CDU and may need to be taken into account for EUV lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, with results herein, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to quantifying the mask part of

  20. Sub-seafloor acoustic characterization of seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone in the western Pacific using chirp (3-7 kHz) subbottom profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.-G.; Hein, J.R.; Lee, Kenneth; Moon, J.-W.; Ko, Y.-T.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed analysis of chirp (3-7 kHz) subbottom profiles and bathymetry was performed on data collected from seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone (OFZ) in the western Pacific. The OFZ, which is a 150 km wide rift zone showing 600 km of right-lateral movement in a NW-SE direction, is unique among the fracture zones of the Pacific in that it includes many old seamounts (e.g., Magellan Seamounts and seamounts on Dutton Ridge). Sub-seafloor acoustic echoes on the seamounts are classified into nine specific types based on the nature and continuity of the echoes, subbottom structure, and morphology of the seafloor: (1) distinct echoes (types I-1, I-2, I-3), (2) indistinct echoes (types II-1, II-2, II-3), and (3) hyperbolic echoes (types III-1, III-2, III-3). Type I-2 pelagic sediments, characterized by thin and intermittent coverage, were probably deposited in topographically sheltered areas when bottom currents were strong, whereas type I-1 pelagic sediments accumulated during continuous and widespread sedimentation. Development of seamount flank rift zones in the OFZ may have been influenced by preexisting structures in the transform fracture zone at the time of volcanism, whereas those on Ita Mai Tai seamount in the Pigafetta Basin originated solely by edifice-building processes. Flank rift zones that formed by dike intrusions and eruptions played an important role in mass wasting. Mass-wasting processes included block faulting or block slides around the summit margin, sliding/slumping, debris flows, and turbidites, which may have been triggered by faulting, volcanism, dike injection, and weathering during various stages in the evolution of the seamounts. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New advances in the use of infrared absorption spectroscopy for the characterization of heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaera, Francisco

    2014-11-21

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy has proven to be one of the most powerful spectroscopic techniques available for the characterization of catalytic systems. Although the history of IR absorption spectroscopy in catalysis is long, the technique continues to provide key fundamental information about a variety of catalysts and catalytic reactions, and to also offer novel options for the acquisition of new information on both reaction mechanisms and the nature of the solids used as catalysts. In this review, an overview is provided of the main contributions that have been derived from IR absorption spectroscopy studies of catalytic systems, and a discussion is included on new trends and new potential directions of research involving IR in catalysis. We start by briefly describing the power of Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) instruments and the main experimental IR setups available, namely, transmission (TIR), diffuse reflectance (DRIFTS), attenuated total reflection (ATR-IR), and reflection-absorption (RAIRS), for advancing research in catalysis. We then discuss the different environments under which IR characterization of catalysts is carried out, including in situ and operando studies of typical catalytic processes in gas-phase, research with model catalysts in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and so-called high-pressure cell instruments, and work involving liquid/solid interfaces. A presentation of the type of information extracted from IR data follows in terms of the identification of adsorbed intermediates, the characterization of the surfaces of the catalysts themselves, the quantitation of IR intensities to extract surface coverages, and the use of probe molecules to identify and titrate specific catalytic sites. Finally, the different options for carrying out kinetic studies with temporal resolution such as rapid-scan FTIR, step-scan FTIR, and the use of tunable lasers or synchrotron sources, and to obtain spatially resolved spectra, by sample rastering or by 2D imaging, are

  2. [Acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gänsslen, A; Oestern, H J

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of acetabular fractures requires extensive knowledge of the bony anatomy, the amount of possible exposure of the bone with the selected approaches and fracture type-dependent indications of operative treatment. Classification of the fracture with detailed analysis of the fracture morphology is the basis for decision making and planning. The primary treatment aim is the anatomic reconstruction of the acetabulum which results in optimal long-term results.The basis of this overview is the presentation of standard treatment concepts in acetabular fracture surgery. Beside characteristics of the acetabular bony anatomy, biomechanical and pathomechanical principles and the relevant radiological anatomy, the treatment options, both conservative and operative and basic principles of the indications for standard surgical approaches will be discussed.The special fracture type is discussed in detail regarding incidence, injury mechanism, concomitant injuries, options for conservative and operative treatment, quality of operative reduction and long-term results.Furthermore, epidemiological data on typical postoperative complications are evaluated.

  3. Sports fractures.

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level o...

  4. Growth and Defect Characterization of Quantum Dot-Embedded III-V Semiconductors for Advanced Space Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    intermediate band, quantum dots, metamorphic III-V semiconductors, virtual substrates, defect spectroscopy, molecular beam epitaxy 16. SECURITY...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2014-0059 TR-2014-0059 GROWTH AND DEFECT CHARACTERIZATION OF QUANTUM DOT-EMBEDDED III-V SEMICONDUCTORS FOR ADVANCED...COVERED (From - To) 2 4 May 2012 – 06 Mar 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Growth and Defect Characterization of Quantum Dot-Embedded III-V Semiconductors

  5. Ductile damage Cam-Clay plasticity and fracture modeling of shale based on nano-characterization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. C.; Borja, R. I.

    2015-12-01

    A finite strain ductile damage formulation of Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) plasticity has been developed in order to model the observed elastoplastic behavior of shale at nano- to micro-scales. Nano-indentation combined with both 2D and 3D imaging was performed on a sample of Woodford shale. Significant plastic deformation was observed in the nano-indentation testing, and nano-scale resolution FIB-SEM imaging of the post-indented regions has revealed that the plastic deformation is accompanied by extensive micro-fracture of the shale's highly heterogeneous micro-structure. A spatial tensor that is similar to Eshelby's energy momentum tensor is shown to be energy conjugate to the plastic velocity gradient under large inelastic volume strain. These results are cast in MCC framework drawing on the concept of continuum damage. The resulting formulation provides a connection between density (porosity), elastic (and plastic) moduli, and micro damage/healing. Nonlinear finite element modeling is used for implementation of the constitutive model in simulation of both laboratory-scale and nano- to micro-scale experiments. The results show that the model is able to predict the inception and propagation of micro-fractures around inhomogeneities, as well as capture the resulting behavior observed at the much larger laboratory scale.

  6. Subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adachi, Jonathan D; Lyles, Kenneth; Boonen, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the risks of osteoporosis-related subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive individuals. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial with a study-qualifying hip fracture were examined, comparing those who sustained ...

  7. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  8. Treatment of children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture with advanced elastic intramedullary nail technology%改良弹性髓内钉技术治疗儿童股骨转子下骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭家昌; 杨有猛; 徐鸿育; 罗宇; 王辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore curative effects of advanced elastic intramedullary nail technology in treating children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture.Methods:Form March 2009 to December 2010,16 children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture were treated with advanced elastic intramedullary nail technology.There were 12 males and 4 females ranging in age from 7 to 15 years old with a mean of 9.8 years old.According to fracture classification,9 cases were stable fractures (traverse or short oblique type) and 7 cases were unstable fractures (comminuted or long oblique type).Radiographs and complications were retrospectively reviewed.Fracture healing were evaluated according to Flynn criteria.Results:All children were followed up from 11 to 32 months with an average of 21 months.No incision infecton,bone nonunion and breakage of screw occurred.The fracture healing time was from 8 to 16 weeks with an average of 10.1 weeks.According to Flynn criteria,14 cases got excellent results,1 moderate and 1 poor.Conclusion:Advanced elastic intramedullary nail technology for the treatment of children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture is a safe and effective fixation,which is good for early mobilization,shorter the duration of hospital stays and reduce complications.%目的:探讨改良弹性髓内钉技术治疗儿童股骨转子下骨折的疗效.方法:自2009年3月至2010年12月采用改良弹性髓内钉技术治疗儿童股骨转子下骨折16例,男12例,女4例;年龄7~15岁,平均9.8岁.骨折类型:稳定型骨折(横断或短斜型)9例,非稳定型骨折(粉碎性骨折或长斜型骨折)7例.对患儿的放射学结果和并发症资料进行回顾性研究,采用Flynn评判标准对术后骨折愈合情况进行评价.结果:16例患儿术后均获得随访,时间11~32个月,平均21个月.无切口感染、骨不连及内固定物失效或断裂.骨折愈合时间8~16周,平均10.1周.骨折愈合按照Flynn评判标准进行评估,优14例,良1例,差1

  9. New C2 synchondrosal fracture classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Jerome A.; Ruess, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Daulton, Robert S. [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Excessive cervical flexion-extension accompanying mild to severe impact injuries can lead to C2 synchondrosal fractures in young children. To characterize and classify C2 synchondrosal fracture patterns. We retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records of children who were treated for cervical spine fractures at our institution between 1995 and 2014. We reviewed all fractures involving the five central C2 synchondroses with regard to patient demographics, mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, associated fractures and other injuries, treatment plans and outcome. Fourteen children had fractures involving the central C2 synchondroses. There were nine boys and five girls, all younger than 6 years. We found four distinct fracture patterns. Eleven complete fractures were further divided into four subtypes (a, b, c and d) based on degree of anterior displacement of the odontoid segment and presence of distraction. Nine of these 11 children had fractures through both odontoneural synchondroses and the odontocentral synchondrosis; one had fractures involving both neurocentral synchondroses and the odontoneural synchondrosis; one had fractures through bilateral odontoneural and bilateral neurocentral synchondroses. Three children had incomplete fractures, defined as a fracture through a single odontoneural synchondrosis with or without partial extension into either the odontocentral or the adjacent neurocentral synchondroses. All complete fractures were displaced or angulated. Four had associated spinal cord injury, including two contusions (subtype c fractures) and two fatal transections (subtype d fractures). Most children were treated with primary halo stabilization. Subtype c fractures required surgical fixation. We describe four patterns of central C2 synchondrosal fractures, including two unique patterns that have not been reported. We propose a classification system to distinguish these fractures and aid in treatment planning. (orig.)

  10. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for electron field emission (FE) cathodes in integrated FE devices. These nanostructured carbon materials possess exceptional properties and their synthesis can be thoroughly controlled. Their integration into advanced electronic devices, including not only FE cathodes, but sensors, energy storage devices, and circuit components, has seen rapid growth in recent years. The results of the studies presented here demonstrate that the CNT field emitter is an excellent candidate for next generation vacuum microelectronics and related electron emission devices in several advanced applications. The work presented in this study addresses determining factors that currently confine the performance and application of CNT-FE devices. Characterization studies and improvements to the FE properties of CNTs, along with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) design and fabrication, were utilized in achieving these goals. Important performance limiting parameters, including emitter lifetime and failure from poor substrate adhesion, are examined. The compatibility and integration of CNT emitters with the governing MEMS substrate (i.e., polycrystalline silicon), and its impact on these performance limiting parameters, are reported. CNT growth mechanisms and kinetics were investigated and compared to silicon (100) to improve the design of CNT emitter integrated MEMS based electronic devices, specifically in vacuum microelectronic device (VMD) applications. Improved growth allowed for design and development of novel cold-cathode FE devices utilizing CNT field emitters. A chemical ionization (CI) source based on a CNT-FE electron source was developed and evaluated in a commercial desktop mass spectrometer for explosives trace detection. This work demonstrated the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. The CNT-FE source demonstrated low power requirements, pulsing

  11. Waves and Wine: Advanced approaches for characterizing and exploiting micro-terroir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Grote, K. R.; Freese, P.; Peterson, J. E.; Rubin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    uses a combination of advanced characterization techniques (including airborne imagery, microclimate, and surface geophysical data) with statistical approaches to identify vineyard zones that have fairly uniform soil, vegetation, and micrometeorological parameters. Obtained information is used in simple water balance models that can be used to design block-specific irrigation parameters. This effort has illustrated how straightforward numerical techniques and commercially available characterization approaches can be used to optimize block layout and to guide precision irrigation strategies, leading to optimized and uniform vegetation and winegrape characteristics within vineyard blocks. Recognition and incorporation of information of small scale variabilities into vineyard development and management practices could lead to winegrapes that better reflect the microterroir of the area. Advanced approaches, such as those described here, are expected to become increasingly important as available land and water resources continue to decrease, as spatially extensive datasets become less costly to collect and interpret, and as the public demand for high quality wine produced in environmentally friendly manner continues to increase.

  12. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.palau@unine.ch [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marchesi, Massimo [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Chambon, Julie C.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Aravena, Ramon [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Canals, Àngels [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50 mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon, showed a wide range in δ{sup 13}C values from − 15.6 to − 40.5‰ for TCE and from − 18.5 to − 32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ{sup 37}Cl values for TCE in the contaminant sources, ranging from + 0.53 to + 0.66‰. Variations of δ{sup 37}Cl and δ{sup 13}C in the different contaminant plumes were used to investigate the role of biodegradation in groundwater. Moreover, the isotopic data were incorporated into a reactive transport model for determination of whether the isotope pattern observed downstream from the tank's source could be explained by the simultaneous effect of mixing and biodegradation. The results demonstrate that a multi-isotope approach is a valuable tool for characterization of complex sites such as fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by multiple sources, providing important information which can be used by consultants and site managers to prioritize and design more successful remediation strategies. - Highlights: • Origin and fate of CAHs in groundwater by means of multi CSIA ({sup 13}C,{sup 35}Cl) survey • Innovative/new approach tested in a fractured bedrock site • Differentiation of distinct CAH sources • Biodegradation and source mixing recognition in the aquifer.

  13. Fracture Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zehnder, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is a vast and growing field. This book develops the basic elements needed for both fracture research and engineering practice. The emphasis is on continuum mechanics models for energy flows and crack-tip stress- and deformation fields in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. In addition to a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, the text includes practical sections on fracture criteria, fracture toughness testing, and methods for measuring stress intensity factors and energy release rates. Class-tested at Cornell, this book is designed for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and contributing to a diverse and vital field of knowledge. Alan Zehnder joined the faculty at Cornell University in 1988. Since then he has served in a number of leadership roles including Chair of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Director of the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.  He teaches applied mechanics and his research t...

  14. [Hip Fracture--Epidemiology, Management and Liaison Service. Risk factor for hip fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2015-04-01

    Many risk factors have been identified for hip fracture, including female, advanced age, osteoporosis, previous fractures, low body weight or low body mass index, alcohol drinking, smoking, family history of fractures, use of glucocorticoid, factors related to falls, and bone strength. The factors related to falls are number of fall, frail, post stroke, paralysis, muscle weakness, anti-anxiety drugs, anti-depression drugs, and sedatives. Dementia and respiratory disease and others have been reported to be risk factors for secondary hip fracture.

  15. Fractures of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Martus Marcon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2 and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7, according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification, which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative.

  16. Characterization techniques for the high-brightness particle beams of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) user facility in the hard x-ray regime (10--100 keV). The design objectives for the 7-GeV storage ring include a positron beam natural emittance of 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m-rad at an average current of 100 mA. Proposed methods for measuring the transverse and longitudinal profiles will be described. Additionally, a research and development effort using an rf gun as a low-emittance source of electrons for injection into the 200- to 650-MeV linac subsystem is underway. This latter system is projected to produce electron beams with a normalized, rms emittance of {approximately}2 {pi} mm-mrad at peak currents of near one hundred amps. This interesting characterization problem will also be briefly discussed. The combination of both source types within one laboratory facility will stimulate the development of diagnostic techniques in these parameter spaces.

  17. Advanced Compatibility Characterization Of AF-M315E With Spacecraft Propulsion System Materials Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    All spacecraft require propulsion systems for thrust and maneuvering. Propulsion systems can be chemical, nuclear, electrical, cold gas or combinations thereof. Chemical propulsion has proven to be the most reliable technology since the deployment of launch vehicles. Performance, storability, and handling are three important aspects of liquid chemical propulsion. Bipropellant systems require a fuel and an oxidizer for propulsion, but monopropellants only require a fuel and a catalyst for propulsion and are therefore simpler and lighter. Hydrazine is the state of the art propellant for monopropellant systems, but has drawbacks because it is highly hazardous to human health, which requires extensive care in handling, complex ground ops due to safety and environmental considerations, and lengthy turnaround times for reusable spacecraft. All users of hydrazine monopropellant must contend with these issues and their associated costs. The development of a new monopropellant, intended to replace hydrazine, has been in progress for years. This project will apply advanced techniques to characterize the engineering properties of materials used in AF-M315E propulsion systems after propellant exposure. AF-M315E monopropellant has been selected HQ's Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) to replace toxic hydrazine for improved performance and reduce safety and health issues that will shorten reusable spacecraft turn-around time. In addition, this project will fundamentally strengthen JSC's core competency to evaluate, use and infuse liquid propellant systems.

  18. The role of advanced reactive surface area characterization in improving predictions of mineral reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, L. E.; Zhang, S.; Mitnick, E.; Cole, D. R.; Yang, L.; Anovitz, L. M.; Sheets, J.; Swift, A.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Landrot, G.; Mito, S.; Xue, Z.; Steefel, C. I.; DePaolo, D. J.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    estimates. Ultimately, the effectiveness of advanced surface area characterization to improve mineral dissolution rates will be evaluated by comparison of model results with dissolution rates measured from a flow-through column experiment.

  19. Low-trauma fractures indicate increased risk of hip fracture in frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Cameron, Ian D; Simpson, Judy M; Seibel, Markus J; March, Lyn M; Cumming, Robert G; Lord, Stephen R; Sambrook, Philip N

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the risk of subsequent fractures after low-trauma fracture in frail older people. A total of 1412 elderly residents (mean age 86.2 years, SD 7.0 years, female 77%) were recruited from aged care facilities in Australia. Residents were assessed and then followed for any fracture for 2 years and hip fractures for at least 5 years. Residents with and without a newly acquired fracture in the first 2 years were compared for risk of subsequent hip fracture. Residents with a nonhip fracture in the first 2 years had an increased risk of subsequent hip fracture for about 2.5 years, whereas those with a hip fracture had a similar risk over the whole period compared with those with no fracture. During these 2.5 years, 60, 28, and 6 subsequent hip fractures occurred in the nonfracture group (n = 953), the nonhip fracture group (n = 194), and the hip fracture group (n = 101), respectively, resulting in the probability of subsequent hip fracture of 8.0%, 19.9%, and 10.4%, respectively. Compared with the nonfracture group, the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73-4.59; p < .001] for the nonhip fracture group and 1.48 (95% CI 0.63-3.49, p = .37) for the hip fracture group after adjusting for age, sex, residence type, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation, fracture history, weight, lower leg length, immobility, cognitive function, and medications. Frail institutionalized older people with newly acquired fractures are at increased risk of subsequent hip fracture for the next few years. Accordingly, despite their advanced age, they are a high-priority target group to investigate interventions that might reduce the risk of hip fracture.

  20. 先进高强度双相钢汽车板剪切断裂实验%Experimental Study of Shear Fracture on Advanced High Strength Dual-Phase Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 赵亦希; 胡星; 黄胜

    2011-01-01

    Fracture characteristics of advanced high strength DP(dual-phase) sheets in stretch-bending over a tight die radius were investigated through flanging and groove-shape dies.Flanging result shows the higher the strength grade of DP sheet is,the more chance shear fracture occurs.The groove-shape tests and simulations suggest the shear fracture around the tight radius only occurs under high BHF,and necking on the wall happens when BHF is low.The eventual failure mode during sheet metal forming operations of AHSS is viewed as the competition between necking and shear fracture,whichever criterion is satisfied first.%通过翻边实验和槽型件实验,研究了先进高强度双相(DP)钢在小半径拉弯成形中的断裂特性.翻边实验表明,高强度DP钢强度级别越高越容易发生剪切断裂.槽型件实验与仿真表明,高强度DP钢的断裂特性与压边力大小关系密切,压边力大则弯曲圆角处容易发生剪切断裂;压边力小则易在侧壁上发生颈缩断裂.先进高强度DP钢最终的断裂模式是剪切断裂和颈缩断裂相互竞争的结果,任一断裂条件先达到则板料发生该种断裂.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADVANCED APPROACH FOR NEXT-GENERATION INTEGRATED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2005-04-01

    Accurate, high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) reservoir characterization can provide substantial benefits for effective oilfield management. By doing so, the predictive reliability of reservoir flow models, which are routinely used as the basis for investment decisions involving hundreds of millions of dollars and designed to recover millions of barrels of oil, can be significantly improved. Even a small improvement in incremental recovery for high-value assets can result in important contributions to bottom-line profitability. Today's standard practice for developing a 3D reservoir description is to use seismic inversion techniques. These techniques make use of geostatistics and other stochastic methods to solve the inverse problem, i.e., to iteratively construct a likely geologic model and then upscale and compare its acoustic response to that actually observed in the field. This method has several inherent flaws, such as: (1) The resulting models are highly non-unique; multiple equiprobable realizations are produced, meaning (2) The results define a distribution of possible outcomes; the best they can do is quantify the uncertainty inherent in the modeling process, and (3) Each realization must be run through a flow simulator and history matched to assess it's appropriateness, and therefore (4) The method is labor intensive and requires significant time to complete a field study; thus it is applied to only a small percentage of oil and gas producing assets. A new approach to achieve this objective was first examined in a Department of Energy (DOE) study performed by Advanced Resources International (ARI) in 2000/2001. The goal of that study was to evaluate whether robust relationships between data at vastly different scales of measurement could be established using virtual intelligence (VI) methods. The proposed workflow required that three specific relationships be established through use of artificial neural networks (ANN's): core

  2. New advances in the application of FTIR microscopy and spectroscopy for the characterization of artistic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, S; Joseph, E; Sciutto, G; Mazzeo, R

    2010-06-15

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most widely applied techniques for the investigation of cultural heritage materials. FTIR microscopy is well established as an essential tool in the microdestructive analysis of small samples, and the recent introduction of mapping and imaging equipment allows the collection of a large number of FTIR spectra on a surface, providing a distribution map of identified compounds. In this Account, we report recent advances in FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy in our research group. Our laboratory develops, tests, and refines new and less-studied IR spectroscopy and microscopy methods, with the goal of their adoption as routine analytical techniques in conservation laboratories. We discuss (i) the analysis of inorganic materials inactive in the mid-IR region by means of far-IR spectroscopy, (ii) the development of new methods for preparing cross sections, (iii) the characterization and spatial location of thin layers and small particles, and (iv) the evaluation of protective treatments. FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy have been mostly used in the mid-IR region of 4000-600 cm(-1). Some inorganic pigments, however, are inactive in this region, so other spectroscopic techniques have been applied, such as Raman spectroscopy. We suggest an alternative: harnessing the far-IR (600-50 cm(-1)). Our initial results show that far-IR spectroscopy is exceptionally useful with mural paintings or with corrosion products from which larger sample quantities can generally be collected. Moreover, the inorganic composition of a sample can be characterized by the presence of several compounds that are inactive in the mid-IR range (such as sulfides, oxides, and so forth). Stratigraphical analyses by FTIR microscopy can be hindered by the process of cross section preparation, which often involves an embedding organic polymer penetrating the sample's porous structure. Here, the polymer bands may completely cover the bands of organic

  3. Advanced characterization of MIMAS MOX fuel microstructure to quantify the HBS formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouloré, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.boulore@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC Fuel Research Department, Cadarache, F13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Aufore, Laurence; Federici, Eric [CEA, DEN, DEC Fuel Research Department, Cadarache, F13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Blanpain, Patrick [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, F-69456 Lyon (France); Blachier, Rémi [EDF, SEPTEN, 12-14 Av. Dutrievoz, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • An advanced characterization of MIMAS MOX fuel based only on fresh fuel pellet characterization. • A probabilistic approach to model the High Burnup Structure formation in oxide fuels. • Validation of the method by comparing to experimental data obtained on fuel irradiated in the Halden reactor. - Abstract: Fission gas behaviour in accidental situations is closely related to the location of fission gas before the accident. More precisely, most of the fission gas in intergranular position is released during the accident and HBS zones contribute a lot to this intergranular quantity. So a methodology to characterize the HBS zones a priori from examination of unirradiated pellet has been developed at CEA. Characterization of plutonium distribution in MIMAS MOX fresh fuel pellets can be performed by image analysis on 1 mm{sup 2} X-ray mappings of plutonium acquired using Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). The specific software developed to describe the fuel using Pu X-ray mapping (ANACONDA) has been improved in order to simulate the fission products (FP) production and recoil during a given irradiation of the fuel, taking into account the evolution of the plutonium due to neutron irradiation. This simulation results from calculations with our fuel performance code ALCYONE combined with image processing. The final result is a mapping of local burn-up, but also the distribution of the relative FP concentration as a function of the local burn-up. A validation of this simulation process has been done by comparing the simulated mapping of neodymium to one measured on the same fuel batch after irradiation. Using previous studies of mechanisms for HBS formation, a probabilistic criterion for HBS formation has been proposed, based on the EPMA measurements of the decrease of the xenon signal as a function of the local burn-up. Combining the simulated FP cartography with this probabilistic HBS formation criterion, it is possible to calculate the surface

  4. Advanced analysis of complex seismic waveforms to characterize the subsurface Earth structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tianxia

    2011-12-01

    in seismic active zones. SPAC analysis of microtremors provides an efficient way to estimate Vs structure. Compared with other Vs estimating methods, SPAC is noninvasive and does not require any active sources, and therefore, it is especially useful in big cities. I applied SPAC method in two urban areas. The first is the historic city, Charleston, South Carolina, where high levels of seismic hazard lead to great public concern. Accurate Vs information, therefore, is critical for seismic site classification and site response studies. The second SPAC study is in Manhattan, New York City, where depths of high velocity contrast and soil-to-bedrock are different along the island. The two experiments show that Vs structure could be estimated with good accuracy using SPAC method compared with borehole and other techniques. SPAC is proved to be an effective technique for Vs estimation in urban areas. One important issue in seismology is the inversion of subsurface structures from surface recordings of seismograms. My third project focuses on solving this complex geophysical inverse problems, specifically, surface wave phase velocity dispersion curve inversion for shear wave velocity. In addition to standard linear inversion, I developed advanced inversion techniques including joint inversion using borehole data as constrains, nonlinear inversion using Monte Carlo, and Simulated Annealing algorithms. One innovative way of solving the inverse problem is to make inference from the ensemble of all acceptable models. The statistical features of the ensemble provide a better way to characterize the Earth model.

  5. Characterization of Tubing from Advanced ODS alloy (FCRD-NFA1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aydogan, Eda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lavender, Curt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Rieken, Joel [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Lewandowski, John [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hoelzer, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odette, George R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Fabrication methods are being developed and tested for producing fuel clad tubing of the advanced ODS 14YWT and FCRD-NFA1 ferritic alloys. Three fabrication methods were based on plastically deforming a machined thick-wall tube sample of the ODS alloys by pilgering, hydrostatic extrusion or drawing to decrease the outer diameter and wall thickness and increase the length of the final tube. The fourth fabrication method consisted of the additive manufacturing approach involving solid-state spray deposition (SSSD) of ball milled and annealed powder of 14YWT for producing thin-wall tubes. Of the four fabrication methods, two methods were successful at producing tubing for further characterization: production of tubing by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray forming and production of tubing using high-temperature hydrostatic extrusion. The characterization described shows through neutron diffraction the texture produced during extrusion while maintaining the beneficial oxide dispersion. In this research, the parameters for innovative thermal spray deposition and hot extrusion processing methods have been developed to produce the final nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) tubes having approximately 0.5 mm wall thickness. Effect of different processing routes on texture and grain boundary characteristics has been investigated. It was found that hydrostatic extrusion results in combination of plane strain and shear deformations which generate rolling textures of α- and γ-fibers on {001}<110> and {111}<110> together with a shear texture of ζ-fiber on {011}<211> and {011}<011>. On the other hand, multi-step plane strain deformation in cross directions leads to a strong rolling textures of θ- and ε-fiber on {001}<110> together with weak γ-fiber on {111}<112>. Even though the amount of the equivalent strain is similar, shear deformation leads to much lower texture indexes compared to the plane strain deformations. Moreover, while 50% of hot rolling brings about a large number of

  6. CCS Acceptability: Social Site Characterization and Advancing Awareness at Prospective Storage Sites in Poland and Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsting Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the work on the social dimension conducted within the EU FP7 SiteChar project. The most important aim of the research was to advance public awareness and draw lessons for successful public engagement activities when developing a CO2 storage permit application. To this end, social site characterization (e.g. representative surveys and public participation activities (focus conference were conducted at two prospective Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS sites: an onshore site in Poland and an offshore site in Scotland. The research consisted of four steps over a time period of 1.5 year, from early 2011 to mid-2012. The first step consisted of four related qualitative and quantitative research activities to provide a social characterization of the areas: desk research, stakeholder interviews, media analyses, and a survey among representative samples of the local community. The aim was to identify: stakeholders or interested parties; factors that may drive their perceptions of and attitudes towards CCS. Results were used to as input for the second step, in which a new format for public engagement named ‘focus conferences’ was tested at both sites involving a small sample of the local community. The third step consisted of making available generic as well as site-specific information to the general and local public, by: setting up a bilingual set of information pages on the project website suitable for a lay audience; organizing information meetings at both sites that were open to all who took interest. The fourth step consisted of a second survey among a new representative sample of the local community. The survey was largely identical to the survey in step 1 to enable the monitoring of changes in awareness, knowledge and opinions over time. Results provide insight in the way local CCS plans may be perceived by the local stakeholders, how this can be reliably assessed at early stage without raising unnecessary concerns, and how

  7. Gravity Spy: integrating advanced LIGO detector characterization, machine learning, and citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, M.; Coughlin, S.; Bahaadini, S.; Besler, E.; Rohani, N.; Allen, S.; Cabero, M.; Crowston, K.; Katsaggelos, A. K.; Larson, S. L.; Lee, T. K.; Lintott, C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lundgren, A.; Østerlund, C.; Smith, J. R.; Trouille, L.; Kalogera, V.

    2017-03-01

    With the first direct detection of gravitational waves, the advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) has initiated a new field of astronomy by providing an alternative means of sensing the universe. The extreme sensitivity required to make such detections is achieved through exquisite isolation of all sensitive components of LIGO from non-gravitational-wave disturbances. Nonetheless, LIGO is still susceptible to a variety of instrumental and environmental sources of noise that contaminate the data. Of particular concern are noise features known as glitches, which are transient and non-Gaussian in their nature, and occur at a high enough rate so that accidental coincidence between the two LIGO detectors is non-negligible. Glitches come in a wide range of time-frequency-amplitude morphologies, with new morphologies appearing as the detector evolves. Since they can obscure or mimic true gravitational-wave signals, a robust characterization of glitches is paramount in the effort to achieve the gravitational-wave detection rates that are predicted by the design sensitivity of LIGO. This proves a daunting task for members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration alone due to the sheer amount of data. In this paper we describe an innovative project that combines crowdsourcing with machine learning to aid in the challenging task of categorizing all of the glitches recorded by the LIGO detectors. Through the Zooniverse platform, we engage and recruit volunteers from the public to categorize images of time-frequency representations of glitches into pre-identified morphological classes and to discover new classes that appear as the detectors evolve. In addition, machine learning algorithms are used to categorize images after being trained on human-classified examples of the morphological classes. Leveraging the strengths of both classification methods, we create a combined method with the aim of improving the efficiency and accuracy of each individual

  8. Chemical characterization of emissions from advanced technology light-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lisa

    Results of detailed emissions measurements of seven 2000 model year advanced technology vehicles are reported. Six of the seven vehicles were imported from Europe and Japan and are not yet available for sale in Canada. Three of the vehicles were with direct injection diesel (DDI) technology, three with gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology and one vehicle was a gasoline-electric hybrid. It is expected that vehicles with these technologies will be forming a larger fraction of the Canadian light-duty vehicle fleet in the coming years in response to requirements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector in support of Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol; and as a result of improving fuel quality (most notably reducing the sulphur content of both diesel and gasoline). It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts on air quality of such changes in the composition of the vehicle fleet. The emissions from these vehicles were characterized over four test cycles representing different driving conditions. Samples of the exhaust were collected for determining methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds for the purposes of comparing ozone-forming potential of the emissions. Although these vehicles were not certified to Canadian emissions standards as tested, all vehicles met the then current Tier 1 emission standards, except for one diesel vehicle which did not meet the particulate matter (PM) standard. The DDI vehicles had the highest NO X emissions, the highest specific reactivity and the highest ozone-forming potential of the vehicles tested. When compared to conventional gasoline vehicles, the ozone-forming potential was equivalent. The GDI vehicles had lower NO X emissions, lower specific reactivity and lower ozone-forming potential than the conventional gasoline vehicles. Both the diesel and GDI vehicles had higher PM emissions than the conventional gasoline vehicles. The gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle

  9. Characterization and Simulation of the Thermoacoustic Instability Behavior of an Advanced, Low Emissions Combustor Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive research is being done toward the development of ultra-low-emissions combustors for aircraft gas turbine engines. However, these combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities. This type of instability was recently observed in an advanced, low emissions combustor prototype installed in a NASA Glenn Research Center test stand. The instability produces pressure oscillations that grow with increasing fuel/air ratio, preventing full power operation. The instability behavior makes the combustor a potentially useful test bed for research into active control methods for combustion instability suppression. The instability behavior was characterized by operating the combustor at various pressures, temperatures, and fuel and air flows representative of operation within an aircraft gas turbine engine. Trends in instability behavior versus operating condition have been identified and documented, and possible explanations for the trends provided. A simulation developed at NASA Glenn captures the observed instability behavior. The physics-based simulation includes the relevant physical features of the combustor and test rig, employs a Sectored 1-D approach, includes simplified reaction equations, and provides time-accurate results. A computationally efficient method is used for area transitions, which decreases run times and allows the simulation to be used for parametric studies, including control method investigations. Simulation results show that the simulation exhibits a self-starting, self-sustained combustion instability and also replicates the experimentally observed instability trends versus operating condition. Future plans are to use the simulation to investigate active control strategies to suppress combustion instabilities and then to experimentally demonstrate active instability suppression with the low emissions combustor prototype, enabling full power, stable operation.

  10. Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Mancosu, Pietro, E-mail: afc@iosi.ch [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Radio-Oncology Department, Milan-Rozzano (Italy)

    2011-03-21

    A new algorithm, Acuros (registered) XB Advanced Dose Calculation, has been introduced by Varian Medical Systems in the Eclipse planning system for photon dose calculation in external radiotherapy. Acuros XB is based on the solution of the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE). The LBTE describes the macroscopic behaviour of radiation particles as they travel through and interact with matter. The implementation of Acuros XB in Eclipse has not been assessed; therefore, it is necessary to perform these pre-clinical validation tests to determine its accuracy. This paper summarizes the results of comparisons of Acuros XB calculations against measurements and calculations performed with a previously validated dose calculation algorithm, the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA). The tasks addressed in this paper are limited to the fundamental characterization of Acuros XB in water for simple geometries. Validation was carried out for four different beams: 6 and 15 MV beams from a Varian Clinac 2100 iX, and 6 and 10 MV 'flattening filter free' (FFF) beams from a TrueBeam linear accelerator. The TrueBeam FFF are new beams recently introduced in clinical practice on general purpose linear accelerators and have not been previously reported on. Results indicate that Acuros XB accurately reproduces measured and calculated (with AAA) data and only small deviations were observed for all the investigated quantities. In general, the overall degree of accuracy for Acuros XB in simple geometries can be stated to be within 1% for open beams and within 2% for mechanical wedges. The basic validation of the Acuros XB algorithm was therefore considered satisfactory for both conventional photon beams as well as for FFF beams of new generation linacs such as the Varian TrueBeam.

  11. Applying Fractal Dimensions and Energy-Budget Analysis to Characterize Fracturing Processes During Magma Migration and Eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) Submarine Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta

    2014-07-01

    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  12. Fracture mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Nestor

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook includes a refined presentation of concepts in each chapter, additional examples; new problems and sections, such as conformal mapping and mechanical behavior of wood; while retaining all the features of the original book. The material included in this book is based upon the development of analytical and numerical procedures pertinent to particular fields of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and plastic fracture mechanics (PFM), including mixed-mode-loading interaction. The mathematical approach undertaken herein is coupled with a brief review of several fracture theories available in cited references, along with many color images and figures. Dynamic fracture mechanics is included through the field of fatigue and Charpy impact testing. Explains computational and engineering approaches for solving crack-related problems using straightforward mathematics that facilitate comprehension of the physical meaning of crack growth processes; Expands computational understandin...

  13. Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicine. 2014;161:189. Lewiecki EM. Prevention of osteoporosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 31, 2014. Hip fractures among older adults. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www. ...

  14. Fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, John L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The application of fracture mechanics to the design of ceramic structures will require the precise measurement of crack growth and fracture resistance of these materials over their entire range of anticipated service temperatures and standardized test methods for making such measurements. The development of a standard test for measuring the plane strain fracture toughness is sought. Stress intensity factor coefficients were determined for three varieties of chevron-notch specimens, and fracture toughness measurements were made on silicon nitrides, silicon carbides, and aluminum oxides to assess the performance of each specimen variety. It was determined that silicon nitride and silicon carbides have flat crack growth resistance curves, but aluminum oxide does not. Additionally, batch-to-batch differences were noticed for the aluminum oxide. Experiments are continuing to explain the rising crack growth resistance and batch-to-batch variations for the aluminum oxide.

  15. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Done, Stephen [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Sugar, Naomi; Feldman, Kenneth [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Children' s Protection Program, Seattle, WA (United States); Marasigan, Joanne; Wambold, Nicolle [University of Washington, College of Arts and Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Rickets affects young infants and toddlers. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the types of fractures that occur in rachitic patients. To evaluate the age of patients at which radiographically evident rickets occurs, and to characterize the age incidence and fractures that are observed in infants and toddlers with radiographically evident rickets. A retrospective study of children younger than 24 months was performed. Clinical data and radiographs were reviewed. Radiographs obtained within 1 month of the diagnosis were evaluated for the presence or absence of osteopenia, presence or absence of fraying-cupping, and presence and characterization of fractures. After exclusion criteria were applied, 45 children were included in the study. Children with rickets evident by radiograph were in the age range of 2-24 months. Fractures were present in 17.5% of the study group, exclusively in mobile infants and toddlers. Fracture types included transverse long bone fractures, anterior and anterior-lateral rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures. All fractures occurred exclusively in patients with severe, overtly evident rickets. Fractures occur in older infants and toddlers with overt rickets and can be seen by radiograph. Fractures do not resemble high-risk non-accidental trauma fractures. (orig.)

  16. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization and Modeling in the Swedish Program for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Crystalline Rocks Using Information Acquired by Difference Flow Logging and Borehole Wall Image Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, S.; Stigsson, M.; Levén, J.

    2006-12-01

    Difference flow logging is a relatively new hydraulic test method. It offers a superior geometrical resolution compared to the classic double-packer injection test method. Other significant features of the difference flow logging method are the long duration of the test period and the line source flow regime. These three features are vital for the characterization and the modeling of the conductive fracture frequency in crystalline rocks. Further, combining difference flow logging with core mapping and in situ borehole wall image logging (BIPS) allows for an enhanced geological cross correlation and structural interpretation. The data and analyses presented here come from the ongoing site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in Forsmark managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. First, we demonstrate the statistical properties of the fracture transmissivities acquired by difference flow logging for a number of one-kilometer-long cored boreholes. Secondly, we make a hydraulic comparison between these data and the transmissivities acquired by double-packer injection tests. Thirdly, we present a method for investigating the geometrical connectivity of open fractures in fracture network simulations and how this connectivity can be cross correlated to the fracture transmissivity distribution acquired by difference flow logging. Finally, we discuss the geometrical properties of flowing fractures as acquired by BIPS data and the correlation to the current stress situation in Forsmark. The geometrical anisotropy observed in the transmissivity data suggests that the current stress situation is very important for the flow field in Forsmark. This puts constraints on the collection and use of geological/structural data for hydrogeological discrete fracture network modeling.

  17. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  18. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  19. Subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive patients: results from the HORIZON-recurrent fracture trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Jonathan D; Lyles, Kenneth; Boonen, Steven; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Hyldstrup, Lars; Nordsletten, Lars; Pieper, Carl; Recknor, Chris; Su, Guoqin; Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina; Magaziner, Jay

    2011-12-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the risks of osteoporosis-related subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive individuals. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial with a study-qualifying hip fracture were examined, comparing those who sustained incident subtrochanteric fractures with those sustaining other hip fractures. Subjects were bisphosphonate-naive or had a bisphosphonate washout period of 6-24 months and subsequently received an annual infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg or placebo after low-trauma hip-fracture repair. In total, 2,127 men and women were included. Of the qualifying hip fractures, 5.2% were subtrochanteric, 54.8% femoral neck, 33.0% intertrochanteric, and 7.1% other (generally complex fractures of mixed type). Significant baseline (pre-hip fracture) differences were seen between index hip-fracture types, with the percentage of patients with extreme mobility problems being twofold higher in patients with index subtrochanteric fracture (9.9%) compared to other patients. The distribution of hip-fracture types was similar between the treatment groups at baseline. No patients with index subtrochanteric fractures and six patients with other qualifying hip fractures reported prior bisphosphonate use. Only one further subtrochanteric fracture occurred in each treatment group over an average 2-year patient follow-up. Subtrochanteric fractures are not uncommon in bisphosphonate-naive patients. Extreme difficulties with mobility may be a unique risk factor predisposing to development of incident subtrochanteric fractures rather than other types of hip fracture. In patients with recent hip fracture who received zoledronic acid therapy, the incidence of new subtrochanteric fractures was too small to draw any meaningful conclusions.

  20. Locking plates in proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, P C; Helwig, P; Konrad, G; Südkamp, N P

    2007-12-01

    It is well known that proximal humerus fractures are among the three most frequent fracture types. Epidemiological invetsigations show that in people elder than 60 years the fracture of the proximal humerus is more frequent than fractures of the hip region (17). Over the last decades several techniques have been applied for treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Widely accepted is the initiation of a conservative treatment regimen for undisplaced fractures, however, the standard treatment for displaced fractures, especially three and four part fractures, is still the center of scientific debate. Many different implants have been tested and investigated, thus demonstrating lack of sufficient results. Over the last years the development of angle stable, locking implants started and clinical studies demonstrated encouraging results. In our clinic the locking proximal humerus plate and the PHILOS plate advanced to the implant of choice for treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures. There are still cases of implant failure and humerus head necrosis, but most of these complications were caused by the fracture type and not an implant specific problem. However the overall results with these new implants are encouraging. Key words: locking plates, proximal humerus fracture, humerus, humerus fracture, PHILOS, PHP.

  1. The Functional Potential of Microbial Communities in Hydraulic Fracturing Source Water and Produced Water from Natural Gas Extraction Characterized by Metagenomic Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Murali Mohan; Bibby, Kyle J.; Daniel Lipus; Hammack, Richard W.; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2014-01-01

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobi...

  2. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction.

  3. Advances in the characterization of InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörl, A.; Daumer, V.; Hugger, T.; Kohn, N.; Luppold, W.; Müller, R.; Niemasz, J.; Rehm, R.; Rutz, F.; Schmidt, J.; Schmitz, J.; Stadelmann, T.; Wauro, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports on advances in the electro-optical characterization of InAs/GaSb short-period superlattice infrared photodetectors with cut-off wavelengths in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared ranges. To facilitate in-line monitoring of the electro-optical device performance at different processing stages we have integrated a semi-automated cryogenic wafer prober in our process line. The prober is configured for measuring current-voltage characteristics of individual photodiodes at 77 K. We employ it to compile a spatial map of the dark current density of a superlattice sample with a cut-off wavelength around 5 μm patterned into a regular array of 1760 quadratic mesa diodes with a pitch of 370 μm and side lengths varying from 60 to 350 μm. The different perimeter-to-area ratios make it possible to separate bulk current from sidewall current contributions. We find a sidewall contribution to the dark current of 1.2×10-11 A/cm and a corrected bulk dark current density of 1.1×10-7 A/cm2, both at 200 mV reverse bias voltage. An automated data analysis framework can extract bulk and sidewall current contributions for various subsets of the test device grid. With a suitable periodic arrangement of test diode sizes, the spatial distribution of the individual contributions can thus be investigated. We found a relatively homogeneous distribution of both bulk dark current density and sidewall current contribution across the sample. With the help of an improved capacitance-voltage measurement setup developed to complement this technique a residual carrier concentration of 1.3×1015 cm-3 is obtained. The work is motivated by research into high performance superlattice array sensors with demanding processing requirements. A novel long-wavelength infrared imager based on a heterojunction concept is presented as an example for this work. It achieves a noise equivalent temperature difference below 30 mK for realistic operating conditions.

  4. The Evaluation of Complex Borehole Geophysics and Corescanning: for Detailed Characterization of Oriented Fracture Sets, Zones, and Hydraulic Flow on Different Scales. A Case Study: Moragy Granite, Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maros, G.; Zilahi-Sebess, L.; Dudko, A.; Koroknai, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Our presentation outlines the methodology to determine the relationship between fractures and flow systems, and it tries to homogenize the results deriving from methods of different resolutions in a geological model. The granite suffered multi-phase brittle deformation during the Alpine orogene, the fractures renewed several times and were filled with multi-generation infillings. The cores were scanned with the ImaGeo system, the fractures were oriented, characterized in detail from geological and geophysical point of views, and structurally evaluated. A structural model was sketched (Maros et al 2004). The results were refined by the information received from geophysical data, primarily from well-logging (Zilahi-Sebess et al 2003), but radar measurements, crosshole velocity tomography were also used (Toros et al 2004). Transmissivity in granite: 10-6-10-12, main fractures: 10-6-10-5 m2/s. Porous and fracture flow models were set up (Benedek et al 2003, Balla et al 2004). Correlations were found between the core-logging and the well-logging: acoustic openness, density, acoustic velocity, resistivity versus fracture frequency, fracture zones versus HPF influx places. The complex evaluation made the determination of the size and dip of fracture zones more precise. The flow characteristics of individual fractures and fracture zones, however, are influenced by their unique features; no parameter-group can be selected that definitely produces permeable or impermeable fractures. The interpretation of the observations carried out on different scales can be done in several ways. One method is to use methods of different resolutions densely enough to be representative. We examined the relation of information deriving from high resolution methods and the well-logging. On the basis of the depth-trends it is possible to extrapolate the information around the borehole. The relationship with the geophysical surveys is possible through the resistivity and acoustic measurements

  5. Modeling 3D Fracture Network in Carbonate NFR: Contribution from an Analogue Dataset, the Cante Perdrix Quarry, Calvisson, SE France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, B.D.M.; Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.

    2012-01-01

    The full 3D characterization of fracture networks is a key issue in naturally fractured reservoir modeling. Fracture geometry (e.g., orientation, size, spacing), fracture scale (e.g., bed-confined fractures, fracture corridors), lateral and vertical variations, need to be defined from limited, gener

  6. Galeazzi fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc I; Jupiter, Jesse B; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2011-10-01

    Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the radial diaphysis with disruption at the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Typically, the mechanism of injury is forceful axial loading and torsion of the forearm. Diagnosis is established on radiographic evaluation. Underdiagnosis is common because disruption of the ligamentous restraints of the DRUJ may be overlooked. Nonsurgical management with anatomic reduction and immobilization in a long-arm cast has been successful in children. In adults, nonsurgical treatment typically fails because of deforming forces acting on the distal radius and DRUJ. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred surgical option. Anatomic reduction and rigid fixation should be followed by intraoperative assessment of the DRUJ. Further intraoperative interventions are based on the reducibility and postreduction stability of the DRUJ. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of Galeazzi fracture may result in disabling complications, such as DRUJ instability, malunion, limited forearm range of motion, chronic wrist pain, and osteoarthritis.

  7. An advanced electric propulsion diagnostic (AEPD) platform for in-situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundesmann, Carsten; Eichhorn, Christoph; Scholze, Frank; Spemann, Daniel; Neumann, Horst; Pagano, Damiano; Scaranzin, Simone; Scortecci, Fabrizio; Leiter, Hans J.; Gauter, Sven; Wiese, Ruben; Kersten, Holger; Holste, Kristof; Köhler, Peter; Klar, Peter J.; Mazouffre, Stéphane; Blott, Richard; Bulit, Alexandra; Dannenmayer, Käthe

    2016-10-01

    Experimental characterization is an essential task in development, qualification and optimization process of electric propulsion thrusters or ion beam sources for material processing, because it can verify that the thruster or ion beam source fulfills the requested mission or application requirements, and it can provide parameters for thruster and plasma modeling. Moreover, there is a need for standardizing electric propulsion thruster diagnostics in order to make characterization results of different thrusters and also from measurements performed in different vacuum facilities reliable and comparable. Therefore, we have developed an advanced electric propulsion diagnostic (AEPD) platform, which allows a comprehensive in-situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters (or ion beam sources) and could serve as a standard on-ground tool in the future. The AEPD platform uses a five-axis positioning system and provides the option to use diagnostic tools for beam characterization (Faraday probe, retarding potential analyzer, ExB probe, active thermal probe), for optical inspection (telemicroscope, triangular laser head), and for thermal characterization (pyrometer, thermocamera). Here we describe the capabilities of the diagnostic platform and provide first experimental results of the characterization of a gridded ion thruster RIT- μX.

  8. Fracture Blisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uebbing, Claire M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fracture blisters are a relatively uncommon complication of fractures in locations of the body, such as the ankle, wrist elbow and foot, where skin adheres tightly to bone with little subcutaneous fat cushioning. The blister that results resembles that of a second degree burn.These blisters significantly alter treatment, making it difficult to splint or cast and often overlying ideal surgical incision sites. Review of the literature reveals no consensus on management; however, most authors agree on early treatment prior to blister formation or delay until blister resolution before attempting surgical correction or stabilization. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1;131-133.

  9. Fracture of brittle solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lawn, Brian

    1993-01-01

    This is an advanced text for higher degree materials science students and researchers concerned with the strength of highly brittle covalent-ionic solids, principally ceramics. It is a reconstructed and greatly expanded edition of a book first published in 1975. The book presents a unified continuum, microstructural and atomistic treatment of modern day fracture mechanics from a materials perspective. Particular attention is directed to the basic elements of bonding and microstructure that govern the intrinsic toughness of ceramics. These elements hold the key to the future of ceramics as high-technology materials--to make brittle solids strong, we must first understand what makes them weak. The underlying theme of the book is the fundamental Griffith energy-balance concept of crack propagation. The early chapters develop fracture mechanics from the traditional continuum perspective, with attention to linear and nonlinear crack-tip fields, equilibrium and non-equilibrium crack states. It then describes the at...

  10. Multi-Site Application of the Geomechanical Approach for Natural Fracture Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Billingsley; V. Kuuskraa

    2006-03-31

    In order to predict the nature and distribution of natural fracturing, Advanced Resources Inc. (ARI) incorporated concepts of rock mechanics, geologic history, and local geology into a geomechanical approach for natural fracture prediction within mildly deformed, tight (low-permeability) gas reservoirs. Under the auspices of this project, ARI utilized and refined this approach in tight gas reservoir characterization and exploratory activities in three basins: the Piceance, Wind River and the Anadarko. The primary focus of this report is the knowledge gained on natural fractural prediction along with practical applications for enhancing gas recovery and commerciality. Of importance to tight formation gas production are two broad categories of natural fractures: (1) shear related natural fractures and (2) extensional (opening mode) natural fractures. While arising from different origins this natural fracture type differentiation based on morphology is sometimes inter related. Predicting fracture distribution successfully is largely a function of collecting and understanding the available relevant data in conjunction with a methodology appropriate to the fracture origin. Initially ARI envisioned the geomechanical approach to natural fracture prediction as the use of elastic rock mechanics methods to project the nature and distribution of natural fracturing within mildly deformed, tight (low permeability) gas reservoirs. Technical issues and inconsistencies during the project prompted re-evaluation of these initial assumptions. ARI's philosophy for the geomechanical tools was one of heuristic development through field site testing and iterative enhancements to make it a better tool. The technology and underlying concepts were refined considerably during the course of the project. As with any new tool, there was a substantial learning curve. Through a heuristic approach, addressing these discoveries with additional software and concepts resulted in a stronger set

  11. Preface to the Viewpoint Set: Nanostructured metals - Advances in processing, characterization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    Materialia 2004;51:751–841). Since then the field has retained its vigor and advances and new discoveries have been made, many of which form the basis of the present Viewpoint Set. An important part of the development has been the trend to produce traditional materials such as steel, aluminum and copper...... and materials scientists but also technologists and engineers. The present Viewpoint Set therefore covers metallic materials with a structural scale ranging from micrometer to nanometer in dimensions and focuses on processing techniques such as plastic deformation and phase transformations. As a result...... of the advances in processing techniques, research and development also now extends to applications of fine structured metals, especially in advanced components...

  12. Rib Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... or a collapsed lung (pneumothorax—see Traumatic Pneumothorax ). An injury that fractures the lower ribs sometimes also damages the liver (see Liver ...

  13. Fracture source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The fracture properties of many different types of fibers are covered in a timely new book that will prove to be a tremendous source of information and references for researchers in the wide and diverse field of fibers and composites, says Bill Clegg.

  14. Microwave dynamic large signal waveform characterization of advanced InGaP HBT for power amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Lixin; Jin Zhi; Liu Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    In wireless mobile communications and wireless local area networks (WLAN), advanced lnGaP HBT with power amplifiers are key components. In this paper, the microwave large signal dynamic waveform characteristics of an advanced InGaP HBT are investigated experimentally for 5.8 GHz power amplifier applications. The microwave large signal waveform distortions at various input power levels, especially at large signal level, are investigated and the reasons are analyzed. The output power saturation is also explained. These analyses will be useful for power amplifier designs.

  15. [Condylar fracture and temporomandibular joint ankylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    This article summarized the advances in treatment and research of temporomandibular joint surgery in the last 5 years which was presented in "The 2nd Condyle Fracture and Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis Symposium". The content includes 5 parts: non-surgical treatment of children condyle fracture and long-term follow-up, the improvement of operative approach for condyle fracture and key techniques, the importance and the method for the simultanesous reduction of disc in condylar fracture treatment, the development of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis similar to hypertrophic non-union and the improved safety and accuracy by applying digital surgery in joint surgery.

  16. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  17. Conducting Reflective, Hands-On Research with Advanced Characterization Instruments: A High-Level Undergraduate Practical Exploring Solid-State Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, S. J.; Mapp, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    An undergraduate practical exercise has been designed to provide hands-on, instrument-based experience of advanced characterization techniques. A research experience approach is taken, centered around the concept of solid-state polymorphism, which requires a detailed knowledge of molecular and crystal structure to be gained by advanced analytical…

  18. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  19. An Empirical Grounded Theory Approach to Characterizing Advanced Mathematical Thinking in College Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabb, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    The research literature has made calls for greater coherence and consistency with regard to the meaning and use of the term advanced mathematical thinking (AMT) in mathematics education (Artigue, Batanero, & Kent, 2007; Selden & Selden, 2005). Educators and researchers agree that students should be engaged in AMT but it is unclear…

  20. Women with inoperable or locally advanced breast cancer -- what characterizes them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Charnoubi, Waseem Asim Ghulam; Svendsen, Jesper Brink; Tange, Ulla Brix;

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Danish women. Locally advanced breast cancer occurs in a relatively large proportion of all new primary breast cancer diagnoses and for unexplained reasons 20-30% of women with breast cancer wait more than eight weeks from the initial breast cancer...

  1. Mesoscale Characterization of Coupled Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fractured Porous Slope in Response to Free Water-Surface Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C.-F.; Thoraval, A.

    2008-05-15

    the high-permeability zones. The periodicity and magnitude of free water-surface movements cause 10 to 20% variations in those local stress/strain accumulations related to the contrasting HM behavior for high and low-permeable elements of the slope. Finally, surface-tilt monitoring coupled with internal localized pressure/deformation measurements appears to be a promising method for characterizing the HM properties and behavior of a slope, and for detecting its progressive destabilization.

  2. [Fractures of the humerus head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, M; Izadpanah, K; Maier, D; Reising, K; Strohm, P C; Südkamp, N P

    2012-03-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus are commonly seen especially in the elderly population. High-energy trauma in young people can be distinguished from low-energy trauma in the elderly resulting from falls of a low height which are typically characterized by osteoporosis. A precise analysis of fractures is essential for a good understanding of the fracture and an individual therapy for which the LEGO-Codman classification provided by Hertel is recommended. Nonsurgical therapy is commonly performed and widely accepted not only for simple fractures. For osteosynthesis angular stable implants became the gold standard but are frequently associated with a high rate of complications some of which can be lowered by an improved surgical technique. Even today varus dislocated fractures are challenging, especially in combination with destruction of the medial column. In those cases where stable osteosynthesis can no longer be achieved arthroplasty is indicated. The clinical results of anatomic fracture arthroplasty are strongly related with correct ingrowth of the tuberosities. Reverse fracture arthroplasty may be considered but indications should be interpreted with caution and preferably used in patients older than 75 years.

  3. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.

  4. Recent trends in fracture and damage mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zybell, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of topics in fracture and damage mechanics. It presents historical perspectives as well as recent innovative developments, presented by peer reviewed contributions from internationally acknowledged authors.  The volume deals with the modeling of fracture and damage in smart materials, current industrial applications of fracture mechanics, and it explores advances in fracture testing methods. In addition, readers will discover trends in the field of local approach to fracture and approaches using analytical mechanics. Scholars in the fields of materials science, engineering and computational science will value this volume which is dedicated to Meinhard Kuna on the occasion of his 65th birthday in 2015. This book incorporates the proceedings of an international symposium that was organized to honor Meinhard Kuna’s contributions to the field of theoretical and applied fracture and damage mechanics.

  5. Intelligent fracture creation for shale gas development

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.

    2011-05-14

    Shale gas represents a major fraction of the proven reserves of natural gas in the United States and a collection of other countries. Higher gas prices and the need for cleaner fuels provides motivation for commercializing shale gas deposits even though the cost is substantially higher than traditional gas deposits. Recent advances in horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing, which dramatically lower costs of developing shale gas fields, are key to renewed interest in shale gas deposits. Hydraulically induced fractures are quite complex in shale gas reservoirs. Massive, multistage, multiple cluster treatments lead to fractures that interact with existing fractures (whether natural or induced earlier). A dynamic approach to the fracturing process so that the resulting network of reservoirs is known during the drilling and fracturing process is economically enticing. The process needs to be automatic and done in faster than real-time in order to be useful to the drilling crews.

  6. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2014-01-01

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  7. Characterization of hybrid aluminum matrix composites for advanced applications – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid aluminum matrix composites (HAMCs are the second generation of composites that have potential to substitute single reinforced composites due to improved properties. This paper investigates the feasibility and viability of developing low cost-high performance hybrid composites for automotive and aerospace applications. Further, the fabrication characteristics and mechanical behavior of HAMCs fabricated by stir casting route have also been reviewed. The optical micrographs of the HAMCs indicate that the reinforcing particles are fairly distributed in the matrix alloy and the porosity levels have been found to be acceptable for the casted composites. The density, hardness, tensile behavior and fracture toughness of these composites have been found to be either comparable or superior to the ceramic reinforced composites. It has been observed from the literature that the direct strengthening of composites occurs due to the presence of hard ceramic phase, while the indirect strengthening arises from the thermal mismatch between the matrix alloy and reinforcing phase during solidification. Based on the database for material properties, the application area of HAMCs has been proposed in the present review. It has been concluded that the hybrid composites offer more flexibility and reliability in the design of possible components depending upon the reinforcement's combination and composition.

  8. Molecular characterization of a dechlorinating community resulting from in situ biostimulation in a trichloroethene-contaminated deep, fractured basalt aquifer and comparison to a derivative laboratory culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Tamzen W; Cummings, David E; Spring, Stefan; Petzke, Lynn M; Sorenson, Kent S

    2004-12-01

    Sodium lactate additions to a trichloroethene (TCE) residual source area in deep, fractured basalt at a U.S. Department of Energy site have resulted in the enrichment of the indigenous microbial community, the complete dechlorination of nearly all aqueous-phase TCE to ethene, and the continued depletion of the residual source since 1999. The bacterial and archaeal consortia in groundwater obtained from the residual source were assessed by using PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. A clone library of bacterial amplicons was predominated by those from members of the class Clostridia (57 of 93 clones), of which a phylotype most similar to that of the homoacetogen Acetobacterium sp. strain HAAP-1 was most abundant (32 of 93 clones). The remaining Bacteria consisted of phylotypes affiliated with Sphingobacteria, Bacteroides, Spirochaetes, Mollicutes, and Proteobacteria and candidate divisions OP11 and OP3. The two proteobacterial phylotypes were most similar to those of the known dechlorinators Trichlorobacter thiogenes and Sulfurospirillum multivorans. Although not represented by the bacterial clones generated with broad-specificity bacterial primers, a Dehalococcoides-like phylotype was identified with genus-specific primers. Only four distinct phylotypes were detected in the groundwater archaeal library, including predominantly a clone affiliated with the strictly acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta concilii (24 of 43 clones). A mixed culture that completely dechlorinates TCE to ethene was enriched from this groundwater, and both communities were characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). According to T-RFLP, the laboratory enrichment community was less diverse overall than the groundwater community, with 22 unique phylotypes as opposed to 43 and a higher percentage of Clostridia, including the Acetobacterium population. Bioreactor archaeal structure was very similar to that of the groundwater community, suggesting that methane is

  9. Development of Advanced Technologies for Complete Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of Quantized Human Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    extending the period of performance soon. The Ivy Center for Advanced Brain Tumor Treatment at the Swedish Neuroscience Institute (SNI) has...Treatment at the Swedish Neuroscience Institute (SNI) has collected potentially eligible tumor tissue from over forty GBM patients. • Primary GBM cell...generated from the TCGA and Allen atlas projects. Promising candidate target proteins will be validated on all 64 patient tumor and blood samples

  10. Next Generation of Advanced Laser Fluorescence Technology for Characterization of Natural Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The project research addresses our long-term goal to develop an analytical suite of the Advanced Laser Fluorescence (ALF) methods and instruments to...sucessfully tested. It provides the accuracy of CC fluorescnce measurments comparable to the accuracy of commonly accepted preparatory methods , such HPLC...Plankton Reseach (Chekalyuk et al. 2011). Task 2 Development of Aquatic Laser Fluorescence Analyzer (ALFA). The ALFA instrument development is

  11. Evolution of a mining induced fracture network in the overburden strata of an inclined coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Xiujun; Gao; Mingzhong; Lv; Youchang; Shi; Xiangchao; Gao; Hailian; Zhou; Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The geological conditions of the Pingdingshan coal mining group were used to construct a physical model used to study the distribution and evolution of mining induced cracks in the overburden strata.Digital graphics technology and fractal theory are introduced to characterize the distribution and growth of the mining induced fractures in the overburden strata of an inclined coal seam.A relationship between fractal dimension of the fracture network and the pressure in the overburden strata is suggested.Mining induced fractures spread dynamically to the mining face and up into the roof as the length of advance increases.Moreover,the fractal dimension of the fracture network increases with increased mining length,in general,but decreases during a period from overburden strata separation until the main roof collapses.It is a1so shown that overburden strata pressure plays an important role in the evolution of mining induced fractures and that the fractal dimension of the fractures increases with the pressure of the overburden.

  12. Multidetector Computed Tomography of Cervical Spine Fractures in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, M.P.; Kiuru, M.J.; Koskinen, S.K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Trauma Center (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) cervical spine findings in trauma patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Using PACS, 2282 cervical spine MDCT examinations requested by emergency room physicians were found during a period of 3 years. Of these patients, 18 (16 M, aged 41-87, mean 57 years) had advanced AS. Primary imaging included radiography in 12 and MRI in 11 patients. Results: MDCT detected one facet joint subluxation and 31 fractures in 17 patients: 14 transverse fractures, 8 spinous process fractures, 2 Jefferson's fractures, 1 type I and 2 type II odontoid process fractures, and 1 each: atlanto-occipital joint fracture and C2 laminar fracture plus isolated transverse process and facet joint fractures. Radiographs detected 48% and MRI 60% of the fractures. MRI detected all transverse and odontoid fractures, demonstrating spinal cord abnormalities in 72%. Conclusion: MDCT is superior to plain radiographs or MRI, showing significantly more injuries and yielding more information on fracture morphology. MRI is valuable, however, in evaluating the spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries. Fractures in advanced AS often show an abnormal orientation and are frequently associated with spinal cord injuries. In these patients, for any suspected cervical spine injuries, MDCT is therefore the imaging modality of choice.

  13. Fracture behaviour of polycrystalline tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Rupp, Daniel; Aktaa, Jarir

    2014-03-01

    Fracture behaviour of round blank polycrystalline tungsten was studied by means of three point bending Fracture-Mechanical (FM) tests at temperatures between RT and 1000 °C and under high vacuum. To study the influence of the anisotropic microstructure on the fracture toughness (FT) and ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) the specimens were extracted in three different, i.e. longitudinal, radial and circumferential orientations. The FM tests yielded distinctive fracture behaviour for each specimen orientation. The crack propagation was predominantly intergranular for longitudinal orientation up to 600 °C, whereas transgranular cleavage was observed at low test temperatures for radial and circumferentially oriented specimens. At intermediate test temperatures the change of the fracture mode took place for radial and circumferential orientations. Above 800 °C all three specimen types showed large ductile deformation without noticeable crack advancement. For longitudinal specimens the influence of the loading rate on the FT and DBT was studied in the loading rate range between 0.06 and 18 MPa m1/2/s. Though an increase of the FT was observed for the lowest loading rate, no resolvable dependence of the DBT on the loading rate was found partly due to loss of FT validity. A Master Curve approach is proposed to describe FT vs. test temperature data on polycrystalline tungsten. Fracture safe design space was identified by analysis compiled FT data.

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Scanning Probe Microscopy : Characterization, Nanofabrication and Device Application of Functional Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria; Kingon, Angus; Scanning Probe Microscopy : Characterization, Nanofabrication and Device Application of Functional Materials

    2005-01-01

    As the characteristic dimensions of electronic devices continue to shrink, the ability to characterize their electronic properties at the nanometer scale has come to be of outstanding importance. In this sense, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is becoming an indispensable tool, playing a key role in nanoscience and nanotechnology. SPM is opening new opportunities to measure semiconductor electronic properties with unprecedented spatial resolution. SPM is being successfully applied for nanoscale characterization of ferroelectric thin films. In the area of functional molecular materials it is being used as a probe to contact molecular structures in order to characterize their electrical properties, as a manipulator to assemble nanoparticles and nanotubes into simple devices, and as a tool to pattern molecular nanostructures. This book provides in-depth information on new and emerging applications of SPM to the field of materials science, namely in the areas of characterisation, device application and nanofabrica...

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

    2012-08-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

  16. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  17. Characterization of transient noise in Advanced LIGO relevant to gravitational wave signal GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adamo, M.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterji, S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.

    2016-07-01

    On 14 September 2015, a gravitational wave signal from a coalescing black hole binary system was observed by the Advanced LIGO detectors. This paper describes the transient noise backgrounds used to determine the significance of the event (designated GW150914) and presents the results of investigations into potential correlated or uncorrelated sources of transient noise in the detectors around the time of the event. The detectors were operating nominally at the time of GW150914. We have ruled out environmental influences and non-Gaussian instrument noise at either LIGO detector as the cause of the observed gravitational wave signal.

  18. McMC-based AVAZ direct inversion for fracture weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinpeng; Zhang, Guangzhi; Chen, Huaizhen; Yin, Xingyao

    2017-03-01

    Considering that wide-azimuth seismic data contains abundant azimuthal amplitude information about the fractured reservoir with obvious characteristics of amplitude variation with incident angle and azimuth (AVAZ), azimuthal seismic data can be used for the inversion of anisotropic parameters in fractured reservoir. Fractured reservoir with a single set of vertically aligned fractures embedded in a purely isotropic background medium may be considered as a long-wavelength effective transversely isotropic medium with a horizontal symmetry axis (HTI). The normal and tangential fracture weaknesses are two key parameters to the evaluation of fracture properties in HTI media, thus the inversion of fracture weaknesses may be used for characterizing the anisotropy in fractured reservoir. The elastic properties of background isotropic media without fractures, however, do not cause azimuthal changes in AVAZ data compared to the fracture anisotropic properties, therefore simultaneous inversion for the background elastic parameters and fracture anisotropic parameters may be not stable. Thus we propose a method of azimuth-difference-based AVAZ direct inversion for fracture weaknesses. First, we extract the fracture symmetry axis azimuth based on the least square ellipse fitting (LSEF) method to obtain a linear AVAZ approximation. Then we build a fractured anisotropic rock-physics model for the estimation of anisotropic well-log information, building the initial background low-frequency trend of fracture weaknesses. Finally, an AVAZ direct inversion method of normal and tangential fracture weaknesses is proposed with the nonlinear Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) strategy. So we can eliminate the influence of isotropic background elastic properties on the fracture weakness properties and obtain the normal and tangential fracture weaknesses more stably. Tests on both 2D over-thrust model and real data demonstrate that the normal and tangential fracture weaknesses may be estimated

  19. Naturally fractured tight gas: Gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Economically viable natural gas production from the low permeability Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado requires the presence of an intense set of open natural fractures. Establishing the regional presence and specific location of such natural fractures is the highest priority exploration goal in the Piceance and other western US tight, gas-centered basins. Recently, Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) completed a field program at Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, to test and demonstrate the use of advanced seismic methods to locate and characterize natural fractures. This project began with a comprehensive review of the tectonic history, state of stress and fracture genesis of the basin. A high resolution aeromagnetic survey, interpreted satellite and SLAR imagery, and 400 line miles of 2-D seismic provided the foundation for the structural interpretation. The central feature of the program was the 4.5 square mile multi-azimuth 3-D seismic P-wave survey to locate natural fracture anomalies. The interpreted seismic attributes are being tested against a control data set of 27 wells. Additional wells are currently being drilled at Rulison, on close 40 acre spacings, to establish the productivity from the seismically observed fracture anomalies. A similar regional prospecting and seismic program is being considered for another part of the basin. The preliminary results indicate that detailed mapping of fault geometries and use of azimuthally defined seismic attributes exhibit close correlation with high productivity gas wells. The performance of the ten new wells, being drilled in the seismic grid in late 1996 and early 1997, will help demonstrate the reliability of this natural fracture detection and mapping technology.

  20. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Egg

    2002-09-30

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  1. Influence of fracture heterogeneity and wing length on the response of vertically fractured wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.O.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.; Rosato, N.D.

    1983-04-01

    A finite-conductivity vertical fracture intersecting a well produced at a constant rate or at a constant pressure is considered. The pressure (or rate) response is obtained from a numerical model. Two aspects of this problem are considered: variable fracture conductivity and unequal fracture wing lengths. The first part of this paper examines the influence of fracture conductivity on the well response. In practice, the fracture conductivity is a decreasing function of distance from the wellbore. If the fracture conductivity decreases monotonically with distance from the wellbore, then at late times the variable fracture conductivity solutions behave like a constant-conductivity fracture, with conductivity equal to the arithmetic average of the conductivity. At early times the response is identical to that of a constant-conductivity fracture, corresponding to the highest conductivity of the fracture. For the variable fracture conductivity case, the bilinear flow period characterized by a one-quarter slope line may be obscured. Thus, analysis of short-time data can be difficult. The authors also consider situations where the fracture conductivity does not decrease monotonically with distance. The response for these cases is discussed in detail. The second part of the paper examines the effect of unequal wing lengths on the pressure response.

  2. Influence of fracture heterogeneity and wing length on the response of vertically fractured wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.O.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.; Rosato, N.D.

    1983-04-01

    A finite-conductivity vertical fracture intersecting a well produced at a constant rate or at a constant pressure is considered. The pressure (or rate) response is obtained from a numerical model. Two aspects of this problem are considered: variable fracture conductivity and unequal fracture wing lengths. The first part of this paper examines the influence of fracture conductivity on the well response. In practice, the fracture conductivity is a decreasing function of distance from the wellbore. If the fracture conductivity decreases monotonically with distance from the wellbore, then at late times the variable fracture conductivity solutions behave like a constant-conductivity fracture, with conductivity equal to the arithmetic average of the conductivity. At early times the response is identical to that of a constant-conductivity fracture, corresponding to the highest conductivity of the fracture. For the variable fracture conductivity case, the bilinear flow period characterized by a one-quarter slope line may be obscured. Thus, analysis of short-time data can be difficult. The authors also consider situations where the fracture conductivity does not decrease monotonically with distance. The response for these cases is discussed in detail. The second part of the paper examines the effect of unequal wing lengths on the pressure response. The authors delineate conditions under which the effect of wing length on the response will become dominant. They discuss the influence of wing length on both early- and long-time data.

  3. Etat de l'art en fracturation hydraulique State-Of-The-Art in Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouteca M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est un abrégé des connaissances de base sur la mécanique de la fracturation hydraulique (éléments de mécanique de la rupture, pression de fracturation et pression de fermeture, sur l'avancement actuel des travaux de modélisation de la propagation de fracture classés par type d'approche mécanique (bidimensionnelle, pseudotridimensionnelle, tridimensionnelle et par méthode de résolution (analytique, numérique, sur les propriétés des fluides de fracturation et des agents de soutènement. Deux chapitres à caractère plus pratique sont consacrés à la préparation et à la mise en oeuvre de la fracturation hydraulique ainsi qu'à l'évaluation des résultats de la fracturation hydraulique en termes de perméabilité, dimensions et direction de fracture. This article is an abridged review of basic knowledge about the mechanics of hydraulic fracturing (fracture mechanics, fracturing pressure and closure pressure, about recent advances in the modeling of fracture propagation classified by type of mechanical approach (two-dimensional, pseudo-three-dimensional, three-dimensional and by method of solution (analytic, numeric, and about the properties of fracturing fluids and propping agents. Two chapters having a more practical nature are devoted to the preparation and implementation of hydraulic fracturing as well as to the evaluation of hydraulic-fracturing results in terms of permeability and fracture sizes and direction.

  4. Coupled Fracture and Flow in Shale in Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Production of hydrocarbon from shale requires creation and maintenance of fracture permeability in an otherwise impermeable shale matrix. In this study, we use a combination of triaxial coreflood experiments and x-ray tomography characterization to investigate the fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale at in situ reservoir conditions (25-50 oC and 35-120 bars). Initially impermeable shale core was placed between flat anvils (compression) or between split anvils (pure shear) and loaded until failure in the triaxial device. Permeability was monitored continuously during this process. Significant deformation (>1%) was required to generate a transmissive fracture system. Permeability generally peaked at the point of a distinct failure event and then dropped by a factor of 2-6 when the system returned to hydrostatic failure. Permeability was very small in compression experiments (conformed to Forscheimer's law. The coupled deformation and flow behavior of Utica shale, particularly the large deformation required to initiate flow, indicates the probable importance of activation of existing fractures in hydraulic fracturing and that these fractures can have adequate permeability for the production of hydrocarbon.

  5. Using advanced dispersion models and mobile monitoring to characterize spatial patterns of ultrafine particles in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwack, Leonard M.; Hanna, Steven R.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-09-01

    In urban settings with elevated bridges, buildings, and other complex terrain, the relationship between traffic and air pollution can be highly variable and difficult to accurately characterize. Atmospheric dispersion models are often used in this context, but incorporating background concentrations and characterizing emissions at high spatiotemporal resolution is challenging, especially for ultrafine particles (UFPs). Ambient pollutant monitoring can characterize this relationship, especially when using continuous real-time monitoring. However, it is challenging to quantify local source contributions over background or to characterize spatial patterns across a neighborhood. The goal of this study is to evaluate contributions of traffic to neighborhood-scale air pollution using a combination of regression models derived from mobile UFP monitoring observations collected in Brooklyn, NY and outputs from the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) model. QUIC is a dispersion model that can explicitly take into account the three-dimensional shapes of buildings. The monitoring-based regression model characterized concentration gradients from a major elevated roadway, controlling for real-time traffic volume, meteorological variables, and other local sources. QUIC was applied to simulate dispersion from this same major roadway. The relative concentration decreases with distance from the roadway estimated by the monitoring-based regression model after removal of background and by QUIC were similar. Horizontal contour plots with both models demonstrated non-uniform patterns related to building configuration and source heights. We used the best-fit relationship between the monitoring-based regression model after removal of background and the QUIC outputs ( R2 = 0.80) to estimate a UFP emissions factor of 5.7 × 10 14 particles/vehicle-km, which was relatively consistent across key model assumptions. Our joint applications of novel techniques for analyzing mobile monitoring

  6. Advanced robotics handling and controls applied to Mixed Waste characterization, segregation and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasz, E.; Huber, L.; Horvath, J.; Roberson, P.; Wilhelmsen, K.; Ryon, R.

    1994-11-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Mixed Waste Operations program of the Department of Energy Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), a key emphasis is developing a total solution to the problem of characterizing, handling and treating complex and potentially unknown mixed waste objects. LLNL has been successful at looking at the problem from a system perspective and addressing some of the key issues including non-destructive evaluation of the waste stream prior to the materials entering the handling workcell, the level of automated material handling required for effective processing of the waste stream objects (both autonomous and tele-operational), and the required intelligent robotic control to carry out the characterization, segregation, and waste treating processes. These technologies were integrated and demonstrated in a prototypical surface decontamination workcell this past year.

  7. Turbine blade wear and damage. An overview of advanced characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlobohm, Jochen; Li, Yinan; Kaestner, Markus; Poesch, Andreas; Reithmeier, Eduard [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mess- und Regelungstechnik; Bruchwald, Oliver; Frackowiak, Wojciech; Reimche, Wilfried; Maier, Hans Juergen [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde

    2016-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of four measurement techniques that allow to extensively characterize the status of a worn turbine blade. In addition to the measurement of geometry and surface properties, the condition of the two protective coatings needs to be monitored. Fringe projection was used to detect and quantify geometric variances. The technique was improved using newly developed algorithms like inverse fringe projection. A Michelson interferometer was employed to further analyze areas with geometric defects and characterize the surface morphology of the blade. Pulsed high frequency induction thermography enabled the scanning of the blade for small cracks at or close to the surface. High frequency eddy current testing was used to determine the protective layers status and their thickness.

  8. Advanced in situ multi-scale characterization of hardness of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxin; Masuda, Hideki; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Onishi, Keiko; Kawai, Masamichi; Fujita, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    In situ multi-scale characterization of hardness of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is demonstrated by a traditional hardness tester, instrumented indentation tester and atomic-force-microscope (AFM)-based nanoindentation. In particular, due to the large residual indentation and nonuniform distribution of the microscale carbon fibers, the Vickers hardness could not be calculated by the traditional hardness tester. In addition, the clear residual microindentation could not be formed on the CFRP by instrumented indentation tester because of the large tip half angle of the Berkovich indenter. Therefore, an efficient technique for characterizing the true nanoscale hardness of CFRP was proposed and evaluated. The local hardness of the carbon fibers or plastic matrix on the nanoscale did not vary with nanoindentation location. The Vickers hardnesses of the carbon fiber and plastic matrix determined by AFM-based nanoindentation were 340 ± 30 and 40 ± 2 kgf/mm2, respectively.

  9. Advanced InSAR techniques for the management and characterization of geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, F.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.

    2012-04-01

    InSAR is a remote sensing tool that has applications in both geothermal exploitation and in the management of producing fields. The technique has developed rapidly in recent years and the most evolved algorithms, now capable of providing precise ground movement measurements with unprecedented spatial density over large areas, allow the monitoring of the effects of fluid injection and extraction on surface deformation and the detection of active faults. Multi-interferogram approaches have been used at several geothermal sites in different stages of development. SqueeSAR™, which represents the latest breakthrough in InSAR technology, provides a significant increase in the spatial density of measurement points by exploiting signal returns from both point-like and distributed scatterers. Furthermore, recent satellite radar sensors have a higher spatial resolution (down to 1 m), as well as a higher temporal frequency of image acquisitions (down to a few days). The coupling of the new algorithm with this new generation of satellites provides a valuable tool for monitoring the different phases of geothermal production and in support of the decision making process. Some examples from the US are presented here: the first case study involves the use of InSAR within a suite of tools for exploration of the San Emidio geothermal field in Nevada. This project aimed to develop geophysical techniques to identify and map large aperture fractures for the placement of new production/exploration wells. The second and third examples examine two zones in California: the Salton Sea area, where multi-interferogram InSAR provided an overview of surface deformation at a producing geothermal reservoir. Surface deformation in this area was complex, and the added detail provided insight into the interplay of tectonics and production activities. Additional InSAR studies have also been carried out at the Geysers field in order to evaluate the behavior of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) in

  10. Apparatus for dimensional characterization of fused silica fibers for the suspensions of advanced gravitational wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, A; Jones, R; Barton, M; Cagnoli, G; Cantley, C A; Crooks, D R M; Hammond, G D; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Rowan, S; Strain, K A

    2011-04-01

    Detection of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources remains one of the most challenging problems faced by experimental physicists. A significant limit to the sensitivity of future long-baseline interferometric gravitational wave detectors is thermal displacement noise of the test mass mirrors and their suspensions. Suspension thermal noise results from mechanical dissipation in the fused silica suspension fibers suspending the test mass mirrors and is therefore an important noise source at operating frequencies between ∼10 and 30 Hz. This dissipation occurs due to a combination of thermoelastic damping, surface and bulk losses. Its effects can be reduced by optimizing the thermoelastic and surface loss, and these parameters are a function of the cross sectional dimensions of the fiber along its length. This paper presents a new apparatus capable of high resolution measurements of the cross sectional dimensions of suspension fibers of both rectangular and circular cross section, suitable for use in advanced detector mirror suspensions.

  11. Cryogenic helium gas circulation system for advanced characterization of superconducting cables and other devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamidi, Sastry; Kim, Chul Han; Kim, Jae-Ho; Crook, Danny; Dale, Steinar

    2012-04-01

    A versatile cryogenic test bed, based on circulating cryogenic helium gas, has been designed, fabricated, and installed at the Florida State University Center for Advanced Power Systems (FSU-CAPS). The test bed is being used to understand the benefits of integrating the cryogenic systems of multiple superconducting power devices. The helium circulation system operates with four sets of cryocooler and heat exchanger combinations. The maximum operating pressure of the system is 2.1 MPa. The efficacy of helium circulation systems in cooling superconducting power devices is evaluated using a 30-m-long simulated superconducting cable in a flexible cryostat. Experiments were conducted at various mass flow rates and a variety of heat load profiles. A 1-D thermal model was developed to understand the effect of the gas flow parameters on the thermal gradients along the cable. Experimental results are in close agreement with the results from the thermal model.

  12. Gravity Spy: Integrating Advanced LIGO Detector Characterization, Machine Learning, and Citizen Science

    CERN Document Server

    Zevin, Michael; Bahaadini, Sara; Besler, Emre; Rohani, Neda; Allen, Sarah; Cabero, Miriam; Crowston, Kevin; Katsaggelos, Aggelos; Larson, Shane; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Lintott, Chris; Littenberg, Tyson; Lundgren, Andrew; Oesterlund, Carsten; Smith, Joshua; Trouille, Laura; Kalogera, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    (abridged for arXiv) With the first direct detection of gravitational waves, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has initiated a new field of astronomy by providing an alternate means of sensing the universe. The extreme sensitivity required to make such detections is achieved through exquisite isolation of all sensitive components of LIGO from non-gravitational-wave disturbances. Nonetheless, LIGO is still susceptible to a variety of instrumental and environmental sources of noise that contaminate the data. Of particular concern are noise features known as glitches, which are transient and non-Gaussian in their nature, and occur at a high enough rate so that accidental coincidence between the two LIGO detectors is non-negligible. In this paper we describe an innovative project that combines crowdsourcing with machine learning to aid in the challenging task of categorizing all of the glitches recorded by the LIGO detectors. Through the Zooniverse platform, we engage and rec...

  13. Fabrication and characterization of anisotropic nanofiber scaffolds for advanced drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalani G

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ghulam Jalani,* Chan Woo Jung,* Jae Sang Lee, Dong Woo Lim Department of Bionano Engineering, College of Engineering Sciences, Hanyang University, Education Research Industry Cluster at Ansan Campus, Ansan, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Stimuli-responsive, polymer-based nanostructures with anisotropic compartments are of great interest as advanced materials because they are capable of switching their shape via environmentally-triggered conformational changes, while maintaining discrete compartments. In this study, a new class of stimuli-responsive, anisotropic nanofiber scaffolds with physically and chemically distinct compartments was prepared via electrohydrodynamic cojetting with side-by-side needle geometry. These nanofibers have a thermally responsive, physically-crosslinked compartment, and a chemically-crosslinked compartment at the nanoscale. The thermally responsive compartment is composed of physically crosslinkable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide poly(NIPAM copolymers, and poly(NIPAM-co-stearyl acrylate poly(NIPAM-co-SA, while the thermally-unresponsive compartment is composed of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylates. The two distinct compartments were physically crosslinked by the hydrophobic interaction of the stearyl chains of poly(NIPAM-co-SA or chemically stabilized via ultraviolet irradiation, and were swollen in physiologically relevant buffers due to their hydrophilic polymer networks. Bicompartmental nanofibers with the physically-crosslinked network of the poly(NIPAM-co-SA compartment showed a thermally-triggered shape change due to thermally-induced aggregation of poly(NIPAM-co-SA. Furthermore, when bovine serum albumin and dexamethasone phosphate were separately loaded into each compartment, the bicompartmental nanofibers with anisotropic actuation exhibited decoupled, controlled release profiles of both drugs in response to a temperature. A new class of multicompartmental nanofibers could be

  14. Characterization and mapping of a new male sterility mutant of anther advanced dehiscence (t) in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhang; Yunfeng Li; Jian Zhang; Fucheng Shen; Yuanxin Huang; Zhiwei Wu

    2008-01-01

    Anther dehiscence is very important for pollen maturation and release.The mutants of anther dehiscence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) arefew,and related research remains poor.A male sterility mutant of anther dehiscence in advance,add(t),has been found in Minghui 63 and its sterility is not sensitive to thermo-photo.To learn the character of sterilization and the function of the add(t) gene,the morphological and cytological studies on the anther and pollen,the ability of the pistil being fertilized,inheritance of the mutant,and mapping of add(t)gene have been conducted.The anther size is normal but the color is white in the mutant against the natural yellow in the wild-type.The pollen is malformed,unstained,and small in the KI-I2 solution.The anther dehiscence is in advance at the bicellular pollen stage.A crossing test indicated that the grain setting ratio of the add(t) is significantly lower than that of the CMS line 2085A.The ability of the pistil being fertilized is most probably decreased by the add(t) gene.The male sterility is controlled by a single recessive gene of add(t).This gene is mapped between the markers of R02004 (InDel) and RM300 (SSR) on chromosome 2,and the genetic distance from the add(t) gene to these markers is 0.78 cM and 4.66 cM,respectively.

  15. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  16. Experimental validation of microseismic emissions from a controlled hydraulic fracture in a synthetic layered medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundtree, Russell

    A controlled hydraulic fracture experiment was performed on two medium sized (11" x 11" x 15") synthetic layered blocks of low permeability, low porosity Lyons sandstone sandwiched between cement. The purpose of the research was to better understand and characterize the fracture evolution as the fracture tip impinged upon the layer boundaries between the well bonded layers. It is also one of the first documented uses of passive microseismic used in a laboratory environment to characterize hydraulic fracturing. A relatively low viscosity fluid of 1000 centipoise, compared to properly scaled previous work (Casas 2005, and Athavale 2007), was pumped at a constant rate of 10 mL/minute through a steel cased hole landed and isolated in the sandstone layer. Efforts were made to contain the hydraulic fracture within the confines of the rock specimen to retain the created hydraulic fracture geometry. Two identical samples and treatment schedules were created and differed only in the monitoring system used to characterize the microseismic activity during the fracture treatment. The first block had eight embedded P-wave transducers placed in the sandstone layer to record the passive microseismic emissions and localize the location and time of the acoustic event. The second block had six compressional wave transducers and twelve shear wave transducers embedded in the sandstone layer of the block. The intention was to record and process the seismic data using conventional P-wave to S-wave difference timing techniques well known in industry. While this goal ultimately not possible due to the geometry of the receiver placements and the limitations of the Vallene acquisition processing software, the data received and the events localized from the 18 transducer test were of much higher numbers and quality than on the eight transducer test. This experiment proved conclusively that passive seismic emission recording can yield positive results in the laboratory. Just as in the field

  17. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  18. Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Tibia (Shinbone) Sha Fractures Page ( 1 ) The tibia, or shinbone, is the most common fractured long bone in ... body. The long bones include the femur, humerus, tibia, and fibula. A tibial sha fracture occurs along ...

  19. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  20. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Kori-1 RPV Beltline Weld for a Long-Term Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong-Sang; Kim, Min-Chul; Ahn, Sang-Bok; Kim, Byung-Chul; Hong, Jun-Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation embrittlement of RPV (reactor pressure vessel) material is the most important aging issue for a long-term operation of nuclear power plants. KORI unit 1, which is the first PWR in Korea, is approaching its initial licensing life of 30 years. In order to operate the reactor for another 10 years and more, it should be demonstrated that the irradiation embrittlement of the reactor will be adequately managed by ensuring that the fracture toughness properties have a certain level of the safety margin. The current regulation requires Charpy V-notch impact data through conventional surveillance tests. It is based on the assumption that Charpy impact test results are well correlated with the fracture toughness properties of many engineering steels. However, Charpy V-notch impact data may not be adequate to estimate the fracture toughness of certain materials, such as Linde 80 welds. During the last decade, a tremendous number of fracture toughness data on many RPV steels have been produced in accordance with the new standard test method, the so-called master curve method. ASTM E1921 represents a revolutionary advance in characterizing fracture toughness of RPV steels, since it permits establishing the ductile to brittle transition portion of the fracture toughness curve with direct measurements on a relatively small number of relatively small specimens, such as pre-cracked Charpy specimens. Actual fracture toughness data from many different RPV steels revealed that the Charpy test estimations are generally conservative with the exception of a few cases. Recent regulation codes in USA permit the master curve fracture toughness methodology in evaluating an irradiation embrittlement of commercial nuclear reactor vessels.

  1. Application of ultrasonic inspection to characterization of advanced SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, K.W., E-mail: namkw@pknu.ac.kr [Pukyong National University, 100 Yongdang, Nam, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.W., E-mail: jwkim@kims.re.kr [Korea Institute of Materials Science, 66 Sangnam, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Hinoki, T., E-mail: hinoki@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kohyama, A., E-mail: kohyama@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Muroran Institute of Technology, Mizumoto, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Murai, J., E-mail: jmurai@krautkramer.co.jp [Krautkramer Japan Co., Ltd., Sumida, Higasiosaka 578-0912 (Japan); Murakami, T., E-mail: tmurakami@krautkramer.co.jp [Krautkramer Japan Co., Ltd., Sumida, Higasiosaka 578-0912 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of ceramic matrix composites is essential to develop reliable ceramics for industrial applications. In this work, C-scan image analysis has been used to nondestructively characterize surface cracks in SiC/SiC composite ceramics. The possibility of detecting surface cracks was evaluated experimentally using ultrasonic equipment of {mu}-SDS with a probe of 170 MHz. The defocus method could detect the shape of surface cracks. As a whole, when the defocus method for the probe was used, we conclude that there is a good possibility of detecting surface cracks.

  2. Advances in starshade technology readiness for an exoplanet characterizing science mission in the 2020's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David; Hirsch, Brian; Bradford, Case; Steeves, John; Lisman, Douglas; Shaklan, Stuart; Bach, Vinh; Thomson, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets is generating increasing interest in the direct imaging and characterization of these planets. Starshade, an external occulter, could fly in formation between a telescope and distant star, blocking out the light from the star, and enabling us to focus on the light of any orbiting planets. Recent technology developments in coordination with system level design, has added much needed detail to define the technology requirements for a science mission that could launch in the 2020's. This paper addresses the mechanical architecture, the successful efforts to date, the current state of design for the mechanical system, and upcoming technology efforts.

  3. Chopart fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, Kaj

    2004-09-01

    The Chopart articular space was described by François Chopart (1743-1795) as a practical space for amputations in cases of distal foot necrosis. It corresponds to the limit between the anatomical hind-foot and the mid-foot. The bones involved are the talus and the calcaneus proximally, and the navicular and the cuboid distally. This space thus holds two functionally distinct entities, the anterior part of the coxa pedis (an essential functional joint) and the calcaneo-cuboidal joint,which can be considered to be an "adaptive joint" within a normal foot. Trauma to this region may cause fractures and/or dislocations and, in high energy trauma,compartment syndromes. Principles of treatment are immediate reduction of dislocations and realignment of the medial and lateral column of the foot in length and orientation. Open reduction and internal fixation of talus and navicular fractures are often indicated to restore the "coxa pedis". Open reconstruction or fusion in correct length of the calcaneo-cuboidal joint is occasionally indicated. Salvage procedures in malunions include navicular osteotomies and calcaneo-cuboidal bone block fusions. Treatment of joint destructions, especially involving the talo-navicular joint, include triple arthrodesis.

  4. Fracture mechanics solution of confined water progressive intrusion height of mining fracture floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Haifeng; Yao Duoxi; Shen Dan; Cao Jiyang

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain the value of confined water progressive intrusion height of mining fracture floor, the analysis equation was deduced based on the fracture extension theory of the fracture mechanics. Further-more, the influence of some parameters (e.g., advancing distance of working face, water pressure, initial fracture length and its angle) on confined water progressive intrusion height were analyzed. The results indicate that tension-shearing fracture of floor is extended more easily than compression-shearing frac-ture under the same conditions. When floor fracture dip angle is less than 90?, tension-shearing extension occurs more easily on the left edge of the goaf. If fracture dip angle is larger than 90?, it occurs more easily on the right edge of the goaf. The longer the advancing distance of working face is, the greater initial frac-ture length goes; or the larger water pressure is, the greater possibility of tension-shearing extension occurs. The confined water progressive intrusion height reaches the maximum on the edge of the goaf. Field in situ test is consistent with the theoretical analysis result.

  5. Polarized light-scattering profile-advanced characterization of nonspherical particles with scanning flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokotov, Dmitry I; Moskalensky, Alexander E; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2011-07-01

    We instrumentally, theoretically, and experimentally demonstrate a new approach for characterization of nonspherical individual particles from light scattering. Unlike the original optical scheme of the scanning flow cytometer that measures an angle-resolved scattering corresponding in general to S₁₁ element of the light-scattering matrix, the modernized instrument allows us to measure the polarized light-scattering profile of individual particles simultaneously. Theoretically, the polarized profile is expressed by the combination of a few light-scattering matrix elements. This approach supports us with additional independent data to characterize a particle with a complex shape and an internal structure. Applicability of the new method was demonstrated from analysis of polymer bispheres. The bisphere characteristics, sizes, and refractive indices of each sphere composing the bisphere were successfully retrieved from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem. The solution provides determination of the Eulerian angles, which describe the orientation of the bispheres relative to the direction of the incident laser beam and detecting polarizer of the optical system. Both the ordinary and polarized profiles show a perfect agreement with T-matrix simulation resulting to 50-nm precision for sizing of bispheres.

  6. Ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors for electronic canopy characterization in vineyards: advances to improve pesticide application methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (C(VU)) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R(2) = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R(2) = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (C(HL)) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed.

  7. Edge roughness characterization of advanced patterning processes using power spectral density analysis (PSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Shimon; Schwarzband, Ishai; Kris, Roman; Adan, Ofer; Shi, Elly; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning (SAQP) is targeted to support the sub 10nm technology nodes. It is consisted of several process steps starting with lithography and Etch to define the pattern backbone. Followed by additional set of processes based on thin-films deposition and etch that quadruple the number of patterns, shrinking pattern and pitch sizes. Pattern roughness is derived from the physical and chemical characteristics of these process steps. It is changing with each of the SAQP process steps, based on material stack and the etch process characteristics. Relative to a sub 10 nm pattern sizes pattern, edge roughness can significantly impact pattern physical dimensions. Unless controlled it can increase the variability of device electrical performance, and reduce yield. In this paper we present the SAQP process steps and roughness characterization, performed with Power Spectral Density (PSD) methodology. Experimental results demonstrates the ability of PSD analysis to sensitively reflect detailed characterization of process roughness, guiding process development improvements, and enabling roughness monitoring for production.

  8. Advanced imaging as a novel approach to the characterization of membranes for microfiltration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, Milagro

    The primary objectives of my dissertation were to design, develop and implement novel confocal microscopy imaging protocols for the characterization of membranes and highlight opportunities to obtain reliable and cutting-edge information of microfiltration membrane morphology and fouling processes. After a comprehensive introduction and review of confocal microscopy in membrane applications (Chapter 1), the first part of this dissertation (Chapter 2) details my work on membrane morphology characterization by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the implementation of my newly developed CLSM cross-sectional imaging protocol. Depth-of-penetration limits were identified to be approximately 24 microns and 7-8 microns for mixed cellulose ester and polyethersulfone membranes, respectively, making it impossible to image about 70% of the membrane bulk. The development and implementation of my cross-sectional CLSM method enabled the imaging of the entire membrane cross-section. Porosities of symmetric and asymmetric membranes with nominal pore sizes in the range 0.65-8.0 microns were quantified at different depths and yielded porosity values in the 50-60% range. It is my hope and expectation that the characterization strategy developed in this part of the work will enable future studies of different membrane materials and applications by confocal microscopy. After demonstrating how cross-sectional CLSM could be used to fully characterize membrane morphologies and porosities, I applied it to the characterization of fouling occurring in polyethersulfone microfiltration membranes during the processing of solutions containing proteins and polysaccharides (Chapter 3). Through CLSM imaging, it was determined where proteins and polysaccharides deposit throughout polymeric microfiltration membranes when a fluid containing these materials is filtered. CLSM enabled evaluation of the location and extent of fouling by individual components (protein: casein and polysaccharide

  9. Technology advancement of the CCD201-20 EMCCD for the WFIRST coronagraph instrument: sensor characterization and radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Leon K; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Neat, Leo S; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R; Jordand, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset (WFIRST-AFTA) mission is a 2.4-m class space telescope that will be used across a swath of astrophysical research domains. JPL will provide a high-contrast imaging coronagraph instrument - one of two major astronomical instruments. In order to achieve the low noise performance required to detect planets under extremely low flux conditions, the electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) has been baselined for both of the coronagraph's sensors - the imaging camera and integral field spectrograph. JPL has established an EMCCD test laboratory in order to advance EMCCD maturity to technology readiness level-6. This plan incorporates full sensor characterization, including read noise, dark current, and clock-induced charge. In addition, by considering the unique challenges of the WFIRST space environment, degradation to the sensor's charge transfer efficiency will be assessed, as a result of damage from high-energy particles such ...

  10. Towards the characterization of noise sources in a supersonic three-stream jet using advanced analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscher, Christopher; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2016-11-01

    Strict noise regulation set by governing bodies currently make supersonic commercial aviation impractical. One of the many challenges that exist in developing practical supersonic commercial aircraft is the noise produced by the engine's exhaust jet. A promising method of jet noise reduction for supersonic applications is through the addition of extra exhaust streams. Data for an axisymmetric three-stream nozzle were generated using the Naval Research Laboratory's JENRE code. This data will be compared to experimental results obtained by NASA for validation purposes. Once the simulation results show satisfactory agreement to the experiments, advanced analysis tools will be applied to the simulation data to characterize potential noise sources. The tools to be applied include methods that are based on proper orthogonal decomposition, wavelet decomposition, and stochastic estimation. Additionally, techniques such as empirical mode decomposition and momentum potential theorem will be applied to the data as well.

  11. Characterizing harmful advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and ribosylated aggregates of yellow mustard seed phytocystatin: Effects of different monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are at the core of variety of diseases ranging from diabetes to renal failure and hence gaining wide consideration. This study was aimed at characterizing the AGEs of phytocystatin isolated from mustard seeds (YMP) when incubated with different monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and mannose) using fluorescence, ultraviolet, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and microscopy. Ribose was found to be the most potent glycating agent as evident by AGEs specific fluorescence and absorbance. YMP exists as a molten globule like structure on day 24 as depicted by high ANS fluorescence and altered intrinsic fluorescence. Glycated YMP as AGEs and ribose induced aggregates were observed at day 28 and 32 respectively. In our study we have also examined the anti-aggregative potential of polyphenol, resveratrol. Our results suggested the anti-aggregative behavior of resveratrol as it prevented the in vitro aggregation of YMP, although further studies are required to decode the mechanism by which resveratrol prevents the aggregation.

  12. Design and characterization of a 32-channel heterodyne radiometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y., E-mail: liuyong@ipp.ac.cn; Li, E. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Gao, X. [Institution of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer has been developed for the measurement of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). This system collects X-mode ECE radiation spanning a frequency range of 104–168 GHz, where the frequency coverage corresponds to a full radial coverage for the case with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.3 T. The frequency range is equally spaced every 2 GHz from 105.1 to 167.1 GHz with an RF bandwidth of ∼500 MHz and the video bandwidth can be switched among 50, 100, 200, and 400 kHz. Design objectives and characterization of the system are presented in this paper. Preliminary results for plasma operation are also presented.

  13. Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, N. L.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly μ-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A μ-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

  14. Accurate Characterization of Winter Precipitation Using Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera, Visual Hull, Advanced Scattering Methods and Polarimetric Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M. Notaroš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes and presents a novel approach to the characterization of winter precipitation and modeling of radar observables through a synergistic use of advanced optical disdrometers for microphysical and geometrical measurements of ice and snow particles (in particular, a multi-angle snowflake camera—MASC, image processing methodology, advanced method-of-moments scattering computations, and state-of-the-art polarimetric radars. The article also describes the newly built and established MASCRAD (MASC + Radar in-situ measurement site, under the umbrella of CSU-CHILL Radar, as well as the MASCRAD project and 2014/2015 winter campaign. We apply a visual hull method to reconstruct 3D shapes of ice particles based on high-resolution MASC images, and perform “particle-by-particle” scattering computations to obtain polarimetric radar observables. The article also presents and discusses selected illustrative observation data, results, and analyses for three cases with widely-differing meteorological settings that involve contrasting hydrometeor forms. Illustrative results of scattering calculations based on MASC images captured during these events, in comparison with radar data, as well as selected comparative studies of snow habits from MASC, 2D video-disdrometer, and CHILL radar data, are presented, along with the analysis of microphysical characteristics of particles. In the longer term, this work has potential to significantly improve the radar-based quantitative winter-precipitation estimation.

  15. Reactor Physics Scoping and Characterization Study on Implementation of TRIGA Fuel in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Lyons; Wade R. Marcum; Mark D. DeHart; Sean R. Morrell

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), is conducting feasibility studies for the conversion of its fuel from a highly enriched uranium (HEU) composition to a low enriched uranium (LEU) composition. These studies have considered a wide variety of LEU plate-type fuels to replace the current HEU fuel. Continuing to investigate potential alternatives to the present HEU fuel form, this study presents a preliminary analysis of TRIGA® fuel within the current ATR fuel envelopes and compares it to the functional requirements delineated by the Naval Reactors Program, which includes: greater than 4.8E+14 fissions/s/g of 235U, a fast to thermal neutron flux ratio that is less than 5% deviation of its current value, a constant cycle power within the corner lobes, and an operational cycle length of 56 days at 120 MW. Other parameters outside those put forth by the Naval Reactors Program which are investigated herein include axial and radial power profiles, effective delayed neutron fraction, and mean neutron generation time.

  16. Characterization of Proxy Application Performance on Advanced Architectures. UMT2013, MCB, AMG2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Louis H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunney, Brian T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bhatele, Abhinav [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-09

    Three codes were tested at LLNL as part of a Tri-Lab effort to make detailed assessments of several proxy applications on various advanced architectures, with the eventual goal of extending these assessments to codes of programmatic interest running more realistic simulations. Teams from Sandia and Los Alamos tested proxy apps of their own. The focus in this report is on the LLNL codes UMT2013, MCB, and AMG2013. We present weak and strong MPI scaling results and studies of OpenMP efficiency on a large BG/Q system at LLNL, with comparison against similar tests on an Intel Sandy Bridge TLCC2 system. The hardware counters on BG/Q provide detailed information on many aspects of on-node performance, while information from the mpiP tool gives insight into the reasons for the differing scaling behavior on these two different architectures. Results from three more speculative tests are also included: one that exploits NVRAM as extended memory, one that studies performance under a power bound, and one that illustrates the effects of changing the torus network mapping on BG/Q.

  17. Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria Is Characterized by Lower Serum Advanced Glycation End-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Grzanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is associated with activation of acute phase response. On the other hand, it is known that systemic inflammation may lead to increased formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, associated with pathogenesis of various diseases. Aim. We aim to test whether chronic inflammation manifested by activated acute phase response may provide a mechanism for increased serum AGEs concentration in CSU. Methods. Concentrations of AGEs were measured spectrofluorimetrically in serum of CSU patients and the healthy subjects. Results. Serum AGEs and albumin concentrations in CSU patients were significantly lower as compared with the healthy subjects. Serum CRP concentration was significantly higher in patients with CSU than in the controls. Significant positive correlation was observed between AGEs and albumin concentrations in the subjects. Conclusions. CSU is not associated with increased circulating AGEs concentrations, despite the enhanced systemic inflammatory response. Paradoxical decrease of serum AGEs concentrations is probably a reflection of lower concentration of “negative acute phase proteins” such as albumin.

  18. Characterization of aquatic humic substances to DBPs formation in advanced treatment processes for conventionally treated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yu, Myong-Jin

    2007-05-01

    An advanced water treatment demonstration plant consisted of ozone/granular activated carbon processes was operated to study feasibility of the processes. Natural organic matter (NOM) from raw and process waters at the demonstration plant was isolated into humic and non-humic fractions by physicochemical fractionation method to investigate characteristics of humic fraction (i.e., humic substances, HS) as a predominant haloform reactant. Ozone did not significantly oxidize the carboxylic fraction (from 39.1 to 35.9%), while GAC removed some of the carboxylic fraction (from 35.9 to 29.1%). Formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) as compared to haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) was highly influenced by HS. Higher yields of THMs resulted from chlorination of HS with a higher phenolic content and phenolic fraction in the HS gradually decreased from 60.5% to 15.8% through the water treatment. The structural and functional changes of HS were identified by elemental, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) analyses, and these results were mutually consistent. The functional distribution data obtained by using A-21 resin could be used to support the interpretation of data obtained from the spectroscopic analyses. Decreases in ratio of UV absorbance at 253 nm and 203 nm (A(253)/A(203)) and DBPFPs/DOC showed consistent trends, therefore, A(253)/A(203) ratio may be a good indicator for the disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBPFPs).

  19. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-Based Coronagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Frazin, Richard; Barrett, Harrison; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gladysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jerome; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Remi

    2012-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We provide a formal comparison of techniques through a blind data challenge and evaluate performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

  20. Fractal patterns of fractures in granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velde, B.; Dubois, J.; Moore, D.; Touchard, G.

    1991-01-01

    Fractal measurements using the Cantor's dust method in a linear one-dimensional analysis mode were made on the fracture patterns revealed on two-dimensional, planar surfaces in four granites. This method allows one to conclude that: 1. (1)|The fracture systems seen on two-dimensional surfaces in granites are consistent with the part of fractal theory that predicts a repetition of patterns on different scales of observation, self similarity. Fractal analysis gives essentially the same values of D on the scale of kilometres, metres and centimetres (five orders of magnitude) using mapped, surface fracture patterns in a Sierra Nevada granite batholith (Mt. Abbot quadrangle, Calif.). 2. (2)|Fractures show the same fractal values at different depths in a given batholith. Mapped fractures (main stage ore veins) at three mining levels (over a 700 m depth interval) of the Boulder batholith, Butte, Mont. show the same fractal values although the fracture disposition appears to be different at different levels. 3. (3)|Different sets of fracture planes in a granite batholith, Central France, and in experimental deformation can have different fractal values. In these examples shear and tension modes have the same fractal values while compressional fractures follow a different fractal mode of failure. The composite fracture patterns are also fractal but with a different, median, fractal value compared to the individual values for the fracture plane sets. These observations indicate that the fractal method can possibly be used to distinguish fractures of different origins in a complex system. It is concluded that granites fracture in a fractal manner which can be followed at many scales. It appears that fracture planes of different origins can be characterized using linear fractal analysis. ?? 1991.

  1. Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

  2. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  3. Challenges in Atomic-Scale Characterization of High-k Dielectrics and Metal Gate Electrodes for Advanced CMOS Gate Stacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Zhu; Jianmin Zhu; Aidong Li; Zhiguo Liu; Naiben Ming

    2009-01-01

    The decreasing feature sizes in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistor technology will require the replacement of SiO2 with gate dielectrics that have a high dielectric constant (high-k) because as the SiO2 gate thickness is reduced below 1.4 nm, electron tunnelling effects and high leakage currents occur in SiO2, which present serious obstacles to future device reliability.In recent years significant progress has been made on the screening and selection of high-k gate dielectrics, understanding their physical properties, and their integration into CMOS technology.Now the family of hafnium oxide-based materials has emerged as the leading candidate for high-k gate dielectrics due to their excellent physical properties.It is also realized that the high-k oxides must be implemented in conjunction with metal gate electrodes to get sufficient potential for CMOS continue scaling.In the advanced nanoscale Si-based CMOS devices, the composition and thickness of interfacial layers in the gate stacks determine the critical performance of devices.Therefore, detailed atomicscale understandings of the microstructures and interfacial structures built in the advanced CMOS gate stacks,are highly required.In this paper, several high-resolution electron, ion, and photon-based techniques currently used to characterize the high-k gate dielectrics and interfaces at atomic-scale, are reviewed.Particularly, we critically review the research progress on the characterization of interface behavior and structural evolution in the high-k gate dielectrics by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the related techniques based on scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), including high-angle annular darkfield (HAADF) imaging (also known as Z-contrast imaging), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), due to that HRTEM and STEM have become essential metrology tools for characterizing the dielectric

  4. Structural characterization of the fracture systems in the porcelanites: Comparing data from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong; Aydin, Atilla; Wongseekaew, Kanitsorn; Maneelok, Wichanee

    2016-09-01

    The fractures in the porcelanites from the Monterey Formation in California USA and the Sap Bon Formation in Central Thailand were documented for a comparative study of their modes, distribution, and their relationship to other structures such as folds and bedding planes. Both formations consist in thinly bedded stiff units that are prone to folding, flexural slip, and cross-bedding brittle fracturing under compression. There are two assemblages in the porcelanites. The first assemblage includes commonly vertical high-angle opening mode fractures, left-lateral strike-slip faults, normal faults, and thrust faults. The second one is sub-horizontal fractures which are associated with folds, bedding slip, and thrusts faults in both Monterey and Sap Bon formations. The structural architectures of these rocks and the associated groups of structures are remarkably similar in terms of both opening and shearing modes and their relationships with the bedding due to their depositional architecture and the compressional tectonic regimes, in spite of the fact that the two locations are more than ten thousand kilometers apart and have very different ages of deformation.

  5. Use of fracture filling mineral assemblages for characterizing water-rock interactions during exhumation of an accretionary complex: An example from the Shimanto Belt, southern Kyushu Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takuya; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Metcalfe, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Various fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals in fracture walls were formed by fluid-rock interaction during the exhumation of the Palaeogene Shimanto Belt of Kyushu, Japan, which is located in an accretionary complex. Each mineral formed under favourable geological conditions and can be used to estimate the conditions of accretion and formation of the related rock sequences. Petrographic observations, mineralogical and geochemical analyses were made on fracture filling minerals and secondary minerals from boreholes of ca. 140 m depth, drilled in the Shimanto Belt. Results reveal that the secondary minerals were formed in three major stages distinguished by the sequential textural relationships of the minerals and the interpreted environment of mineral formation. Filling mineral assemblages show that the studied rock formation has been subducted to a depth of several km and the temperature reached was ca. 200-300 °C. After the subduction, the rock formation was uplifted and surface acidic water penetrated up to 80 m beneath the present ground surface. The acid water dissolved calcite fracture filling minerals to form the present groundwater flow-paths, which allowed recent wall rock alteration to occur. The results shown here imply that filling mineral assemblages can be an effective tool to evaluate the environmental changes during exhumation of an accretionary complex.

  6. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided.

  7. On-line Optimization-Based Simulators for Fractured and Non-fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milind D. Deo

    2005-08-31

    Oil field development is a multi-million dollar business. Reservoir simulation is often used to guide the field management and development process. Reservoir characterization and geologic modeling tools have become increasingly sophisticated. As a result the geologic models produced are complex. Most reservoirs are fractured to a certain extent. The new geologic characterization methods are making it possible to map features such as faults and fractures, field-wide. Significant progress has been made in being able to predict properties of the faults and of the fractured zones. Traditionally, finite difference methods have been employed in discretizing the domains created by geologic means. For complex geometries, finite-element methods of discretization may be more suitable. Since reservoir simulation is a mature science, some of the advances in numerical methods (linear, nonlinear solvers and parallel computing) have not been fully realized in the implementation of most of the simulators. The purpose of this project was to address some of these issues. {sm_bullet} One of the goals of this project was to develop a series of finite-element simulators to handle problems of complex geometry, including systems containing faults and fractures. {sm_bullet} The idea was to incorporate the most modern computing tools; use of modular object-oriented computer languages, the most sophisticated linear and nonlinear solvers, parallel computing methods and good visualization tools. {sm_bullet} One of the tasks of the project was also to demonstrate the construction of fractures and faults in a reservoir using the available data and to assign properties to these features. {sm_bullet} Once the reservoir model is in place, it is desirable to find the operating conditions, which would provide the best reservoir performance. This can be accomplished by utilization optimization tools and coupling them with reservoir simulation. Optimization-based reservoir simulation was one of the

  8. Experimental and finite element analysis of fracture criterion in general yielding fracture mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D M Kulkarni; Ravi Prakash; A N Kumar

    2002-12-01

    Efforts made over the last three decades to understand the fracture behaviour of structural materials in elastic and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics are numerous, whereas investigations related to fracture behaviour of materials in thin sheets or general yielding fracture regimes are limited in number. Engineering simulative tests are being used to characterize formability and drawability of sheet metals. However, these tests do not assure consistency in quality of sheet metal products. The prevention of failure in stressed structural components currently requires fracture mechanics based design parameters like critical load, critical crack-tip opening displacement or fracture toughness. The present attempt would aim to fulfill this gap and generate more information thereby increased understanding on fracture behaviour of sheet metals. In the present investigation, using a recently developed technique for determining fracture criteria in sheet metals, results are generated on critical CTOD and fracture toughness. Finite element analysis was performed to support the results on various fracture parameters. The differences are within 1 to 4%. At the end it is concluded that magnitude of critical CTOD and/or critical load can be used as a fracture criterion for thin sheets.

  9. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions and Their Impact on Radionuclide Transport: Development of efficient particle-tracking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaram, Harihar [University of Colorado, Boulder; Brutz, Michael [University of Colorado, Boulder; Klein, Dylan R [University of Colorado, Boulder; Mallikamas, Wasin [University of Colorado, Boulder

    2014-09-18

    Matrix Diffusion and Adsorption within a rock matrix are important mechanisms for retarding transport of radionuclides in fractured rock. Due to computational limitations and difficulties in characterizing complex subsurface systems, diffusive exchange between a fracture network and surrounding rock matrix is often modeled using simplified conceptual representations. There is significant uncertainty in “effective” parameters used in these models, such as the “effective matrix diffusivity”. Often, these parameters are estimated by fitting sparse breakthrough data, and estimated values fall outside meaningful ranges, because simplified interpretive models do not consider complex three-dimensional flow. There is limited understanding of the relationship between the effective parameters and rock mass characteristics including network structure and matrix properties. There is also evidence for an apparent scale-dependence in “effective matrix diffusion” coefficients. These observations raise questions on whether fracture-matrix interaction parameters estimated from small-scale tracer tests can be used for predicting radionuclide fate and transport at the scale of DOE field sites. High-resolution three-dimensional Discrete-Fracture-Network-Matrix (DFNM) models based on well-defined local scale transport equations can help to address some of these questions. Due to tremendous advances in computational technology over the last 10 years, DFNM modeling in relatively large domains is now feasible. The overarching objective of our research is to use DFNM modeling to improve fundamental understanding of how effective parameters in conceptual models are related to fracture network structure and matrix properties. An advanced three-dimensional DFNM model is being developed, which combines upscaled particle-tracking algorithms for fracture-matrix interaction and a parallel fracture-network flow simulator. The particle-tracking algorithms allow complexity in flow fields

  10. Advanced Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Using Ultra High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, M. M.; Chu, R.; Tolic, N.; Roscioli, K.; Robinson, E. R.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Hess, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The focus on ecosystem stress and climate change is currently relevant as researchers and policymakers strive to understand the feedbacks between soil C dynamics and climate change. Successful development of molecular profiles that link soil microbiology with soil carbon (C) to ascertain soil vulnerability and resilience to climate change would have great impact on assessments of soil ecosystems in response to climate change. Additionally, better understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) plays a central role to climate modeling, and fate and transport of carbon. The use of ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHR MS) has enabled the examination of molecules, directly from mixtures, with ultrahigh mass resolution and sub-ppm mass accuracy. In this study, EMSL's extensive expertise and capabilities in UHR MS proteomics were leveraged to develop extraction protocols for the characterization of carbon compounds in SOM, thereby providing the chemical and structural detail needed to develop mechanistic descriptions of soil carbon flow processes. Our experiments have allowed us to identify thousands of individual compounds in complex soil mixtures with a wide range of C content representing diverse ecosystems within the USA. The yield of the chemical extraction was dependent on (1) the type of solvent used and its polarity, (2) sample-to-solvent ratios and (3) the chemical and physical nature of the samples including their origins. Hexane, a non-polar organic solvent, was efficient in extracting lipid-like compounds regardless of soil origin or organic carbon %. For samples with high organic carbon %, acetonitrile extracted a wide range of compounds characterized with high O/C ratios, identified as polyphenolic compounds that were not observed with methanol extraction. Soils extracted with pyridine showed a similar molecular distribution to those extracted by methanol. Solvent extraction followed by UHR MS is a promising tool to understand the

  11. Electrical characterization of dislocations in gallium nitride using advanced scanning probe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Blake Shelley Ginsberg

    GaN-based materials are promising for high speed and power applications such as amplifier and communications circuits. Ga, In, and AIN-based alloys span a wide optical range (2--6.1 eV) and exhibit strong polarizations making them useful in many devices; however, films are highly defective (˜10 8 dislocations cm-2) due to lack of suitable substrates. Thus, nanoscale electronic characterization of these dislocations is critical for device and growth optimization. Scanning probe techniques enable characterization at length-scales unattainable by conventional techniques. First, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) was used to image surface potential variations due to charged dislocations in HVPE-grown GaN. The film's structural evolution "with thickness was monitored showing a decrease in dislocation density, likely through dislocation reaction. Numerical simulations were used to investigate tip-size effects when imaging highly localized (tens of nm) potential variations indicating that measured dislocation induced potential features in GaN can be much smaller (˜80%) than true variations. Next, capacitance variations in MBE-grown HFETs, due to dislocations-induced carrier depletion, were imaged with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The distribution of these charged centers was correlated with buffer schemes showing that an AIN buffer leads to pseudomorphic (2D) nucleation and randomly distributed misfit dislocations while deposition directly on SiC results in island (3D) nucleation and a domain structure with dislocations grouped at domain boundaries. Hall measurements and numerical simulations were also carried out to further study the implications of these microstructures. Numerical results indicated that randomly distributed dislocations deplete a larger fraction of free carriers than the same density of grouped dislocations and correlated favorably with Hall results. Correlated SKPM and conductive AFM (C-AFM) measurements were then used to study

  12. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  13. Characterizing the influence of stress-induced microcracks on the laboratory strength and fracture development in brittle rocks using a finite-discrete element method-micro discrete fracture network FDEM-mDFN approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pooya Hamdi; Doug Stead; Davide Elmo

    2015-01-01

    abstract Heterogeneity is an inherent component of rock and may be present in different forms including mineral heterogeneity, geometrical heterogeneity, weak grain boundaries and micro-defects. Microcracks are usually observed in crystalline rocks in two forms: natural and stress-induced; the amount of stress-induced microcracking increases with depth and in-situ stress. Laboratory results indicate that the physical properties of rocks such as strength, deformability, P-wave velocity and permeability are influenced by increase in microcrack intensity. In this study, the finite-discrete element method (FDEM) is used to model microcrack heterogeneity by introducing into a model sample sets of microcracks using the proposed micro discrete fracture network (mDFN) approach. The characteristics of the microcracks required to create mDFN models are obtained through image analyses of thin sections of Lac du Bonnet granite adopted from published literature. A suite of two-dimensional laboratory tests including uniaxial, triaxial compression and Brazilian tests is simulated and the results are compared with laboratory data. The FDEM-mDFN models indicate that micro-heterogeneity has a profound influence on both the me-chanical behavior and resultant fracture pattern. An increase in the microcrack intensity leads to a reduction in the strength of the sample and changes the character of the rock strength envelope. Spalling and axial splitting dominate the failure mode at low confinement while shear failure is the dominant failure mode at high confinement. Numerical results from simulated compression tests show that microcracking reduces the cohesive component of strength alone, and the frictional strength component remains unaffected. Results from simulated Brazilian tests show that the tensile strength is influenced by the presence of microcracks, with a reduction in tensile strength as microcrack intensity increases. The importance of microcrack heterogeneity in reproducing

  14. Advancing a framework to enable characterization and evaluation of data streams useful for biosurveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen J Margevicius

    Full Text Available In recent years, biosurveillance has become the buzzword under which a diverse set of ideas and activities regarding detecting and mitigating biological threats are incorporated depending on context and perspective. Increasingly, biosurveillance practice has become global and interdisciplinary, requiring information and resources across public health, One Health, and biothreat domains. Even within the scope of infectious disease surveillance, multiple systems, data sources, and tools are used with varying and often unknown effectiveness. Evaluating the impact and utility of state-of-the-art biosurveillance is, in part, confounded by the complexity of the systems and the information derived from them. We present a novel approach conceptualizing biosurveillance from the perspective of the fundamental data streams that have been or could be used for biosurveillance and to systematically structure a framework that can be universally applicable for use in evaluating and understanding a wide range of biosurveillance activities. Moreover, the Biosurveillance Data Stream Framework and associated definitions are proposed as a starting point to facilitate the development of a standardized lexicon for biosurveillance and characterization of currently used and newly emerging data streams. Criteria for building the data stream framework were developed from an examination of the literature, analysis of information on operational infectious disease biosurveillance systems, and consultation with experts in the area of biosurveillance. To demonstrate utility, the framework and definitions were used as the basis for a schema of a relational database for biosurveillance resources and in the development and use of a decision support tool for data stream evaluation.

  15. Advancing a framework to enable characterization and evaluation of data streams useful for biosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margevicius, Kristen J; Generous, Nicholas; Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J; Brown, Mac; Daniel, W Brent; Castro, Lauren; Hengartner, Andrea; Deshpande, Alina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, biosurveillance has become the buzzword under which a diverse set of ideas and activities regarding detecting and mitigating biological threats are incorporated depending on context and perspective. Increasingly, biosurveillance practice has become global and interdisciplinary, requiring information and resources across public health, One Health, and biothreat domains. Even within the scope of infectious disease surveillance, multiple systems, data sources, and tools are used with varying and often unknown effectiveness. Evaluating the impact and utility of state-of-the-art biosurveillance is, in part, confounded by the complexity of the systems and the information derived from them. We present a novel approach conceptualizing biosurveillance from the perspective of the fundamental data streams that have been or could be used for biosurveillance and to systematically structure a framework that can be universally applicable for use in evaluating and understanding a wide range of biosurveillance activities. Moreover, the Biosurveillance Data Stream Framework and associated definitions are proposed as a starting point to facilitate the development of a standardized lexicon for biosurveillance and characterization of currently used and newly emerging data streams. Criteria for building the data stream framework were developed from an examination of the literature, analysis of information on operational infectious disease biosurveillance systems, and consultation with experts in the area of biosurveillance. To demonstrate utility, the framework and definitions were used as the basis for a schema of a relational database for biosurveillance resources and in the development and use of a decision support tool for data stream evaluation.

  16. Advanced Nanoscale Characterization of Cement Based Materials Using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Chae, Sejung R.

    2013-05-22

    We report various synchrotron radiation laboratory based techniques used to characterize cement based materials in nanometer scale. High resolution X-ray transmission imaging combined with a rotational axis allows for rendering of samples in three dimensions revealing volumetric details. Scanning transmission X-ray microscope combines high spatial resolution imaging with high spectral resolution of the incident beam to reveal X-ray absorption near edge structure variations in the material nanostructure. Microdiffraction scans the surface of a sample to map its high order reflection or crystallographic variations with a micron-sized incident beam. High pressure X-ray diffraction measures compressibility of pure phase materials. Unique results of studies using the above tools are discussed-a study of pores, connectivity, and morphology of a 2,000 year old concrete using nanotomography; detection of localized and varying silicate chain depolymerization in Al-substituted tobermorite, and quantification of monosulfate distribution in tricalcium aluminate hydration using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy; detection and mapping of hydration products in high volume fly ash paste using microdiffraction; and determination of mechanical properties of various AFm phases using high pressure X-ray diffraction. © 2013 The Author(s).

  17. Advances in Chemical and Structural Characterization of Concretion with Implications for Modeling Marine Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald L.; DeAngelis, Robert J.; Medlin, Dana J.; Carr, James D.; Conlin, David L.

    2014-05-01

    The Weins number model and concretion equivalent corrosion rate methodology were developed as potential minimum-impact, cost-effective techniques to determine corrosion damage on submerged steel structures. To apply the full potential of these technologies, a detailed chemical and structural characterization of the concretion (hard biofouling) that transforms into iron bearing minerals is required. The fractions of existing compounds and the quantitative chemistries are difficult to determine from x-ray diffraction. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to present chemical compositions by means of energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). EDS demonstrates the chemical data in mapping format or in point or selected area chemistries. Selected-area EDS data collection at precise locations is presented in terms of atomic percent. The mechanism of formation and distribution of the iron-bearing mineral species at specific locations will be presented. Based on water retention measurements, porosity in terms of void volume varies from 15 v/o to 30 v/o (vol.%). The void path displayed by scanning electron microscopy imaging illustrates the tortuous path by which oxygen migrates in the water phase within the concretion from seaside to metalside.

  18. Advanced Development and Characterization of DEA Amine-Polysulfone/Polyvinylacetate Blend Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology effectively separates CO2 from CH4 and has been practiced for many years but requires membranes with high selectivity and permeability. Different approaches are employed to improve membrane performance and it is soon possible to develop a blended polymeric membrane that separates high pressure gas streams at the point of processing pressure. However, glassy polymers suffer a lack of permeability causing their performance to drop as an upper bound trade-off but highly selective and rubbery polymers have high permeability with low selectivity. As an amine solution is capable of purifying naturally acidic gas, blending glassy, rubbery polymers with amines-specifically, polysulfone and polyvinyl acetate with diethanol amine in dimethyl acetamide as solvent-we developed flat sheet membranes with desirable properties. As it is now possible to acquire amine-polymer blends with more desirable properties by mixing with a miscible polymer, it is essential to observe factors that affect the polymer's miscibility with amines. Hence, we also analyzed the effects of blend ratios on different properties. Blended membranes of different ratios were synthesized and their functional groups were characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR. We then employed Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA to describe weight loss and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM to determine respective morphologies.

  19. Advances in preparing and characterizing low density pan-carbon microcellular foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Leslie, P.K.; Thompson, K.R.; Weagley, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents an improved preparation of low density microcellular carbon as well as characterization of spatial homogeneity. The report also documents the process for preparing the nficrocellular carbon from poly(acrylonitrile) raw material. A microcellular polymer precursor (0.025 g/cc) is first prepared via a solution-based process and then pyrolyzed to produce the microcellular carbon in a monolithic form (0.05 g/cc). The process improvement developed in this study permits the pore structure of the n-ficrocellular polymer precursor and the microcellular carbon to be reproduced consistently in different laboratories. Pore structure is affected by the completeness of dissolution of the polymer raw material, which variable can be adjusted via dissolution temperature or particle size of the raw material. The second topic in this report involves determining the spatial fluctuation in mass density caused by periodic, millimeter-scale bands, known as `tree rings` visible on machined surfaces of the carbon monoliths. To measure the fluctuations, we developed a high precision, spatially resolved X-ray transmission technique. The periodic bands caused less than {plus_minus}2% variation of mass density in a microcellular carbon having average density 0.041 g/cc.

  20. Advances in Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Isolation, Characterization, and Application in Regenerative Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Umesh D; Shen, Michael; Kolhe, Ravindra; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disease that has been extensively researched in recent times. Obesity is characterized by excess deposition of adipose tissue in response to surplus energy. Despite the negative connotations of adipose tissue (AT), it serves as a critical endocrine organ. Adipose tissue is a source of several adipokines and cytokines which have been deemed important for both normal metabolic function and disease formation. The discoveries of metabolically active brown AT in adult humans and adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSC) have been key findings in the past decade with potential therapeutic implications. ADSCs represent an enticing pool of multipotent adult stem cells because of their noncontroversial nature, relative abundance, ease of isolation, and expandability. A decade and a half since the discovery of ADSCs, the scientific community is still working to uncover their therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent developments in the field of ADSCs and examine their potential use in transplantation and cell-based therapies for the regeneration of diseased organs and systems. We also hope to provide perspective on how to best utilize this readily available, powerful pool of stem cells in the future.

  1. A Metagenomic Advance for the Cloning and Characterization of a Cellulase from Red Rice Crop Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Carlos; Silva, Bruna; Medeiros, Betsy; Serrato, Rodrigo; Johnston-Monje, David

    2016-06-25

    Many naturally-occurring cellulolytic microorganisms are not readily cultivable, demanding a culture-independent approach in order to study their cellulolytic genes. Metagenomics involves the isolation of DNA from environmental sources and can be used to identify enzymes with biotechnological potential from uncultured microbes. In this study, a gene encoding an endoglucanase was cloned from red rice crop residues using a metagenomic strategy. The amino acid identity between this gene and its closest published counterparts is lower than 70%. The endoglucanase was named EglaRR01 and was biochemically characterized. This recombinant protein showed activity on carboxymethylcellulose, indicating that EglaRR01 is an endoactive lytic enzyme. The enzymatic activity was optimal at a pH of 6.8 and at a temperature of 30 °C. Ethanol production from this recombinant enzyme was also analyzed on EglaRR01 crop residues, and resulted in conversion of cellulose from red rice into simple sugars which were further fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol after seven days. Ethanol yield in this study was approximately 8 g/L. The gene found herein shows strong potential for use in ethanol production from cellulosic biomass (second generation ethanol).

  2. Characterizations of microwave plasma CVD grown polycrystalline diamond coatings for advanced technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadesh Kumar Mallik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline diamond (PCD coatings ranging from few microns to several hundred microns thickness have been grown by 915 MHz microwave plasma reactor with 9000 W power. The coatings were deposited on 100 mm diameter silicon (Si substrate from few hours to several days of continuous runs. PCD coatings were made freestanding by wet chemical etching technique. The deposited PCDs were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS for physical characterization and compared with authors’ earlier work. Refractive index of 2.41 was obtained at 633 nm wavelength and a maximum of 6.6 W·cm-1K-1 value for thermal conductivity could be achieved with the grown coatings. The values are well above the existing non-diamond heat spreading substrates, which makes the grown PCDs as candidates for heat spreaders in different technological applications. High refractive index along with translucent nature of the white freestanding PCDs, make them potential candidate for optical windows.

  3. Magnetoresistance mobility characterization in advanced FD-SOI n-MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Minju; Shi, Ming; Mouis, Mireille; Cros, Antoine; Josse, Emmanuel; Mukhopadhyay, Sutirha; Piot, Benjamin; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Ghibaudo, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we applied the magnetoresistance (MR) characterization technique on n-type FD-SOI devices from a 14 nm-node technology. A notable advantage of MR is that it can probe the sub-threshold region, where Coulomb scattering influence is unscreened, while classical methods are validated to the strong inversion regime. At first, we discuss the influence of series resistance depending on gate bias, gate stack and temperature in this technology. Secondly, for long channel devices, we show that Coulomb scattering plays no significant role below threshold voltage at room temperature, in spite of the presence of a high-k/metal gate stack. MR-mobility (μMR) measurements were also performed in interface coupling conditions in order to further assess the role of the high-k/metal gate stack on transport properties and to analyze back bias induced mobility variations, depending on temperature range. Finally, the comparative study of low field effective mobility (μ0) and μMR shows that critical gate length of mobility degradation can be overestimated by using μ0 at low temperature due to a lack of ability of Y-function method to capture unscreened Coulomb scattering.

  4. A Metagenomic Advance for the Cloning and Characterization of a Cellulase from Red Rice Crop Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Meneses

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many naturally-occurring cellulolytic microorganisms are not readily cultivable, demanding a culture-independent approach in order to study their cellulolytic genes. Metagenomics involves the isolation of DNA from environmental sources and can be used to identify enzymes with biotechnological potential from uncultured microbes. In this study, a gene encoding an endoglucanase was cloned from red rice crop residues using a metagenomic strategy. The amino acid identity between this gene and its closest published counterparts is lower than 70%. The endoglucanase was named EglaRR01 and was biochemically characterized. This recombinant protein showed activity on carboxymethylcellulose, indicating that EglaRR01 is an endoactive lytic enzyme. The enzymatic activity was optimal at a pH of 6.8 and at a temperature of 30 °C. Ethanol production from this recombinant enzyme was also analyzed on EglaRR01 crop residues, and resulted in conversion of cellulose from red rice into simple sugars which were further fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol after seven days. Ethanol yield in this study was approximately 8 g/L. The gene found herein shows strong potential for use in ethanol production from cellulosic biomass (second generation ethanol.

  5. Preparation and characterization of B4C coatings for advanced research light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Sinn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    X-ray optical elements are required for beam transport at the current and upcoming free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. An X-ray mirror is a combination of a substrate and a coating. The demand for large mirrors with single layers consisting of light or heavy elements has increased during the last few decades; surface finishing technology is currently able to process mirror lengths up to 1 m with microroughness at the sub-nanometre level. Additionally, thin-film fabrication is able to deposit a suitable single-layer material, such as boron carbide (B4C), some tens of nanometres thick. After deposition, the mirror should provide excellent X-ray optical properties with respect to coating thickness errors, microroughness values and slope errors; thereby enabling the mirror to transport the X-ray beam with high reflectivity, high beam flux and an undistorted wavefront to an experimental station. At the European XFEL, the technical specifications of the future mirrors are extraordinarily challenging. The acceptable shape error of the mirrors is below 2 nm along the whole length of 1 m. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), amorphous layers of boron carbide with thicknesses in the range 30-60 nm were fabricated using the HZG sputtering facility, which is able to cover areas up to 1500 mm long by 120 mm wide in one step using rectangular B4C sputtering targets. The available deposition area is suitable for the specified X-ray mirror dimensions of upcoming advanced research light sources such as the European XFEL. The coatings produced were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The experimental results for the B4C layers are discussed according to thickness uniformity, density, microroughness and thermal stability. The variation of layer thickness in the tangential and sagittal directions was investigated in order to estimate the achieved level of uniformity over the whole deposition area, which is considerably

  6. Preparation and characterization of B4C coatings for advanced research light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Sinn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    X-ray optical elements are required for beam transport at the current and upcoming free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. An X-ray mirror is a combination of a substrate and a coating. The demand for large mirrors with single layers consisting of light or heavy elements has increased during the last few decades; surface finishing technology is currently able to process mirror lengths up to 1 m with microroughness at the sub-nanometre level. Additionally, thin-film fabrication is able to deposit a suitable single-layer material, such as boron carbide (B4C), some tens of nanometres thick. After deposition, the mirror should provide excellent X-ray optical properties with respect to coating thickness errors, microroughness values and slope errors; thereby enabling the mirror to transport the X-ray beam with high reflectivity, high beam flux and an undistorted wavefront to an experimental station. At the European XFEL, the technical specifications of the future mirrors are extraordinarily challenging. The acceptable shape error of the mirrors is below 2 nm along the whole length of 1 m. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), amorphous layers of boron carbide with thicknesses in the range 30–60 nm were fabricated using the HZG sputtering facility, which is able to cover areas up to 1500 mm long by 120 mm wide in one step using rectangular B4C sputtering targets. The available deposition area is suitable for the specified X-ray mirror dimensions of upcoming advanced research light sources such as the European XFEL. The coatings produced were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The experimental results for the B4C layers are discussed according to thickness uniformity, density, microroughness and thermal stability. The variation of layer thickness in the tangential and sagittal directions was investigated in order to estimate the achieved level of uniformity over the whole deposition area, which is

  7. a Fractal Network Model for Fractured Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Li, Cuihong; Qiu, Shuxia; Sasmito, Agus Pulung

    2016-04-01

    The transport properties and mechanisms of fractured porous media are very important for oil and gas reservoir engineering, hydraulics, environmental science, chemical engineering, etc. In this paper, a fractal dual-porosity model is developed to estimate the equivalent hydraulic properties of fractured porous media, where a fractal tree-like network model is used to characterize the fracture system according to its fractal scaling laws and topological structures. The analytical expressions for the effective permeability of fracture system and fractured porous media, tortuosity, fracture density and fraction are derived. The proposed fractal model has been validated by comparisons with available experimental data and numerical simulation. It has been shown that fractal dimensions for fracture length and aperture have significant effect on the equivalent hydraulic properties of fractured porous media. The effective permeability of fracture system can be increased with the increase of fractal dimensions for fracture length and aperture, while it can be remarkably lowered by introducing tortuosity at large branching angle. Also, a scaling law between the fracture density and fractal dimension for fracture length has been found, where the scaling exponent depends on the fracture number. The present fractal dual-porosity model may shed light on the transport physics of fractured porous media and provide theoretical basis for oil and gas exploitation, underground water, nuclear waste disposal and geothermal energy extraction as well as chemical engineering, etc.

  8. On the characterization of ultra-precise X-ray optical components: advances and challenges in ex situ metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, F; Buchheim, J; Zeschke, T; Störmer, M; Falkenberg, G; Sankari, R

    2014-09-01

    To fully exploit the ultimate source properties of the next-generation light sources, such as free-electron lasers (FELs) and diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), the quality requirements for gratings and reflective synchrotron optics, especially mirrors, have significantly increased. These coherence-preserving optical components for high-brightness sources will feature nanoscopic shape accuracies over macroscopic length scales up to 1000 mm. To enable high efficiency in terms of photon flux, such optics will be coated with application-tailored single or multilayer coatings. Advanced thin-film fabrication of today enables the synthesis of layers on the sub-nanometre precision level over a deposition length of up to 1500 mm. Specifically dedicated metrology instrumentation of comparable accuracy has been developed to characterize such optical elements. Second-generation slope-measuring profilers like the nanometre optical component measuring machine (NOM) at the BESSY-II Optics laboratory allow the inspection of up to 1500 mm-long reflective optical components with an accuracy better than 50 nrad r.m.s. Besides measuring the shape on top of the coated mirror, it is of particular interest to characterize the internal material properties of the mirror coating, which is the domain of X-rays. Layer thickness, density and interface roughness of single and multilayer coatings are investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry. In this publication recent achievements in the field of slope measuring metrology are shown and the characterization of different types of mirror coating demonstrated. Furthermore, upcoming challenges to the inspection of ultra-precise optical components designed to be used in future FEL and DLSR beamlines are discussed.

  9. Advances in EBSD and EBSD/EDS integration for the characterization of mineralogical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasse, L.; Goran, D.; Schwager, T.

    2013-12-01

    Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) is a well-known powerful technique for petrofabric studies using Scanning Electron Microscope. By assessing the quantitative microstructural information, i.e. crystallographic orientation data, it allows a large variety of applications: understanding the deformation mechanisms, seismic properties, metamorphic processes; and more recently, performing phase identification and discrimination when combined with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). However, it is known that for multiphase mineralogical samples, the information delivered either by EBSD or by EDS alone is not enough to successfully distinguish the present phases. Typical examples for EBSD related indexing issues are phases creating similar patterns; and for EDS technique alone, phases with similar chemical composition like calcite and aragonite, quartz and cristobalite. Recent software and hardware developments have significantly improved the data quality as well as the efficiency/productivity. This presentation aims to reveal the latest development in data processing that has transformed the combination of the two complementary techniques into a powerful tool for characterizing multiphase materials. Through geosciences application examples, we will present the advantages brought by this new approach which uses the quantified EDS results and EBSP to identify the correct phase, reducing the need of data cleaning, and without spending extra time at the SEM. We will also demonstrate how powerful EBSD indexing algorithm can overcome the limitation from sample preparation, with some examples of high hit rate achieved on polyphase mineralogical specimen and even on shock-metamorphosed minerals. Last but not least, recent developments also enable the investigation of nanostructured materials in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD). Through some mineralogical applications, we will demonstrate the high spatial resolution

  10. Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing has been used successfully in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil and gas production in the past few decades. Recent years have seen the great development of tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas. Natural fractures are believed to play an important role in the hydraulic fracturing of such formations. Whether natural fractures can benefit the fracture propagation and enhance final production needs to be studied. Various methods have been used to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) is a numerical method which belongs to the family of discrete element methods. In this paper, DDA is coupled with a fluid pipe network model to simulate the pressure response in the formation during hydraulic fracturing. The focus is to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. In particular, the effect of rock joint properties, joint orientations and rock properties on fracture initiation and propagation will be analyzed. The result shows that DDA is a promising tool to study such complex behavior of rocks. Finally, the advantages of disadvantages of our current model and future research directions will be discussed.

  11. Diagenesis in porosity evolution of opening-mode fractures, Middle Triassic to Lower Jurassic La Boca Formation, NE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen E.; Ward, Meghan E.

    2006-06-01

    Opening-mode fractures (joints) in Middle Triassic to Lower Jurassic La Boca Formation sandstones, northeastern Mexico, have patterns of fracture porosity, mineral-fill structures, and size distributions not previously described from outcrop. Patterns match those found in cores from many basins. We used aperture measurements along lines of observation (scanlines), fracture-trace maps, petrography, high-resolution scanning-electron-microscope-(SEM)-based cathodoluminescence, and fluid inclusions to characterize fracture populations. Open fractures are lined by quartz that precipitated while fractures were opening, whereas sealed fractures additionally contain calcite deposited after fractures ceased opening. Large fractures and arrays of contemporaneous microfractures have consistent power-law aperture-size scaling over approximately three orders of magnitude. Our results imply that open fractures and fracture sizes depend on diagenetic state. The interplay of fracture mechanics and diagenetic history is a determinant on effective porosity within fractures and, thus, open fracture persistence, connectivity, and fluid flow.

  12. Fracture channel waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  13. Fractures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 299 MS patients 22 have had fractures and of these 17 after onset of MS. The fractures most frequently involved the femoral neck and trochanter (41%). Three patients had had more than one fracture. Only 1 patient had osteoporosis. The percentage of fractures increased...

  14. Ash chemistry in MSW incineration plants: Advanced characterization and thermodynamic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Flemming J.; Laursen, Karin; Arvelakis, S. (and others)

    2004-07-15

    A number of ash samples where collected at four Danish municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants. Samples of bottom ash/slag, 2nd-3rd pass ashes and ESP/E-filter ash were collected at the plants. The ashes were analyzed by a number of standard chemical analyses, and a number of advanced analytical techniques. The wet chemical analyses of the different ash fractions revealed that residual ash is formed on the grate by interaction of the main ash forming elements, Al, Ca, Fe and Si. Some of this ash is entrained from the grate and carried with the flue gas along the flue gas duct, where volatile species of K, Na, Pb, Zn, Cl and S starts to condense heterogeneously on the fly ash, thereby causing a dilution of the main ash forming elements. When compared plant-by-plant, the ash chemical analyses showed that the plant with the highest S-content in the fly ash is the one with the most often operational problems in relation to deposition, while a high Cl-content is indicative of a high corrosive potential. An existing Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) algorithm was extended with chemical classes covering Pb- and Zn-rich phases. This has made it possible also to analyze MSW-derived ashes by use of CCSEM. Representative samples of 2nd-3rd pass and ESP/E-filter ashes from the four plants have been analyzed by Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (QXRD) analysis. Only a few crystalline phases were identified: KCl, NaCl, CaSO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3} being the main ones. No crystalline phases containing Pb or Zn were identified by QXRD. A comparison between CCSEM and QXRD revealed the expected surface nature of the CCSEM analysis. Samples of 2nd-3rd pass and ESP/E-filter ash from the four plants where investigated for melting behavior in the Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA). It was shown that it is possible to quantify the melting behavior of these ashes, and that the melting goes on in two steps (salts followed by silicates/oxides). The

  15. Preparation and characterization of B{sub 4}C coatings for advanced research light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Störmer, Michael, E-mail: michael.stoermer@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Siewert, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Sinn, Harald [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    The challenging specifications for long X-ray mirrors for upcoming free-electron lasers can be achieved, especially for maintaining below 2 nm peak-to-valley shape error along the optical aperture of approximately 1 m-long mirrors. X-ray optical elements are required for beam transport at the current and upcoming free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. An X-ray mirror is a combination of a substrate and a coating. The demand for large mirrors with single layers consisting of light or heavy elements has increased during the last few decades; surface finishing technology is currently able to process mirror lengths up to 1 m with microroughness at the sub-nanometre level. Additionally, thin-film fabrication is able to deposit a suitable single-layer material, such as boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), some tens of nanometres thick. After deposition, the mirror should provide excellent X-ray optical properties with respect to coating thickness errors, microroughness values and slope errors; thereby enabling the mirror to transport the X-ray beam with high reflectivity, high beam flux and an undistorted wavefront to an experimental station. At the European XFEL, the technical specifications of the future mirrors are extraordinarily challenging. The acceptable shape error of the mirrors is below 2 nm along the whole length of 1 m. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), amorphous layers of boron carbide with thicknesses in the range 30–60 nm were fabricated using the HZG sputtering facility, which is able to cover areas up to 1500 mm long by 120 mm wide in one step using rectangular B{sub 4}C sputtering targets. The available deposition area is suitable for the specified X-ray mirror dimensions of upcoming advanced research light sources such as the European XFEL. The coatings produced were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The experimental results for the B{sub 4}C layers are discussed according to thickness uniformity, density

  16. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  17. A closer look at the fracture toughness of ferritic/martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon, Enrico

    2007-08-01

    SCK·CEN has characterized the mechanical properties of several ferritic/martensitic steels, both unirradiated and irradiated. Fracture toughness has been evaluated using Charpy impact and fracture mechanics tests. Two safety-related features have emerged: (a) the applicability of the master curve approach (ASTM E1921-05) appears questionable; and (b) irradiation embrittlement is systematically larger when quantified in terms of quasi-static fracture toughness than when measured from Charpy tests. Both issues are examined in detail and possible interpretations are proposed; potential improvements given by the application of more advanced fracture toughness analysis methodologies are discussed. In order to clarify whether the Charpy/fracture toughness difference in embrittlement is due to loading rate effects, dynamic toughness tests have been performed in the unirradiated condition and for two irradiation doses (0.3 and 1.6 dpa). The corresponding dynamic T0 shifts have been compared with the shifts of Charpy and master curve quasi-static transition temperatures. Other possible contributions are examined and discussed.

  18. Advanced catchment characterization with a combination of different methods - a case study from the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markart, G.; Bieber, G.; Roemer, A.; Jochum, B.; Klebinder, K.; Kohl, B.; Mayerhofer, F.; Pausch, H.; Pfeiler, S.; Pirkl, H.; Sotier, B.; Strasser, M.; Suntinger, K.

    2012-04-01

    Near surface interflow and deep seated interflow can make significant contributions to catchment runoff, especially during continuous rainfall events. However, the knowledge about dominant runoff processes, runoff contributing areas and bandwidths of shallow interflow velocities in alpine catchments during continuous rainfall events is still very fragmented. Therefore the following comprehensive approach has been employed in high-altitude sub-catchments of the Wattental in the heart of Tyrol (Austria), to improve the knowledge of catchment properties: • Rain simulation experiments (heavy rain and continuous rain) have been conducted on slopes representative for wider parts of the catchment (geological substratum, land cover, land use,…). Water infiltration and runoff behavior were documented by TDR soil moisture measurements and data collection of several geoelectrical profiles. • Additional geoelectric-profiles have been performed to characterise the geological/hydro-geological situation in the sub-catchment. • Different types of salt tracers (e.g. NaCl, LiCl) were inserted (punctual insertion or over trenches or by irrigation of 50 m2 large plots) and accompanied by measurements of resistivity changes in the underground by geoelectrics, as well as data collection of electric conductivity in the receiving water courses. These data derived at the plot and the hillslope scale were transferred to the catchment scale with the following data: • Aerogeophysical investigations (characterization of substratum characteristics by use of electromagnetic, radiometrics and determination of soil surface water content with an L-band antenna. • Results of simultaneous measurements (data on water temperature, conductivity and freight from watercourses of different orders). • Further work comprised the development of surface runoff coefficient maps and roughness maps by use of a code of practice developed at the BFW. This comprehensive data-set allows the development

  19. Splinting of Longitudinal Fracture: An Innovative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma may result in craze lines on the enamel surface, one or more fractured cusps of posterior teeth, cracked tooth syndrome, splitting of posterior teeth, and vertical fracture of root. Out of these, management of some fractures is of great challenge and such teeth are generally recommended for extraction. Literature search reveals attempts to manage such fractures by full cast crown, orthodontic wires, and so forth, in which consideration was given to extracoronal splinting only. However, due to advancement in materials and technologies, intracoronal splinting can be achieved as well. In this case report, longitudinal fractures in tooth #27, tooth #37, and tooth #46 had occurred. In #27, fracture line was running mesiodistally involving the pulpal floor resulting in a split tooth. In teeth 37 and 46, fractures of the mesiobuccal cusp and mesiolingual cusp were observed, respectively. They were restored with cast gold inlay and full cast crown, respectively. Longitudinal fracture of 27 was treated with an innovative approach using intracanal reinforced composite with Ribbond, external reinforcement with an orthodontic band, and full cast metal crown to splint the split tooth.

  20. Lower extremity stress fractures in the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeremy M; Cameron, Kenneth L; Bojescul, John A

    2014-10-01

    Stress fractures of the lower extremities are common among the military population and, more specifically, military recruits who partake in basic training. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors play a role in the development of these injuries, and it is important to identify those individuals at risk early in their military careers. Some of these factors are modifiable, so they may become preventable injuries. It is important to reiterate that one stress fracture places the soldier at risk for future stress fractures; but the first injury should not be reason enough for separation from the military, as literature would support no long-term deficits from properly treated stress fractures. Early in the process, radiographic analysis is typically normal; continued pain may warrant advanced imaging, such as scintigraphy or MRI. Most stress fractures that are caught early are amendable to nonoperative management consisting of a period of immobilization and NWB followed by progressive rehabilitation to preinjury levels. Complete or displaced fractures may require operative intervention as do tension-sided FNSF. Improving dietary and preaccession physical fitness levels may play a role in reducing the incidence of stress fractures in the active-duty military population. It is important to keep in mind when evaluating soldiers and athletes who present with activity-related pain that stress fractures are not uncommon and should be given significant consideration.

  1. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27

    OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on

  2. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27

    OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on

  3. Confocal microscopy-fracture reconstruction and finite element modeling characterization of local cleavage toughness in a ferritic/martensitic steel in subsized Charpy V-notch impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T. E-mail: yamataku@fusion.imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.; Matsui, H

    2000-12-01

    The confocal microscopy (CM)-fracture reconstruction (FR) method, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractography, was used to measure the critical notch deformation conditions at cleavage initiation for two subsized Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen geometries of Japan ferritic/martensitic steel (JFMS). A new method was developed to permit FR of notched specimens. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the notch and specimen deformation were used to estimate values of critical micro-cleavage fracture stress, {sigma}{sup *}, and critical stressed area, A{sup *}. Since {sigma}{sup *}-A{sup *} is independent of size and geometry, it provides a fundamental local measure of cleavage toughness.

  4. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  5. Accurate Characterization of Winter Precipitation Using In-Situ Instrumentation, CSU-CHILL Radar, and Advanced Scattering Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A. J.; Notaros, B. M.; Bringi, V. N.; Kleinkort, C.; Huang, G. J.; Kennedy, P.; Thurai, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel approach to remote sensing and characterization of winter precipitation and modeling of radar observables through a synergistic use of advanced in-situ instrumentation for microphysical and geometrical measurements of ice and snow particles, image processing methodology to reconstruct complex particle three-dimensional (3D) shapes, computational electromagnetics to analyze realistic precipitation scattering, and state-of-the-art polarimetric radar. Our in-situ measurement site at the Easton Valley View Airport, La Salle, Colorado, shown in the figure, consists of two advanced optical imaging disdrometers within a 2/3-scaled double fence intercomparison reference wind shield, and also includes PLUVIO snow measuring gauge, VAISALA weather station, and collocated NCAR GPS advanced upper-air system sounding system. Our primary radar is the CSU-CHILL radar, with a dual-offset Gregorian antenna featuring very high polarization purity and excellent side-lobe performance in any plane, and the in-situ instrumentation site being very conveniently located at a range of 12.92 km from the radar. A multi-angle snowflake camera (MASC) is used to capture multiple different high-resolution views of an ice particle in free-fall, along with its fall speed. We apply a visual hull geometrical method for reconstruction of 3D shapes of particles based on the images collected by the MASC, and convert these shapes into models for computational electromagnetic scattering analysis, using a higher order method of moments. A two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), collocated with the MASC, provides 2D contours of a hydrometeor, along with the fall speed and other important parameters. We use the fall speed from the MASC and the 2DVD, along with state parameters measured at the Easton site, to estimate the particle mass (Böhm's method), and then the dielectric constant of particles, based on a Maxwell-Garnet formula. By calculation of the "particle-by-particle" scattering

  6. Numerical Analysis of AHSS Fracture in a Stretch-bending Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meng; Chen, Xiaoming; Shi, Ming F.; Shih, Hua-Chu

    2010-06-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in the automotive industry due to their superior strength and substantial weight reduction advantage. However, their limited ductility gives rise to numerous manufacturing issues. One of them is the so-called `shear fracture' often observed on tight radii during stamping processes. Since traditional approaches, such as the Forming Limit Diagram (FLD), are unable to predict this type of fracture, efforts have been made to develop failure criteria that can predict shear fractures. In this paper, a recently developed Modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC) ductile fracture criterion[1] is adopted to analyze the failure behavior of a Dual Phase (DP) steel sheet during stretch bending operations. The plasticity and ductile fracture of the present sheet are fully characterized by the Hill'48 orthotropic model and the MMC fracture model respectively. Finite Element models with three different element types (3D, shell and plane strain) were built for a Stretch Forming Simulator (SFS) test and numerical simulations with four different R/t ratios (die radius normalized by sheet thickness) were performed. It has been shown that the 3D and shell element models can accurately predict the failure location/mode, the upper die load-displacement responses as well as the wall stress and wrap angle at the onset of fracture for all R/t ratios. Furthermore, a series of parametric studies were conducted on the 3D element model, and the effects of tension level (clamping distance) and tooling friction on the failure modes/locations were investigated.

  7. Spatial analysis of fractured rock around fault zones based on photogrammetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, H.; Gessner, K.; Drews, M.; Wellmann, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    The location of hydrocarbon, geothermal or hydrothermal fluids is often bound to fault zones. The fracture systems along these faults play an important role in providing pathways to fluids in the Earth's crust. Thus an evaluation of the change in permeability due to rock deformation is of particular interest in these zones. Recent advances in digital imaging using modern techniques like photogrammetry provide new opportunities to view, analyze and present high resolution geological data in three dimensions. Our method is an extension of the one-dimensional scan-line approach to quantify discontinuities in rock outcrops. It has the advantage to take into account a larger amount of spatial data than conventional manual measurement methods. It enables to recover the entity of spatial information of a 3D fracture pattern, i.e. position, orientation, extent and frequency of fractures. We present examples of outcrop scale datasets in granitic and sedimentary rocks and analyse changes in fracture patterns across fault zones from the host rock to the damage zone. We also present a method to generate discontinuity density maps from 3D surface models generated by digital photogrammetry methods. This methodology has potential for application in rock mass characterization, structural and tectonic studies, the formation of hydrothermal mineral deposits, oil and gas migration, and hydrogeology. Our analysis methods represent important steps towards developing a toolkit to automatically detect and interpret spatial rock characteristics, by taking advantage of the large amount of data that can be collected by photogrammetric methods. This acquisition of parameters defining a 3D fracture pattern allows the creation of synthetic fracture networks following these constraints. The mathematical description of such a synethtical network can be implemented into numerical simulation tools for modeling fluid flow in fracture media. We give an outline of current and future applications of

  8. 现代油藏描述关键技术%The key technologies of advanced reservoir characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志章; 韩海英

    2011-01-01

    Modern reservoir description advocates the integration of exploration and development,the match of seismic and logging information,the combination of static and dynamic information,and finally to advance the description from qualitative to quantitative.This paper focuses on the modern reservoir characterization which integrates the high resolution petrophysical data,the middle resolution logging data and the low resolution seismic data.In the modern reservoir characterization,the technology of automatic division and correlation of reservoirs and reservoir architecture analysis,the technology of sedimentary microfacies automatic identification,and the technology of waveform diversity analysis,which are the technologies applied in the high-yield gas area prediction,are applied to the description and prediction of different types of reservoirs in different exploration and development stages.%现代油藏描述提倡勘探开发一体化,真正实现测井与地震信息匹配,实现静态信息与动态信息结合,最终由定性走向定量。重点阐述了现代油藏描述中,通过集成高分辨率的岩石物理数据、中分辨率的测井数据及低分辨率的地震数据,采用储层自动划分对比及储层结构分析技术、沉积微相自动识别技术、波形差异分析法预测高产气区技术对不同勘探开发阶段、不同类型油气藏进行描述及预测。

  9. Discontinuation of denosumab and associated fracture incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Jacques P; Roux, Christian; Törring, Ove;

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease and requires long-term treatment with pharmacologic therapy to ensure sustained anti-fracture benefit. Denosumab reduced the risk for new vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fractures over 36 months in the FREEDOM trial. While discontinuation of denosumab has been...... associated with transient increases in bone remodeling and declines in bone mineral density (BMD), the effect on fracture risk during treatment cessation is not as well characterized. To understand the fracture incidence between treatment groups after cessation of investigational product, we evaluated...... of 797 subjects (470 placebo, 327 denosumab), who were evaluable during the off-treatment period, showed similar baseline characteristics for age, prevalent fracture, and lumbar spine and total hip BMD T-scores. During treatment, more placebo-treated subjects as compared with denosumab-treated subjects...

  10. Description of Fracture Systems for External Criticality Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Philippe Nicot

    2001-09-21

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe probabilistically the main features of the geometry of the fracture system in the vicinity of the repository. They will be used to determine the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in the fractured rock underneath a waste package as it degrades. This AMR is to feed the geochemical calculations for external criticality reports. This AMR is done in accordance with the technical work plan (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001 b). The scope of this AMR is restricted to the relevant parameters of the fracture system. The main parameters of interest are fracture aperture and fracture spacing distribution parameters. The relative orientation of the different fracture sets is also important because of its impact on criticality, but they will be set deterministically. The maximum accumulation of material depends primarily on the fracture porosity, combination of the fracture aperture, and fracture intensity. However, the fracture porosity itself is not sufficient to characterize the potential for accumulation of a fracture system. The fracture aperture is also important because it controls both the flow through the fracture and the potential plugging of the system. Other features contributing to the void space such as lithophysae are also investigated. On the other hand, no analysis of the matrix porosity is done. The parameters will be used in sensitivity analyses of geochemical calculations providing actinide accumulations and in the subsequent Monte Carlo criticality analyses.

  11. Hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fracture: restoration of the Gothic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sumant G; Bennion, Phillip W; Reineck, John R; Burkhead, Wayne Z

    2008-10-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are the most common fractures of the shoulder girdle, and initial management of these injuries often determines final outcome. When arthroplasty is used to manage proximal humeral fractures, surgery remains technically demanding, and outcomes have been unpredictable. Recent advances in both technique and prosthetic implants have led to more successful and reproducible results. Key technical points include restoration of the Gothic arch, anatomic tuberosity reconstruction, and minimal soft tissue dissection.

  12. Imaging of vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures.

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound for the characterization and staging of rectal cancer. Current state of the method. Technological advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersak, Mariana M; Badea, Radu; Graur, Florin; Hajja, Nadim Al; Furcea, Luminita; Dudea, Sorin M

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound is the most accurate type of examination for the assessment of rectal tumors. Over the years, the method has advanced from gray-scale examination to intravenous contrast media administration and to different types of elastography. The multimodal approach of tumors (transrectal, transvaginal) is adapted to each case. 3D ultrasound is useful for spatial representation and precise measurement of tumor formations, using CT/MR image reconstruction; color elastography is useful for tumor characterization and staging; endoscopic ultrasound using intravenous contrast agents can help study the am