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Sample records for advanced breast cancer

  1. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  2. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  3. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  4. Progress in diagnosis of breast cancer: Advances in radiology technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mari Beth Linder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the ages of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast exam or breast self-exam or by radiologic studies, like mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer have taken place in recent years. This article will review the history of radiologic advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Use of technological advancements in digital breast tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound in breast cancer diagnosis will be presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic interventions when compared to older, traditional X-ray films will be discussed. It is important for all nurses, including radiology and oncology nurses, to be well informed about these varied diagnostic modalities, and appreciate the fact that advances in radiologic imaging technologies can yield improved outcomes for breast cancer patients.

  5. Combined doxorubicin and paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel has shown activity in metastatic breast cancer, including anthracycline-resistant breast cancer. The efficacy, toxicity and optimal scheduling of the combination of the two drugs needs to be defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty women with advanced breast cancer who had...

  6. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loibl, S.; Schmidt, A.; Gentilini, O.; Kaufman, B.; Kuhl, C.; Denkert, C.; Minckwitz, G. von; Parokonnaya, A.; Stensheim, H.; Thomssen, C.; Calsteren, K. van; Poortmans, P.; Berveiller, P.; Markert, U.R.; Amant, F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast ca

  7. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment ... removed (breast reconstruction) Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main ...

  8. Palbociclib and Letrozole in Advanced Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Richard S; Martin, Miguel; Rugo, Hope S; Jones, Stephen; Im, Seock-Ah; Gelmon, Karen; Harbeck, Nadia; Lipatov, Oleg N; Walshe, Janice M; Moulder, Stacy; Gauthier, Eric; Lu, Dongrui R; Randolph, Sophia; Diéras, Véronique; Slamon, Dennis J

    2016-11-17

    Background A phase 2 study showed that progression-free survival was longer with palbociclib plus letrozole than with letrozole alone in the initial treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer. We performed a phase 3 study that was designed to confirm and expand the efficacy and safety data for palbociclib plus letrozole for this indication. Methods In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, 666 postmenopausal women with ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, who had not had prior treatment for advanced disease, to receive palbociclib plus letrozole or placebo plus letrozole. The primary end point was progression-free survival, as assessed by the investigators; secondary end points were overall survival, objective response, clinical benefit response, patient-reported outcomes, pharmacokinetic effects, and safety. Results The median progression-free survival was 24.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.1 to not estimable) in the palbociclib-letrozole group, as compared with 14.5 months (95% CI, 12.9 to 17.1) in the placebo-letrozole group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.72; PPfizer; PALOMA-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01740427 .).

  9. Advanced Breast Cancer as Indicator of Quality Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, Enrique

    2003-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the Mexican Republic. Mammography is the more important screening tool for detecting early breast cancer. Screening mammography involves taking x-rays from two views from each breast, typically from above (cranial-caudal view, CC) and from an oblique or angled view (mediolateral-oblique, MLO). The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of the issue of patients with advanced breast cancer who have had a screening mammography. A general result of the survey is that 22.5% of all patients (102) with advanced breast cancer that participated in the study had previous screening mammography. But we should consider that 10% of breast cancers are not detected by mammography. Only 70% of the family doctors prescribed a diagnostic mammography when the first symptoms were diagnosed.

  10. Women with inoperable or locally advanced breast cancer -- what characterizes them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Charnoubi, Waseem Asim Ghulam; Svendsen, Jesper Brink; Tange, Ulla Brix;

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Danish women. Locally advanced breast cancer occurs in a relatively large proportion of all new primary breast cancer diagnoses and for unexplained reasons 20-30% of women with breast cancer wait more than eight weeks from the initial breast cancer...

  11. Combination Therapy Shows Promise for Treating Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding the drug everolimus (Afinitor®) to exemestane helped postmenopausal women whose advanced breast cancer had stopped responding to hormonal therapy live about 4 months longer without the disease progressing than women who received exemestane alone.

  12. TIMP-1 and responsiveness to gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Bjerre, Christina Annette; Ejlertsen, Bent Laursen;

    2014-01-01

    receiving GD. CONCLUSIONS: TIMP-1 status was an independent prognostic factor for OS but not TTP in patients with advanced breast cancer receiving either D or GD. There was no statistically significant interaction between TIMP-1 status and treatment, but a trend towards an incremental OS from the addition...... and predictive marker in advanced breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel (D) or gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD). METHODS: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who were assigned to D or GD by participation in a randomized phase III trial were included in the study. Assessment of TIMP-1...... status was performed retrospectively on primary tumor whole-tissue sections by immunohistochemistry and tumor samples were considered positive if epithelial breast cancer cells were stained by the anti-TIMP-1 monoclonal antibody VT7. Time to progression (TTP) was the primary endpoint. Overall survival...

  13. Doxorubicin plus paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, P; Boesgaard, M; Andersen, E

    1997-01-01

    between administration of a short infusion of doxorubicin followed by a 3-hour infusion of paclitaxel was evaluated. Included were patients with metastatic breast cancer, who received doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 at intervals of 30 minutes, 4 hours, and 24 hours every 3 weeks......The combination of bolus doxorubicin and paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) as a 3-hour infusion is highly active in patients with metastatic breast cancer, but it has considerable cardiotoxicity. In this ongoing study, the potential effect of increasing the interval....... As of February 1997, 34 patients have been enrolled, two patients are too early to evaluate, and 13 are continuing treatment. The preliminary response rate is 69% (95% confidence interval, 50% to 84%), ranging from 60% to 80% within the three schedules. The main toxicities consisted of grade 3/4 neutropenia...

  14. TIMP-1 and responsiveness to gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Bjerre, Christina Annette; Ejlertsen, Bent Laursen

    2014-01-01

    classified as cancer cell TIMP-1 positive. No significant difference for TTP between TIMP-1 positive versus TIMP-1 negative patients was observed in multivariate analysis, and RR did not differ according to TIMP-1 status. However, patients with TIMP-1 positive tumors had a significant reduction in OS events...... and predictive marker in advanced breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel (D) or gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD). METHODS: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who were assigned to D or GD by participation in a randomized phase III trial were included in the study. Assessment of TIMP-1...... status was performed retrospectively on primary tumor whole-tissue sections by immunohistochemistry and tumor samples were considered positive if epithelial breast cancer cells were stained by the anti-TIMP-1 monoclonal antibody VT7. Time to progression (TTP) was the primary endpoint. Overall survival...

  15. Breast cancer stem cells: current advances and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Clouthier, Shawn G; Deol, Yadwinder; Liu, Suling; Nagrath, Sunitha; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that many cancers, including breast cancer, are driven by a population of cells that display stem cell properties. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells, not only drive tumor initiation and growth but also mediate tumor metastasis and therapeutic resistance. In this chapter, we summarize current advances in CSC research with a major focus on breast CSCs (BCSCs). We review the prevailing methods to isolate and characterize BCSCs and recent evidence documenting their cellular origins and phenotypic plasticity that enables them to transition between mesenchymal and epithelial-like states. We describe in vitro and clinical evidence that these cells mediate metastasis and treatment resistance in breast cancer, the development of novel strategies to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that contain CSCs and the use of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models in preclinical breast cancer research. Lastly, we highlight several signaling pathways that regulate BCSC self-renewal and describe clinical implications of targeting these cells for breast cancer treatment. The development of strategies to effectively target BCSCs has the potential to significantly improve the outcomes for patients with breast cancer.

  16. Targeted treatment of advanced and metastatic breast cancer with lapatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Corkery

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Brendan Corkery1,2, Norma O’Donovan2, John Crown1,21St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 2National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, IrelandAbstract: Improved molecular understanding of breast cancer in recent years has led to the discovery of important drug targets such as HER-2 and EGFR. Lapatinib is a potent dual inhibitor of HER-2 and EGFR. Preclinical and phase I studies have shown activity with lapatinib in a number of cancers, including breast cancer, and the drug is well tolerated. The main known drug interactions are with paclitaxel and irinotecan. The most significant side-effects of lapatinib are diarrhea and adverse skin events. Rates of cardiotoxicity compare favorably with trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against HER-2. This paper focuses on lapatinib in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, which remains an important therapeutic challenge. Phase II and III studies show activity as monotherapy, and in combination with chemotherapy or hormonal agents. Results from these studies suggest that the main benefit from lapatinib is in the HER-2 positive breast cancer population. Combinations of lapatinib and trastuzumab are also being studied and show encouraging results, particularly in trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer. Lapatinib may have a specific role in treating HER-2 positive CNS metastases. The role of lapatinib as neoadjuvant therapy and in early breast cancer is also being evaluated.Keywords: HER-2, EGFR, erbB, lapatinib, Tykerb®, tyrosine kinase

  17. Clinical trials update: Medical management of advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Maureen A

    2003-12-01

    Selection of treatment for metastatic breast cancer depends on several factors: the status of estrogen receptors or progesterone receptors on breast cancer cells and the expression levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. The presence of estrogen or progesterone receptors typically indicates slower-growing tumors that may be amenable to hormonal manipulation, which provides significant disease control while offering a better toxicity profile than conventional chemotherapy. The understanding of hormonal therapies in patients with postmenopausal metastatic breast cancer has advanced greatly in the past several decades. Aromatase inhibitors, although used initially as second-line therapy, recently have proved to be as effective as tamoxifen, if not superior to it, as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer. New data also suggest that letrozole provides significantly better objective responses than anastrozole as second-line therapy. Exemestane, a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, is an effective third-line therapy. Fulvestrant, an estrogen receptor antagonist with no known agonist effect, provides a new option for hormonal therapy. For patients with metastatic breast cancer and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 on tumor cells, the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab is the preferred option, either in combination with paclitaxel as first-line treatment, or as a single agent for second-line therapy. By extending the sequence of hormonal therapy, disease progression and the need for chemotherapy may be significantly delayed, potentially extending patient survival rates and improving quality of life.

  18. Treatment of locally advanced/locally recurrent breast cancer and inflammatory breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Masao [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    This paper summarizes the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, and locally recurrent breast cancer. A multidisciplinary approach considering subclinical distant metastases is needed to treat these types of breast cancer. Subclinical distant metastasis is observed in about 80% of case of locally advanced cancer, and treatment of subclinical distant metastases, e.g., by endocrinotherapy and chemotherapy, is therefore essential to improving the prognosis. The standard therapy for unresectable locally advanced breast cancer consists of induction chemotherapy with anthracyclines and local treatment with mastectomy or irradiation. Previous reports have stated that induction chemotherapy was effective in 60-80% of the primary lesions or lymph node metastasis, and the CR rates were in the 10-20% range. Combination therapy with induction chemotherapy clearly improved the outcome over local treatment alone. The usual irradiation dose is 50 to 60 Gy/5 to 7 weeks to the whole breast or the thoracic wall. Boost irradiation at a dose of 10 to 25 Gy is performed in unresectable cases. The boost irradiation dose to the lymph node area is usually 45 to 50 Gy/5 to 6 weeks in cases without gross lesions and 10 to 15 Gy in cases with gross lesions. Combination therapy consisting of conservative pectoral mastectomy and postoperative adjuvant chemo- endocrino-therapy (i.e., adjuvant therapy) has become the standard regimen for treating resectable locally advanced breast cancer, because it significantly improves the recurrence rate and survival rate compared to local treatment alone. Some clinical have studies indicated that neoadjuvant therapy (i.e., induction chemotherapy + surgery/radiation therapy) is comparable or superior to adjuvant therapy in terms of improving the prognosis. However, the efficacy and most appropriate method of breast-conserving therapy after induction chemotherapy are still unclear. More clinical trials are needed. It has been

  19. PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and effect of gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Nielsen, Torsten O; Bjerre, Karsten D

    2014-01-01

    chemotherapy were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Data analysis was performed independently by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) statistical core and all statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: RNA from 270 patients was evaluable; 84...... by NanoString nCounter. Statistical analyses were prespecified as a formal prospective-retrospective clinical trial correlative study. Using time to progression (TTP) as primary endpoint, overall survival (OS) and response rate as secondary endpoints, relationships between subtypes and outcome after......: A significantly improved and clinically important prolongation of survival was seen from the addition of gemcitabine to docetaxel in advanced basal-like breast cancer patients....

  20. Advances in Medical Management of Early Stage and Advanced Breast Cancer: 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherby, Sabrina; Rizack, Tina; Sakr, Bachir J; Legare, Robert D; Sikov, William M

    2016-01-01

    Standard management of early stage and advanced breast cancer has been improved over the past few years by knowledge gained about the biology of the disease, results from a number of eagerly anticipated clinical trials and the development of novel agents that offer our patients options for improved outcomes or reduced toxicity or both. This review highlights recent major developments affecting the systemic therapy of breast cancer, broken down by clinically relevant patient subgroups and disease stage, and briefly discusses some of the ongoing controversies in the treatment of breast cancer and promising therapies on the horizon.

  1. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Sibylle; Schmidt, André; Gentilini, Oreste; Kaufman, Bella; Kuhl, Christine; Denkert, Carsten; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Parokonnaya, Anastasia; Stensheim, Hanne; Thomssen, Christoph; van Calsteren, Kristel; Poortmans, Philip; Berveiller, Paul; Markert, Udo R; Amant, Frederic

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment can be adapted for pregnant patients. The majority of patients with BCP will be considered for treatment during the pregnancy. Premature delivery should be avoided whenever possible. Most treatments, including sentinel lymph node biopsy, systemic therapy with taxanes, platinum agents, or dose-dense treatment can be safely given during pregnancy, after careful risk/benefit assessment for mother and child. Chemotherapy is contraindicated during the first trimester because of a higher risk of fetal malformations but is feasible in the second and third trimesters. Other treatments such as radiation therapy or anti-human epidermal growth receptor 2 treatment are in general not indicated during pregnancy but might be considered in some instances. Patient data should be collected in a systematic way whenever possible.

  2. Recent advances in the development of breast cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Milani,1 Dario Sangiolo,1 Massimo Aglietta,1,2 Giorgio Valabrega1,2 1Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy; 2FPO, Candiolo Cancer Institute, IRCCS, Torino, Italy Abstract: The manipulation of the immune system through the administration of a vaccine to direct an effective and long-lasting immune response against breast cancer (BC cells is an attractive strategy. Vaccines would have several theoretical advantages over standard therapies, including low toxicities, high specificity, and long-lasting efficacy due to the establishment of immunological memory. However, BC vaccines have failed to demonstrate meaningful results in clinical trials so far. This reflects the intrinsic difficulty in breaking the complex immune-escaping mechanisms developed by cancer cells. New vaccines should be able to elicit complex immunologic response involving multiple immune effectors such as cytotoxic and antibody-secreting B cells, innate immunity effectors, and memory cells. Moreover, especially in patients with large tumor burdens and metastatic disease, combining vaccines with other strategies, such as systemic BC therapies, passive immunotherapy, or immunomodulatory agents, could increase the effectiveness of each approach. Here, we review recent advances in BC vaccines, focusing on suitable targets and innovative strategies. We report results of most recent trials investigating active immunotherapy in BC and provide possible future perspectives in this field of research. Keywords: breast cancer, cancer vaccines, cancer immunology, HER2, MUC-1, hTERT

  3. Brain metastasis reirradiation in patients with advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhou; Sun, Bing; Shen, Ge; Cha, Lei; Meng, Xiangying; Wang, Junliang; Zhou, Zhenshan; Wu, Shikai

    2017-01-01

    The outcome of recurrent brain metastasis is dismal. This study aims to assess the clinical outcomes and toxicity of reirradiation as a salvage treatment for progressive brain metastasis in patients with advanced breast cancer. Between July 2005 and September 2014, the medical records of 56 patients with brain metastasis from breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Of these patients, 39 received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) reirradiation (Group 1), and 17 received SRS followed by WBRT reirradiation (Group 2). Overall survival (OS) and brain progression-free survival rates/times were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Change in neurologic function was also assessed. The median OS was 10.8 months (range, 1.3–56.8 months). In Group 1, the median PFS time (PFS-1) was 6.5 months and the OS time was 11.4 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that longer OS was significantly associated with a high Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (P = 0.004), controlled extracranial metastasis (P = 0.001) and a good response to reirradiation (P = 0.034). In Group 2, the median PFS time (PFS-2) after reirradiation was 8.5 months and the OS time was 10.8 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that longer OS was significantly associated with a high KPS (P = 0.018). The majority of the patients had improved or stable neurological function. Reirradiation is an effective and a safe treatment for patients with brain metastases from breast cancer. It might delay the progression of intracranial disease and improve neurological function. A suitable patient selection for reirradiation was suggested. PMID:27707842

  4. Effect of Obesity and Chronic Inflammation on TRAIL-Based Immunotherapy for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0271 TITLE: “Effect of obesity and chronic inflammation on TRAIL-based immunotherapy for advanced breast cancer...JAN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effect of Obesity and Chronic Inflammation on TRAIL-Based Immunotherapy for Advanced Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...arise in cancer patients, rendering antitumor immune responses ineffective. In addition, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that obese

  5. Advancements of antisense oligonucleotides in treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGShuan-Ping; SONGSan-Tai; 等

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is one kind of multi-gene related malignancy.Overexpression of some oncogenes such as HER-2(c-erbB-2,Neu),bcl-2/bcl-xL,protein kinase A(PKA),and transferrin receptor gene(TfR gene),etc significantly affect the prognosis of breast cancer.It was shown that specific suppression of the overexpressed genes above resulted in the improvement of the therapy of breast cancer.Antisense interference.one of useful tools for inhibiting the overexpression of specific oncogenes,was involved in the therapy of breast cancer in recent years. Data indicated that antisense oligonucleotides(ON)could inhibit specially the expression of the target genes on mRNA or protein levels in most of cases;some ON candidates showed encouraging therapeutic effects in vitro and in vivo on breast cancer cell lines or xenografts.Furthermore,the combination use of the antisense ON and normal chemotherapeutic agents indicated synergistic antitumor effects,which was probably the best utilization of antisense ON in the treatment of breast cancer.

  6. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  7. Loco-regionally advance breast cancer: evaluation of management of breast cancer with special reference to multimodal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Panda

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Patients with LBAC who are able to complete treatment with chemotherapy, mastectomy, and postmastectomy radiation have a high probability of locoregional control. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy can make inoperable locally advanced breast cancer operable and with the use of neo-adjuvant CT, breast conservation surgery is possible even in locally advanced breast cancer. Use of post-operative CT and RT can increase the disease free survival period. Use of multimodal treatment in the form of CT, surgery and radiotherapy can increase the disease free survival period in locally advanced breast cancer. The advent of successful multimodal regimens incorporating systemic treatment (chemotherapy or chemohormonal therapy as well as local therapy (surgery and radiation has significantly improved disease-free and overall survival as well as local-regional control. Longer follow-up of these conservatively treated patients will be needed, however, to determine whether local-regional control is preserved. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4767-4777

  8. PACLITAXEL PLUS CARBOPLATIN FOR WOMEN WITH ADVANCED BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Li; Qing Li; Pin Zhang; Jia-yu Wang; Long-mei Zhao; Bing-he Xu

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin for advanced breast cancer (ABC).Methods From January 2001 to March 2006, 45 patients with ABC were treated with combination chemotherapy of paclitaxel and carboplatin. Patients received infusion of paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks or 75 mg/m2 on day 1,8, 15 every 4 weeks. Carboplatin was administrated on day 2 with a dose of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) being 5.Results The median number of cycles was 3 (range, 2-6). The overall response rate was 62. 2%. Median time to progression was 7. 0 months (95%CI: 5. 1-8.9). Median overall survival was 29.0 months (95%CI: 20. 1-37.9). One year survival rate was 73. 3%. Response rate for first line and second line treatment were 62. 1 % and 62. 5% , respectively. No significant difference in response existed between visceral metastasis and soft tissue metastasis. The main side effects included nausea/vomiting, neurotoxicity, and hematologic toxicities. Grade HI to IV adverse events included nausea/vomiting in 2 cases (4. 4% ), leukopenia in 17 cases (37. 8% ), and alopecia in 6 cases (13. 3% ).Conclusion Combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin is active in treatment of ABC with an acceptable toxicity profile.

  9. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  10. Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icro Meattini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC is widely used in locally advanced breast cancer (BC treatment. The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT after NAC is strongly debated. The aim of our analysis was to identify major prognostic factors in a single-center series, with emphasis on PMRT. From 1997 to 2011, 170 patients were treated with NAC and mastectomy at our center; 98 cases (57.6% underwent PMRT and 72 cases (42.4% did not receive radiation. At a median follow-up period of 7.7 years (range 2–16 for the whole cohort, median time to locoregional recurrence (LRR was 3.3 years (range 0.7–12.4. The 5-year and 10-year actuarial LRR rate were 14.5% and 15.9%, respectively. At the multivariate analysis the factors that significantly correlated with survival outcome were ≥4 positive nodes (HR 5.0, 1.51–16.52; P=0.035, extracapsular extension (HR 2.18, 1.37–3.46; P=0.009, and estrogen receptor positive disease (HR 0.57, 0.36–0.90; P=0.003. Concerning LRR according to use of radiation, PMRT reduced LRR for patient with clinical T3 staged disease (P=0.015. Our experience confirmed the impact of pathological nodal involvement on survival outcome. PMRT was found to improve local control in patients presenting with clinical T3 tumors, regardless of the response to chemotherapy.

  11. Reducing the Human Burden of Breast Cancer: Advanced Radiation Therapy Yields Improved Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Adam D; Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy R; Wilson, J Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important modality in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. While its efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer was known shortly after the discovery of x-rays, significant advances in radiation delivery over the past 20 years have resulted in improved patient outcomes. With the development of improved systemic therapy, optimizing local control has become increasingly important and has been shown to improve survival. Better understanding of the magnitude of treatment benefit, as well as patient and biological factors that confer an increased recurrence risk, have allowed radiation oncologists to better tailor treatment decisions to individual patients. Furthermore, significant technological advances have occurred that have reduced the acute and long-term toxicity of radiation treatment. These advances continue to reduce the human burden of breast cancer. It is important for radiation oncologists and nonradiation oncologists to understand these advances, so that patients are appropriately educated about the risks and benefits of this important treatment modality.

  12. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  13. Advances in the surgical treatment of breast cancer and postoperative physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Opuchlik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, radical surgical techniques have been replaced with conserving ones, and a sentinel lymph node biopsy was introduced in the case of routine lymphadenectomy. Subcutaneous amputation with an immediate breast reconstruction or radical breast amputation in Madden modification are used in advanced tumours. Breast conserving surgery and effective neoadjuvant therapy reduce the range of the operation and postoperative complications. Similarly, breast reconstructions do not increase the risk of cancer development, and they do not impede the detection of a local recurrence. This paper presents the most commonly used types of surgery used to treat breast cancer, and the possibility of a surgical reconstruction of the breast. The methods of physiotherapeutic management in particular stages of treating women both after radical surgeries and reconstructions, including the aspect of maintaining their physical activity and mental balance are discussed.

  14. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  15. Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of early and advanced breast cancer: When, why, and how often?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Lin, Nancy U

    2017-02-01

    Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with early or advanced breast cancer is an important aspect of cancer care. The role of imaging in breast cancer depends on the goal and should only be performed to guide clinical decisions. Imaging is valuable if a finding will change the course of treatment and improve outcomes, whether this is disease-free survival, overall survival or quality-of-life. In the last decade, imaging is often overused in oncology and contributes to rising healthcare costs. In this context, we review the data that supports the appropriate use of imaging for breast cancer patients. We will discuss: 1) the optimal use of staging imaging in both early (Stage 0-II) and locally advanced (Stage III) breast cancer, 2) the role of surveillance imaging to detect recurrent disease in Stage 0-III breast cancer and 3) how patients with metastatic breast cancer should be followed with advanced imaging.

  16. Merging transcriptomics and metabolomics - advances in breast cancer profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathen Tone F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combining gene expression microarrays and high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS of the same tissue samples enables comparison of the transcriptional and metabolic profiles of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of combining these two different types of information. Methods Breast cancer tissue from 46 patients was analyzed by HR MAS MRS followed by gene expression microarrays. Two strategies were used to combine the gene expression and metabolic data; first using multivariate analyses to identify different groups based on gene expression and metabolic data; second correlating levels of specific metabolites to transcripts to suggest new hypotheses of connections between metabolite levels and the underlying biological processes. A parallel study was designed to address experimental issues of combining microarrays and HR MAS MRS. Results In the first strategy, using the microarray data and previously reported molecular classification methods, the majority of samples were classified as luminal A. Three subgroups of luminal A tumors were identified based on hierarchical clustering of the HR MAS MR spectra. The samples in one of the subgroups, designated A2, showed significantly lower glucose and higher alanine levels than the other luminal A samples, suggesting a higher glycolytic activity in these tumors. This group was also enriched for genes annotated with Gene Ontology (GO terms related to cell cycle and DNA repair. In the second strategy, the correlations between concentrations of myo-inositol, glycine, taurine, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, choline and creatine and all transcripts in the filtered microarray data were investigated. GO-terms related to the extracellular matrix were enriched among the genes that correlated the most to myo-inositol and taurine, while cell cycle related GO-terms were enriched for the genes that correlated the most

  17. Caring for Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer: The Experiences of Zambian Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Johanna Elizabeth; Mulonda, Jennipher Kombe

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the experiences of Zambian nurses caring for women with advanced breast cancer. Methods: We used a qualitative descriptive design and purposive sampling. Seventeen in-depth interviews were conducted with registered nurses practicing in the Cancer Diseases Hospital and the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, and analyzed using thematic analyses. Results: Two themes emerged from the data - caring for women with advanced breast cancer is challenging and the good outweighs the bad. The majority of the participants agreed that caring for women with advanced breast cancer and witnessing their suffering were challenging. Not having formal education and training in oncology nursing was disempowering, and one of the various frustrations participants experienced. The work environment, learning opportunities, positive patient outcomes, and the opportunity to establish good nurse–patient experiences were positive experiences. Conclusions: Although negative experiences seemed to be overwhelming, participants reported some meaningful experiences while caring for women with advanced breast cancer. The lack of formal oncology nursing education and training was a major factor contributing to their negative experiences and perceived as the key to rendering the quality of care patients deserved. Ways to fulfill the educational needs of nurses should be explored and instituted, and nurses should be remunerated according to their levels of practice. PMID:28217726

  18. Lapatinib for treatment of advanced or metastasized breast cancer: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Riera

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Around 16% to 20% of women with breast cancer have advanced, metastasized breast cancer. At this stage, the disease is treatable, but not curable. The objective here was to assess the effectiveness of lapatinib for treating patients with advanced or metastasized breast cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of the literature, developed at Centro Paulista de Economia da Saúde (CPES, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp. METHOD: Systematic review with searches in virtual databases (PubMed, Lilacs [Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde], Cochrane Library, Scirus and Web of Science and manual search. RESULTS: Only one clinical trial that met the selection criteria was found. This study showed that lapatinib in association with capecitabine reduced the risk of cancer progression by 51% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.34-0.71; P < 0.001, compared with capecitabine alone, without any increase in severe adverse effects. CONCLUSION: The combination of lapatinib plus capecitabine was more effective than capecitabine alone for reducing the risk of cancer progression. Further randomized clinical trials need to be carried out with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of lapatinib as monotherapy or in association for first-line or second-line treatment of advanced breast cancer.

  19. Endocrine treatment options for advanced breast cancer--the role of fulvestrant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robertson, J.F.; Come, S.E.; Jones, S.; Beex, L.V.A.M.; Kaufmann, Martin; Makris, A.; Nortier, J.W.; Possinger, K.; Rutqvist, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    For many years, tamoxifen has been the 'gold standard' amongst anti-oestrogen therapies for breast cancer. However, the selective aromatase inhibitors (AIs), anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane, have demonstrated advantages over tamoxifen as first-line treatments for advanced disease. Anastrozole

  20. Weekly low-dose mitoxantrone plus doxorubicin as second-line chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bontenbal (Marijke); A.S.Th. Planting (André); C.J. Rodenburg (C.); A. Dees; J. Verweij (Jaap); C.C.M. Bartels (Carina); J. Alexieva-Figusch (Jana); W.L.J. van Putten (Wim); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWeekly low dose mitoxantrone (3 mg/m2) plus doxorubicin (8 mg/m2) was administered as second-line chemotherapy to 33 patients with advanced breast cancer. Four out of 28 evaluable patients (14%) obtained a partial response with a median duration of 34 weeks (range 18-67+ weeks), while 8

  1. Selective androgen receptor modulators as improved androgen therapy for advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Dalton, James T

    2014-11-01

    Androgens were at one time a therapeutic mainstay in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Despite comparable efficacy, SERMs and aromatase inhibitors eventually became the therapies of choice due to in part to preferred side-effect profiles. Molecular characterization of breast tumors has revealed an abundance of androgen receptor expression but the choice of an appropriate androgen receptor ligand (agonist or antagonist) has been confounded by multiple conflicting reports concerning the role of the receptor in the disease. Modern clinical efforts have almost exclusively utilized antagonists. However, the recent clinical development of selective androgen receptor modulators with greatly improved side-effect profiles has renewed interest in androgen agonist therapy for advanced breast cancer.

  2. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  3. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zinser-Sierra Juan; Bargallo-Rocha Enrique; Morales-Barrera Rafael; Saavedra-Perez David; Gamboa-Vignolle Carlos; Arrieta Oscar; Alvarado-Miranda Alberto; Perez-Sanchez Victor; Ramirez-Ugalde Teresa; Lara-Medina Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite broad advances in multimodal treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), 30 to 40% of patients develop loco-regional relapse. The aim of this study was to analyze in a retrospective manner the effectiveness of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRTh) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in patients with LABC. Methods One hundred twelve patients with LABC (stage IIB-IIIB) were treated with NCT (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamid...

  4. Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: How Can it Benefit from Advancing Technology?

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Kron; Boon Chua

    2014-01-01

    There have been significant technological and technical advances in radiotherapy over the last 20 years. This paper presents the pertinent advances and examines their application in contemporary breast cancer (BC) radiotherapy, particularly for reducing the long-term toxicity, using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiation therapy, and management of breathing motion. These modern technologies and techniques enable precise delivery of a highly conformal radiation dose dist...

  5. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  6. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  7. Gemcitabine Based Combination Regimens for Treatment of Refractory Advanced Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Li; DI Li-jun; SONG Guo-hong; JIA Jun; YU Jing; WANG Xiao-li; ZHU Yu-lin; JIANG Han-fang; LIANG Xu

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Anthracycline and taxane are the standard agents in combined chemotherapy of advanced breast cancer.However,when these agents based chemotherapy is failure,the selection of salvage regimen is still of problem.Gemcitabine,an active agent in both lung cancer and pancreas cancer,is demonstrated effective in breast caner.But there have been relatively less data of gemcitabine in anthracycline and/or taxane-resistant breast cancer.Therefore we employe this study to explore the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine based combination regimen in this population.Methods:From May 2002 to March 2006,28 patients with measurable lesion of advanced metastatic breast cancer who were resistant to prior anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy were enrolled.Patients were treated with gemcitabine based combination chemotherapy with a median cycles of 3(range 2-6).Results:The overall response rate was 28.6%(8/28),with 1 CR(Complete response 3.5%)and 7 PRs(Partial response 25%).Stable disease was seen in 8 patients(28.6%)while disease progressed in 12 patiens(42.8%).The median time to progression was 4.5 m(range,2-23 m).The main toxicity included bone marrow depression,alopecia,mucositis and peripheral neurotoxicity.The grade 3 to 4 clinical adverse effect was leukopenia in 5 cases(17.9%)and thrombocytopenia in 8 cases(30%).Conclusion:Gemcitabine based combination regimens is feasible in anthracycline and taxane-resistant advanced breast cancer.The clinical response and TTP is acceptable with limited toxicity pattern.

  8. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  9. Consensus Recommendations for Advancing Breast Cancer: Risk Identification and Screening in Ethnically Diverse Younger Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stojadinovic, Thomas A Summers, John Eberhardt, Albert Cerussi, Warren Grundfest, Charles M. Peterson, Michael Brazaitis, Elizabeth Krupinski, Harold Freeman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A need exists for a breast cancer risk identification paradigm that utilizes relevant demographic, clinical, and other readily obtainable patient-specific data in order to provide individualized cancer risk assessment, direct screening efforts, and detect breast cancer at an early disease stage in historically underserved populations, such as younger women (under age 40 and minority populations, who represent a disproportionate number of military beneficiaries. Recognizing this unique need for military beneficiaries, a consensus panel was convened by the USA TATRC to review available evidence for individualized breast cancer risk assessment and screening in young (< 40, ethnically diverse women with an overall goal of improving care for military beneficiaries. In the process of review and discussion, it was determined to publish our findings as the panel believes that our recommendations have the potential to reduce health disparities in risk assessment, health promotion, disease prevention, and early cancer detection within and in other underserved populations outside of the military. This paper aims to provide clinicians with an overview of the clinical factors, evidence and recommendations that are being used to advance risk assessment and screening for breast cancer in the military.

  10. Feasibility of breast conservation after neoadjuvant taxene based chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer: a Prospective Phase I trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Mohamed I

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard care for locally advanced breast cancer. Our study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of breast conversation surgery (BCS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and methods Forty five patients had stage IIB (except those with T2N1 disease and stage IIIA were selected to 3 cycles taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patient who had tumours ≤5 cm underwent a tentative BCS while patients who had tumour size >5 cm underwent radical surgery. Negative margin is essential for BCS. Adjuvant chemotherapy and 3-D radiotherapy ± hormonal treatment were given to all patients. Results Thirty four patients had BCS. Response to chemotherapy was the only statistically significant factor which influences the BCS. Incidence of local recurrence was 5.9% for patients who had BCS at a median follow up 24 months. Conclusion Breast conservation is feasible in selected cases of locally advanced, non metastatic cancer breast. We recommend that patients who have tumour size ≤4 cm after chemotherapy are the best candidates for BCS.

  11. WDR26 in Advanced Breast Cancer: A Novel Regulator of the P13K/AKT Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0539 TITLE: WDR26 in Advanced Breast Cancer : A Novel Regulator of the P13K/AKT Pathway PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER WDR26 in Advanced Breast Cancer : A Novel Regulator of the P13K/AKT Pathway 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0539 5c. PROGRAM...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The PI3K/AKT pathway is one of the most deregulated pathways in breast cancers (>70%), and a major contributor to tumor

  12. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  13. Anti-EGFR Therapy: Mechanism and Advances in Clinical Efficacy in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Flynn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review will focus on recent advances in the application of antiepidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR for the treatment of breast cancer. The choice of EGFR, a member of the ErbB tyrosine kinase receptor family, stems from evidence pinpointing its role in various anti-EGFR therapies. Therefore, an increase in our understanding of EGFR mechanism and signaling might reveal novel targets amenable to intervention in the clinic. This knowledge base might also improve existing medical treatment options and identify research gaps in the design of new therapeutic agents. While the approved use of drugs like the dual kinase inhibitor Lapatinib represents significant advances in the clinical management of breast cancer, confirmatory studies must be considered to foster the use of anti-EGFR therapies including safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy.

  14. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  15. Aromatase inhibitors for treatment of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormonal treatments for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, such as tamoxifen and the progestins megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate, have been in use for many years. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of compounds that systemically inhibit oestrogen synthesis in the peripheral tissues. Aminoglutethimide was the first AI in clinical use (first generation) and had a similar tumour-regressing effect to other endocrine treatments, which showed the potential of thi...

  16. Endocrinological and clinical evaluation of two doses of formestane in advanced breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bajetta, E; Zilembo, N.; Buzzoni, R.; Noberasco, C.; Di Leo, A; Bartoli, C.; Merson, M; Sacchini, V.; Moglia, D; Celio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Formestane is a selective inhibitor of oestrogen synthesis by aromatase enzymes and induces disease regression in breast cancer patients. This phase II randomised study was carried out to determine whether there were any differences in the effects of two different doses of formestane on oestradiol (E2) serum levels and to evaluate the corresponding clinical activity in post-menopausal patients with positive or unknown oestrogen receptor status pretreated or not for advanced disease. Furthermo...

  17. National consensus in China on diagnosis and treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xichun; Jiang, Zefei; Li, Huiping; Chen, Jiayi; Cui, Shude; Li, Qing; Liao, Ning; Liu, Donggeng; Liu, Jian; Lu, Jinsong; Shen, Kunwei; Sun, Tao; Teng, Yuee; Tong, Zhongsheng; Wang, Shulian; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Xiaojia; Wang, Yongsheng; Wu, Jiong; Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Qingyuan; Zheng, Hong; Pang, Da; Ren, Guosheng; Shao, Zhimin; Shen, Zhenzhou; Song, Erwei; Song, Santai

    2015-01-01

    The recently available guidelines on the management of advanced breast cancer (ABC) organized by Chinese Anti-Cancer Association, Committee of Breast Cancer Society (CACA-CBCS) do not elucidate ABC in details. To instruct clinicians in treatment of ABC, a Chinese expert consensus meeting on diagnosis and treatment of ABC was held in June 2014 and a consensus is developed. The following consensus provides the level of evidence and supporting documents for each recommendation, and introduces research topics to be urgently addressed. Notably, the consensus on diagnosis and treatment of ABC in China is developed to be applied nationwide. In different areas, multidisciplinary treatment (MDT) tailored to the each patient and the disease itself should be applied based on the basic principles of modern oncology. PMID:26605288

  18. Gamma-secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, or Recurrent Triple Negative Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  19. The clinical observation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer with DX regimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Zhang; Jianing Qiu; Shuxian Qu; Yaling Han; Zhaozhe Liu; Xiaodong Xie

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The recent clinical curative ef ect and adverse events of docetaxel and capecitabine (DX) of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with local y advanced breast cancer was discussed. Methods:The data of 72 cases of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (DX) in local y advanced breast cancer after 4 cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 by infusion 1 h on d1, capecitabine 2000 mg/m2 by oral for twice daily on d1–14, 21 days was a cycle. Results:Al 72 patients were assessed for ef icacy and adverse events. The total ef ective rate was 80.5%(58/72), including pathological complete response (pCR) was 7 (9.7%), clinical complete remission (cCR) was 15(20.8%), clinical partial response (PR) was 43 (59.7%), stable disease (SD) was 8 (11.1%) and progressive disease (PD) was 6 (8.3%). The main adverse events were gastrointestinal reactions and bone marrow suppression. The 3 to 4 degrees of adverse reactions including granulocytopenia in 7 patients (20.6%), hand-foot syndrome in 6 patients (15.2%). Conclusion:The DX regimen provide a favorable ef icacy and safety profile in patients with local y advanced breast cancer for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  20. Clinical observation of capecitabine monotherapy in elderly patients with advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Zhang; Zhaozhe Liu Co-first author; Zhendong Zheng; Tao Han; Yaling Han; Min Song; Xiaodong Xie

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and ef icacy of capecitabine mono-chemo-therapy in elderly patients with advanced breast cancer. Methods The data from 36 cases of capecitabine monotherapy in elderly patients with advanced breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Oral administration of capecitabine 2000 mg/m2 twice daily (D1–14) for 21 days constituted a cycle. The ef ect of the disease and main adverse reactions were evaluated every 2 cycles. Results The data from 36 elderly patients were studied. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was 4. The total ef ective rate was 30.6% (11/36) and the disease control rate was 72.2% (26/36). The number of patients with clinical complete remission was 2, clinical partial response was 9, stable disease was 15, and progressive disease was 10. Where treatment was ef ective, the median time to progression was 6 months and the median overal survival was 9.5 months. The main adverse events were gastroin-testinal reactions, bone marrow suppression, and oral mucositis; most of the reactions were grade 1 to 2. Grade 3 to 4 adverse reactions included granulocytopenia in 2 patients (12.5%) and hand-foot syndrome in 1 patient (6.7%). Conclusion Capecitabine monotherapy was ef ective in control ing disease progression, and adverse reactions were tolerated by elderly patients with advanced breast cancer.

  1. High risk factors of brain metastases in 295 patients with advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Min; L(U) Hui-min; LIU Zhen-zhen; LIU Hui; ZHANG Meng-wei; SUN Xi-bin; CUI Shu-de

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of brain metastases in patients with breast cancer is approximately 10%-16%,and survival after diagnosis of brain metastases is usually short.This study was designed to evaluate the risk factors associated with brain metastases in advanced breast cancer patients,with a view to help predict patient groups with high risk of brain metastases.Methods In total,295 patients with advanced breast cancer were evaluated.All patients were pathologically confirmed and metastatic lesions were confirmed pathologically or by imaging.All patients were examined at least once every 6 months with head CT or MRI.Patients showing symptoms underwent immediate inspection,and brain metastatic lesions were confirmed by head CT and/or MRI.Results At a median follow-up of 12 months from the occurrence of metastases,brain metastases had occurred in 49 patients (16.6%).In our univariate analysis,variables significantly related to increased risk of brain metastases were hormone receptor-negative tumors,epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors,and multiple distant metastases.Patients with dominant tumor sites in soft tissue,or defined as Luminal A subtype,tended to have a lower risk of brain metastases than patients with visceral metastases,Luminal B subtype,triple-negative subtype or HER2-enriched subtype tumors.Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that factors such as Luminal B,triple-negative,and HER2-enriched subtypes are high risk factors for brain metastases.These data,therefore,provide pivotal clinical evidence towards a comprehensive understanding of the risk factors of brain metastases in advanced breast cancer patients.

  2. Advances in Translational Medicine of Breast Cancer:From Bench to Bedside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women, and its incidence increases year by year. With the rapid development of human genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, the basic and clinical results of breast cancer have emerged in endlessly. Translational medicine is a hot ifeld of international medicine, biological interdisciplinary science and many research funding projects at present, committed to establishing an academic exchange platform for global scientiifc researchers. In this study, the translational medicine of breast cancer was summarized and reviewed from the following aspects, including molecular markers related to breast cancer, molecular typing, individualized and molecular targeted therapies, relationship between molecular biology and imagiology of breast cancer.

  3. 6.3 MeV fast neutrons in the treatment of patients with locally advanced and locally recurrent breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikaya, V. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Lisin, V. A.; Startseva, Zh. A.

    2016-08-01

    The study included 135 breast cancer patients (70 patients with locally recurrent breast cancer and 65 patients with locally advanced breast cancer with unfavorable prognostic factors) who received the neutron therapy alone or in combination with the photon therapy. The neutron therapy was shown to be effective in multimodality treatment of patients with locally advanced and locally recurrent breast cancer. The 8-year survival rate in patients without repeated breast cancer recurrence was 87.6 ± 8.7% after the neutron and neutron-photon therapy and 54.3 ± 9.2% after the electron beam therapy.

  4. Reproducibility of Digital PCR Assays for Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis in Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrebien, Sarah; O’Leary, Ben; Beaney, Matthew; Schiavon, Gaia; Fribbens, Charlotte; Bhambra, Amarjit; Johnson, Richard; Turner, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis has the potential to allow non-invasive analysis of tumor mutations in advanced cancer. In this study we assessed the reproducibility of digital PCR (dPCR) assays of circulating tumor DNA in a cohort of patients with advanced breast cancer and assessed delayed plasma processing using cell free DNA preservative tubes. We recruited a cohort of 96 paired samples from 71 women with advanced breast cancer who had paired blood samples processed either immediately or delayed in preservative tubes with processing 48–72 hours after collection. Plasma DNA was analysed with multiplex digital PCR (mdPCR) assays for hotspot mutations in PIK3CA, ESR1 and ERBB2, and for AKT1 E17K. There was 94.8% (91/96) agreement in mutation calling between immediate and delayed processed tubes, kappa 0.88 95% CI 0.77–0.98). Discordance in mutation calling resulted from low allele frequency and likely stochastic effects. In concordant samples there was high correlation in mutant copies per ml plasma (r2 = 0.98; pprocessed tubes, although overall quantification of total cell free plasma DNA had similar prognostic effects in immediate (HR 3.6) and delayed (HR 3.0) tubes. There was moderate agreement in changes in allele fraction between sequential samples in quantitative mutation tracking (r = 0.84, p = 0.0002). Delayed processing of samples using preservative tubes allows for centralized ctDNA digital PCR mutation screening in advanced breast cancer. The potential of preservative tubes in quantitative mutation tracking requires further research. PMID:27760227

  5. Doppler ultrasound scoring to predict chemotherapeutic response in advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Tej B

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doppler ultrasonography (US is increasingly being utilized as an imaging modality in breast cancer. It is used to study the vascular characteristics of the tumor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard modality of treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. Histological examination remains the gold standard to assess the chemotherapy response. However, based on the color Doppler findings, a new scoring system that could predict histological response following chemotherapy is proposed. Methods Fifty cases of locally advanced infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast were studied. The mean age of the patients was 44.5 years. All patients underwent clinical, Doppler and histopathological assessment followed by three cycles of CAF (Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin and 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy, repeat clinical and Doppler examination and surgery. The resected specimens were examined histopathologically and histological response was correlated with Doppler findings. The Doppler characteristics of the tumor were graded as 1–4 for 50% and complete disappearance of flow signals respectively. A cumulative score was calculated and compared with histopathological response. Results were analyzed using Chi square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results The maximum Doppler score according to the proposed scoring system was twelve and minimum three. Higher scores corresponded with a more favorable histopathological response. Twenty four patients had complete response to chemotherapy. Sixteen of these 24 patients (66.7% had a cumulative Doppler score more than nine. The sensitivity of cumulative score >5 was 91.7% and specificity was 38.5%. The area under the ROC curve of the cumulative score >9 was 0.72. Conclusion Doppler scoring can be accurately used to objectively predict the response to chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer and it correlates well with histopathological

  6. Doppler ultrasound scoring to predict chemotherapeutic response in advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Singh, Seema; Pradhan, Satyajit; Shukla, Ram C; Ansari, Mumtaz A; Singh, Tej B; Shyam, Rohit; Gupta, Saroj

    2007-01-01

    Background Doppler ultrasonography (US) is increasingly being utilized as an imaging modality in breast cancer. It is used to study the vascular characteristics of the tumor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard modality of treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. Histological examination remains the gold standard to assess the chemotherapy response. However, based on the color Doppler findings, a new scoring system that could predict histological response following chemotherapy is proposed. Methods Fifty cases of locally advanced infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast were studied. The mean age of the patients was 44.5 years. All patients underwent clinical, Doppler and histopathological assessment followed by three cycles of CAF (Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin and 5-Fluorouracil) chemotherapy, repeat clinical and Doppler examination and surgery. The resected specimens were examined histopathologically and histological response was correlated with Doppler findings. The Doppler characteristics of the tumor were graded as 1–4 for 50% and complete disappearance of flow signals respectively. A cumulative score was calculated and compared with histopathological response. Results were analyzed using Chi square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results The maximum Doppler score according to the proposed scoring system was twelve and minimum three. Higher scores corresponded with a more favorable histopathological response. Twenty four patients had complete response to chemotherapy. Sixteen of these 24 patients (66.7%) had a cumulative Doppler score more than nine. The sensitivity of cumulative score >5 was 91.7% and specificity was 38.5%. The area under the ROC curve of the cumulative score >9 was 0.72. Conclusion Doppler scoring can be accurately used to objectively predict the response to chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer and it correlates well with histopathological response. PMID:17725837

  7. Different response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for different molecular subtypes in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huafeng Kang; Zhijun Dai; Xiaobin Ma; Xing Bao; Shuai Lin; Hongbing Ma; Xiaoxu Liu; Xijing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining on the response rate for patients with locally advanced breast cancer received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: One hundred and seven breast cancer patients admitted from 2007 to 2011 who received 4 cycles of docetaxel/epirubicin-combined (TE) neoadjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed, the patients were classified into 4 subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER-2 and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) according to different combination patterns of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2) expression defined by IHC method. The correlation between response rate and the molecular subtypes were analyzed. Results: The pathological complete response (PCR), clinical complete response (CCR), clinical partial response (CPR), and clinical stable disease (CSD) rate of whole group was 15.89% (17/107), 22.43% (24/107), 63.55% (68/107), 14.02% (15/107), respectively, and the overall response rate (ORR) was 85.98% (92/107). The PCR rate and ORR of luminal A, luminal B, HER-2 and TNBC subtypes was 4.76% and 73.81%; 16.67% and 83.33%;17.65% and 100.00%; 30.00% and 96.67%, respectively. The PCR and ORR rate of HER-2/TNBC subtypes was higher than that of luminal A/B subtypes (P = 0.019, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Different molecular subtypes display different response rate for patients with locally advanced breast cancer received neoadjuvant TE chemotherapy, HER-2/TNBC subtypes have a higher PCR and ORR rate than that of luminal A/B subtypes.

  8. IMPACT OF SEQUENTIAL NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY IN LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCER: A SERIES OF 10 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer currently is a major health problem among women worldwide accounting for around 13.7% cancer deaths, nearly 1/3rd of it being due to Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC. Despite progress achieved in diagnosis & therapy of Breast cancer, LABC remains a major clinical challenge and in efforts to increase pCR, CCR & DFS in LABC, Neoadjuvant or primary chemotherapy followed by locoregional therapy and adjuvant systemic CT is well accepted treatment strategy since last 3 decades. Further to address the issue of drug resistance in NACT sequential anthracycline-taxane NACT has been evaluated by many researchers and has resulted in better outcome in terms of overall survival and pCR. In this study we have evaluated 4 cycles of sequential anthracycline-taxane, 2 cycles of Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin, Fluracil +2 cycles of Docetaxel, Epirubicin (CEF- DE NACT in a series of 10 cases of ER/PR +ve, Her -2 neu negative patients of LABC. 9/10 cases were rendered operable after primary chemotherapy and were subjected to further 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (1 cycle CEF, 1 cycle DE, 2cycles single agent Docetaxel, followed by locoregional RT. This tailored sequential NACT protocol in our subgroup of patient was well tolerated, well accepted and resulted in substantial increase in operability with CCR & DFS in 6/10 cases on 3 years follow up and pCR in one patient. Sequential NACT needs further validation by more RCT with extensive follow up

  9. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  10. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  11. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  12. Stability of the HER2 gene after primary chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsuzsanna; Caduff, Rosmarie; Pestalozzi, Bernhard

    2005-02-01

    We investigated whether alterations of the Her2 gene could be detected in breast cancer samples following primary chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer. The prospective study involved 23 patients with stage-II, -III or -IV breast cancer. All patients were treated with two to six cycles of fluorouracil-epirubicin and/or cyclophosphamid/epi-docetaxel. The Her2 protein and gene were assessed both on core needle biopsies prior to and on surgical specimens after completing chemotherapy using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods. Estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) were also determined on both samples using IHC. Her2 status was modified in eight patients using IHC (35%) and in three patients using FISH (13%). Changes in ER/PR expression were detected in seven patients (30%). Our data suggest that alterations of the Her2 gene can occur, although not usually after primary or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, changes in ER/PR status seem to be a more common event; thus, both can lead to different therapeutic options. Intratumoral heterogeneity as well as sampling variations can contribute to modification of the Her2 status after primary chemotherapy.

  13. Tamoxifen Citrate or Z-Endoxifen Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic, Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  14. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaws in advanced stage breast cancer was detected from bone scan: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirappapha, Prakasit; Thongjood, Thanaporn; Aroonroch, Rangsima

    2017-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are indicated to treat skeletal-related events (SREs) for cancer patients with bone metastasis. We report a 79-year-old woman with advanced stage breast cancer with bone metastasis who was prescribed BPs (zoledronate), then developed osteonecrosis of jaw. We provide a brief review of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this complication. PMID:28210558

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of neutron capture therapy for local advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kumada, H. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Y. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan); Furuya, Y. [Department of Surgery, Satukidai Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, K. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Local recurrence breast cancer is one of the most difficult conditions to cure and there is a need for new therapy. If sufficient boron compound can be targeted to the tumor, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can be applied to local recurrent breast cancer. In this study, we performed a preliminary dosimetry with a phantom model of the mammary gland at Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), and a feasibility dosimetry with JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute. We performed preliminary dosimetry of a phantom model of the mammary gland with thermal neutron irradiation (OO-0011 mode) on LiF collimation at KUR. The thermal neutron flux was 5.16 E+08 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the surface of phantom. The blood boron concentration is estimated to be 30 ppm; tumor boron concentration is also estimated to be 90 ppm according to tumor/blood ratio 3 and skin/blood ratio 1.2. Tumor RBE dose is estimated to be 47 Gy/h, and skin RBE dose is 12.4 Gy/h. In case of advanced breast cancer, we performed the feasibility estimation of 3D construction of tumor according to the MRI imaging of a patient with epithermal neutron mode at JRR4. The blood boron concentration (ppm) and tumor/normal tissue ratio are estimated to be 24 and 3.5, respectively. Skin RBE dose is restricted to 10 Gy/h, the maximum tumor RBE dose, minimum tumor RBE dose, and mean tumor RBE dose are 42.2, 11.3, and 28.9 Gy-Eq, respectively, in half hour irradiation. In this study, we showed the possibility to apply BNCT to local recurrent breast cancer. We can irradiate tumors selectively and as safely as possible, reducing the effects on neighboring healthy tissues.

  16. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  17. Impact of Diabetes and Hyperglycemia on Survival in Advanced Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Villarreal-Garza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We examined the impact of diabetes and hyperglycemia on cancer-specific survival of patients with metastatic or recurrent breast cancer (BC. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of 265 patients with advanced BC receiving palliative chemotherapy. BC-specific mortality was compared for diabetic and nondiabetic patients as well as for patients that presented hyperglycemia during treatment. Results. No difference was observed between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of overall survival (OS. A difference in OS was observed between nondiabetic patients and diabetic patients who had hyperglycemia. The OS was greater in diabetic patients with proper metabolic control than diabetic patients with hyperglycemia. The risk of death was higher in patients with mean glucose levels >130 mg/dL during treatment. Several factors were associated with poor OS: tumor stage, hormone-receptor-negative tumors, HER2 negative disease, multiple metastatic sites, presence of visceral metastases, and mean glucose >130 mg/dL. Conclusion. Elevated glucose levels are associated with a poor outcome in diabetic and nondiabetic patients in contrast to patients with normoglycemic levels, conferring an elevated risk of death. According to these results, clinicians should monitor glucose levels during treatment for advanced breast cancer disease and take action to maintain normal glucose levels.

  18. Malignant change in a massive pleomorphic adenoma resembling the presentation of advanced inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Leonie; Colbert, Serryth; Spedding, Anne V; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-04-01

    Massive tumours of the parotid are uncommon as due to their site, they are usually removed at an earlier stage. We present a bizarre case of a carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma which mimicked an advanced breast cancer, complete with a 'nipple-like' extension and peau d'orange changes in the overlying skin as a result of a dense dermal inflammatory response. A procedure akin to a mastectomy with facial nerve preservation was carried out for removal. To our knowledge, peau d'orange has not been reported before in parotid tumours.

  19. Quantitative DCE-MRI for prediction of pathological complete response following neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced breast cancer: the impact of breast cancer subtypes on the diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisis, Stylianos; Stathopoulos, Konstantinos; Chao, Shih-Li; Lemort, Marc [Institute Jules Bordet, Radiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Metens, Thierry [Erasme University Hospital, Radiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Ignatiadis, Michael [Institute Jules Bordet, Oncology Department, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters obtained before and during chemotherapy can predict pathological complete response (pCR) differently for different breast cancer groups. Eighty-four patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer were retrospectively included. All patients underwent two DCE-MRI examinations, one before (EX1) and one during treatment (EX2). Tumours were classified into different breast cancer groups, namely triple negative (TNBC), HER2+ and ER+/HER2-, and compared with the whole population (WP). PK parameters Ktrans and Ve were extracted using a two-compartment Tofts model. At EX1, Ktrans predicted pCR for WP and TNBC. At EX2, maximum diameter (Dmax) predicted pCR for WP and ER+/HER2-. Both PK parameters predicted pCR in WP and TNBC and only Ktrans for the HER2+. pCR was predicted from relative difference (EX1 - EX2)/EX1 of Dmax and both PK parameters in the WP group and only for Ve in the TNBC group. No PK parameter could predict response for ER+/HER-. ROC comparison between WP and breast cancer groups showed higher but not statistically significant values for TNBC for the prediction of pCR Quantitative DCE-MRI can better predict pCR after neoadjuvant treatment for TNBC but not for the ER+/HER2- group. (orig.)

  20. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Trice Loggers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, and p=0.02 and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+ BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.59, and p=0.01. Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively.

  1. Delay in referring and related factors in patients with advanced breast cancer - Emam Hospital (2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Ghaem Maghami F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of study was to determine the frequency of delay referring and related factors in patients with advanced breast cancer, in Imam Khomeini Hospital in the 2000. Materials and Methods: Successively 200 patients were entered the study if they were consentient. A questionnaire was constructed and information was obtained through interviewing. Results: From the cases, 64 patients (32 percent referred without delay and 136 patients (68 percent referred tardily. The patients who were late in comparison with patients who didn’t late, had significantly higher mean age (P=0.004, lower education level (P=0.002, and lower economic status (P=0.001. The frequency rate of single were lower among them (P=0.001, fewer percent were residual of big cities (P=0.01 and they had less rate of available physician (P=0.004. 24.3 percent of delay referring patients and 53.1 percent of patients without delay has a positive family history of breast cancer (P=0.001. 62.5 percent of delay referring patients and 85 percent of patients without delay were aware about importance of Self Breast Examination (S.B.E (P=0.002 and respectively 84.4 percent and 98.4 percent were award about symptoms of breast cancer (P=0.01. 23.5 percent and 33 percent of patients with and without delay Knew the method of B.S.E respectively. It wasn’t a significant difference. Conclusion: Lack of awareness about necessity of medical consultation, fear, carelessly, unavailable physician and poverty were the major causes of delay in patients who referred late.

  2. Preoperative axillary lymph node evaluation in breast cancer patients by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Can breast MRI exclude advanced nodal disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Su Jeong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Breast Cancer Clinic, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Breast Cancer Clinic, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in breast cancer patients and to assess whether breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease. A total of 425 patients were included in this study and breast MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of breast MRI for diagnosis of ALNM was evaluated in all patients, patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and those without NAC (no-NAC). We evaluated whether negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-pN3) using the negative predictive value (NPV) in each group. The sensitivity and NPV of breast MRI in evaluation of ALNM was 51.3 % (60/117) and 83.3 % (284/341), respectively. For cN0 cases on MRI, pN2-pN3 manifested in 1.8 % (6/341) of the overall patients, 0.4 % (1/257) of the no-NAC group, and 6 % (5/84) of the NAC group. The NPV of negative MRI findings for exclusion of pN2-pN3 was higher for the no-NAC group than for the NAC group (99.6 % vs. 94.0 %, p = 0.039). Negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude the presence of advanced nodal disease with an NPV of 99.6 % in the no-NAC group. (orig.)

  3. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  4. A structured review of health utility measures and elicitation in advanced/metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yanni Hao,1 Verena Wolfram,2 Jennifer Cook2 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2Adelphi Values, Bollington, UK Background: Health utilities are increasingly incorporated in health economic evaluations. Different elicitation methods, direct and indirect, have been established in the past. This study examined the evidence on health utility elicitation previously reported in advanced/metastatic breast cancer and aimed to link these results to requirements of reimbursement bodies. Methods: Searches were conducted using a detailed search strategy across several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EconLit databases, online sources (Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and the Health Economics Research Center, and web sites of health technology assessment (HTA bodies. Publications were selected based on the search strategy and the overall study objectives. Results: A total of 768 publications were identified in the searches, and 26 publications, comprising 18 journal articles and eight submissions to HTA bodies, were included in the evidence review. Most journal articles derived utilities from the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D. Other utility measures, such as the direct methods standard gamble (SG, time trade-off (TTO, and visual analog scale (VAS, were less frequently used. Several studies described mapping algorithms to generate utilities from disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL instruments such as European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer 23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – General questionnaire (FACT-G, and Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer (UBQ-C; most used EQ-5D as the reference. Sociodemographic factors that affect health utilities, such as age, sex

  5. DEGRO practical guidelines for radiotherapy of breast cancer V. Therapy for locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancer, as well as local therapy in cases with synchronous distant metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, Wilfried; Matuschek, Christiane; Boelke, Edwin [University Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Duesseldorf (Germany); Dunst, Juergen [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany); Feyer, Petra [Vivantes Hospital Neukoelln, Berlin (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer; Sauer, Rolf [University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Harms, Wolfgang [St. Clara Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Piroth, Marc D. [Helios Hospital, Wuppertal (Germany); Sautter-Bihl, Marie-Luise [Municipal Hospital, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sedlmayer, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University Hospital, Salzburg (Austria); Wenz, Frederick [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Haase, Wulf; Souchon, Rainer; Collaboration: Breast Cancer Expert Panel of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO)

    2015-08-15

    The purpose of this work is to give practical guidelines for radiotherapy of locally advanced, inflammatory and metastatic breast cancer at first presentation. A comprehensive survey of the literature using the search phrases ''locally advanced breast cancer'', ''inflammatory breast cancer'', ''breast cancer and synchronous metastases'', ''de novo stage IV and breast cancer'', and ''metastatic breast cancer'' and ''at first presentation'' restricted to ''clinical trials'', ''randomized trials'', ''meta-analysis'', ''systematic review'', and ''guideline'' was performed and supplemented by using references of the respective publications. Based on the German interdisciplinary S3 guidelines, updated in 2012, this publication addresses indications, sequence to other therapies, target volumes, dose, and fractionation of radiotherapy. International and national guidelines are in agreement that locally advanced, at least if regarded primarily unresectable and inflammatory breast cancer should receive neoadjuvant systemic therapy first, followed by surgery and radiotherapy. If surgery is not amenable after systemic therapy, radiotherapy is the treatment of choice followed by surgery, if possible. Surgery and radiotherapy should be administered independent of response to neoadjuvant systemic treatment. In patients with a de novo diagnosis of breast cancer with synchronous distant metastases, surgery and radiotherapy result in considerably better locoregional tumor control. An improvement in survival has not been consistently proven, but may exist in subgroups of patients. Radiotherapy is an important part in the treatment of locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancer that should be given to all patients regardless to the intensity and effect of

  6. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  7. Living with Advanced Breast Cancer among Ghanaian Women: Emotional and Psychosocial Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Bemah Bonsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the emotional and psychosocial experiences of Ghanaian women living with advanced breast cancer in the Kumasi metropolis. The study employed a qualitative exploratory descriptive design. Purposive sampling approach was used and data was saturated with 10 participants aged between 32 and 65 years. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Data was analyzed concurrently based on the techniques of content analysis. Anonymity and confidentiality were ensured. Women experienced emotional reactions such as sadness, fear, and anxiety. Pain was severe and led to suicidal ideations. Women experienced lost hopes regarding their marriage, parenting, and work. They received support from their families, spouses, colleagues, health professionals, and spiritual leaders. Women coped by accepting the disease and surrendering to God and having the will to live. Five major themes described were emotional reactions, pain, lost hope, support, and coping. It was recommended that health care providers involved in breast cancer management should be trained to enhance effective and holistic care of women and their families. Also, patients with advanced disease should be given effective pain management and a multidisciplinary palliative care team should be instituted to care for the women.

  8. Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: How Can it Benefit from Advancing Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kron

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant technological and technical advances in radiotherapy over the last 20 years. This paper presents the pertinent advances and examines their application in contemporary breast cancer (BC radiotherapy, particularly for reducing the long-term toxicity, using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiation therapy, and management of breathing motion. These modern technologies and techniques enable precise delivery of a highly conformal radiation dose distribution to the target volume in real-time, to optimise tumour control, and minimise treatment toxicity. They have been used for the treatment of BC in selected centres around the world. Although there is insufficient high-level evidence to support their routine application in BC at present, implementation of these technologies has been shown to be feasible, and could result in clinically meaningful long-term benefits for selected patients with BC.

  9. Relationship of Clinical and Pathologic Nodal Staging in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Current Controversies in Daily Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bulzonetti, Nadia; Raffetto, Nicola; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Systemic neo-adjuvant therapy plays a primary role in the management of locally advanced breast cancer. Without having any negative effect in overall survival, induction chemotherapy potentially assures a surgery approach in unresectable disease or a conservative treatment in technically resectable disease and acts on a well-vascularized tumor bed, without the modifications induced by surgery. A specific issue has a central function in the neo-adjuvant setting: lymph nodes status. It still represents one of the strongest predictors of long-term prognosis in breast cancer. The discussion of regional radiation therapy should be a matter of debate, especially in a pathological complete response. Currently, the indication for radiotherapy is based on the clinical stage before the surgery, even for the irradiation of the loco-regional lymph nodes. Regardless of pathological down-staging, radiation therapy is accepted as standard adjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:25247013

  10. Two Cases of Mastectomy after Paclitaxel + Bevacizumab Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Shinoda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC deteriorates the quality of life (QOL of the affected patients. Combination chemotherapy or extended chemotherapy is considered to help to shrink local lesions. Case 1: A 71-year-old female with a history of tympanitis and cystitis with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA visited our hospital. There was a tumor of 7 cm in diameter in her right breast with skin ulceration. Paclitaxel + bevacizumab therapy was started, and after five cycles of therapy, a mastectomy with axillary dissection was performed. Chemotherapy with anthracycline was avoided for fear of activating the MRSA. After the operation, the patient's wound opened. However, it naturally epithelialized. Case 2: A 41-year-old female visited our hospital due to a tumor of 8 cm in diameter in her right breast with skin ulceration. Four cycles of paclitaxel + bevacizumab therapy were started, and her tumor almost disappeared during the first cycle. Then, doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide therapy was performed for four cycles, and a mastectomy with axillary dissection was performed. Her postoperative course was good. Discussion: Chemotherapy with bevacizumab or extended chemotherapy is generally not considered to contribute to a survival improvement. However, such therapy contributes in increasing the response to chemotherapy, and should be considered for patients with LABC to shrink the local lesions and improve the QOL.

  11. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Patients With Advanced Breast or Pancreatic Cancer With Metastases to the Liver or Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Acinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Liver Metastases; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  12. Primary radiotherapy of breast cancer; Treatment results in locally advanced breast cancer and in operable patients selected by positive axillay apex biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borger, J.H.; Tienhoven, G. van; Passchier, D.H.; Hart, A.A.M.; Bartelink, H.; Dongen, J.A. van; Rutgers, E.J.T. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1992-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiotherapy without surgery, treatment results in patients treated for locally advanced breast cancer (n=209) and those selected by positive axillary apex biopsy (n=289) in the period 1977 -1985 have been analysed retrospectively. Treatment consisted of primary irradiation to the breast and regional lymph nodes followed by a boost to the primary breast tumour and palpable regional disease to a mean normalised dose (NTD) of 64.7 Gy with a range of 33.4-93 Gy (2 Gy fractions, [alpha]/[beta] 5 Gy). Adjuvant systemic treatment was given in 30% of the locally advanced and in 40% of the apex positive patients. Thirty percent of the apex positive patients had an excisional biopsy of the breast tumour. Patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and patients irradiated to a NTD of 60 Gy or more had significantly better local control. For overall survival primary tumour size, clinical nodal size and age are independent prognostic factors. Patients irradiated to a NTD above 60 Gy had significantly better results. (author). 39 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Open comparative trial of formestane versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer previously treated with tamoxifen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freue, M; Kjaer, M; Boni, C; Joliver, J; Janicke, F; Willemse, PHB; Coombes, RC; Van Belle, S; Perez-Carrion, R; Zieschang, J; de Palacios, PI; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to compare efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor formestane (250 mg i.m. given every 2 weeks) with the progestin megestrol acetate (160 mg administered orally once daily), as second-line therapy in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer previously treat

  14. Review of hormone-based treatments in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer focusing on aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Knoop, Ann S; Jessing, Christina A R;

    2016-01-01

    . However, overall survival was not significantly increased. CONCLUSION: Conventional treatment with an aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant may be an adequate treatment option for most patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition and cyclin...

  15. Laser immunotherapy for treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer and melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaosong [Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China); Hode, Tomas; Guerra, Maria C [Immunophotonics Inc., 1601 South Providence Road, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Ferrel, Gabriela L [Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, Av. Edgardo Rebagliati 490 - Jesus Maria, Lima (Peru); Nordquist, Robert E [Wound Healing of Oklahoma, Inc., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Chen, Wei R, E-mail: wchen@uco.edu [Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, Oklahoma (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) was developed for the treatment of metastatic tumors. It combines local selective photothermal interaction and active immunological stimulation to induce a long-term, systemic anti-tumor immunity. During the past sixteen years, LIT has been advanced from bench-top to bedside, with promising outcomes. In our pre-clinical and preliminary clinical studies, LIT has demonstrated the capability in inducing immunological responses, which not only can eradicate the treated primary tumors, but also can eliminate untreated metastases at distant sites. Specifically, LIT has been used to treat advanced melanoma and breast cancer patients during the past five years. LIT was shown to be effective in controlling both primary tumors and distant metastases in late-stage patients, who have failed conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and other more advanced approaches. The methodology and the development of LIT are presented in this paper. The patients' responses to LIT are also reported in this paper. The preliminary results obtained in these studies indicated that LIT could be an effective modality for the treatment of patients with late-stage, metastatic cancers, who are facing severely limited options.

  16. Laser immunotherapy for treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer and melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Guerra, Maria C.; Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-02-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) was developed for the treatment of metastatic tumors. It combines local selective photothermal interaction and active immunological stimulation to induce a long-term, systemic anti-tumor immunity. During the past sixteen years, LIT has been advanced from bench-top to bedside, with promising outcomes. In our pre-clinical and preliminary clinical studies, LIT has demonstrated the capability in inducing immunological responses, which not only can eradicate the treated primary tumors, but also can eliminate untreated metastases at distant sites. Specifically, LIT has been used to treat advanced melanoma and breast cancer patients during the past five years. LIT was shown to be effective in controlling both primary tumors and distant metastases in late-stage patients, who have failed conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and other more advanced approaches. The methodology and the development of LIT are presented in this paper. The patients' responses to LIT are also reported in this paper. The preliminary results obtained in these studies indicated that LIT could be an effective modality for the treatment of patients with late-stage, metastatic cancers, who are facing severely limited options.

  17. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Creates Surgery Opportunities For Inoperable Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghao; Hou, Lingmi; Chen, Maoshan; Zhou, Yan; Liang, Yueyang; Wang, Shushu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the systematic chemotherapy given to patients with locally advanced and inoperable breast caner, has been proven to be of great clinical values. Many scientific reports confirmed NAC could effectively eliminate sub-clinical disseminated lesions of tumor, and improve long-term and disease-free survival rate of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC); however, up to now, LABC is still a serious clinical issue given improved screening and early diagnosis. This study, with main focus on inoperable LABC, investigated the values of NAC in converting inoperable LABC into operable status and assessed the prognosis. Sixty-one patients with inoperable LABC were initially treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy; their local conditions were improved to operable status. Radical surgery was exerted on 49 patients. Original chemotherapy was performed after surgery, followed by local radiotherapy. And endocrine therapy was optional according to the hormone receptor status. The quality of life for most patients with skin diabrosis was obviously improved because their local conditions were under control. For all recruited cases, the survival duration and life quality were significantly improved in patients who finished both NAC and surgery compared to those who did not. Further more, this study demonstrates improved prognostic consequences.

  18. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  19. Self-Management and Transitions in Women With Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman-Green, Dena; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Knobf, M. Tish; Prigerson, Holly; DiGiovanna, Michael P.; McCorkle, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Context Self-management involves behaviors that individuals perform to handle health conditions. Self-management may be particularly challenging during transitions—shifts from one life phase or status to another, for example, from cure- to noncure-oriented cared—because they can be disruptive and stressful. Little is known about individuals’ experiences with self-management, especially during transitions. Objectives Our purpose was to describe experiences of self-management in the context of transitions among women with advanced breast cancer. Methods We interviewed a purposive sample of 15 women with metastatic breast cancer about their self-management preferences, practices, and experiences, including how they managed transitions. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The qualitative method of interpretive description was used to code and analyze the data. Results Participants’ mean age was 52 years (range 37–91 years); most were White (80%), married (80%), and college educated (60%). Self-management practices related to womens’ health and to communication with loved ones and providers. Participants expressed a range of preferences for participation in self-management. Self-management included developing skills, becoming empowered, and creating supportive networks. Barriers to self-management included symptom distress, difficulty obtaining information, and lack of knowledge about the cancer trajectory. Women identified transitions as shifts in physical, emotional, and social well-being, as when their cancer progressed and there was a need to change therapy. Transitions often prompted changes in how actively women self-managed and were experienced as positive, negative, and neutral. Conclusion Self-management preferences can vary. Providers should explore and revisit patients’ preferences and ability to self-manage over time, particularly during transitions. PMID:21444183

  20. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  1. Recent advances reveal IL-8 signaling as a potential key to targeting breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep K; Simões, Bruno M; Howell, Sacha J; Farnie, Gillian; Clarke, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are an important therapeutic target as they are purported to be responsible for tumor initiation, maintenance, metastases, and disease recurrence. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is upregulated in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue and is associated with poor prognosis. IL-8 is reported to promote breast cancer progression by increasing cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastases and is upregulated in HER2-positive cancers. Recently, we and others have established that IL-8 via its cognate receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, is also involved in regulating breast CSC activity. Our work demonstrates that in metastatic breast CSCs, CXCR1/2 signals via transactivation of HER2. Given the importance of HER2 in breast cancer and in regulating CSC activity, a pathway driving the activation of these receptors would have important biological and clinical consequences, especially in tumors that express high levels of IL-8 and other CXCR1/2-activating ligands. Here, we review the IL-8 signaling pathway and the role of HER2 in maintaining an IL-8 inflammatory loop and discuss the potential of combining CXCR1/2 inhibitors with other treatments such as HER2-targeted therapy as a novel approach to eliminate CSCs and improve patient survival.

  2. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  3. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  4. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Arrieta, Oscar; Gamboa-Vignolle, Carlos; Saavedra-Perez, David; Morales-Barrera, Rafael; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Zinser-Sierra, Juan; Perez-Sanchez, Victor; Ramirez-Ugalde, Teresa; Lara-Medina, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite broad advances in multimodal treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), 30 to 40% of patients develop loco-regional relapse. The aim of this study was to analyze in a retrospective manner the effectiveness of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRTh) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in patients with LABC. Methods One hundred twelve patients with LABC (stage IIB-IIIB) were treated with NCT (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 (FAC), or doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 (AC) IV in four 21-day courses) followed by CCRTh (60 Gy breast irradiation and weekly mitomycin 5 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, and dexamethasone 16 mg, or cisplatin 30 mg/m2, gemcitabine 100 mg/m2 and dexamethasone 16 mg), and 6–8 weeks later, surgery and two additional courses of FAC, AC, or paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 weekly for 12 weeks, and in case of estrogen-receptor positive patients, hormonal therapy. Results Stages IIB, IIIA and -B were 21.4, 42.9, and 35.7%, respectively. Pathological complete response (pCR) in the breast was 42% (95% CI, 33.2–50.5%) and, 29.5% (95% CI, 21.4–37.5%) if including both the breast and the axillary nodes. Multivariate analysis showed that the main determinant of pCR was negative estrogen-receptor status (HR = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5–9; p = 0.016). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 76.9% (95% CI, 68.2–84.7%). No relationship between pCR and DFS was found. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the main DFS determinant was clinical stage (IIB and IIIA vs. IIIB, HR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.02–9.74; p = 0.04). Only one patient had local recurrence. Five-year overall survival was 84.2% (95% CI, 75–93.2%). The toxicity profile was acceptable. Conclusion This non-conventional multimodal treatment has good loco-regional control for LABC. Randomized clinical trials of preoperative CCRTh following chemotherapy, in patients with LABC are warranted. PMID:19591689

  5. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinser-Sierra Juan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite broad advances in multimodal treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC, 30 to 40% of patients develop loco-regional relapse. The aim of this study was to analyze in a retrospective manner the effectiveness of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRTh after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT in patients with LABC. Methods One hundred twelve patients with LABC (stage IIB-IIIB were treated with NCT (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 (FAC, or doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 (AC IV in four 21-day courses followed by CCRTh (60 Gy breast irradiation and weekly mitomycin 5 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, and dexamethasone 16 mg, or cisplatin 30 mg/m2, gemcitabine 100 mg/m2 and dexamethasone 16 mg, and 6–8 weeks later, surgery and two additional courses of FAC, AC, or paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 weekly for 12 weeks, and in case of estrogen-receptor positive patients, hormonal therapy. Results Stages IIB, IIIA and -B were 21.4, 42.9, and 35.7%, respectively. Pathological complete response (pCR in the breast was 42% (95% CI, 33.2–50.5% and, 29.5% (95% CI, 21.4–37.5% if including both the breast and the axillary nodes. Multivariate analysis showed that the main determinant of pCR was negative estrogen-receptor status (HR = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5–9; p = 0.016. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS was 76.9% (95% CI, 68.2–84.7%. No relationship between pCR and DFS was found. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the main DFS determinant was clinical stage (IIB and IIIA vs. IIIB, HR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.02–9.74; p = 0.04. Only one patient had local recurrence. Five-year overall survival was 84.2% (95% CI, 75–93.2%. The toxicity profile was acceptable. Conclusion This non-conventional multimodal treatment has good loco-regional control for LABC. Randomized clinical trials of preoperative CCRTh following chemotherapy, in patients with LABC are warranted.

  6. Clinical efficacy of breast-conserving surgery combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer: a report of 81 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu CAO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with breast-conserving surgery for locally advanced breast cancer. Methods Eighty-one patients with locally advanced breast cancer were selected from those who were admitted into 309 Hospital of PLA from January 2009 to October 2013, consisting of 65 patients in stage Ⅲa and 16 in stage Ⅲb, and they were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with breast-conserving surgery. The clinical efficacy [complete response (CR, partial response (PR, stable disease (SD and progress disease (PD] was observed during follow-up. Results All the patients were followed-up for 12-60 months with a median of 34 months. There were 12 CR patients (14.8%, including 4 with pathological complete response (4.9%, and 52 PR patients (64.2%, 17 SD patients (21.0%. No PD was observed. The overall response rate(ORR was 79.0%(64/81. After follow-up for 12-60 months (median 34 months, distant metastasis to the lung, liver, meninges and bone occurred in 3 patients (3.7%, 3/81 and 1 of them died. Forty-eight patients received breastconserving surgery. The local recurrence rate was 6.3% (3/48. Assessment of cosmetic result was carried out in 48 patients who received breast-conserving surgery and comprehensive treatment for one year, and excellent results were obtained in 14.6% (7/48, good in 43.8% (21/48, and poor in 41.7% (20/48. Conclusions The therapeutic efficacy of locally advanced breast cancer is satisfactory by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast-conserving surgery. Standardization of excision and postoperative radiotherapy, systemic comprehensive treatment is the key to the success of the treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.14

  7. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ducts that carry milk to the nipples, and fat. During puberty, women begin developing more breast tissue, and men do not. But because men are born with a small amount of breast tissue, they can develop breast cancer. Types of breast cancer diagnosed in men include: Cancer ...

  8. Influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the microRNA and tumor-related indicators of patients with advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jiang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the microRNA and tumor-related indicators of patients with advanced breast cancer.Methods: 120 cases of patients with advanced breast cancer were randomly divided into two groups, NC group and CC group, each group had 60 cases, and 60 cases of patients with benign breast disease and healthy volunteers in the same period were included as BC group and HC group. Then the plasma levels of miR-31, miR-200c, miR-205 and sIL-2R, IL-6, VEGF of all subjects were detected and compared.Results:The plasma levels of miR-31 and miR-205 of NC group and CC group before treatment were lower than BC group and HC group, while the miR-200c and sIL-2R, IL-6, VEGF were higher than BC group and HC group. The efficacy of treatment of advanced breast cancer patients was positively correlated to the plasma levels of miR-31, miR-205 expression, and negatively correlated to the plasma levels of miR-200c and sIL-2R, IL-6, VEGF. After 15, 45 days of chemotherapy, the plasma levels of miR-31, miR-205 expression of NC group were significantly higher than CC group, and miR-200c and sIL-2R, IL-6, VEGF were significantly lower than CC group. Conclusion:Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can effectively increase the plasma levels of miR-31, miR-205, and down the plasma levels of miR-200c and sIL-2R, IL-6, VEGF, will beneficial to improve the advanced breast cancer.

  9. Gemcitabine Plus Docetaxel Versus Docetaxel in Patients With Predominantly Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Phase III Study by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte L; Bjerre, Karsten D; Jakobsen, Erik H;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this phase III study was to compare the efficacy of gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD) versus docetaxel in patients with advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Predominantly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative patients were randomly assigned to ge...... GD compared with docetaxel demonstrated increased TTP in metastatic breast cancer. However, RR and OS were similar. Thus, the addition of gemcitabine failed to demonstrate any clinically meaningful benefit when combined with docetaxel....

  10. Ethical issues in autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT in advanced breast cancer: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheibler Fueloep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effectiveness assessment on ASCT in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer identified serious ethical issues associated with this intervention. Our objective was to systematically review these aspects by means of a literature analysis. Methods We chose the reflexive Socratic approach as the review method using Hofmann's question list, conducted a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological and ethics bibliographic databases and screened the resulting hits in a 2-step selection process. Relevant arguments were assembled from the included articles, and were assessed and assigned to the question list. Hofmann's questions were addressed by synthesizing these arguments. Results Of the identified 879 documents 102 included arguments related to one or more questions from Hofmann's question list. The most important ethical issues were the implementation of ASCT in clinical practice on the basis of phase-II trials in the 1990s and the publication of falsified data in the first randomized controlled trials (Bezwoda fraud, which caused significant negative effects on recruiting patients for further clinical trials and the doctor-patient relationship. Recent meta-analyses report a marginal effect in prolonging disease-free survival, accompanied by severe harms, including death. ASCT in breast cancer remains a stigmatized technology. Reported health-related-quality-of-life data are often at high risk of bias in favor of the survivors. Furthermore little attention has been paid to those patients who were dying. Conclusions The questions were addressed in different degrees of completeness. All arguments were assignable to the questions. The central ethical dimensions of ASCT could be discussed by reviewing the published literature.

  11. Efficacy of intraarterial chemoinfusion therapy for locally advanced breast cancer patients: a retrospective analysis of 28 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhang,1,* Rong Liu,1,* Yingying Wang,1 Sheng Qian,1 Jianhua Wang,1 Zhiping Yan,1 Hongwei Zhang21Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of image-guided delivery of intraarterially infused chemotherapeutic drugs for patients with locally advanced breast cancer.Methods: Twenty-eight patients with pathologically proven, locally advanced breast cancer received intraarterial chemoinfusion therapy (chemoinfusion with docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and epirubicin 50 mg/m2. Digital subtraction angiography was performed to determine tumor arterial blood supply and to guide chemotherapy infusion. Patients were evaluated for complete remission (CR and partial remission (PR.Results: Twenty-eight patients received a total of 64 intraarterial chemoinfusions, 20 patients (71.4% received two infusions, and eight patients (28.6% received three infusions. One patient (3.6% had CR and 23 (82.1% had PR. The total effectiveness rate (CR and PR was 85.7% (24/28. All stage 3 patients underwent Phase II surgical resection after chemoinfusion, and the surgical resection participation rate was 100% (26/26. The mean time from the first chemoinfusion to surgery was 2 ± 1.2 months. Two patients with stage 4 cancer died of distant metastasis and cachexia, and the remaining 26 patients were still alive.Conclusion: Intraarterial chemoinfusion is a safe and effective therapy, achieving down-staging in a relatively short period for locally advanced breast cancer.Keywords: advanced breast cancer, intraarterial infusion, chemotherapy, therapeutic effect

  12. Specific siRNA Targeting Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE Decreases Proliferation in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE is an oncogenic trans-membranous receptor overexpressed in various human cancers. However, the role of RAGE in breast cancer development and proliferation is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that RAGE expression levels are correlated to the degree of severity of breast cancer. Furthermore, there is a decrease in the proliferation of all sub-types of breast cancer, MCF-7, SK-Br-3 and MDA-MB-231, as a result of the effect of RAGE siRNA. RAGE siRNA arrested cells in the G1 phase and inhibited DNA synthesis (p < 0.05. Moreover, qRT-PCR and Western Blot results demonstrated that RAGE siRNA decreases the expression of transcriptional factor NF-κB p65 as well as the expression of cell proliferation markers PCNA and cyclinD1. RAGE and RAGE ligands can thus be considered as possible targets for breast cancer management and therapy.

  13. Breast cancer awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising among women in many European countries, affecting up to 1 in 16 women and has become the most common cause of cancer in European women. In Malta breast cancer is the commonest oncological cause of death in females. In fact 5.2% of all deaths in females in 2010 was from breast cancer.

  14. Breast-conserving surgery in locally advanced breast cancer submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Safety and effectiveness based on ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and long-term follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Guilherme Freire Angotti; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Abrahão-Machado, Lucas Faria; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Nunes, João Soares; Folgueira, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Koike; da Costa Vieira, René Aloisio

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after breast-conserving surgery for locally advanced breast cancer. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was performed in patients with locally advanced breast cancer submitted to breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on an adriamycin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel regimen. We evaluated the clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemistry, and surgical factors that contribute to ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and locoregional recurrence. A Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox model were used to evaluate the main factors related to disease-free survival. RESULTS: Of the 449 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 98 underwent breast-conserving surgery. The average diameter of the tumors was 5.3 cm, and 87.2% reached a size of up to 3 cm. Moreover, 86.7% were classified as clinical stage III, 74.5% had T3-T4 tumors, 80.5% had N1-N2 axilla, and 89.8% had invasive ductal carcinoma. A pathologic complete response was observed in 27.6% of the tumors, and 100.0% of samples had free margins. The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate was 81.2%, and the mean follow-up was 72.8 months. The rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and locoregional recurrence were 11.2% and 15.3%, respectively. Multifocal morphology response was the only factor related to ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence disease-free survival (p=0.04). A multivariate analysis showed that the pathologic response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST)-breast cutoff was the only factor related to locoregional recurrence disease-free survival (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Breast-conserving surgery is a safe and effective therapy for selected locally advanced breast tumors. PMID:28355358

  15. Economic evaluation of fulvestrant as an extra step in the treatment sequence for ER-positive advanced breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, D. A.; Camidge, D R; Oyee, J; Hirsch, M.

    2008-01-01

    Drug therapies for advanced breast cancer in hormone-receptor-positive disease include both hormonal and chemotherapies. Current UK practice is to minimise toxicity by using sequential hormonal agents for as long as clinically appropriate. A Markov model was developed to investigate the cost effectiveness of different sequences of therapies, particularly exploring the effects of adding an additional hormonal agent, fulvestrant, to the treatment pathway. A systematic review was undertaken and ...

  16. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  17. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  18. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling.

  19. Bmi-1 promotes invasion and metastasis, and its elevated expression is correlated with an advanced stage of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung Hsiang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1 acts as an oncogene in various tumors, and its overexpression correlates with a poor outcome in several human cancers. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and enhance the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs, whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression can reverse EMT and reduce the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal cancer cells (NPCs. Mouse xenograft studies indicate that coexpression of Bmi-1 and H-Ras in breast cancer cells can induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with an unusual occurrence of brain metastasis; although, Bmi-1 overexpression did not result in oncogenic transformation of MCF-10A cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated progression and the metastasis of breast cancer are not fully elucidated at this time. Results Bmi-1 expression is more pronouncedly increased in primary cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High Bmi-1 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications (T, N, and M and clinical stages. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 indicates an unfavorable overall survival and serves as a high risk marker for breast cancer. In addition, inverse transcriptional expression levels of Bmi-1 and E-cadherin are detected between the primary cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Higher Bmi-1 levels are found in the cancer tissue, whereas the paired adjacent non-cancer tissue shows higher E-cadherin levels. Overexpression of Bmi-1 increases the motility and invasive properties of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, which is concurrent with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, the decreased expression of epithelial markers, the stabilization of Snail and the dysregulation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Consistent with these

  20. Advances in breast cancer screening program%乳腺癌筛查研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫淼; 柳光宇; 吕力琅; 徐望红

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Breast cancer screening has been recognized as the primary approach to effectively improve the survival of female breast cancer. The most commonly used methods for breast cancer screening in China and other countries include mammography (MAM), ultrasonography (US), clinical breast examination (CBE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these screening techniques and reviewes the economic efficiency in health care of different screening techniques based on these examination approaches to provide some evidence for developing a breast cancer screening strategy with optimal cost-effectiveness for Chinese women.%乳腺癌是危害全世界女性健康最常见的恶性肿瘤.乳腺癌筛查是公认的能够有效提高女性乳腺癌生存率的主要方法.目前国内外常用的乳腺癌筛查手段包括乳房X线摄影术(钼靶X线摄影)、超声成像、临床乳腺检查和磁共振成像等.本文对这些筛查手段的优缺点进行了比较,并对基于这些手段建立的不同筛查方案在人群中的应用效果和卫生经济学评价进行综述,以期为建立符合中国国情的具有成本-效果的女性乳腺癌筛查策略提供参考和依据.

  1. Detection of breast cancer using advanced techniques of data mining with neural networks; Deteccion de cancer de mama usando tecnicas avanzadas de mineria de datos con redes neuronales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz M, J. A.; Celaya P, J. M.; Martinez B, M. R.; Solis S, L. O.; Castaneda M, R.; Garza V, I.; Martinez F, M.; Lopez H, Y.; Ortiz R, J. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde 801, Col. Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The breast cancer is one of the biggest health problems worldwide, is the most diagnosed cancer in women and prevention seems impossible since its cause is unknown, due to this; the early detection has a key role in the patient prognosis. In developing countries such as Mexico, where access to specialized health services is minimal, the regular clinical review is infrequent and there are not enough radiologists; the most common form of detection of breast cancer is through self-exploration, but this is only detected in later stages, when is already palpable. For these reasons, the objective of the present work is the creation of a system of computer assisted diagnosis (CAD x) using information analysis techniques such as data mining and advanced techniques of artificial intelligence, seeking to offer a previous medical diagnosis or a second opinion, as if it was a second radiologist in order to reduce the rate of mortality from breast cancer. In this paper, advances in the design of computational algorithms using computer vision techniques for the extraction of features derived from mammograms are presented. Using data mining techniques of data mining is possible to identify patients with a high risk of breast cancer. With the information obtained from the mammography analysis, the objective in the next stage will be to establish a methodology for the generation of imaging bio-markers to establish a breast cancer risk index for Mexican patients. In this first stage we present results of the classification of patients with high and low risk of suffering from breast cancer using neural networks. (Author)

  2. Rapid tumor necrosis and massive hemorrhage induced by bevacizumab and paclitaxel combination therapy in a case of advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mayu Ono, Tokiko Ito, Toshiharu Kanai, Koichi Murayama, Hiroshi Koyama, Kazuma Maeno, Yasuhiro Mochizuki, Asumi Iesato, Toru Hanamura, Toshihiro Okada, Takayuki Watanabe, Ken-ichi ItoDivision of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery (II, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, JapanAbstract: Bevacizumab when combined with chemotherapy exerts significant activity against many solid tumors through tumor angiogenesis inhibition; however, it can induce severe side effects. We report the rare case of a 27-year-old premenopausal woman with locally advanced breast cancer that was marked by rapid tumor necrosis followed by massive hemorrhage shortly after bevacizumab and paclitaxel administration. On the basis of histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen and computed tomography findings, she was diagnosed with stage IV estrogen and progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-positive breast cancer with multiple organ metastases when she had entered gestational week 24. Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin®, fluorouracil therapy was initiated, but multiple liver metastases continued to progress. A healthy fetus was delivered by induced delivery and trastuzumab-based treatment was initiated. Although the multiple liver metastases were controlled successfully by trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel, the primary tumor continued to expand even after subsequent administration of three other treatment regimens including anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 agents and cytotoxic drugs. To inhibit primary tumor growth, a combination therapy with paclitaxel and bevacizumab was subsequently initiated. Following therapy initiation, however, the large tumor occupying the patient's entire left breast became necrotic and ulcerated rapidly. Furthermore, massive hemorrhage from the tumor occurred 5 weeks after bevacizumab-based therapy initiation. Although hemostasis was achieved by manual

  3. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  4. Endocrinological and clinical evaluation of two doses of formestane in advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajetta, E.; Zilembo, N.; Buzzoni, R.; Noberasco, C.; Di Leo, A.; Bartoli, C.; Merson, M.; Sacchini, V.; Moglia, D.; Celio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Formestane is a selective inhibitor of oestrogen synthesis by aromatase enzymes and induces disease regression in breast cancer patients. This phase II randomised study was carried out to determine whether there were any differences in the effects of two different doses of formestane on oestradiol (E2) serum levels and to evaluate the corresponding clinical activity in post-menopausal patients with positive or unknown oestrogen receptor status pretreated or not for advanced disease. Furthermore, possible drug interference with adrenal steroidogenesis was assessed by measuring 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (17-OHCS) urinary levels. A total of 143 patients entered the study and were randomly assigned to receive formestane 250 mg (72 patients) or formestane 500 mg (71 patients), both given i.m. every 2 weeks. In comparison with baseline, E2 serum levels decreased by an average of 40% after only 15 days and remained unchanged thereafter, with no difference being observed between the two doses. The values of 17-OHCS remained unchanged during treatment in both groups. Objective responses were 28% (19/69) in the 250 mg and 46% (31/68) in the 500 mg group. In conclusion, the two formestane doses were equally effective in reducing E2 levels without affecting adrenal function, and in inducing a considerable percentage of clinical responses. PMID:8018527

  5. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Variants With Advanced Prostate Cancer Risk in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Lindström, Sara; Allen, Naomi E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen; Gaziano, J. Michael; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Henderson, Brian E.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Krogh, Vittorio; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth; Willett, Walter C.; Hunter, David J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kraft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies have found an inverse association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prostate cancer (PCa), and genome-wide association studies have found common variants near 3 loci associated with both diseases. The authors examined whether a genetic background that favors T2D is associated with risk of advanced PCa. Data from the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, a genome-wide association study of 2,782 advanced PCa cases and 4,458 controls, were used to evaluate whether individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or aggregations of these 36 T2D susceptibility loci are associated with PCa. Ten T2D markers near 9 loci (NOTCH2, ADCY5, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, FTO, and HNF1B) were nominally associated with PCa (P < 0.05); the association for single nucleotide polymorphism rs757210 at the HNF1B locus was significant when multiple comparisons were accounted for (adjusted P = 0.001). Genetic risk scores weighted by the T2D log odds ratio and multilocus kernel tests also indicated a significant relation between T2D variants and PCa risk. A mediation analysis of 9,065 PCa cases and 9,526 controls failed to produce evidence that diabetes mediates the association of the HNF1B locus with PCa risk. These data suggest a shared genetic component between T2D and PCa and add to the evidence for an interrelation between these diseases. PMID:23193118

  6. Learning from social media: utilizing advanced data extraction techniques to understand barriers to breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Vaz-Luis, Ines; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-07-01

    Past examinations of breast cancer treatment barriers have typically included registry, claims-based, and smaller survey studies. We examined treatment barriers using a novel, comprehensive, social media analysis of online, candid discussions about breast cancer. Using an innovative toolset to search postings on social networks, message boards, patient communities, and topical sites, we performed a large-scale qualitative analysis. We examined the sentiments and barriers expressed about breast cancer treatments by Internet users during 1 year (2/1/14-1/31/15). We categorized posts based on thematic patterns and examined trends in discussions by race/ethnicity (white/black/Hispanic) when this information was available. We identified 1,024,041 unique posts related to breast cancer treatment. Overall, 57 % of posts expressed negative sentiments. Using machine learning software, we assigned treatment barriers for 387,238 posts (38 %). Barriers included emotional (23 % of posts), preferences and spiritual/religious beliefs (21 %), physical (18 %), resource (15 %), healthcare perceptions (9 %), treatment processes/duration (7 %), and relationships (7 %). Black and Hispanic (vs. white) users more frequently reported barriers related to healthcare perceptions, beliefs, and pre-diagnosis/diagnosis organizational challenges and fewer emotional barriers. Using a novel analysis of diverse social media users, we observed numerous breast cancer treatment barriers that differed by race/ethnicity. Social media is a powerful tool, allowing use of real-world data for qualitative research, capitalizing on the rich discussions occurring spontaneously online. Future research should focus on how to further employ and learn from this type of social intelligence research across all medical disciplines.

  7. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  8. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have revolutionized breast cancer treatment: tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Bernard Fisher, M.D., of the University of ... breast tumors. Dr. Slamon and his colleagues developed trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, was the first ...

  10. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... requests, please contact permissionrequest@cancer.org . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  11. Advances in the knowledge of breast cancer stem cells. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz-Cruz Y Celis, Angela; Espinosa, Magali; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Much effort has been made by researchers to elucidate the complex biology of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), a small subset of breast tumor cells that display stem cell properties, drive tumor initiation, and growth. In recent years, it has been suggested that BCSCs could be responsible for the process of metastasis and the development of drug resistance. These findings make the need to find the distinguishing blend of markers that can recognize only BCSCs of the utmost importance in order to be able to design new targeted therapies. This review will summarize BCSCs' main features as well as the cell surface markers that are currently used to identify them.

  12. The O-linked glycosylation of secretory/shed MUC1 from an advanced breast cancer patient's serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Sarah J; Royle, Louise; Chapman, Caroline J; Hamid, Umi M Abd; Robertson, John F; Murray, Andrea; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M

    2008-06-01

    MUC1 is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is overexpressed in breast cancer. Aberrant O-linked glycosylation of MUC1 in cancer has been implicated in disease progression. We investigated the O-linked glycosylation of MUC1 purified from the serum of an advanced breast cancer patient. O-Glycans were released by hydrazinolysis and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with sequential exoglycosidase digestions. Core 1 type glycans (83%) dominated the profile which also confirmed high levels of sialylation: 80% of the glycans were mono-, di- or trisialylated. Core 2 type structures contributed approximately 17% of the assigned glycans and the oncofoetal Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen (Galbeta1-3GalNAc) accounted for 14% of the total glycans. Interestingly, two core 1 type glycans were identified that had sialic acid alpha2-8 linked to sialylated core 1 type structures (9% of the total glycan pool). This is the first O-glycan analysis of MUC1 from the serum of a breast cancer patient; the results suggest that amongst the cell lines commonly used to express recombinant MUC1 the T47D cell line processes glycans that are most similar to patient-derived material.

  13. Response monitoring using quantitative ultrasound methods and supervised dictionary learning in locally advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Fung, Brandon; Tadayyon, Hadi; Tran, William T.; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive computer-aided-theragnosis (CAT) system was developed for the early assessment of responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The CAT system was based on quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy methods comprising several modules including feature extraction, a metric to measure the dissimilarity between "pre-" and "mid-treatment" scans, and a supervised learning algorithm for the classification of patients to responders/non-responders. One major requirement for the successful design of a high-performance CAT system is to accurately measure the changes in parametric maps before treatment onset and during the course of treatment. To this end, a unified framework based on Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (HSIC) was used for the design of feature extraction from parametric maps and the dissimilarity measure between the "pre-" and "mid-treatment" scans. For the feature extraction, HSIC was used to design a supervised dictionary learning (SDL) method by maximizing the dependency between the scans taken from "pre-" and "mid-treatment" with "dummy labels" given to the scans. For the dissimilarity measure, an HSIC-based metric was employed to effectively measure the changes in parametric maps as an indication of treatment effectiveness. The HSIC-based feature extraction and dissimilarity measure used a kernel function to nonlinearly transform input vectors into a higher dimensional feature space and computed the population means in the new space, where enhanced group separability was ideally obtained. The results of the classification using the developed CAT system indicated an improvement of performance compared to a CAT system with basic features using histogram of intensity.

  14. Recruitment and Early Retention of Women with Advanced Breast Cancer in a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Sikorskii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of women with breast cancer are now reported to be using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies during conventional treatment. A randomized clinical trial (RCT of reflexology with late stage breast cancer patients serves as the data source for this article. The purposes were to investigate: (i reasons for refusal to participate in a RCT of reflexology; (ii the differences between those who completed the baseline interview and those who dropped out before baseline; and (iii the utility of the Palliative Prognostic Score (PPS as a prognostic screening tool in minimizing early attrition (before baseline from the trial. Eligible women (N = 400 approached at 12 cancer centers in the Midwest had advanced breast cancer, were on chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, and had a PPS of 11 or less. Comparisons of those who dropped out early (N = 33 to those who stayed in the trial (N = 240 were carried out using Wilcoxon rank, t-, chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. The reasons of being “too sick” or “overwhelmed” were given by less than 12% of the women who refused to participate. There was a higher early dropout rate among black women compared to other (primarily white women (P = .01. Cancer recurrence and metastasis, age, and the PPS were not predictive of early retention of women. Specialized techniques may be needed to ensure black women remain in the trial once consented. Women with advanced disease were likely to enter and remain in the trial despite deterioration in health.

  15. The curability of breast cancer and the treatment of advanced disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarneri, Valentina; Conte, Pier Franco [Department of Oncology and Hematology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2004-06-01

    Breast cancer represents a major health problem, with more than 1,000,000 new cases and 370,000 deaths yearly worldwide. In the last decade, in spite of an increasing incidence, breast cancer mortality has been declining in the majority of developed countries. This is the combined result of better education, widespread screening programmes and more efficacious adjuvant treatments. Better knowledge of breast cancer biology now allows the cosmetic, physical and psychological consequences of radical mastectomy to be spared in the majority of breast cancer patients. Use of the sentinel node technique is rapidly expanding and this will further reduce the extent and the consequences of surgery. Several clinico-pathological factors are used to discriminate between patients at low (<10%), average (10-40%) and high risk of relapse. Nodal status, tumour size, tumour grade and age are accepted universally as important factors to define risk categories. Newer factors such as uPA/PAI-1, HERer2-neu, proliferative indices and gene expression profile are promising and will allow better discrimination between patients at different risk. Endocrine manipulation with tamoxifen, ovarian ablation or both is the preferred option in the case of endocrine-responsive tumours. Tamoxifen administered for 5 years is the standard treatment for postmenopausal patients; tamoxifen plus ovarian ablation is more effective than tamoxifen alone for premenopausal women. Recent data demonstrate that, for postmenopausal patients, the aromatase inhibitors are superior to tamoxifen, with a different safety profile. At present, anastrozole can be used in the adjuvant setting in cases of tamoxifen intolerance or toxicity. Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for steroid receptor-negative tumours. Polychemotherapy is superior to single agents and anthracycline-containing regimens are superior to CMF. Six courses of FEC or FAC or the sequential administration of four doses of anthracycline followed by four

  16. The use of complementary and alternative medicines among patients with locally advanced breast cancer – a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakovitch Eileen

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use is common among cancer patients. This paper reviews the use of CAM in a series of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC. Methods Women with LABC attending a specialist clinic at a single Canadian cancer centre were identified and approached. Participants completed a self-administered survey regarding CAM usage, beliefs associated with CAM usage, views of their risks of developing recurrent cancer and of dying of breast cancer. Responses were scored and compared between CAM users and non-users. Results Thirty-six patients were approached, 32 completed the questionnaire (response rate 89%. Forty-seven percent of LABC patients were identified as CAM users. CAM users were more likely to be younger, married, in a higher socioeconomic class and of Asian ethnicity than non-users. CAM users were likely to use multiple modalities simultaneously (median 4 with vitamins being the most popular (60%. Motivation for CAM therapy was described as, "assisting their body to heal" (75%, to 'boost the immune system' (56% and to "give a feeling of control with respect to their treatment" (56%. CAM therapy was used concurrently with conventional treatment in 88% of cases, however, 12% of patients felt that CAM could replace their conventional therapy. Psychological evaluation suggests CAM users perceived their risk of dying of breast cancer was similar to that of the non-Cam group (33% vs. 35%, however the CAM group had less severe anxiety and depression. Conclusion The motivation, objectives and benefits of CAM therapy in a selected population of women with LABC are similar to those reported for women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. CAM users display less anxiety and depression and are less likely to believe they will die of their breast cancer. However the actual benefit to overall and disease free survival has yet to be demonstrated, as well as the possible interactions with

  17. Comprehensive genomic sequencing and the molecular profiles of clinically advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeffrey S; Gay, Laurie M

    2017-02-01

    Targeting specific mutations that have arisen within a tumour is a promising means of increasing the efficacy of treatments, and breast cancer is no exception to this new paradigm of personalised medicine. Traditional DNA sequencing methods used to characterise clinical cancer specimens and impact treatment decisions are highly sensitive, but are often limited in their scope to known mutational hot spots. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can also test for these well-known hot spots, as well as identifying insertions and deletions, copy number changes such as ERBB2 (HER2) gene amplification, and a wide array of fusion or rearrangement events. By rapidly analysing many genes in parallel, NGS technologies can make efficient use of precious biopsy material. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) by NGS can reveal targetable, clinically relevant genomic alterations that can stratify tumours by predicted sensitivity to a variety of therapies, including HER2- or MTOR-targeted therapies, immunotherapies, and other kinase inhibitors. Many clinically relevant genomic alterations would not be identified by IHC or hotspot testing, but can be detected by NGS. In addition to the most common breast carcinoma subtypes, rare subtypes analysed with CGP also harbour clinically relevant genomic alterations that can potentially direct therapy selection, illustrating that CGP is a powerful tool for guiding treatment across all breast cancer subtypes.

  18. Are work-related stressors associated with diagnosis of more advanced stages of incident breast cancers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Stahlberg, Claudia; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between work-related stressors and breast cancer incidence and prognostic characteristics (estrogen receptor status, grade, lymph node status, size, stage) at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: The 18,932 women included in the Danish Nurse Cohort reported work......-related stressors in 1993 and again in 1999 and were followed until the end of 2003 in national registries. Prognostic characteristics were obtained from a clinical database and fewer than 0.1% were lost to follow up. RESULTS: During follow-up, 455 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Neither women with high...... work pressure (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.73) nor women with self-reported low influence on work organization (0.98; 0.69, 1.39) or long working hours (0.93; 0.54, 1.58) were at higher risk of breast cancer than women with no such stressors. Women with high work tempo had a slightly higher risk...

  19. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older age • B RCA2 gene mutation • F amily history of breast cancer • Gynecomastia (enlargement of the breast tissue) • Klinefelter’s syndrome (a genetic condition related to high levels ...

  20. Considerations for payers in managing hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitre M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mona Chitre,1 Kristen M Reimers21Pharmacy Management, Excellus BlueCross BlueShield, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Clinical Drug Programs, Magellan Health/Icore, Orlando, FL, USAAbstract: Breast cancer (BC is the second most common cause of death in women. In 2010, the direct cost associated with BC care in the US was $16.5 billion, the highest among all cancers. By the year 2020, at the current rates of incidence and survival, the cost is projected to increase to approximately $20 billion. Although endocrine therapies to manage hormone receptor-positive (HR+ BC are highly effective, endocrine resistance results in disease progression. Increased understanding of endocrine resistance and the mechanisms of disease progression has led to development and subsequent approval of novel targeted treatments, resulting in the expansion of the therapeutic armamentarium to combat HR+ BC. Clear guidelines based on the safety and efficacy of treatment options exist; however, the optimal sequence of therapy is unknown, and providers, payers, and other key players in the health care system are tasked with identifying cost-effective and evidence-based treatment strategies that will improve patient outcomes and, in time, help curb the staggering increase in cost associated with BC care. Safety and efficacy are key considerations, but there is also a need to consider the impact of a given therapy on patient quality of life, treatment adherence, and productivity. To minimize cost associated with overall management, cost-effectiveness, and financial burden that the therapy can impose on patients, caregivers and managed care plans are also important considerations. To help evaluate and identify the optimal choice of therapy for patients with HR+ advanced BC, the available data on endocrine therapies and novel agents are discussed, specifically with respect to the safety, efficacy, financial impact on patients and the managed care plan, impact on quality of life and

  1. Current advances in biomarkers for targeted therapy in triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleisher B

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Brett Fleisher,1 Charlotte Clarke,2 Sihem Ait-Oudhia1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando, FL, 2Department of Translational Research, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a complex heterogeneous disease characterized by the absence of three hallmark receptors: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Compared to other breast cancer subtypes, TNBC is more aggressive, has a higher prevalence in African-Americans, and more frequently affects younger patients. Currently, TNBC lacks clinically accepted targets for tailored therapy, warranting the need for candidate biomarkers. BiomarkerBase, an online platform used to find biomarkers reported in clinical trials, was utilized to screen all potential biomarkers for TNBC and select only the ones registered in completed TNBC trials through clinicaltrials.gov. The selected candidate biomarkers were classified as surrogate, prognostic, predictive, or pharmacodynamic (PD and organized by location in the blood, on the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus. Blood biomarkers include vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and interleukin-8 (IL-­8; cell surface biomarkers include EGFR, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, c-Kit, c-Met, and PD-L1; cytoplasm biomarkers include PIK3CA, pAKT/S6/p4E-BP1, PTEN, ALDH1, and the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR-related metabolites; and nucleus biomarkers include BRCA1, the glucocorticoid receptor, TP53, and Ki67. Candidate biomarkers were further organized into a “cellular protein network” that demonstrates potential connectivity. This review provides an inventory and reference point for promising biomarkers for breakthrough targeted therapies in TNBC. Keywords: anti-cancer directed pharmacotherapy, difficult

  2. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    : Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles...

  3. Economic evaluation of fulvestrant as an extra step in the treatment sequence for ER-positive advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D A; Camidge, D R; Oyee, J; Hirsch, M

    2008-12-16

    Drug therapies for advanced breast cancer in hormone-receptor-positive disease include both hormonal and chemotherapies. Current UK practice is to minimise toxicity by using sequential hormonal agents for as long as clinically appropriate. A Markov model was developed to investigate the cost effectiveness of different sequences of therapies, particularly exploring the effects of adding an additional hormonal agent, fulvestrant, to the treatment pathway. A systematic review was undertaken and a panel of seven UK oncologists validated assumptions used for treatment efficacy, treatment pathways and resources used. Fulvestrant was found to be a cost-effective treatment option when added to the treatment sequence as a second- or third-line hormonal therapy for advanced disease. For a cohort of 1000 patients, fulvestrant as a second-line hormone therapy provided an additional 47 life years and 41 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), at an additional cost of pound 301 359. This equated to pound 6500 per life years gained and pound 7500 per QALY. When used as a third-line option, the fulvestrant arm was dominant providing an increase in health benefit of 27 QALYs for the whole cohort, at a mean overall cost reduction of pound 430 per patient. Sensitivity analyses showed these results to be robust, demonstrating that fulvestrant is an economically viable additional endocrine option in the United Kingdom for the treatment of hormone responsive advanced breast cancer.

  4. Energy balance in patients with advanced NSCLC, metastatic melanoma and metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, M N; Howell, A; Thatcher, N; Baildam, A; Campbell, I

    2005-02-28

    Chemotherapy exerts a variable effect on nutritional status. It is not known whether loss of body fat or fat-free mass (FFM) during chemotherapy relates to diminished dietary intake, failure to meet elevated energy requirements, or to the presence of an acute-phase response. We sought to determine prospective measurements of body mass and composition, resting energy expenditure, energy and protein intake, and C-reactive protein over a course of chemotherapy in 82 patients with advanced cancer. There was a large dropout from the study. Prospective measurements were obtained in 19 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 12 with metastatic melanoma and 10 with metastatic breast cancer. There were significant increases in energy intake among patients with metastatic breast cancer, 873 (266-1480) kJ (mean 95% CI; Pcancer patients gained percentage body fat over the course of treatment, 2.1 (0.8-3.5%). Gain or loss of body fat correlated to mean energy intake throughout chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC (Rs=0.751; Pcancer (Rs=0.617; Pcancer and NSCLC, but did not prevent loss of FFM in these groups.

  5. Surgical approach for ulcerated locally advanced breast cancer. A single Center experience: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforgia, Rita; Punzo, Clelia; Panebianco, Annunziata; Volpi, Annalisa; Minafra, Marina; Sederino, Maria Grazia

    2017-01-12

    L’obiettivo del nostro studio è la valutazione della strategia chirurgica più idonea nei casi di LABC (Locally Advanced Breast Cancer) in condizioni di ulcerazione e sanguinamento. La diagnosi clinica del LABC prevede nella maggior parte dei casi una massa mammaria estesa associata ad edema, eritema, retrazione e sanguinamento, dolore, superficie cutanea irregolare e coinvolgimento linfonodale. L’intervento chirurgico di scelta per le forme T3-T4 è la mastectomia radicale che rappresenta un trattamento adeguato per il controllo locale della patologia. In caso di forme localmente avanzate e ulcerate, pur essendo forme inoperabili, l’exeresi chirurgica si rende necessaria per una bonifica locale. La presenza di fenomeni di ulcerazione e sanguinamento non rende possibile avviare un trattamento chemioterapico neoadiuvante ed è necessario eseguire interventi chirurgici palliativi. Il trattamento chirurgico stesso richiede mutilazioni ampie ed associate procedure di chirurgia plastica. Spesso per l’estensione della malattia ed il sovvertimento del corpus mammae durante l’exeresi chirurgica della mammella, la sezione su zone esenti da neoplasia non consente la chiusura immediata dei lembi. Abbiamo considerato, su un campione di 288 pazienti affette da carcinoma mammario, 11 donne con forme avanzate fra T4a e T4c (3.8%). E’ stata posta indicazione a trattamento chirurgico perché pazienti provenienti dal Pronto Soccorso con anemizzazione per neoplasie avanzate ulcerate e sanguinanti, non candidabili in prima istanza a chemioterapia neoadiuvante citoriduttiva. Le procedure adoperate per la ricostruzione della mammella sono state in 2 pazienti la rotazione di un lembo muscolo cutaneo, in 4 casi un innesto cutaneo prelevato dalla coscia, in 4 casi è stata utilizzata una matrice dermica biologica - sostituto cutaneo (INTEGRA) che è stata poi sostituita con un successivo innesto cutaneo a distanza di circa 20-30 giorni. Sono state osservate recidive in 2 casi

  6. Treatment of advanced breast cancer with chinese medicinal herbs of Fei decoction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, G M; Hu, M; Chen, R Z; Zhu, L L; Tao, Ch J; Xia, X D; Gong, Y L; Li, P; Wan, H J

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old female underwent surgery for cancer of the right breast mammary (T3N2M0) in Sep 2010. Following post surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy of CAF regimens (cyclophosphamide+adriamycin+fluorouracil) was administered. Two years later, multiple pulmonary and skeletal metastatic lesions had been found by CT (computerized tomography) and ECT (emission computed tomograph) imaging. She received the treatment of second-line chemotherapy regimens of GP (cisplatin + gemcitabine). In the meantime, we administered Chinese traditional herb drugs (Fei Decoction, mixed a variety of effective herbal components) to help her recover from the poor condition. After taking the Chinese herbs for 2 months, the tumour marker (CEA, CA15-3) dramatically decreased, resulting in the normal range. Both lung and bone metastatic sites reduced according to CT and ECT imaging, and the patient felt free from the complaint of pulmonary and cardiac discomfort. Over time, the quality of life has been greatly improved, we have managed to prolong the PFS (progression-free-survival) and TTP (time-to-progression) from the onset to date. CTM (Chinese traditional medicine) considers human body as a dynamic platform in which all organs are correlative and bind each other. Relationship between heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney is like an interlink between mother and son, and runs in cycle as a circle. In the course of this combined treatment, we showed that Chinese herbal medicine played an important role in the therapy of breast cancer. Chinese herbs might be an additional choice with their better benefits and tolerability in the treatment of recurrent breast cancer.

  7. Next-Generation Entrepreneurs Ready to Advance Breast Cancer Research Innovations | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Michele Newton and Thomas Stackhouse, Contributing Writers, and Rosemarie Truman, Guest Writer Editor’s note: In May 2014, the Breast Cancer Start-Up Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition. This award celebrates innovations developed by employees of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to support the mission of HHS. In the final phase of the competition, the public will be invited to help select “The People’s Choice” winner; public voting takes place May 29 through June 6, 2014.

  8. Phase III randomized study comparing docetaxel plus trastuzumab with vinorelbine plus trastuzumab as first-line therapy of metastatic or locally advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: the HERNATA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Michael; Lidbrink, Elisabeth; Bjerre, Karsten;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate docetaxel or vinorelbine, both with trastuzumab, as first-line therapy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer.......To evaluate docetaxel or vinorelbine, both with trastuzumab, as first-line therapy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer....

  9. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  10. Tolerability of Therapies Recommended for the Treatment of Hormone Receptor-Positive Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shinji

    2016-08-01

    For women with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer, endocrine therapies, including the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen, the aromatase inhibitors anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane, and the selective estrogen receptor degrader fulvestrant, are recommended in clinical guidelines. The addition of targeted agents such as everolimus or palbociclib to aromatase inhibitors are also recommended as treatment options. Chemotherapy remains an option, although clinical guidelines have recommended these agents be reserved for patients with immediately life-threatening disease or if resistance to endocrine therapy is known or suspected. The present review has consolidated the tolerability profiles of the agents approved for use in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer based on phase III registration trial data. Endocrine therapies are generally well tolerated, although the addition of targeted therapies to aromatase inhibitors or fulvestrant appears to increase the proportion of patients experiencing adverse events, and palbociclib and chemotherapy appear to be more closely associated with serious adverse events, including neutropenia.

  11. A proof-of-principle study of epigenetic therapy added to neoadjuvant doxorubicin cyclophosphamide for locally advanced breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arce

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation and histone deacetylation participate in cancer development and progression; hence, their reversal by inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylases (HDACs is at present undergoing clinical testing in cancer therapy. As epigenetic alterations are common to breast cancer, in this proof-of-concept study demethylating hydralazine, plus the HDAC inhibitor magnesium valproate, were added to neoadjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in locally advanced breast cancer to assess their safety and biological efficacy.This was a single-arm interventional trial on breast cancer patients (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00395655. After signing informed consent, patients were typed for acetylator phenotype and then treated with hydralazine at 182 mg for rapid-, or 83 mg for slow-acetylators, and magnesium valproate at 30 mg/kg, starting from day -7 until chemotherapy ended, the latter consisting of four cycles of doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 every 21 days. Core-needle biopsies were taken from primary breast tumors at diagnosis and at day 8 of treatment with hydralazine and valproate.16 patients were included and received treatment as planned. All were evaluated for clinical response and toxicity and 15 for pathological response. Treatment was well-tolerated. The most common toxicity was drowsiness grades 1-2. Five (31% patients had clinical CR and eight (50% PR for an ORR of 81%. No patient progressed. One of 15 operated patients (6.6% had pathological CR and 70% had residual disease <3 cm. There was a statistically significant decrease in global 5mC content and HDAC activity. Hydralazine and magnesium valproate up- and down-regulated at least 3-fold, 1,091 and 89 genes, respectively.Hydralazine and magnesium valproate produce DNA demethylation, HDAC inhibition, and gene reactivation in primary tumors. Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide treatment is safe, well-tolerated, and appears to increase the

  12. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;160:271-281. PMID: 24366376 www.ncbi. ... Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . [Epub ahead of print 12 January 2016] doi: ...

  13. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T;

    1996-01-01

    be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  14. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  15. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  17. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  18. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Çetinkaya Aynur; Özmen Dilek; Karayurt Özgül

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cro...

  19. Early Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postoperative Proton Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuaron, John J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Chon, Brian; Tsai, Henry; Goenka, Anuj; DeBlois, David [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Hug, Eugen [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Cahlon, Oren, E-mail: cahlono@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Procure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To report dosimetry and early toxicity data in breast cancer patients treated with postoperative proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: From March 2013 to April 2014, 30 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer and no history of prior radiation were treated with proton therapy at a single proton center. Patient characteristics and dosimetry were obtained through chart review. Patients were seen weekly while on treatment, at 1 month after radiation therapy completion, and at 3- to 6-month intervals thereafter. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Frequencies of toxicities were tabulated. Results: Median dose delivered was 50.4 Gy (relative biological equivalent [RBE]) in 5 weeks. Target volumes included the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes including the internal mammary lymph nodes (in 93%). No patients required a treatment break. Among patients with >3 months of follow-up (n=28), grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 20 patients (71.4%), with 8 (28.6%) experiencing moist desquamation. Grade 2 esophagitis occurred in 8 patients (28.6%). Grade 3 reconstructive complications occurred in 1 patient. The median planning target volume V95 was 96.43% (range, 79.39%-99.60%). The median mean heart dose was 0.88 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.01-3.20 Gy (RBE)] for all patients, and 1.00 Gy (RBE) among patients with left-sided tumors. The median V20 of the ipsilateral lung was 16.50% (range, 6.1%-30.3%). The median contralateral lung V5 was 0.34% (range, 0%-5.30%). The median maximal point dose to the esophagus was 45.65 Gy (RBE) [range, 0-65.4 Gy (RBE)]. The median contralateral breast mean dose was 0.29 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.03-3.50 Gy (RBE)]. Conclusions: Postoperative proton therapy is well tolerated, with acceptable rates of skin toxicity. Proton therapy favorably spares normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Further follow-up is necessary to assess for clinical outcomes and cardiopulmonary

  20. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient exchange and waste removal. Recent scrutiny of angiogenesis in female breast cancer has shown it to be of significant prognostic value. It was hypothesized that this holds true in invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast. In the context of male breast cancer, we investigated the relationship of survival and other clinico-pathological variables to the microvascular density of the tumor tissue. Methods Seventy-five cases of primary male breast cancer were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over a period of 26 years. Forty-seven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were suitable for this study. All cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the angiogenic markers (cluster designations 31 (CD31, 34 (CD34 and 105 (CD105, von Willebrand factor (VWF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Microvascular density (MVD was determined using average, centre, and highest microvessel counts (AMC, CMC, and HMC, respectively. Statistical analyses compared differences in the distribution of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD, tumor size, node status and age at diagnosis. In addition, MVD values were compared within each marker, between each marker, and were also compared to clinico-pathological data. Results Advanced age and tumor size were related to shorter survival times. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD variables. There was no

  1. 三阴性乳腺癌的治疗进展%Treatment Advances of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟(综述); 于凌飞; 段秀庆(审校)

    2015-01-01

    The estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are negative. Compared to other breast cancer subtypes,TNBC has strong invasiveness,high degree of malignancy and poor prognosis,with high recurrence rate after adjuvant therapy. TNBC is more sensitive to chemotherapy,and cytotoxic drugs are the main drugs. In recent years, with the increasing depth study of tumor molecular biology,molecular targeted therapy for breast cancer has become the focus,and here is to make a review of the treatment advances of TNBC.%三阴性乳腺癌( TNBC)是雌激素受体、孕激素受体以及人表皮生长因子受体均为阴性的乳腺癌。相对于其他乳腺癌亚型,其具有侵袭性强、恶性程度高、患者预后差、辅助治疗后复发转移率高等特点。 TNBC对化疗较为敏感,治疗仍以细胞毒性药物为主。近年来,随着肿瘤分子生物学研究的深入,分子靶向治疗成为近几年乳腺癌研究和关注的焦点。该文就TNBC的治疗进展作一综述。

  2. HORMONE THERAPY IN ADVANCED ER+/HER2- NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER WITH PI3K INHIBITORS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Inkov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease, showing as several different clinical and histologic types. Most of breast cancers express hormone receptors for estrogen and progesterone, which are considered as estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone-receptor-positive, respectively. Endocrine therapy was the first class of target-directed therapy approved for treating breast cancer and is still very important for the treatment of HR+ breast cancer because of its effectiveness and good toxicity profile. It targets receptor-mediated signaling pathways implicated in cell survival and proliferation, such as those mediated by hormone receptors. Although these approaches have improved the management of advanced breast cancer, many patients either fail to respond to initial therapy (primary or de novo resistance or eventually become resistant to treatment (secondary or acquired resistance. To expand the use of existing endocrine treatments and their efficiency, new methods are needed. Such new approaches would boost the benefit of existing endocrine therapy by extending time to disease progression, avoiding or overcoming resistance to endocrine treatment, and delaying the use of chemotherapy. This article will review the central role of the PI3K inhibitors in driving ER+/HER2- breast tumors. Also, schemes to combine pathway inhibitors with endocrine therapy for better patient outcome, and approaches to identify patient populations that would benefit most from inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway will be assessed.

  3. High-dose ifosfamide and mesna in advanced breast cancer. A phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchiz, F; Milla, A

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-two patients with metastatic breast cancer had previously been treated with chemotherapy (including anthracyclines). They were included in a trial to receive 6 g/m3 ifosfamide, mixed with 6 g/m2 mesna in 1000 ml saline infusion, infused over 4 h. Therapy was repeated every 21 days; the dose was reduced by 50%. Twenty-eight patients could be evaluated. An average of 4.2 cycles (range 2-8) was applied. One patient (4%) showed complete remission. Ten patients (36%) had a partial response. Ten patients (36%) experienced SD and the remaining patients (25%) PD. We conclude that high-dose ifosfamide shows activity in this group of pretreated patients and merits further investigation.

  4. Common genomic signaling among initial DNA damage and radiation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes from locally advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Pinar, Beatriz; Carmona-Vigo, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    suffering from locally advanced breast cancer and treated with high-dose hyperfractionated radiotherapy were recruited. Initial DNA damage was measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and radiation-induced apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Gene expression was assessed by DNA microarray. RESULTS...

  5. Extended neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer combined with GM-CSF: effect on tumour-draining lymph node dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinedo, H.M.; Buter, J.; Luykx-de Bakker, S.A.; Pohlmann, P.R.; Hensbergen, Y. van; Heideman, D.A.M.; Diest, P.J. van; Gruijl, T.D. de; Wall, E. van der

    2003-01-01

    The effect of long-term administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on dendritic cell (DC) activation and survival in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) was studied. To this end, the number of activated DC (i.e. positive for the marker S100) in tumour

  6. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  7. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  8. The efficacy of 89Sr combined with 99Tc-MDP in the treatment of the advanced breast cancers with bone metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuju Lin ; Wenhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the ef icacy of 89Sr combined with Technetium [99Tc] Methylene-diphosphonate Injection (99Tc-MDP) in the treatment of cancer pain in the advanced breast cancers with bone metastases. Methods: A total of 80 patients with various degrees of bone pain due to multiple metastases of breast cancer were treated with 89Sr combined with 99Tc-MDP. 89Sr was given intravenously at 4mCi on day 1 during the 3-month schedule. After 7 days, 99Tc-MDP was given at 22 mg/day on days 1–10 during the 1-month schedule, for 3 to 6 months. Results: The ef ective rate of relieving pain was 83.75%. The ef ective rate of curing bone metastases was 81.25%. So there was a significant improvement in the quality of life of the patients. Conclusion: 89Sr combined with 99Tc-MDP are ef ective in the treatment of cancer pain in the breast cancers with bone metastasis, and can obviously repair the bone destruction caused by metastases, thereby improving the quality of life in advanced breast cancer patients with bone metastases.

  9. Breast Cancer In Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  10. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  11. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic

  12. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  13. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... means they developed from cells that line the milk ducts of the breast and then spread beyond ...

  14. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can help you cope with distress include: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/recurrent-breast-cancer/basics/definition/CON-20032432 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  15. The breast cancer conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    For decades, rates of breast cancer have been going up faster in rich countries than in poor ones. Scientists are beginning to understand more about its causes but unanswered questions remain. Patrick Adams reports.

  16. 乳腺癌基因治疗的研究进展%Advances in Gene Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜力成; 王栋

    2012-01-01

    我国乳腺癌发病率呈逐年上升趋势,已居女性恶性肿瘤的首位.尽管以手术治疗为主,多种治疗为辅的临床综合治疗模式明显提高了乳腺癌患者的生存率,但晚期和复发性乳腺癌的治疗仍是困扰临床医师的难题.随着乳腺癌相关基因研究的进展及靶向药物的临床应用,乳腺癌的基因治疗显示出了良好的应用前景,基因靶向治疗有望成为治疗晚期及复发性乳腺癌的有效手段.%Breast cancer incidence is increasing year by year in China, which has become the leading cause of death among female malignant tumors. The survival rate has improved with the progress of comprehensive clinical treatments of operation therapy supplemented by a variety of other treatments. However, the advanced-stage and recurrence are still hard problems for clinicians. With the rapid progress of research in cancer related genes and the application of targeted medicine, gene therapy shows promise, especially in advanced and recurrent cases.

  17. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  18. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  19. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  20. Vaccination with p53-peptide-pulsed dendritic cells, of patients with advanced breast cancer: report from a phase I study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Inge Marie; Pedersen, Anders E; Johnsen, Hans E;

    2004-01-01

    ) loaded with a cocktail of three wild-type and three modified p53 peptides are being analysed in six HLA-A2+ patients with progressive advanced breast cancer. Vaccinations were well tolerated and no toxicity was observed. Disease stabilisation was seen in two of six patients, one patient had a transient...... the treatment. In conclusion, the strategy for p53-DC vaccination seems safe and without toxicity. Furthermore, indications of both immunologic and clinical effect were found in heavily pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer. An independent clinical effect of repeated administration of DCs and IL-2 can......Peptides derived from over-expressed p53 protein are presented by class I MHC molecules and may act as tumour-associated epitopes. Due to the diversity of p53 mutations, immunogenic peptides representing wild-type sequences are preferable as a basis for a broad-spectrum p53-targeting cancer vaccine...

  1. The T61 human breast cancer xenograft: an experimental model of estrogen therapy of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M; Cullen, K

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine therapy is one of the principal treatment modalities of breast cancer, both in an adjuvant setting and in advanced disease. The T61 breast cancer xenograft described here provides an experimental model of the effects of estrogen treatment at a molecular level. T61 is an estrogen recepto...

  2. Interdisciplinary Research Training in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    University. An Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $1,500, funded. * 2004- Pfizer Clear Health Communication Program. An...Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $195,000, not funded. 0 2004- DOD Breast Cancer Research Program, Multidisciplinary...of Connecticut and Yale University. While providing didactic experience in advanced research, methodology, it allows the candidate to have sustained

  3. Nestin expression associates with poor prognosis and triple negative phenotype in locally advanced (T4 breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Piras

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, has traditionally been noted for its importance as a neural stem cell marker. However, in recent years, expression of nestin has shown to be associated with general proliferation of progenitor cell populations within neoplasms. There is no reported study addressing nestin expression in T4 breast cancer patients. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, through immunohistochemistry, the expression and distribution of nestin in T4 breast cancer, in order to determine its association with clinical and pathological parameters as well as with patients’ outcome. Nestin was detectable in tumoral cells and in endothelial cells of blood microvessels, and it is significantly expressed in triple-negative and in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC subgroups of T4 breast tumours. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the presence of nestin in tumoral cells significantly predicted poor prognosis at 5-years survival (P=0.02 and with borderline significance at 10-years of survival (P=0.05 in T4 breast cancer patients. On the basis of these observations, we speculate that nestin expression may characterize tumours with an aggressive clinical behavior, suggesting that the presence of nestin in tumoral cells and vessels may be considered an important factor that leads to a poor prognosis. Further studies are awaited to define the biological role of nestin in the etiology of these subgroups of breast cancers.

  4. Outcome of combined modality treatment including neoadjuvant chemotherapy of 128 cases of locally advanced breast cancer: Data from a tertiary cancer center in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Raina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in many parts of India and the incidence varies from 12 to 31/100000, and is rising. Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC accounts for 30 - 35% of all cases of breast cancers in India. LABC continues to present a challenge and imposes a major health impact in our country. Materials and Methods: We carried out a analysis of our LABC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT at our hospital over a 10-year period, from January 1995 to December 2004. We analyzed the response to NACT, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS. Results: Patients with stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC were included. LABC comprised of 26.24% (609 patients of new patients. One hundred and twenty-eight (31.1% patients received NACT. Median age was 48 years and estrogen receptor was positive in 64%. Chemotherapy protocol was an FEC (5-Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide regimen in the following doses: Cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, 5-FU 600 mg/m2, and Epirubicin 75 mg/m2 given every three weeks, six doses, followed by modified radical mastectomy (MRM and locoregional radiotherapy. The overall response rate (complete response (CR + partial response (PR was 84.4%, clinical CR (cCR was 13.3% and pathological CR (pCR was 7.8%. Median DFS and OS were 33 and 101 months, respectively. The disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS at five years were 41 and 58%, respectively. Conclusions: This study analyzes the outcome in patients who received NACT, in the largest number of LABC patients from a single center in India, and our results are comparable to the results reported from other centers.

  5. Treatment challenges for community oncologists treating postmenopausal women with endocrine-resistant, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradishar WJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available William J Gradishar Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Community-based oncologists are faced with challenges and opportunities when delivering quality patient care, including high patient volumes and diminished resources; however, there may be the potential to deliver increased patient education and subsequently improve outcomes. This review discusses the treatment of postmenopausal women with endocrine-resistant, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer in order to illustrate considerations in the provision of pertinent quality education in the treatment of these patients and the management of therapy-related adverse events. An overview of endocrine-resistant breast cancer and subsequent treatment challenges is also provided. Approved treatment options for endocrine-resistant breast cancer include hormonal therapies and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Compounds under clinical investigation are also discussed. Keywords: community oncologists, hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer, endocrine resistance

  6. Using breast milk to assess breast cancer risk: the role of mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sallie S; Aslebagh, Roshanak; Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Sturgeon, Susan R; Darie, Costel C; Arcaro, Kathleen F

    2014-01-01

    Although mammography and treatment advances have led to declines in breast cancer mortality in the United States, breast cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Breast cancer in young women is associated with increased mortality and current methods of detecting breast cancers in this group of women have known limitations. Tools for accurately assessing personal breast cancer risk in young women are needed to identify those women who would benefit the most from earlier intervention. Proteomic analysis of breast milk could identify biomarkers of breast cancer risk and provide a tool for identifying women at increased risk. A preliminary analysis of milk from four women provides a proof of concept for using breast milk to assess breast cancer risk.

  7. From technological advances to biological understanding: The main steps toward high-precision RT in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Ricotti, Rosalinda; Dicuonzo, Samantha; Cattani, Federica; Morra, Anna; Dell'Acqua, Veronica; Orecchia, Roberto; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja

    2016-10-01

    Radiotherapy improves local control in breast cancer (BC) patients which increases overall survival in the long term. Improvements in treatment planning and delivery and a greater understanding of BC behaviour have laid the groundwork for high-precision radiotherapy, which is bound to further improve the therapeutic index. Precise identification of target volumes, better coverage and dose homogeneity have had a positive impact on toxicity and local control. The conformity of treatment dose due to three-dimensional radiotherapy and new techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy makes it possible to spare surrounding normal tissue. The widespread use of dose-volume constraints and histograms have increased awareness of toxicity. Real time image guidance has improved geometric precision and accuracy, together with the implementation of quality assurance programs. Advances in the precision of radiotherapy is also based on the choice of the appropriate fractionation and approach. Adaptive radiotherapy is not only a technical concept, but is also a biological concept based on the knowledge that different types of BC have distinctive patterns of locoregional spread. A greater understanding of cancer biology helps in choosing the treatment best suited to a particular situation. Biomarkers predictive of response play a crucial role. The combination of radiotherapy with molecular targeted therapies may enhance radiosensitivity, thus increasing the cytotoxic effects and improving treatment response. The appropriateness of an alternative fractionation, partial breast irradiation, dose escalating/de-escalating approaches, the extent of nodal irradiation have been examined for all the BC subtypes. The broadened concept of adaptive radiotherapy is vital to high-precision treatments.

  8. The prognostic and predictive power of redox protein expression for anthracycline-based chemotherapy response in locally advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolston, Caroline M; Zhang, Lei; Storr, Sarah J; Al-Attar, Ahmad; Shehata, Mohamed; Ellis, Ian O; Chan, Stephen Y; Martin, Stewart G

    2012-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become the standard of care for locally advanced primary breast cancer. Anthracycline-based regimens have proven to be one of the most effective treatments in this setting. As certain cytotoxic antineoplastic agents, such as anthracyclines, generate reactive oxygen species as a by-product of their mechanism of action, we examined whether redox protein expression was involved in the response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy and with clinical outcome. Pre-treatment needle core biopsy and post-anthracycline treatment tumour sections were analysed from 98 cases. In all, 32 individuals had a complete clinical response and 17 had a complete pathological response. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for eight redox proteins: thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP), glutathione S-transferase (GST) π, θ and α, catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase. GST π (P=0.05) and catalase (P=0.045) were associated with pathological complete response in pre-chemotherapy samples. TxNIP (P=0.017) and thioredoxin reductase (P=0.022) were independent prognostic factors for distant metastasis-free survival and TxNIP for overall survival (P=0.014). In oestrogen receptor negative patients that are known to have a poor overall survival, a considerably worse prognosis was seen in cases that exhibited low expression of TxNIP (P=0.000003), stratifying patients into more defined groups. This study indicates the importance of redox regulation in determining breast cancer response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy and provides ways of further stratifying pre-chemotherapy patients to potentially allow more tailored treatments. PMID:22481283

  9. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  10. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe contains many smaller sections called lobules. These are groups of tiny glands that make breast milk. Breast milk flows through thin tubes called ducts ...

  11. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation 101, 1767 (Apr 18, 2000). 33. E. A. Rakha, Pitfalls in outcome prediction of breast...cancer patients at diagnosis IL-6 plasma levels have been shown to be elevated in advanced metastatic BC patients (15, 31). To investigate whether the...plasma from BC patients was collected at diagnosis prior to surgery or any therapy. Interestingly, we found that IL-6 plasma levels were not

  12. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable ...

  13. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimoda

  14. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  15. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Arlinghaus, Lori R. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Lee, Tzu-Cheng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kang, Hakmook [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Linden, Hannah M. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kinahan, Paul E. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yankeelov, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.yankeelov@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors’ primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max}, respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, Bland–Altman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.4–30.9 min), which was significantly—but not completely—reduced by the linear correction method. SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} were

  16. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  17. Trastuzumab use during pregnancy: long-term survival after locally advanced breast cancer and long-term infant follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jurandyr M de; Brito, Luiz G O; Moises, Elaine C D; Amorim, Andréa C; Rapatoni, Liane; Carrara, Hélio H A; Tiezzi, Daniel G

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe the case of a patient diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer 8 years ago. Her treatment course was neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by mastectomy and then adjuvant radiotherapy and trastuzumab (TTZ). During the use of adjuvant targeted therapy, an incidental pregnancy was diagnosed. Four years later, she developed bone and cerebral metastases, and since then, she has received courses of TTZ, capecitabine, lapatinib, and radiotherapy with intermittent control of the disease. Her 7-year-old son presents a normal physical and long-term neurological developmental curve according to specialized evaluation. This case is unique for several reasons: the patient received the highest dose of TTZ yet described during pregnancy (4400 mg); there has been a long period of disease-free survival after treatment for locally advanced breast cancer and long overall survival despite successive disease progressions during the metastatic phase of the disease (97 months), and there was a monitored pediatric follow-up period (7 years).

  18. Gene aberrations of RRM1 and RRM2B and outcome of advanced breast cancer after treatment with docetaxel with or without gemcitabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Lt; Ejlertsen, Bent; Bjerre, Karsten D

    2013-01-01

    of the hypothesis that aberrations of RRM1 or RRM2B, neither individually nor in combination, are associated with an altered clinical outcome following chemotherapy with gemcitabine in combination with docetaxel compared to docetaxel alone in advanced breast cancer patients....... agent docetaxel in advanced breast cancer patients. Methods Primary tumor samples from patients randomly assigned to gemcitabine plus docetaxel or docetaxel alone were analyzed for RRM1 and RRM2B copy number changes using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technology with probes covering...... endpoint. Overall survival (OS) and response rate (RR) were secondary endpoints. Associations between RRM1/CEN-11 and/or RRM2B/CEN-8 ratios and time-to-event endpoints were analyzed by unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Heterogeneity of treatment effects on TTP and OS...

  19. Advances in Variations of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Status in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan; Zhang Lili

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and molecular targeted therapy are vital means in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC), whose reasonable and standard applications are of great importance to prolong patients’ survival and improve the quality of life. The expressions of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) present signiifcant differences between primary and metastatic breast cancer. However, these differences may affect the selection of MBC patients for therapeutic strategies and judgment on the prognosis. Hence, the relevant researches on variations of hormone receptors and HER-2 in primary and metastatic breast cancer, discordant causes of ER, PR and HER-2 expression in primary and metastatic lesions and clinical value of biopsy to the metastases are reviewed in the study.

  20. TFF3 is a normal breast epithelial protein and is associated with differentiated phenotype in early breast cancer but predisposes to invasion and metastasis in advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed R H; Griffiths, Andrew B; Tilby, Michael T; Westley, Bruce R; May, Felicity E B

    2012-03-01

    The trefoil protein TFF3 stimulates invasion and angiogenesis in vitro. To determine whether it has a role in breast tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, its levels were measured by immunohistochemistry in breast tissue with a specific monoclonal antibody raised against human TFF3. TFF3 is expressed in normal breast lobules and ducts, at higher levels in areas of fibrocystic change and papillomas, in all benign breast disease lesions, and in 89% of in situ and in 83% of invasive carcinomas. In well-differentiated tumor cells, TFF3 is concentrated at the luminal edge, whereas in poorly differentiated cells polarity is inverted and expression is directed toward the stroma. Expression was high in well-differentiated tumors and was associated significantly with low histological grade and with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, accordant with induction of TFF3 mRNA by estrogen in breast cancer cells. Paradoxically, TFF3 expression was associated with muscle, neural, and lymphovascular invasion and the presence and number of involved lymph nodes, and it was an independent predictive marker of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement. Consistent with an angiogenic function, TFF3 expression correlated strongly with microvessel density evaluated with CD31 and CD34. In conclusion, TFF3 is expressed in both the normal and diseased breast. Although associated with features of good prognosis, its profile of expression in invasive cancer is consistent with a role in breast tumor progression and tumor cell dissemination.

  1. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  2. Design and characterization of HER-2-targeted gold nanoparticles for enhanced X-radiation treatment of locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Niladri; Cai, Zhongli; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian; Lechtman, Eli; Bendayan, Reina; Reilly, Raymond M

    2010-12-06

    Our purpose was to develop a human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) targeted nanotechnology-based radiosensitizer. HER-2 is overexpressed in 20-30% of all breast cancers and up to 2-fold higher in locally advanced disease (LABC). Trastuzumab was derivatized with a polyethylene glycol (OPSS-PEG-SVA) cross-linker to produce trastuzumab-PEG-OPSS. These immunoconjugates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and their immunoreactivity was assessed by flow cytometry using HER-2 overexpressing SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. Reacting trastuzumab with increasing ratios of PEG resulted in an increase in molecular weight from approximately 148 kDa to 243 kDa, associated with increasing PEG substitution (0.6 to 18.9 PEG chains per trastuzumab). Attachment of approximately 7 PEG chains per trastuzumab resulted in 56% retention in immunoreactivity assessed by flow cytometry. The conjugates were then linked to 30 nm AuNPs. Using a novel (123)iodine-radiotracer based assay that overcomes the current limitations of spectrophotometric quantification of biological molecules on AuNPs we estimate 14.3 ± 2.7 antibodies were attached to each AuNP when 2 × 10(11) AuNPs were reacted with 20 μg of trastuzumab-PEG-OPSS. Specificity of trastuzumab-PEG-AuNPs for HER-2 and internalization in SK-BR-3 cells was demonstrated by comparing the uptake of trastuzumab-PEG-AuNPs or PEG-AuNPs by darkfield microscopy. The ability of trastuzumab-PEG-AuNPs in combination with 300 kVp X-rays to enhance DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in SK-BR-3 cells was assessed by immunofluorescence using the γ-H2AX assay. γ-H2AX assay results revealed 5.1-fold higher DNA-DSBs with trastuzumab-PEG-AuNPs and X-radiation as compared to treatment with X-radiation alone. The trastuzumab-PEG-AuNPs are a promising targeted nanotechnology-based radiosensitizer for improving LABC therapy. The design and systematic approaches taken to surface modify and characterize trastuzumab-PEG-AuNPs described in this study would have

  3. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  4. Comparison of vinorelbine plus cisplatin with vinorelbine plus capecitabine in patients with anthracyclines-and taxanes-refractory advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhendong Zheng; Shuxian Qu; Xiaoxia Chen; Yongye Liu; Ying Piao; Yaling Han; Xiaodong Xie

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to compare the ef icacy and toxicities of vinorelbine plus cisplatin (NP) regimen with that of vinorelbine plus capecitabine (NX) regimen in the treatment of anthracycline- and taxane-refractory advanced breast cancer. Methods:Forty-six patients with anthracycline-and taxane-refractory advanced breast cancer were equal y randomized into a NP group (n=23) and a NX group (n=23). Response rates and toxicities were evaluated after 2 cycles of chemotherapy. Results:The overal response rate were 48.0%in both groups. There were no significant dif erences in disease control rates (78.0%vs. 83%) or 1-year survival rates (54.6%vs. 55.9%). The main adverse events were bone marrow depression and gastrointestinal reaction, and no significant dif erence was found in toxicities between the groups. Conclusion:For anthracycline-and taxane-refractory advanced breast cancer, NP and NX regimens exerted similar curative ef ects with acceptable toxicity.

  5. Evaluation of the prognosis as well as tumor marker levels and immune function of Fuzheng Xiaoliu decoction combined with paclitaxel treatment of advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ping Huang; Jin-Ru Zhang; Xiao-Fang Li; Jian-Guo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of Fuzheng Xiaoliu decoction combined with paclitaxel treatment of advanced breast cancer on the prognosis as well as tumor marker levels, immune function and so on.Methods:A total of 40 patients with advanced breast cancer were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=20), control group received conventional chemotherapy + paclitaxel treatment and observation group received conventional chemotherapy + paclitaxel + Fuzheng Xiaoliu decoction treatment. The survival of two groups of patients was followed up, and serum levels of tumor markers and sex hormones as well as immune function indexes were determined.Results:Progression-free survival and overall survival of observation group were longer than those of control group; after one course of treatment, serum VEGF-A, TK1, IGF-1, CerbB-2, CEA, CA15-3, CA125, E1 and E2 levels of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while LH and FSH levels were significantly higher than those of control group; CD3+CD4+, CD8+CD28+, CD19+ and CD16+CD56+ expression levels in peripheral blood of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group while CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD28- expression levels were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusion:Fuzheng Xiaoliu decoction combined paclitaxel treatment of advanced breast cancer can reduce tumor malignancy and improve the body's immune function, and is of positive significance in optimizing treatment prognosis.

  6. Early detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles-Carlson, B

    1989-01-01

    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  7. Breast cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S

    1988-10-15

    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  8. Breast Cancer in Art Painting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  9. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  10. Hormones and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    pathway of El metabolism may be altered by dietary (in particular, cruciferous vegetables ) and other factors (54-58). In this project we compared the... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  11. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging in a Phase Ⅱ Study on Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Combining Rh-Endostatin with Docetaxel and Epirubicin for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianxin Jia, Junqing Xu, Weifeng Jiang, Minwen Zheng, Mengqi Wei, Jianghao Chen, Ling Wang, Yi Huan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy for locally advanced breast cancer. We performed this phase II trial to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effect of rh-endostatin combined with docetaxel and epirubicin in patients with locally advanced breast cancer by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in 70 previously untreated locally advanced breast cancer patients.Methods: The study population was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy group or neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining rh-endostatin with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group. The anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of both regimens were evaluated by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microvessel density measurements after final surgery.Results: The results suggested a higher clinical objective response (90.9% vs. 67.7%, P = 0.021 and greater reductions in tumor size (67.2% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.000, Ki-67 proliferation index (32.79% vs. 12.47%, P = 0.000, tumor signal enhanced ratio (64% vs. 48%, P = 0.018, and Ktrans (67% vs. 39%, P = 0.026 in neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group than those in neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. In addition, the microvessel density value in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group was significantly lower than in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (18.67 ± 6.53 vs. 36.05 ± 9.64, P = 0.000. Moreover, the microvessel density value was significantly correlated with Ktrans after neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment (r=0.88, P = 0.00.Conclusions: The neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment significantly repressed angiogenesis in locally advanced breast cancer and synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data including reductions in tumor size and Ktrans

  12. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  13. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ... Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects Anemia Bone Loss Bone Pain Chemobrain Depression and ...

  14. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  15. Patients' preferences and willingness-to-pay for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer treatments after failure of standard treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Thongkeaw, Klangjai

    2015-01-01

    Patients' preferences increasingly play roles in cancer treatments. The objective of this study is to examine breast cancer patients' preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer treatments after failure of standard treatments. Four attributes, i.e. progression free survival (PFS), anemia, pneumonitis, and cost, and their levels of exemestane and exemestane plus everolimus from literature and patient interviews were used to develop a discrete choice experiment questionnaire. Each questionnaire was composed of seven choice sets and each choice set contained those four attributes with different levels. Breast cancer patients were asked to choose one treatment alternative in each choice set. Multinomial logit model was used to determine relative preferences of each attribute and the WTP for all attributes and treatments were calculated. A total of 146 patients were included in study analyses. Results showed that the patients preferred treatments with higher PFS and lower side effects. The patients were willing to pay US$151.6, US$69.8, and US$278.3 per month in exchange for every 1 month increase in PFS and every 1 % decreased risk of anemia and pneumonitis, respectively. The patients were willing to pay for exemestane and exemestane plus everolimus US$551.8 and US$414.2 per month, respectively. In conclusion, patients weighted importance on PFS, anemia, and pneumonitis, when they needed to choose an aromatase inhibitor plus mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor for advanced breast cancer treatments after failure of standard treatments. They valued exemestane alone more than exemestane plus everolimus.

  16. De novo sequencing of circulating miRNAs identifies novel markers predicting clinical outcome of locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiwei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been recently detected in the circulation of cancer patients, where they are associated with clinical parameters. Discovery profiling of circulating small RNAs has not been reported in breast cancer (BC, and was carried out in this study to identify blood-based small RNA markers of BC clinical outcome. Methods The pre-treatment sera of 42 stage II-III locally advanced and inflammatory BC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT followed by surgical tumor resection were analyzed for marker identification by deep sequencing all circulating small RNAs. An independent validation cohort of 26 stage II-III BC patients was used to assess the power of identified miRNA markers. Results More than 800 miRNA species were detected in the circulation, and observed patterns showed association with histopathological profiles of BC. Groups of circulating miRNAs differentially associated with ER/PR/HER2 status and inflammatory BC were identified. The relative levels of selected miRNAs measured by PCR showed consistency with their abundance determined by deep sequencing. Two circulating miRNAs, miR-375 and miR-122, exhibited strong correlations with clinical outcomes, including NCT response and relapse with metastatic disease. In the validation cohort, higher levels of circulating miR-122 specifically predicted metastatic recurrence in stage II-III BC patients. Conclusions Our study indicates that certain miRNAs can serve as potential blood-based biomarkers for NCT response, and that miR-122 prevalence in the circulation predicts BC metastasis in early-stage patients. These results may allow optimized chemotherapy treatments and preventive anti-metastasis interventions in future clinical applications.

  17. Progestins and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  18. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  20. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  1. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  2. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  3. [Occult multicentric breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushin, S V; Zab'ialova, M V; Glushchenko, S A; Perel'muter, V M; Slonimskaia, E M

    2009-01-01

    The study included 92 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (T2-4N0-2M0-1). In 38 cases, tumor growth was unicentric while histologically identifiable ones as multicentric in 44. Multicentricity mostly occurred in cases of macroscopically-identifiable nodes located in the central segments of the breast. Clinically-identifiable nodes of multicentric tumor growth measured more than 3 cm. Multicentric tumors were mostly grade III, featured lower expression of sex hormone receptors and positive Her2 status.

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  5. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  6. Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents Breast cancer survivor Jana Brightwell, pictured here on the NIH ...

  7. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  8. Research advance in microRNAs and breast cancer.%MicroRNA与乳腺癌研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞国奉; 陈爱军

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a major class of small endogenous RNA molecules that post-transcription-ally regulate gene expression. Several miRNAs have been proved to be related to human cancers, including breast cancer. The loss of several tumor suppressor miRNAs and the overexpression of certain oncogenic miRNAs have been observed in breast cancers. Here we describe the relationship of miRNA with the tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer.%MicroRNAs (miRNAs)是一种内源性的小RNA分子,在基因的转录后能调节其表达.许多MicroRNAs被证实与各种肿瘤相关,包括乳腺癌.某些抑癌性MicroRNAs的缺失和致癌性MicroRNAs的过表达已经在许多乳腺癌中被发现.本文就MicroRNAs与乳腺癌发生发展之间的联系以及与一些乳腺癌相关的MicroRNA及其作用作一综述.

  9. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  10. Estimation of health state utilities in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seon-Ha Kim,1 Min-Woo Jo,2 Minsu Ock,2 Hyeon-Jeong Lee,2 Jong-Won Lee3,4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 4Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG and visual analog scale (VAS methods in the Korean general population.Materials and methods: Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV-related health state.Results: The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction, 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only, 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy, 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer, 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer, and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer.Conclusion: Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. Keywords: breast neoplasm, Korea, quality-adjusted life years, quality of life

  11. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  12. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Murtaza Akhtar, Subhrajit Dasgupta, Murtuza Rangwala Department of Surgery, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods: All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results: A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7% were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%. No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3 compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion: TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central

  13. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Sugumar A, Liu YC, Xia Q , Koh YS, Matsuo K. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein 3 and the risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a...stimulates autophagy and promotes the survival of breast cancer cells exposed to adverse microenvironments. Oncogene 32(19): 2412 2420. 29. Mehta HH, Gao Q ...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0474 TITLE: The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew R. Hoffman CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION

  14. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  15. Advances in breast cancer molecular genetics%乳腺癌分子遗传学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟旭莉

    2010-01-01

    乳腺癌易感基因的研究对有乳腺癌家族史的个体进行早诊和预防、阐明散发性乳腺癌发病机制、早诊、判断药物敏感性和预后、鉴别诊断良恶性疾病等均有重要意义.BRCA1和BRCA2是乳腺癌主要易感基因.其他易感基因诸如TP53能增加BRCA1、BRCA2的乳腺癌患病风险.%The study on susceptibility genes play an important role in early diagnosis and prevention for the individuals with family history of breast carcinoma,elucidation of pathologic mechanism of sporadic breast carcinoma,early diagnosis and adjudging prognosis,research on drug sensitivity,differential diagnosis of benign and malignant disease,etc.Two major susceptibility genes for breast cancer,BRCA1 and BRCA2,are identified,respectively.Other tumor susceptibility genes such as TP53 are known to increase breast cancer risk of BRCA1 and BRCA2.

  16. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  17. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in an intensive dose-dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy schedule for locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Frai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT in patients with locally advanced (L A inoperable breast cancer (BC at baseline, by using the intensified combination CT at the interval being reduced between the administration of cytostatic dru gs to 2 weeks to give a chance to the patients to be surgically treated.Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 26 patients aged 33 to 75 years with L A BC. Paclitaxel was administered intravenously (IV over 3 hours at a dose of 175 mg/m2 on day 1, followed by gemcitabine, 2000 mg/m2, given by 30-minute IV infusion on day 1 every 2 w eeks. If the cytostatics were well tolerated and their effect increased, the treatment was continued up to 6 courses.Results. Eighteen (69.2% out of the 26 patients achieved the objective effect of treatment; of them 17 (65.4% had a partial remission and 1 (3.8 had a complete remission.The therapeutic pathomorphism of a tumor w as rated in 22 patients; fourth-degree tumor pathomorphism w as found in 2 (9% patien ts. The follow-up of patients w as 11 to 28 months (median, 20 months. The median time to progression w as not reached in the entire group of patients.Conclusion. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine in intensive dose-dense scheduling has a marked antitumor activity in BC andis characterized by its good tolerability without a pronounced myelosuppressive effect. This therapy regimen may be used as neoadjuvant CT.

  18. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  19. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) as a Novel Target for Inhibiting Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    generated for studying the role of mS100a7a15 in psoriasis (26). To determine the role of mS100a7a15 in tumor- igenesis, we generated an inducible...been proposed for hS100A7, its biologic role particularly in breast cancer remains to be defined. In this study, we characterized the tumor-enhancing...mediated depletion of tumour-associated macrophages: a new and highly effective antiangiogenic therapy approach. Br J Cancer 2006;95: 272–81. 22. Webb

  20. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  1. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  2. Protein Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Misek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in breast cancer control will be greatly aided by early detection so as to diagnose and treat breast cancer in its preinvasive state prior to metastasis. For breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States, early detection does allow for increased treatment options, including surgical resection, with a corresponding better patient response. Unfortunately, however, many patients' tumors are diagnosed following metastasis, thus making it more difficult to successfully treat the malignancy. There are, at present, no existing validated plasma/serum biomarkers for breast cancer. Only a few biomarkers (such as HER-2/neu, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor have utility for diagnosis and prognosis. Thus, there is a great need for new biomarkers for breast cancer. This paper will focus on the identification of new serum protein biomarkers with utility for the early detection of breast cancer.

  3. Efficacy of interventions to improve sleep quality among patients with breast cancer : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xueqi; 李雪琪

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. While advances in therapeutic approaches have improved the survival of breast cancer patients, it is important to improve the quality of life among the cancer survivors. Sleep disturbance is one of the most important problems for breast cancer patients that substantially reduced their quality of life. Many interventions have been developed for improving sleep quality for breast cancer patients. The aim of this review is firstly t...

  4. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  5. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  6. Results of a conservative treatment combining induction (neoadjuvant) and consolidation chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, and external and interstitial irradiation in 98 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (IIIA-IIIB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquillat, C.; Baillet, F.; Weil, M.; Auclerc, G.; Housset, M.; Auclerc, M.; Sellami, M.; Jindani, A.; Thill, L.; Soubrane, C.

    1988-05-15

    Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIIA-IIIB) were entered into a pilot study combining intensive induction (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (VTMFAP) with or without hormonochemotherapy, external and interstitial radiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy with or without hormonochemotherapy. Tumor regression over 50% was observed in 91% patients after chemotherapy, and complete clinical remission occurred in 100% patients after irradiation. The rate of local relapse is 13%. The 3-year disease-free survival is 62% and 3-year global survival is 77%. Initial chemotherapeutic tumor regression greater than 75% is the main predictive factor for disease-free survival.

  7. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  8. Pregnancy and breast cancer: when they collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Traci R; Schedin, Pepper J; Borges, Virginia F

    2009-06-01

    Women of childbearing age experience an increased breast cancer risk associated with a completed pregnancy. For younger women, this increase in breast cancer risk is transient and within a decade after parturition a cross over effect results in an ultimate protective benefit. The post-partum peak of increased risk is greater in women with advanced maternal age. Further, their lifetime risk for developing breast cancer remains elevated for many years, with the cross over to protection occurring decades later or not at all. Breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and within a number of years post-partum are termed pregnancy-associated or PABC. Contrary to popular belief, PABC is not a rare disease and could affect up to 40,000 women in 2009. The collision between pregnancy and breast cancer puts women in a fear-invoking paradox of their own health, their pregnancy, and the outcomes for both. We propose two distinct subtypes of PABC: breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and breast cancer diagnosed post-partum. This distinction is important because emerging epidemiologic data highlights worsened outcomes specific to post-partum cases. We reported that post-partum breast involution may be responsible for the increased metastatic potential of post-partum PABC. Increased awareness and detection, rationally aggressive treatment, and enhanced understanding of the mechanisms are imperative steps toward improving the prognosis for PABC. If we determine the mechanisms by which involution promotes metastasis of PABC, the post-partum period can be a window of opportunity for intervention strategies.

  9. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  10. Retrospective study of neoadjuvant versus adjuvant radiochemotherapy in locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer. Survival advantage in cT2 category by neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Stephan Ludwig; Lang, Innokentij; Budach, Wilfried [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany); Audretsch, Werner [Breast Center, Marien-Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany); Bojar, Hans [Inst. for Oncologic Chemistry, Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany); Willers, Reinhart [Computer Center, Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: this retrospective study compares patients treated between 1991 and 1998 with neoadjuvant radiotherapy {+-} chemotherapy (RCT) or adjuvant RCT for locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancers (LABC) in terms of pathologic complete response (pCR), 10-year relapse-free (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Patients and methods: preoperative RCT in 315 and adjuvant RCT in 329 cases consisted in 50 Gy (5 x 2 Gy/week) to the breast and the supra-/infraclavicular lymph nodes. 101 neoadjuvant patients received - in case of breast conservation - a 10-Gy interstitial boost with {sup 192}Ir afterloading before and 214 neoadjuvant patients a preoperative electron boost after external-beam radiotherapy. In the neoadjuvant RCT group, chemotherapy was applied prior to radiotherapy in 192 patients, and simultaneously in 113; ten had no chemotherapy. In the adjuvant RCT group, chemotherapy was applied to 44 patients before surgery and to 166 after surgery; 119 had no chemotherapy. Results: breast conservation became possible in 50.8% after neoadjuvant RCT for LABC with a pCR rate at surgery of 29.2%. A complete nodal remission (pNO) after RCT was observed in 56% (89/159) of the cN+ (clinically node-positive) neoadjuvant patients. There were trends in favor of preoperative RCT for RFS and OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.85; p = 0.09 for RFS; HR = 0.8130; p = 0.1037 for OS). For patients with cT2 tumors the RFS and OS were statistically significantly better (HR = 0.5090; p = 0.0130 for RFS; HR = 0.4390; p = 0.0026 for OS) after neoadjuvant compared to adjuvant RCT. Conclusion: neoadjuvant RCT achieved a pCR rate of 29.2% and a statistically significantly better RFS and OS in patients with cT2-category breast cancer. (orig.)

  11. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a met...

  12. Circadian clocks and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeman, Victoria; Jack L. Williams; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, an...

  13. Evaluation of pathomorphological changes and survival after selective intraarterial polychemotherapy of locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar G.V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathomorphological changes (pathologic response and survival of patients with locally advanced breastcancer (BC were analyzed for the 89 patients treated with selective intraarterial polychemotherapy (PCT in neoadjuvantmode and 46 treated with intravenous PCT in the same mode (control. More significant pathomorphological response afterthe treatment of BC in the neoadjuvant mode was achieved after selective intra-arterial PCT (p<0,01. In the intraarterial PCTgroup pathomorphosis grade 4 was observed in 16.9% (control – 8.70%, grade 3 – 37,0% (control – 28.3%, grade 2 –46,1% (control – 26,1%. In the control group 1 degree pathomorphosis was in 26.1% of patients, no pathologic response – in10,9%. In patients with pathomorphosis of 2-4 degrees in intraarterial PCT group 5-year survival increases by 0,90-5,60%compared with the control, 10-year-old survival – by 5,60-11,6%. Survival tended to increase with the degree of pathomorphosiswithout statistical differences in groups of intraarterial and intravenous PCT for each year of observation. The averagelife expectancy for the intraarterial PCT group was 4,61±0,02 years, for the control group – 4,19±0,05 (p<0,001. For 1-7years difference in survival was within 5,8-9,5%. The best results are observed after seventh year: 7-10-year survival inintraarterial PCT group was 38.2%, in the control group – 23,9%.

  14. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  15. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  16. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  17. Health care costs and utilization of a large insured female population with advanced or metastatic breast cancer by receipt of HER2-targeted agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicole Meyer,1 Yanni Hao,2 Pamela Landsman-Blumberg,1 William Johnson,1 Paul Juneau,3 Jaqueline Willemann Rogerio2 1Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3Truven Health Analytics, Washington, DC, USA Background: This retrospective administrative claims study of women diagnosed with advanced or metastatic breast cancer compared health care costs by receipt of HER2-targeted agents and by disease stage and age group among patients using HER2-targeted agents. Methods: Women aged ≥18 years and diagnosed with stage III or IV breast cancer were selected from the 2008–2012 Truven Health MarketScan® databases (Truven Health Analytics Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA databases using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes for nondiagnostic medical claims corresponding to breast cancer and local or distant metastases (earliest diagnosis of stage III or stage IV metastasis was designated as the index date. The 12 months prior to the index date were defined as the pre-index period. The post-index period was variable in length, beginning on the index date and continuing through the end of enrolment, inpatient death, or December 31, 2012, whichever occurred first. Receipt of HER2-targeted agents was defined as at least one claim for trastuzumab or lapatinib in the pre-index or post-index period. The study cohorts were women using or not using HER2-targeted agents, women with stage III or IV breast cancer using HER2-targeted agents, and women using HER2-targeted agents and aged 18–44 years, 45–64 years, or 65+ years at index. Health care costs and utilization were calculated on a per patient per month basis for all-cause and breast cancer-related services by place of service. Generalized linear models were used to estimate total all-cause and breast cancer-related costs. Results: A total of 30,660 eligible women met the study selection criteria, 14

  18. New approaches in the management of advanced breast cancer – role of combination treatment with liposomal doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain RJ Macpherson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Iain RJ Macpherson, TR Jeffry EvansBeatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow, United KingdomAbstract: Metastatic breast cancer (MBC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. For three decades doxorubicin, alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents, has been a mainstay of systemic therapy for MBC. However, its use is limited by cumulative cardiotoxicity. More recently liposomal formulations of doxorubicin have been developed which exhibit equal efficacy but reduced cardiotoxicity in comparison to conventional doxorubicin. The novel toxicity profile of liposomal doxorubicins has prompted their evaluation with various cytotoxic agents in patients with MBC. In addition, their favorable cardiac safety profile has prompted re-evaluation of concomitant therapy with doxorubicin and trastuzumab, a regimen of proven efficacy in MBC but previously considered to be associated with significant cardiotoxicity. We review clinical trial data addressing combination therapy with both pegylated and non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with MBC.Keywords: breast cancer, anthracycline, liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, cardiotoxicity

  19. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  20. "Targeting" triple-negative breast cancer: the lessons learned from BRCA1-associated breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Rita

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer has long been recognized as a heterogeneous entity, with distinct subsets characterized by differences in tumor biology and response to therapy. With the advent of molecular profiling, we have gained a further appreciation of the heterogeneity of this complex disease. While the last decade has seen advances in the treatment of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/erb-B2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers, outcomes for women with estrogen receptor (ER)-, progesterone receptor (PR)-, and HER2-negative-or "triple-negative"-breast cancer (TNBC) remain poor. A better understanding of the shared biology of BRCA1-associated breast cancer and sporadic TNBC holds much promise for changing the outlook for women with this aggressive disease. This review focuses on our current understanding of the clinicopathological features of TNBC, therapeutic options and ongoing research efforts.

  1. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  2. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  3. NASA SMART Probe: Breast Cancer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Robert W.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence in breast cancer and other malignancies that the physiologic environment within a tumor correlates with clinical outcome. We are developing a unique percutaneous Smart Probe to be used at the time of needle biopsy of the breast. The Smart Probe will simultaneously measure multiple physiologic parameters within a breast tumor. Direct and indirect measurements of tissue oxygen levels, blood flow, pH, and tissue fluid pressure will be analyzed in real-time. These parameters will be interpreted individually and collectively by innovative neural network techniques using advanced intelligent software. The goals are 1) develop a pecutaneous Smart Probe with multiple sensor modalities and applying advanced Information Technologies to provide real time diagnostic information of the tissue at tip of the probe, 2) test the percutaneous Smart Probe in women with benign and malignant breast masses who will be undergoing surgical biopsy, 3) correlate probe sensor data with benign and malignant status of breast masses, 4) determine whether the probe can detect physiologic differences within a breast tumor, and its margins, and in adjacent normal breast tissue, 5) correlate probe sensor data with known prognostic factors for breast caner, including tumor size, tumor grade, axillary lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status.

  4. Combination goserelin and tamoxifen therapy in premenopausal advanced breast cancer: a multicentre study by the ITMO group. Italian Trials in Medical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, R.; Biganzoli, L.; Bajetta, E.; Celio, L.; Fornasiero, A.; Mariani, L.; Zilembo, N.; Di Bartolomeo, M.; Di Leo, A.; Arcangeli, G.

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that tamoxifen may improve the efficacy of medical castration with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues, but very few data have so far been published concerning the clinical and endocrinological activity of this therapeutic modality. In this phase II multicentre trial conducted by the Italian Trials in Medical Oncology group (ITMO), 64 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive or unknown breast cancer were treated with monthly s.c. injections of goserelin 3.6 mg, in association with a tamoxifen daily dose of 20 mg, as first-line therapy for their advanced disease. All of the patients were evaluable for efficacy and there was an overall response rate of 41% (95% confidence interval 28-52%), with 7 of the 26 responders achieving complete remission. The median time to response was 4 months (range 2-17), and the median response duration was 13 months (range 6-37 +). Better responses were observed in soft tissues (51%); the response in visceral and bone metastases was respectively 19% and 37%. Serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and oestradiol were significantly decreased by the treatment, oestrogen levels being constantly suppressed to within the range observed in post-menopausal women. No significant change was detected in serum testosterone levels. In our experience, although it was not associated with any increased clinical efficacy, the concurrent use of goserelin and tamoxifen proved to be a feasible approach in the management of premenopausal advanced breast cancer. PMID:7734310

  5. Randomized controlled trial in advance stage breast cancer patients for the effectiveness on stress marker and pain through Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a cognitive, behavioral stress management module of Sudarshan Kriya (SK and P on levels of serum cortisol and pain among the women suffering from advanced stage breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Participants (n = 147 were screened and randomized to receive standard care (n = 69 versus standard along with SK and Pranayam (P intervention (n = 78 imparted in one 18 hrs workshop spread during 3 days. Participants were expected to practice it at home 20 min daily as adjuvant to standard pharmacological treatment for pain. Results: There was a significant difference in blood cortisol levels after 3 months of practice of SK and P. Mean blood levels in the intervention arm were 341.2 ng/ml against 549.2 ng/ml in the control arm (P ≤ 0.002. Pain perception in comparison to control arm reduced by 3 points in SK and P arm on 0-10 verbal scale of pain. Conclusion: SK and P is an effective intervention in reducing stress and pain among advance stage patients of breast cancer.

  6. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  7. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    also occur with increased frequency in gene carriers, such prostate cancer. First-degree relatives of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have...Tumor M 36 Asian Prostate Cancer M 52 Caucasian Ovarian Cancer F 56 Caucasian Cervical Cancer F 43 Caucasian Breast Cancer F 45 Caucasian Cancer of...address transportation barriers, alternate mechanisms were put in place for provision of parking and taxi vouchers. It was expected that many of the women

  8. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Role of RGD Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women of all ages worldwide. With advances in molecular imaging procedures, it has been possible to detect breast cancer in its early stage, determine the extent of the disease to administer appropriate therapeutic protocol and also monitor the effects of treatment. By accurately characterizing the tumor properties and biological processes involved, molecular imaging can play a crucial role in minimizing the morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer. The integrin αvβ3 plays an important role in breast cancer angiogenesis and is expressed on tumor endothelial cells as well as on some tumor cells. It is a receptor for the extracellular matrix proteins with the exposed arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide sequence and therefore RGD peptides can preferentially bind to integrin αvβ3. In this context, targeting tumor vasculature or tumor cells by RGD-based probes is a promising strategy for molecular imaging of breast cancer. Using RGD-based probes, several preclinical studies have employed different imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and optical imaging for visualization of integrin αvβ3 expression in breast cancer models. Limited clinical trials using (18)F-labeled RGD peptides have also been initiated for non-invasive detection and staging of breast cancer. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes and discuss the challenges and opportunities for advancement of the field. The reported strategies for molecular imaging of breast cancer using RGD peptide-based probes holds promise for making clinically translatable advances that can positively impact the overall diagnostic and therapeutic processes and result in improved quality of life for breast cancer patients.

  9. The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Protein Autovac in Patients with Brest Cancer CPharmexa). This trial was initiated in June 2003. The PBCC accrued 5 of the planned 11 patients. This...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0374 TITLE: The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium...3. DATES COVERED 1 AUG 2001 - 31 JUL 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  10. Women's narratives of helpseeking for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facione, N C; Dodd, M J

    1995-01-01

    One-third of women with self-discovered breast cancer are symptomatic for 3 months or more before seeking evaluation. Few studies examine women's accounts of this important time. Using narrative analysis in the style of Labov and Waletzky, breast cancer cases from a larger mixed-tumor sample of patients receiving chemotherapy were examined for the details of breast cancer symptom discovery and the events relevant to the timing of diagnosis and treatment. The majority (56.3%) of women in the sample sought evaluations within days, many proceeding to immediate diagnosis. Factors cited by women as influencing the delayed timing of initial provider evaluation were that they attributed the symptoms to a benign process, and they perceived gender role-related constraints. Many women in this younger-aged sample had false-negative mammographic examinations, and many reported receiving false reassurance from providers on initial consultation visits. Women who delayed evaluations sought them only as symptoms advanced.

  11. Loco-regional control after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and conservative treatment for locally advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Antonin; Borget, Isabelle; Bahri, Manel; Arnedos, Monica; Rivin, Eleonor; Vielh, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Rimareix, Françoise; Bourgier, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Breast-conserving treatment (BCT) has been validated for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Our objective was to evaluate the difference in loco-regional recurrence (LRR) rates between BCT and mastectomy in patients receiving radiation therapy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). A retrospective data base was used to identify all patients with breast cancer undergoing NCT from 2002 to 2007. Patients with initial metastatic disease were excluded from this analysis. LRR was compared between those undergoing BCT and mastectomy. Individual variables associated with LRR were evaluated. Two hundred eighty-four patients were included, 111 (39%) underwent BCT and 173 (61%) mastectomy. Almost all patients (99%) in both groups received postoperative radiation. Pathologic complete response was seen in 37 patients, of which 28 underwent BCT (p loco-regional control rate was 91% (95% CI: 86-94%). The 10-year LRR rate was similar in the BCT group (9.2% [95% CI: 4.9-16.7%]) and in the mastectomy group (10.7% [95% CI: 5.9-15.2%]; p = 0.8). Ten-year overall survival (OS) rates (63% [95% CI: 46-79%] in the BCT group; 60% [95% CI: 47-73%] in the mastectomy group, p = 0.8) were not statistically different between the two patient populations. Multivariate analysis showed that AJCC stage ≥ III (HR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.8; p = 0.02), negative PR (HR: 6; 95% CI: 1.2-30.6, p = 0.03), and number of positive lymph nodes ≥3 (HR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9; p = 0.03) were independent predictors of LRR. Ten-year OS was similar in the BCT and in the mastectomy group (p = 0.1). The rate of LRR was low and did not significantly differ between the BCT and the mastectomy group after NCT. Randomized trials assessing whether mastectomy can be safely omitted in selected breast cancer patients (nonstage III tumors or those which do not require adjuvant hormone suppression) which respond to NCT are required.

  12. Concordance of Hypermethylated DNA and the Tumor Markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA in Serum during Monitoring of Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Høgh Hansen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The serological protein tumor markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA are frequently used to monitor tumor burden among metastatic breast cancer patients. Breast cancer is associated with global DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation of some promoter regions. No monitoring study has yet investigated the ...

  13. Novel advances on bio-therapy for breast cancer%乳腺癌的生物治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金海; 冯继峰; 张勤; 时宏珍; 姚堃

    2008-01-01

    Surgical resection, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been widely accepted to be the major therapy for breast cancer nowadays. With the rapid development of biotechniques, some novel therapies including molecular target therapy, gene therapy and immunotherapy are now under clinical investiga-tion. They are proved to be well tolerated and show encouraging responses in patients with breast cancer.%手术切除、辅助化疗和放疗被认为是目前乳腺癌的主要治疗方法.随着现代生物工程技术的发展,以分子靶向治疗、基因治疗、免疫治疗等为主要代表的先进生物治疗技术已部分进入乳腺癌的临床研究阶段,显示出较好的耐受性和良好疗效.

  14. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2, phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes.

  15. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  16. Research advancement in breast cancer risk evaluation models%乳腺癌风险评估模型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文明

    2008-01-01

    具有乳腺癌高危因素的女性可通过风险评估模型计算乳腺癌的发生风险,以BRCA基因突变检测为基础的基因模型准确性更高,经验模型也有其不可替代的优点而被广泛应用.%Women with high risk factors of breast cancer can been assessed their probabilities to devel-op breast cancer through the breast cancer risk evaluation models,such as experience models and gene models.The gene models basing on detection of BRCA genes are more accurate than the experience models when be used in women with breast cancer familial history.The experience models are widely used in women without fa-milial history and in many prevention trials of breast cancer.

  17. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  18. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  19. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , Sara ... cancer treatments. Breast cancer treatments include the following: Chemotherapy involves drugs that are intended to kill the ...

  20. Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qiu-Li; Xu, Wang-Hong, E-mail: mtao@buffalo.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Tao, Meng-Hua, E-mail: mtao@buffalo.edu [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2010-04-28

    In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer.

  1. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation.

  2. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Expression of Key Molecules in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell–cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy...

  3. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what treatments are most effective. Parts of the breast where cancer begins include: Milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of cancer forms in the lining of a milk duct within your breast. The ducts carry breast ...

  4. La quimioterapia neoadyuvante en el tratamiento del cáncer de mama localmente avanzado Neoadyuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Zaharia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Al inicio del tratamiento del cáncer, se pensaba que este se diseminaba por continuidad, lo cual originó que las primeras estrategias para el manejo de cáncer de mama localmente avanzado fueran altamente agresivas, además de mutilantes. Con los avances en el conocimiento de la biología de la enfermedad, se generaron importantes cambios en el manejo de esta neoplasia. Surgió entonces como alternativa terapéutica la quimioterapia neoadyuvante, que es aquella que se administra previamente al tratamiento quirúrgico. Descrita inicialmente por la escuela de Milán, ha probado ser una mejor alternativa que el tratamiento quirúrgico solo, que la quimioterapia adyuvante (o postquirúrgica y que la radioterapia sola o en combinación con las técnicas señaladas previamente. Dentro de las ventajas de la quimioterapia neoadyuvante se encuentran el incremento de la tasa de las cirugías conservadoras de mama y la disminución de la tasa de recaída ipsilateral. Facilita además el control y seguimiento de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, la principal desventaja es que no puede modificar algunos factores pronósticos de la enfermedad como la relación tumor mama, enfermedad multicéntrica, las microcalcificaciones dispersas y la coexistencia de procesos médicos que contraindiquen la radioterapia. Actualmente, la quimioterapia neoadyuvante es la base del manejo del cáncer de mama localmente avanzado y está recomendada para garantizar una evolución más conservadora en el manejo de esta enfermedadIn the first stages of cancer treatment, it was believed that it spreaded by continuity, so the first strategies to treat locally advanced breast cancer were highly aggressive, as well as mutilating. A deeper knowledge of the biology of cancer later resulted in important changes in its treatment, such as the use of neoadyuvant chemotherapy, administered prior to surgical treatment, as an alternative therapy. Initially described by the University of Milan

  5. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  6. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  7. Nonestrogenic drugs and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, D A; Jick, H; Hunter, J R; Stergachis, A; Madsen, S

    1982-08-01

    The relation between breast cancer and selected nonestrogenic drugs was evaluated in the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington, a prepaid health care organization with computerized information on diagnoses and outpatient drug use. No important positive associations with breast cancer were found in a follow-up study of 302 women aged 35-74 years. These women were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 1977-1980 and were studied in relation to exposure in the six months prior to diagnosis to one or more of the following drugs: diazepam, digitalis glycosides, medroxyprogesterone acetate, methyldopa, metronidazole, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, thiazides, thyroid/levothyroxine sodium, or spironolactone. A modest association between recent reserpine use and breast cancer was present (risk ratio = 1.7, 90% confidence interval 0.9-3.3).

  8. Mouse models of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakur Mohibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Despite advances in genetic and biochemical analyses, the incidence of breast cancer and its associated mortality remain very high. About 60 - 70% of breast cancers are Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α positive and are dependent on estrogen for growth. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have therefore provided an effective targeted therapy to treat ER-α positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, development of resistance to endocrine therapy is frequent and leads to cancer recurrence. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ER-α positive tumors and their resistance to ER antagonists is currently limited due to lack of experimental models of ER-α positive breast cancer. In most mouse models of breast cancer, the tumors that form are typically ER-negative and independent of estrogen for their growth. However, in recent years more attention has been given to develop mouse models that develop different subtypes of breast cancers, including ER-positive tumors. In this review, we discuss the currently available mouse models that develop ER-α positive mammary tumors and their potential use to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ER-α positive breast cancer development and endocrine resistance.

  9. Metals and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D; Storchan, Geoffrey B; Parodi, Daniela A; Martin, Mary Beth

    2013-03-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer.

  10. An ER activity profile including ER, PR, Bcl-2 and IGF-IR may have potential as selection criterion for letrozole or tamoxifen treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Katrine L; Rasmussen, Birgitte B; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E

    2009-01-01

    microarrays from formalin fixed paraffin embedded primary tumor material from a subgroup of patients (9.4%), who have participated in the international, randomized, phase III clinical trial PO25 comparing letrozole with tamoxifen in 907 patients with advanced breast cancer. The expression levels of ER...

  11. Advances in Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan BF, Sonveaux P

    2011-01-01

    The book "Advances in Cancer Therapy" is a new addition to the Intech collection of books and aims at providing scientists and clinicians with a comprehensive overview of the state of current knowledge and latest research findings in the area of cancer therapy. For this purpose research articles, clinical investigations and review papers that are thought to improve the readers' understanding of cancer therapy developments and/or to keep them up to date with the most recent advances in this fi...

  12. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetinkaya Aynur

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a high school in Manisa, Turkey. The study sample included 718 female high school students. A socio-demographic characteristics data form, knowledge of breast self examination and risk factors for breast cancer form and breast self examination practice form were used to collect data. Results The female high school students had insufficient knowledge about breast self-examination and a low percentage of students reported that they had performed breast self examination monthly. The most common reason for not doing breast self- examination was "not knowing how to perform breast self-examination" (98.5%. Most of the students had little knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. The most widely known risk factor by the students was personal history of breast cancer (68.7%. There was a significant relation between breast self-examination practice and age, school grade, knowledge about breast cancer and knowledge about breast self- examination. Conclusion There is a need to increase knowledge of adolescent females about the risks of breast cancer and benefits of early detection. In fact, health care professionals can develop effective breast health care programs and help young women to acquire good health habits.

  13. Current and emerging breast cancer biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer treatment has experienced several advancements in the past few decades with the discovery of specific predictive and prognostic biomarkers that make possible the application of individualized therapies. In addition to traditional prognostic factors of breast carcinoma, molecular biomarkers have played a significant role in tumor prediction and treatment. The most frequent genetic alterations of breast cancer are gained along chromosome 1q, 8q, 17q, 20q, and 11q and losses along 8p, 13q, 16q, 18q, and 11q. Interestingly, many of these chromosomal fragments harbor known proto oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, HER2-neu, cyclin D1, and cyclin E, which are briefly described in this review.

  14. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  15. The value of archival tissue blocks in understanding breast cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Thomas; Verghese, Eldo; Pollock, Steven; Pollard, Jennifer; Heads, Judith; Hanby, Andrew; Speirs, Valerie

    2014-03-01

    Pathological reporting of breast cancer has evolved alongside scientific advances. Such advances have led to recognition of different molecular classes of breast cancer resulting in improved disease management. The aim of this study was to establish whether these advances could be applied to archival breast cancer cases dating from the 1940s to assess historical trends. Important observations included the marked differences in pathological reporting, size of tumour and in ERα expression throughout the decades.

  16. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics and ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  17. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  18. Metformin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced growth and VEGF expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by suppressing AGEs receptor expression via AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Takeuchi, M; Yamagishi, S

    2013-05-01

    Metformin use has been reported to decrease breast cancer incidence and mortality in diabetic patients. We have previously shown that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction stimulate growth and/or migration of pancreatic cancer and melanoma cells. However, effects of metformin on AGEs-RAGE axis in breast cancers remain unknown. We examined here whether and how metformin could block the AGEs-induced growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was measured with an electron coupling reagent WST-1 based colorimetric assay. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. AGEs significantly increased cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells, which was completely prevented by the treatment with 0.01 or 0.1 mM metformin or anti-RAGE antibodies. Furthermore, metformin at 0.01 mM completely suppressed the AGEs-induced upregulation of RAGE and VEGF mRNA levels in MCF-7 cells. An inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase, compound C significantly blocked the growth-inhibitory and RAGE and VEGF suppressing effects of metformin in AGEs-exposed MCF-7 cells. Our present study suggests that metformin could inhibit the AGEs-induced growth and VEGF expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by suppressing RAGE gene expression via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Metformin may protect against breast cancer expansion in diabetic patients by blocking the AGEs-RAGE axis.

  19. Cell Polarity Proteins in Breast Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejon, Carlis; Al-Masri, Maia; McCaffrey, Luke

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer related death in women worldwide, is a heterogeneous disease with diverse subtypes that have different properties and prognoses. The developing mammary gland is a highly proliferative and invasive tissue, and some of the developmental programs may be aberrantly activated to promote breast cancer progression. In the breast, luminal epithelial cells exhibit apical-basal polarity, and the failure to maintain this organizational structure, due to disruption of polarity complexes, is implicated in promoting hyperplasia and tumors. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying loss of polarity will contribute to our knowledge of the early stages leading to the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we will discuss recent findings that support the idea that loss of apical-basal cell polarity is a crucial step in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. Oncogene induced loss of tissue organization shares a conserved cellular mechanism with developmental process, we will further describe the role of the individual polarity complexes, the Par, Crumbs, and Scribble, to couple cell division orientation and cell growth. We will examine symmetric or asymmetric cell divisions in mammary stem cell and their contribution to the development of breast cancer subtypes and cancer stem cells. Finally, we will highlight some of the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which changes in epithelial polarity programs promote invasion and metastasis through single cell and collective cell modes. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2215-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    In the United States, one in eight women will be affected by breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed - as well as the second most fatal - cancer in American women. It is estimated that there will be nearly 200,000 diagnoses of breast cancer this year; more than 40,000 of these will be fatal. Although advances in medical technologies have greatly increased the odds of surviving the disease, the increase in screenings has not resulted in a significant reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate. Moreover, recent studies have even suggested that an increase in these methods might, in itself, cause cancer. A new tool for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, supported by an award from the Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs of Department of Defense, could give women a new advantage in the fight against breast cancer. This LANL-led project will integrate ultrasound tomography (UST) with recent discoveries in the field of cell and tissue biomechanics to improve breast cancer detection and characterization. UST uses ultrasound waves instead of X-rays to identify and characterize breast tumors. This technology reveals small mechanical-property changes within the breast. These changes are often the earliest signs of breast cancer. Additionally, UST is effective for women with dense breast tissue, who have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Because the technology does not use radiation, UST can also be used as frequently as needed for women with a high risk of developing breast cancer. In contrast, mammography, the only routine breast-cancer screening tool currently available, is not effective for women with dense breast tissue and may come with unwanted side-effects caused by ionizing radiation. UST has great potential to become an alternative breast-cancer screening tool because of UST's advantages and benefits over mammography

  1. Breast cancer imaging; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, M. [Stadtklinik Baden-Baden, Brustzentrum Klinikum Mittelbaden, Radiologische Klinik, Baden-Baden (Germany); Villena, C. [Stadtklinik Baden-Baden, Brustzentrum Klinikum Mittelbaden, Frauenklinik, Baden-Baden (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Die Fortschritte bei den bildgebenden Verfahren der weiblichen Brust haben in den letzten Jahren die Diagnostik, die Therapie und die Prognose des Mammakarzinoms erheblich beeinflusst. Die Frueherkennungsmammographie in traditioneller oder digitaler Technik gilt heute als der ''Goldstandard'' fuer die fruehzeitige Detektion von Brustkrebs. Weitere Modalitaeten wie die Mammasonographie und die kontrastmittelgestuetzte MR-Mammographie spielen bei der bildgebenden Diagnostik, im Staging sowie in der Nachsorge des Mammakarzinoms eine wichtige Rolle. Die perkutane Nadelbiopsie stellt eine schnellere, weniger invasive und kostenguenstigere Methode dar als die diagnostische Exzision fuer die histologische Sicherung der Diagnose. Neue Modalitaeten wie Tomosynthese der Brust, kontrastverstaerkte Mammographie und Positronenemissionstomographie erheben den Anspruch, zu einer weiteren Verbesserung der Bildgebung beizutragen. Weitere Studien sind notwendig, um diese neuen Methoden an die klinischen Beduerfnisse zu adaptieren und ihren Stellenwert im klinischen Alltag

  2. Targeted nanoparticles for image-guided treatment of triple-negative breast cancer: clinical significance and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Kleinhenz, Jasmine M; Bozeman, Erica N; Yang, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with its aggressive tumor biology, highly heterogeneous tumor cells, and poor prognosis requires an integrated therapeutic approach that addresses critical issues in cancer therapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles with the abilities of targeted drug delivery and noninvasive imaging for monitoring drug delivery and responses to therapy, such as theranostic nanoparticles, hold great promise toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of TNBC using a single therapeutic platform. The biological and pathological characteristics of TNBC provide insight into several potential molecular targets for current and future nanoparticle-based therapeutics. Extensive tumor stroma, highly proliferative cells, and a high rate of drug resistance are all barriers that must be appropriately addressed in order for these nanotherapeutic platforms to be effective. Utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention effect coupled with active targeting of cell surface receptors expressed by TNBC cells, and tumor-associated endothelial cells, stromal fibroblasts, and macrophages is likely to overcome such barriers to facilitate more effective drug delivery. An in-depth summary of current studies investigating targeted nanoparticles in preclinical TNBC mouse and human xenograft models is presented. This review aims to outline the current status of nanotherapeutic options for TNBC patients, identification of promising molecular targets, challenges associated with the development of targeted nanotherapeutics, the research done by our group as well as by others, and future perspectives on the nanomedicine field and ways to translate current preclinical studies into the clinic.

  3. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed.

  4. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  5. In situ aromatase expression in primary tumor is associated with estrogen receptor expression but is not predictive of response to endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Henriksen, Katrine L; Rasmussen, Birgitte B;

    2009-01-01

    whether in situ carcinoma cell aromatization is the primary source of estrogen production for tumor growth and whether the aromatase expression is predictive of response to endocrine therapy. Due to methodological difficulties in the determination of the aromatase protein, COX-2, an enzyme involved...... of advanced breast cancer. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was performed for ER, PR, COX-2 and aromatase using Tissue Microarrays (TMAs). Aromatase was also analyzed using whole sections (WS). Kappa analysis was applied to compare association of protein expression levels. Univariate...... TMAs. Expression of COX-2 and aromatase did not predict response to endocrine therapy. Aromatase in combination with high PR expression may select letrozole treated patients with a longer TTP. CONCLUSION: TMAs are not suitable for IHC analysis of in situ aromatase expression and we did not find COX-2...

  6. TNM staging and classification (familial and nonfamilial of breast cancer in Jordanian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Atoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Staging of breast tumor has important implications for treatment and prognosis. This study aims at pinpointing the frequency of each stage among familial and nonfamilial breast cancers. Materials and Methods : Ninety-nine Jordanian females diagnosed with familial and nonfamilial breast cancer between 2000 and 2002 were enrolled in this study All breast cancer cases were staged according to the TNM classification into in situ, early invasive, advanced invasive and metastatic. Results : Forty-three cases were familial breast cancer and 56 were nonfamilial. One female breast cancer was diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS cancer. Fifty cases were diagnosed in early stages of invasive breast cancer, of which 31 cases were familial, 29 cases were classified as advanced invasive, where 21 cases were nonfamilial and 19 cases were metastatic stage of breast cancer, with 16 nonfamilial cases. Stage 2b was the most common stage of early invasive cases and represented 48% of the early stage of breast cancer. On the other hand, among cases diagnosed with advanced invasive breast cancer, stage 3a was the most common stage and represented 89.6% of the advanced stage. Interestingly, all cases of stage 3a belonged to TNM stages of T2N2M0 and T3N1M0. The tumor size in all cases of Jordanian females diagnosed with advanced invasive breast cancer exceeded 2 cm in size due to selection bias from symptomatic women in our study. Conclusion : The incidence of nonfamilial breast cancer was slightly higher than that of the familial type amongst studied the Jordanian females studied. The early invasive stage of breast cancer was more common in the familial while the advanced invasive and metastatic breast cancer cases were encountered more often in the nonfamilial type. Our study was based on a small sample and symptomatic women. Therefore, more research with larger population samples is needed to confirm this conclusion.

  7. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  8. 低分子肝素联合化疗治疗晚期乳腺癌%Low molecular heparin combined chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽丽; 刘力新; 张秀娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of low molecular heparin in combined with chemotherapy on blood clots markers D dimmers and fibrinogen in advanced breast cancer. Methods: Total of 42 patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomly divided into two groups, patients in group A received pachtaxel plus cisplatin; patients in group B received regimen TP combined with low molecular heparin 5000U subcutaneously injected ql2 hours per day, for 5 days. Group B: low molecular heparin and TP scheme chemotherapy group, on the base of drug in group A combined with low molecular heparin 5000U subcutaneous injection 12 hours 1 times, for five days. Results: There was no significant difference in low molecular heparin group D-dimers before and after chemotherapy. Level of fibrinogen after chemotherapy was significantly lower than the level before chemotherapy( P 0. 05 ). There was on significant differences in adverse reactions between 2 groups. Conclusion: The application of low molecular heparin combined chemotherapy can improve high pour - point state in advanced breast cancer without obvious adverse reactions.%目的:观察低分子肝素联合化疗对晚期乳腺癌的疗效及对血栓标志物(D二聚体、纤维蛋白原)的影响.方法:42例晚期乳腺癌患者随机分成两组.A组:TP化疗组,应用紫杉醇135mg/m2第1天静脉滴注,顺铂70 mg/m2第2天静脉滴注.B组:低分子肝素联合TP方案化疗组,在A组用药的基础上加用低分子肝素5000U 皮下注射 12小时1次,共用5天.结果:低分子肝素组D二聚体化疗前后无明显变化(P>0.05),纤维蛋白原化疗后明显低于化疗前水平(P0.05).低分子肝素组治疗的不良反应较单纯化疗组统计学差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论:应用低分子肝素联合化疗能改善晚期乳腺癌高凝状态,无明显不良反应.

  9. 卵巢切除联合依西美坦治疗绝经前激素受体阳性晚期难治性乳腺癌%Bilateral oophorectomy combined with exemestane treating advanced refractory breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhong Wu; Yaojun Feng; Juan Xu; Yiping Gong; Biao Ma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Taking tamoxifen orally is the main endocrine therapy of the premenopausal breast cancer with positive hormone receptor, but numerous patients developed to be advanced refractory breast cancer because of drug resistance.Our study investigated a role of the combination of bilateral oophorectomy and exemestane in the management of advanced refractory breast cancer. Methods: The bilateral oophorectomy was carried out in 17 patients. One week after the operation,exemestane was taken orally (25 mg/d). The median time to progression (TTP), the median survival time and the survival rate were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results: Seventeen patients age ranged from 26 to 44 years (median, 36 years) were treated with an overall response rate of 64.70%, TTP was 8 months and the median survival time was 31 months.The survival rate of 1-year, 3 years and 5 years was 88.24%, 64.71%, 29.41%, respectively. There have no grade Ⅲ/Ⅳ side effects appeared. Conclusion: Bilateral oophorectomy combined with exemestane is safe and effective for advanced refractory premenopausal breast cancer with positive hormone receptor and it is well-tolerated.

  10. Locally advanced breast cancers are more likely to present as Interval Cancers: results from the I-SPY 1 TRIAL (CALGB 150007/150012, ACRIN 6657, InterSPORE Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheryl; Buxton, Meredith Becker; Moore, Dan; Krontiras, Helen; Carey, Lisa; DeMichele, Angela; Montgomery, Leslie; Tripathy, Debasish; Lehman, Constance; Liu, Minetta; Olapade, Olufunmilayo; Yau, Christina; Berry, Donald; Esserman, Laura J

    2012-04-01

    Interval cancers (ICs), defined as cancers detected between regular screening mammograms, have been shown to be of higher grade, larger size, and associated with lower survival, compared with screen-detected cancers (SDCs) and comprise 17% of cancers from population-based screening programs. We sought to determine the frequency of ICs in a study of locally advanced breast cancers, the I-SPY 1 TRIAL. Screening was defined as having a mammogram with 2 years, and the proportion of ICs at 1 and 2 years was calculated for screened patients. Differences in clinical characteristics for ICs versus SDCs and screened versus non-screened cancers were assessed. For the 219 evaluable women, mean tumor size was 6.8 cm. Overall, 80% of women were over 40 and eligible for screening; however, only 31% were getting screened. Among women screened, 85% were ICs, with 68% diagnosed within 1 year of a previously normal mammogram. ICs were of higher grade (49% vs. 10%) than SDCs. Among non-screened women, 28% (43/152) were younger than the recommended screening age of 40. Of the entire cohort, 12% of cancers were mammographically occult (MO); the frequency of MO cancers did not differ between screened (11%) and non-screened (15%). ICs were common in the I-SPY 1 TRIAL suggesting the potential need for new approaches beyond traditional screening to reduce mortality in women who present with larger palpable cancers.

  11. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the breast are glandular tissue (they make breast milk in women), so cancers starting in these areas are sometimes called adenocarcinomas. ... invasive) lobular carcinoma (ILC) This type of breast cancer starts in ... that, in women, produce breast milk) and grows into the fatty tissue of the ...

  12. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  13. IL-33 facilitates endocrine resistance of breast cancer by inducing cancer stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Sun, Jiaxing; Wang, Chunhong; Bu, Xiangmao; Liu, Xiangping; Mao, Yan; Wang, Haibo

    2017-02-16

    Breast cancers with estrogen receptor (ER) expressions account for the majority of all clinical cases. Due to hormone therapy with tamoxifen, prognoses of patients with ER-positive breast cancer are significantly improved. However, endocrine resistance to tamoxifen is common and inevitable, leading to compromised efficacy of hormone therapy. Herein, we identify a crucial role of IL-33 in inducing endocrine resistance of breast cancer. IL-33 overexpression in breast cancer cells results in resistance to tamoxifen-induced tumor growth inhibition, while IL-33 knockdown corrects this problem. Mechanistically, IL-33 induces breast cancer stem cell properties evidenced by mammosphere formation and xenograft tumorigenesis, as well as expression of cancer stem cell genes including ALDH1A3, OCT4, NANOG and SOX2. In breast cancer patients, higher serum IL-33 levels portend advanced clinical stages, poorly differentiated cancer cells and tumor recurrence. IL-33 expression levels in patients' freshly isolated breast cancer cells predicts tamoxifen resistance and cancer stem cell features in individual patient. Collectively, IL-33 induces endocrine resistance of breast cancer by promoting cancer stem cell properties. These findings provide novel mechanisms connecting IL-33 with cancer pathogenesis and pinpoint IL-33 as a promising target for optimizing hormone therapy in clinical practice.

  14. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  15. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  17. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  19. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer SusceptibilitySuzanne. E. FentonUS EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  1. Molecular-Genetic Aspects of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasteva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women. Advances in breast cancer knowledge have deciphered the involvement of a number of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes in disease pathogenesis. These genes are part of the complex biochemical pathways, which enable cell cycle control and maintenance of genome integrity. Their function may be disrupted as a result of alterations in gene sequence or misregulation of gene expression including alterations in DNA methylation pattern. The present review summarizes the main findings on major breast cancer related genes BRCA1/2, p53, ATM, CHEK2, HER2, PIK3CA and their tumorigenic inactivation/activation. The potential clinical importance of these genes with respect to patients’ prognosis and therapy are also discussed. The possible implication of other putative breast cancer related genes is also outlined. The first elaborate data on the genetic and epigenetic status of the above mentioned genes concerning Bulgarian patients with the sporadic form of the disease are presented. The studies indicate for a characteristic mutational spectrum in some of the genes for the Bulgarian patients and specific correlation between the status of different genes and clinicopathological characteristics.

  2. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  3. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  4. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  5. 三阴乳腺癌研究进展%Research advancement on triple negative breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐

    2010-01-01

    三阴乳腺癌是指雌激素受体(ER)、孕激素受体(PR)、人类表皮生长因子受体-2(Her-2)均不表达的乳腺癌,是乳腺癌的一种特殊亚型,有着特殊的生物学特性和临床病理特征,对内分泌治疗及针对Her-2的靶向药物赫赛汀无效,对化疗敏感,但是远期疗效不佳.三阴乳腺癌的特点,以及治疗方案的选择,是近年研究的热点.%Triple negative breast cancer(TNBC) is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor (ER) , progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 ( Her-2) expression. It is a subtype of tumor with distinct clinical and pathologic features and lacks effective targeted therapies. It is non - sensitive to endocrine therapy and targeted therapy drug herceptin, leaving chemotherapy as the mainstay of treatment The feature and the treatment of TNBC is the hotspot of resent research.

  6. Vincristine, doxorubicin and mitomycin (VAM) in patients with advanced breast cancer previously treated with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF). A clinical trial of the Piedmont Oncology Association (POA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S K; Muss, H B; Westrick, M A; Cooper, M R; Jackson, D V; Richards, F C; White, D R; Stuart, J J; Christian, R M; Ramseur, W

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six evaluable patients with advanced breast cancer who had failed prior CMF therapy [15 (42%) as adjuvant treatment and 21 (58%) for advanced disease] were treated with a combination of vincristine, doxorubicin, and mitomycin (VAM). There was one CR and 10 PR, giving a response rate of 31% (P, 95% confidence interval, 15%-47%). Response was not significantly related to age, performance status, disease-free interval, dominant site of disease, number of sites of disease, or estrogen receptor status. The median duration of response was 5 months for patients attaining CR or PR and 4.6 months for patients with stable disease. The median survival for patients with CR or PR of 7.9 months was not better than for those with stable disease (8.0 months), but both groups had significantly longer survival than those with initial progression. Patients who received VAM after failing adjuvant CMF had a 53% response rate (8 of 15), as against a 14% response rate (3 of 21) in those failing CMF for advanced disease (P less than 0.05). In spite of this difference, the survival distributions for these two groups were not significantly different. Myelosuppression was moderate and no cardiac toxicity was seen. The addition of mitomycin to vincristine and doxorubicin in previously treated patients does not appear to improve the results obtained with vincristine and doxorubicin alone.

  7. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement; Cancer du sein avec atteinte ganglionnaire axillaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C. [Departement de radiotherapie, Unite fonctionnelle de Senologie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I. [Service de radiotherapie Carcinologique, institut Salah-Azaiez, Tunis (Tunisia); Kanoun, S. [Service de radiotherapie, hopital Farhat-Hached, Sousse (Tunisia); Kallel, A. [dUnite de radiotherapie, clinique Ennasr (Tunisia); Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R. [Departement de physique, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Marsiglia, H. [Universite de Florence (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  8. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  9. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  10. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamidreza; Alizadeh; Otaghvar; Mostafa; Hosseini; Adnan; Tizmaghz; Ghazaal; Shabestanipour; Hamid; Noori

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6 160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1 063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case-control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to the higher risk of age group 40-49 years and the advent of advanced breast cancer in Iranian women, the early diagnosis and determination of the exact size of the tumor before surgery is important in choosing a therapy plan. The decision on the therapy of invasive breast cancer depends on several factors such as cancer stage, tumor size and type, pathological and cytological status of the tumor, the patient’s opinion, the presence or absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and so on.

  11. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  12. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  13. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using dye alone method is reliable and accurate even after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer - a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Ashwani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB is now considered a standard of care in early breast cancers with N0 axillae; however, its role in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT is still being debated. The present study assessed the feasibility, efficacy and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB using "dye alone" (methylene blue method in patients with LABC following NACT. Materials and methods Thirty, biopsy proven cases of LABC that had received three cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil were subjected to SLNB (using methylene blue dye followed by complete axillary lymph node dissection (levels I-III. The sentinel node(s was/were and the axilla were individually assessed histologically. The SLN accuracy parameters were calculated employing standard definitions. The SLN identification rate in the present study was 100%. The sensitivity of SLNB was 86.6% while the accuracy was 93.3%, which were comparable with other studies done using dual lymphatic mapping method. The SLN was found at level I in all cases and no untoward reaction to methylene blue dye was observed. Conclusions This study confirms that SLNB using methylene blue dye as a sole mapping agent is reasonably safe and almost as accurate as dual agent mapping method. It is likely that in the near future, SLNB may become the standard of care and provide a less morbid alternative to routine axillary lymph node dissection even in patients with LABC that have received NACT.

  15. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  16. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  17. Basal {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography as a prognostic biomarker in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Vicente, Ana Maria; Soriano Castrejon, Angel [University General Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Ciudad Real (Spain); Lopez-Fidalgo, Jesus Fernando; Amo-Salas, Mariano [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Department of Mathematics, Ciudad Real (Spain); Mar Munoz Sanchez, Maria del [Virgen de la Luz Hospital, Oncology Department, Cuenca (Spain); Alvarez Cabellos, Ruth [Virgen de la Salud Hospital, Oncology Department, Toledo (Spain); Espinosa Aunion, Ruth [La Mancha Centro Hospital, Oncology Department, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    To explore the relationship between basal {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT information in breast tumours and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). This prospective, multicentre study included 198 women diagnosed with LABC. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in tumor (T), lymph nodes (N) and the N/T ratio was obtained in all cases. Stage according to PET/CT imaging (metabolic stage) and conventional imaging techniques (clinical stage) was established. During follow-up, patient status was established (disease free status or not). The relationship between all the variables and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. A ROC analysis was performed to obtain a cut-off value of SUVmax that was useful in the prediction of outcome. The mean SUVmax ± SD values in the primary tumour, lymph nodes and the SUVmax N/T index were 7.40 ± 5.57, 4.17 ± 4.74 and 0.73 ± 1.20, respectively. Higher semiquantitative metabolic values were found in more advanced metabolic and clinical stages. During follow-up, 78.4 % of patients were free of disease. Significant relationships were observed between SUVT and SUVN and patient status. With respect to OS and DFS, significant differences were detected for the metabolic stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that using the cut-off values, a primary-tumour SUVmax ≥ 6.05 or a nodal SUVmax ≥2.25 were significantly correlated with DFS and OS. PET imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG offers prognostic information for LABC that can be obtained preoperatively and noninvasively. (orig.)

  18. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  20. Trastuzumab emtansine in locally advanced or metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer; GENESIS-SEFH drug evaluation report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miranda Romero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trastuzumab emtansina (T-DM1 is an antibody-drug conjugate directed against the HER2 for the treatment of HER2+ mestastatic breast cancer (MBC, who has previously received trastuzumab plus a taxane. According to the results of the EMILIA trial versus lapatinib plus capecitabine T-DM1 shows an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS and the overall survival (OS. It has a favorable profile reducing the incidence of grade 3-4 adverse reactions such as hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea. On the contrary increases significantly severe thrombocytopenia; bleeding risk and liver function should also be monitored. With the current import price T-DM1 has a cost per QALY of over 120,000 €. The price of the drug for the Spanish NHS has not yet been established. Drug cost would be the key factor in the sensitivity analysis and a 50% reduction in the price of the drug would place it close to the threshold of cost-effectiveness usually considered in our midst. According to the budget impact model used, a maximum of 1,218 patients / year and the budgetary impact throughout the Spanish state would be at € 70,490,850. In the initial analysis no advantage was found for T-DM1 in those patients without visceral involvement. Although a subsequent re-analysis of the results of PFS in which the definition of visceral involvement was specified a significant benefit was shown in this subgroup. We believe that this approach introduces a high degree of uncertainty, which does not guarantee the benefit achieved for this subgroup of patients

  1. Trastuzumab emtansine in locally advanced or metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer; GENESIS-SEFH drug evaluation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda Romero, Patricia; Marín Gil, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Trastuzumab emtansina (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate directed against the HER2 for the treatment of HER2+ mestastatic breast cancer (MBC), who has previously received trastuzumab plus a taxane. According to the results of the EMILIA trial versus lapatinib plus capecitabine T-DM1 shows an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS). It has a favorable profile reducing the incidence of grade 3-4 adverse reactions such as hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea. On the contrary increases significantly severe thrombocytopenia; bleeding risk and liver function should also be monitored. With the current import price T-DM1 has a cost per QALY of over 120,000 €. The price of the drug for the Spanish NHS has not yet been established. Drug cost would be the key factor in the sensitivity analysis and a 50% reduction in the price of the drug would place it close to the threshold of cost-effectiveness usually considered in our midst. According to the budget impact model used, a maximum of 1,218 patients / year and the budgetary impact throughout the Spanish state would be at € 70,490,850. In the initial analysis no advantage was found for T-DM1 in those patients without visceral involvement. Although a subsequent re-analysis of the results of PFS in which the definition of visceral involvement was specified a significant benefit was shown in this subgroup. We believe that this approach introduces a high degree of uncertainty, which does not guarantee the benefit achieved for this subgroup of patients.

  2. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. CONCLUSION: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been...

  3. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sacs) or they can be due to normal breast changes associated with hormone changes or aging. Girls who are beginning puberty might notice a lump underneath the nipple when their breasts start developing. Usually, this is a normal. You can ask a parent or your doctor ...

  4. Trastuzumab: updated mechanisms of action and resistance in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois X. Claret

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available HER2-postitive breast cancer has the second-poorest prognosis among breast cancer subtypes. One of the most effective targeted therapies for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer is trastuzumab-based. However, primary or acquired resistance to trastuzumab has been a major obstacle in the clinical management of this disease. Therefore, to better control HER2-postitive breast cancer, it is necessary to gain a deeper understanding of trastuzumab’s actions and the pathways that cancer cells use to dodge its effects. In this review, we attempt to give an overview of the widely accepted and currently proposed molecular mechanisms for these actions and highlight recent advances in our understanding of HER2 targeted therapies.

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer progression and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan Wang; Binhua P. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women,and approximately 90% of breast cancer deaths are caused by local invasion and distant metastasis of tumor cells.Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a vital process for large-scale cell movement during morphogenesis at the time of embryonic development.Tumor cells usurp this developmental program to execute the multi-step process of tumorigenesis and metastasis.Several transcription factors and signals are involved in these events.In this review,we summarize recent advances in breast cancer researches that have provided new insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying EMT regulation during breast cancer progression and metastasis.We especially focus on the molecular pathways that control EMT.

  6. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  7. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  8. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  9. The professional role of breast cancer nurses in multi-disciplinary breast cancer care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Z; Scully, J; Borrill, C

    2004-12-01

    Since the 1970s breast cancer services have witnessed considerable changes in the management of patients. One significant change was the introduction of specialist core personnel, including the breast care nurse (BCN). The role of the BCN has been gaining credence rapidly in the British NHS and this service is perhaps the paradigm of care for other services. With the lack of specific evidence of the role of specialist nurses in the breast care team, the current study aims to explore this area by in-depth interviews with core team members, and observations of 16 multi-disciplinary teams in England. The study explores the following themes: Nurses' unique informal management leadership role in ensuring the co-ordination, communication and planning of the team work; nurses' innovatory role in making the bureaucracy respond to patients and their relatives needs; nurses supportive role in the provision of expert advice and guidance to other members of the team; nurses confidence and humour in well-performing teams; and the limitations of the professional role of the breast cancer nurse. This study indicates that there is evidence that the BCN is practicing at an advanced level of practice. However, there is a severe lack of evidence-based description of that advanced practice. Cancer nurses including the BCNs should develop and participate in programmes of research in line with cancer legislation in order to build an evidence base that ultimately supports their unique role.

  10. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  11. Long-term outcome after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy in locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer and predictive factors for a pathologic complete remission. Results of a multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuschek, C.; Boelke, E.; Roth, S.L. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology] [and others

    2012-09-15

    An earlier published series of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (NRT-CHX) in locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer (LABC) has now been updated with a follow-up of more than 15 years. Long-term outcome data and predictive factors for pathologic complete response (pCR) were analyzed. Patients and methods: During 1991-1998, 315 LABC patients (cT1-cT4/cN0-N1) were treated with NRT-CHX. Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) consisted of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of 50 Gy (5 x 2 Gy/week) to the breast and the supra-/infraclavicular lymph nodes combined with an electron boost in 214 cases afterwards or - in case of breast conservation - a 10-Gy interstitial boost with {sup 192}Ir afterloading before EBRT. Chemotherapy was administered prior to RT in 192 patients, and concomitantly in 113; 10 patients received no chemotherapy. The update of all follow-up ended in November 2011. Age, tumor grade, nodal status, hormone receptor status, simultaneous vs. sequential CHX, and the time interval between end of RT and surgery were examined in multivariate terms with pCR and overall survival as end point. Results: The total pCR rate after neoadjuvant RT-CHX reached 29.2%, with LABC breast conservation becoming possible in 50.8% of cases. In initially node-positive cases (cN+), a complete nodal response (pN0) after NRT-CHX was observed in 56% (89/159). The multivariate analysis revealed that a longer time interval to surgery increased the probability for a pCR (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.05-1.31], p < 0.01). However, in large tumors (T3-T4) a significantly reduced pCR rate (HR 0.89 [95% CI 0.80-0.99], p = 0.03) was obtained. Importantly, pCR was the strongest prognostic factor for long-term survival (HR 0.28 [95% CI 0.19-0.56], p < 0.001). Conclusion: pCR identifies patients with a significantly better prognosis for long-term survival. However, a long time interval to surgery (> 2 months) increases the probability of pCR after NRT-CHX. (orig.)

  12. THE RELATION BETWEEN BREAST FEEDING AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alavi Naini

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Second to the cardiovascular disease, cancer is the main cause of death in Iran. In this study some of the risk factors of breast cancer; especially the ones related to breastfeeding have been assessed. The study was a retrospective study of 100 women with breast cancer. The most important risk factors in breast cancer were number of children, age of mother on the first pregnancy. The result showed that the increase of breast cancer was related to women who stopped breastfeeding before age 24 months. Breastfeeding for more than 12 months will reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 25%. In general there was a reverse relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of cancer in premonopausal, but not in postmenopausal women.

  13. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  14. Lewis Y Antigen as a Target for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    template structures. Sequences for BR96, TE33, BV04, and B03i2 are from deposited PDB files in the Brookhaven repository ( Berstein etal., 1977...appropriately con- (DAMD17-94-J-4310) Breast Cancer Initiative. 21 Springer H, Carls , antigen safe in advance References Cancer I Hakomori S: Aberrant glyco- 7

  15. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  16. Dietary fiber and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L A

    1999-01-01

    The Fiber Hypothesis which had its origins in the work of Burkitt and others in the early 1970's, focussed largely on fiber's beneficial effects on colon cancer and disorders of the gastric intestinal tract. In the 1980's it was proposed that fiber may also have beneficial effects on breast cancer and a rational for this was proposed involving modulation, by fiber, of the enterohepatic recirculation of estrogens. In the following the evidence from epidemiology, clinical interventions and animal model studies, supporting a role for fiber in breast cancer is critically reviewed. Evidence from animal model studies support the notion that supplementary fiber inhibits chemically-induced mammary tumorigenesis but do not support an estrogen-based mechanism. Some studies in human populations suggest modulation by estrogens and some do not. The aggregate data point to minor constituents present in fiber, such as isoflavones and phytate as the biologically active components of fiber which may be responsible for its anti cancer effects.

  17. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  18. Advancing Our Understanding of the Etiologies and Mutational Landscapes of Basal-Like, Luminal A, and Luminal B Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    University of Michigan Michigan Center for Translational Pathology 5309 CCC 1400 E. Medical Center Drive Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5940 9...detailed telephone interview, collection of breast tissue and oral samples and medical record abstraction. Breast tissue samples will be reviewed and...tested at Fred Hutchinson Research Center and special tissue analyses will also be performed at the Michigan Center for Translational Pathology . This

  19. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  20. Risk, characteristics, and prognosis of breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  1. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  2. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  3. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  4. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    CSF. J Clin Invest 117, 1902 (Jul, 2007). 32. H. Yamaguchi et al., Milk fat globule EGF factor 8 in the serum of human patients of systemic lupus erythematosus . J Leukoc Biol 83, 1300 (May, 2008). ...comprehensive and systematic manner is the underlying principle of my goal to develop ’rational combination immunotherapy’ for breast cancer, one

  5. Mouse Stirs up Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 孙雯

    2004-01-01

    @@ The humble house mouse could be more dangerous than we thought,according to a study that suggests a rodent① virus plays a role in the development of breast cancer. But the finding is contentious② and reignites③ a long-standing④wrangle⑤ about the potential⑥ causes of the disease.

  6. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard;

    2010-01-01

    tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  7. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the gener

  8. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter.

  9. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  10. Clinical utility of the combination of lapatinib and letrozole in the management of hormone receptor-positive and HER2-positive advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam PA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Priscilla Merriam, William M Sikov Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Breast cancers that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2-positive [HER2+] tend to be biologically aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis, even those that coexpress receptors for estrogen and/or progesterone (hormone receptor-positive [HR+]. Optimal therapy for patients with “double-positive” (HR+/HER2+ breast cancers is still being defined. In this subset of patients, the efficacy of targeted endocrine therapies appears to be diminished by cross-activation or “crosstalk” between estrogen receptor-mediated gene transcription and pathways activated by other growth factor receptors, including HER2. Lapatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor which binds reversibly to the intracellular domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor and HER2, interfering with their ability to initiate signal transduction cascades that promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastasis. In a recently published randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III study in postmenopausal HR+ metastatic breast cancer, the addition of lapatinib to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole significantly improved progression-free survival solely in women who were also HER2+. This article reviews the biology of “double-positive” breast cancers and the rationale underlying combining endocrine and HER2-targeted therapies, including the lapatinib/letrozole combination, for these tumors. Results from the Phase III trial are examined, as well as available data on other combinations of HR and HER2-targeted therapies. Ongoing trials and potential future applications of these combinations in both HR+/HER2+ and other subgroups of breast cancer patients are also discussed. Keywords: breast neoplasm, erbB2, estrogen receptor, letrozole, lapatinib

  11. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehab, Moataz; Elbaz, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic treatment of postmenopausal women with ERα+/HER2- locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential role of CDK inhibition in breast cancer treatment, and focus on palbociclib progress from preclinical studies to clinical trials with mentioning the

  13. Death certification in cancer of the breast.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The cause of death entered on the death certificates of 193 patients originally diagnosed as having cancer of the breast was compared with information obtained from clinical records, cancer registry records, and necropsy findings to determine the accuracy of death certification and the proportion of patients who, though dying from another cause, still had overt signs of cancer of the breast. It was found that the overall error in certifying cause of death as breast cancer was small, being an ...

  14. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  15. Liquid crystal foil for the detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Michał; Trzyna, Marcin; Byszek, Agnieszka; Jaremek, Henryk

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in females around the world, representing 25.2% of all cancers in women. About 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer worldwide in 2012 with a death rate of about 522,0001,2. The most frequently used methods in breast cancer screening are imaging methods, i.e. ultrasonography and mammography. A common feature of these methods is that they inherently involve the use of expensive and advanced equipment. The development of advanced computer systems allowed for the continuation of research started already in the 1980s3 and the use of contact thermography in breast cancer screening. The physiological basis for the application of thermography in medical imaging diagnostics is the so-called dermothermal effect related to higher metabolism rate around focal neoplastic lesion. This phenomenon can occur on breast surface as localized temperature anomalies4. The device developed by Braster is composed of a detector that works on the basis of thermotropic liquid crystals, image acquisition device and a computer system for image data processing and analysis. Production of the liquid crystal detector was based on a proprietary CLCF technology (Continuous Liquid Crystal Film). In 2014 Braster started feasibility study to prove that there is a potential for artificial intelligence in early breast cancer detection using Braster's proprietary technology. The aim of this study was to develop a computer system, using a client-server architecture, to an automatic interpretation of thermographic pictures created by the Braster devices.

  16. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer.org Handling treatment The goal of any breast cancer treatment is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even the best treatments have side effects. ...

  17. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Stony Brook University found no association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing ... to naturally occurring and synthetic cancer, and designing ...

  18. Impact of Pretreatment Combined {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Staging on Radiation Therapy Treatment Decisions in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Sweet Ping, E-mail: sweet.ng@petermac.org [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); David, Steven [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Alamgeer, Muhammad; Ganju, Vinod [Monash Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on radiation therapy treatment decisions in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LABC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2 and no contraindication to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant radiation therapy were enrolled on a prospective trial. All patients had pretreatment conventional imaging (CI) performed, including bilateral breast mammography and ultrasound, bone scan, and CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis scans performed. Informed consent was obtained before enrolment. Pretreatment whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed on all patients, and results were compared with CI findings. Results: A total of 154 patients with LABC with no clinical or radiologic evidence of distant metastases on CI were enrolled. Median age was 49 years (range, 26-70 years). Imaging with PET/CT detected distant metastatic disease and/or locoregional disease not visualized on CI in 32 patients (20.8%). Distant metastatic disease was detected in 17 patients (11.0%): 6 had bony metastases, 5 had intrathoracic metastases (pulmonary/mediastinal), 2 had distant nodal metastases, 2 had liver metastases, 1 had pulmonary and bony metastases, and 1 had mediastinal and distant nodal metastases. Of the remaining 139 patients, nodal disease outside conventional radiation therapy fields was detected on PET/CT in 15 patients (10.8%), with involvement of ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in 13 and ipsilateral level 5 cervical nodes in 2. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT provides superior diagnostic and staging information in patients with LABC compared with CI, which has significant therapeutic implications with respect to radiation therapy management. Imaging with PET/CT should be considered in all patients undergoing primary

  19. Triple-negative breast cancer: epidemiological considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    2012-08-01

    Breast cancer is a major problem for global public health. Breast Cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women around the world. The incidence is increasing while mortality is declining in many high-income countries. The last decade has seen a revolution in the understanding of breast cancer, with new classifications proposed that have significant prognostic value and provide guides to treatment options. Breast cancers that demonstrate the absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There is now evidence emerging from epidemiological studies regarding important characteristics of this group of tumours that carry a relatively poorer prognosis than the major breast cancer sub-types. From this review of available data and information, there are some consistent findings that emerge. Women with TNBC experience the peak risk of recurrence within 3 years of diagnosis, and the mortality rates appear to be increased for 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC represents 10%-20% of invasive breast cancers and has been associated with African-American race, deprivation status, younger age at diagnosis, more advanced disease stage, higher grade, high mitotic indices, family history of breast cancer and BRCA1 mutations. TNBC is regularly reported to be three times more common in women of African descent and in pre-menopausal women, and carries a poorer prognosis than other forms of breast cancer. Although prospects for prevention of non-hormone-dependent breast cancer are currently poor, it is still important to understand the aetiology of such tumours. There remains a great deal of work to be done to arrive at a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of breast cancer. Key recommendations are that there is a clear and urgent need to have more epidemiological studies of the breast cancer sub-types to integrate aetiological and

  20. FDG-PET in monitoring therapy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Bender, H.; Palmedo, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been used successfully for the staging and re-staging of breast cancer. Another significant indication is the evaluation of therapy response. Only limited data are available on the use of FDG-PET in breast cancer after radiation therapy. The same holds true for chemotherapy. Only the therapy response in locally advanced breast cancer after chemotherapy has been investigated thoroughly. Histopathological response could be predicted with an accuracy of 88-91% after the first and second courses of therapy. A quantitative evaluation is, of course, a prerequisite when FDG-PET is used for therapy monitoring. Only a small number of studies have focussed on hormone therapy. In this context, a flare phenomenon with increasing standardised uptake values after initiation of tamoxifen therapy has been observed. More prospective multicentre trials will be needed to make FDG-PET a powerful tool in monitoring chemotherapy in breast cancer. (orig.)

  1. Are breast cancer stem cells the key to resolving clinical issues in breast cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hidetaka; Ishikawa, Takashi; Endo, Itaru

    2017-01-01

    Despite the dramatic advances in breast cancer treatment over the past two decades, it is still the most common malignancies in women. One of the reasons patients succumb to breast cancer is treatment resistance leading to metastasis and recurrence. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been suggested as a cause of metastasis and recurrence in several cancers because of their unique characteristics, including self-renewal, pluripotency, and high proliferative ability. Increasing evidence has implicated breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) as essential for tumor development, progression, recurrence, and treatment resistance. BCSCs exhibit resistance to treatment owing to several inter-related factors, including overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and increased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, DNA repair, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging. In addition, the Notch, Hedgehog, and Wnt signaling pathways have been suggested as the major pathways involved in the self-renewal and differentiation of BCSCs. Despite growing evidence suggesting the importance of BCSCs in progression and metastasis, clear criteria for the identification of BCSCs in clinical practice have yet to be established. Several potential markers have been suggested, including CD44+/CD24−/low, ALDH1, EpCAM/ESA, and nestin; however, there is no standard method to detect BCSCs. Triple-negative breast cancer, which shows initial chemosensitivity, demonstrates worsened prognosis due to therapy resistance, which might be related to the presence of BCSCs. Several clinical trials aimed at the identification of BCSCs or the development of BCSC-targeted therapy are in progress. Determining the clinical relevance of BCSCs may provide clues for overcoming therapy resistance in breast cancer. PMID:28210556

  2. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  3. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  4. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    the project was the development of an educational intervention ( flip chart ) for physicians to use in the clinic setting when discussing breast...Procedure Scheduling on Breast Biopsy Patient Outcomes The first phase of this project is the development of an educational flip chart for...breast biopsy and breast cancer survivors to guide the content of the flip chart b) Develop outline and overall format c) Identify/develop

  5. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... carry these changes. Mammographic breast density : The glandular (milk-producing) and connective tissue of the breast are ...

  6. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  7. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  8. Management of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Jurado, J; Richart Aznar, P; García Mata, J; Fernández Martínez, R; Peláez Fernández, I; Sampedro Gimeno, T; Galve Calvo, E; Murillo Jaso, L; Polo Marqués, E; García Palomo, A

    2011-09-01

    Hormone treatment is one of the key strategies in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Hormone treatment is one of the key strategies in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors (AI) have been extensively studied in this setting. This section summarizes the key data regarding the use of AI in advanced breast cancer. In postmenopausal women, AI are the first line of treatment for untreated patients, or those who had prior AI treatment and progress after 12 months of adjuvant therapy. A longer disease-free interval and absence of visceral disease is associated with a better response. If tumors recur in less than 12 months, it is recommended that tamoxifen (TAM) or the estrogen-receptor antagonist fulvestrant (FUL) treatment be initiated. In the second-line setting, the best option after progression is the administration of either FUL or TAM. In the third-line setting, reintroduction of AI is considered an acceptable option. In premenopausal women who have not received prior treatment or who have progressed after 12 months following adjuvant treatment, it is recommended to initiate therapy with a combination of TAM and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog. If there is treatment failure with the use of this combination, megestrol acetate or an LHRH agonist plus an AI may be reasonable alternatives. Intensive research is ongoing to understand the mechanisms of resistance to hormone therapy. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive-patients, combinations with HER2 antagonists are associated with significant clinical activity.

  9. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This approach integrates prevention , screening, diagnosis, treatment and...follow a healthy lifestyle ?” (submitted for publication clearance April 2015). Ellsworth RE, Mamula KA, Costantino NS, Deyarmin B, Kostyniak PJ, Chi...disorders. The project will continue utilizing a multidisciplinary approach as the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This

  10. Digital Mammography Imaging: Breast Tomosynthesis and Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvie, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This article discusses recent developments in advanced derivative technologies associated with digital mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis – its principles, development, and early clinical trials are reviewed. Contrast enhanced digital mammography and combined imaging systems with digital mammography and ultrasound are also discussed. Although all these methods are currently research programs, they hold promise for improving cancer detection and characterization if early results are confirmed by clinical trials. PMID:20868894

  11. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  12. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  13. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  14. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  15. Molecular-targeted agents in treatment of advanced breast cancer%晚期乳腺癌分子靶向药物治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健; 王晓稼

    2008-01-01

    分子靶向药物已经被临床广泛使用,其疗效显著,不良反应轻微,主要有表皮生长因子(EGF)抑制剂、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)抑制剂、小分子酪氨酸激酶抑制剂、单克隆抗体等.与多种化疗药物联合可以进一步提高疗效.%Molecular-targeted agents have had an extensive use in clinic.It has been the primary choice when treating advanced breast cancer due to its remarkable therapeutic efficacy and slightly adverse reaction. New drugs haye emerged such as inhibitors of epithelial grouth factor,inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor,tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,etc.Molecular-targeted agents combined with multi-drugs can further improve the therapeutic effect.

  16. Changing Trends of Breast Cancer Survival in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyam Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women, with elevated incidence in developing countries. This retrospective study included all 122 patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2003 to December 2008 in the Sultanate of Oman. Age at presentation was 47.41 years (SD±12.88, with one-third of patients younger than 40 years. The majority of patients presented with stage III (41.2% and IV (18.2% breast cancer. T size (=.023, skin involvement (=.003, and stage at presentation (=.004 were significantly associated with overall survival. Skin involvement at presentation (=.003, T size (=.09, lymph node status (=.013, and stage (=.003 were strong predictors of relapse-free survival. Patients had a 5-year survival of 78%, compared to 64% of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1996 and 2002 identified in our previously published study. Thus, despite Omani breast cancer patients continuing to present with advanced breast cancer, survival rates have significantly improved.

  17. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-cause mortality were available for five and eight cohorts, respectively. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use. HRs were pooled across cohorts using meta...

  18. Resource-sparing and cost-effective strategies in current management of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshi Anusheel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women throughout the world. There have been significant advances in the practice of breast oncology over the past few years. However, most of these advances have an associated price tag or are resource intensive. The present article discusses means to achieve cost-effectiveness in the treatment of breast cancer, while retaining the benefits of the modern anticancer approaches.

  19. Pulmonary function after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation and radiotherapy in patients with advanced loco-regional breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolsma, WV; DeVries, EGE; VanderMark, TW; Sleijfer, DT; Willemse, PHB; VanderGraaf, WTA; Mulder, POM; Szabo, BG; Mulder, NH

    1997-01-01

    Our aim was to study the extent of pulmonary toxicity after high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. In a retrospective study the pulmonary symptoms and chest X-rays were analysed before, during and after treatment in 17 patients, treated with loco-regional radiotherapy to

  20. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M; Chen, John J; Kovach, John S

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  2. Preventing Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment: Just the Next Step in the Evolution of Breast Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Rita A; Wong, Jasmine M; Esserman, Laura J

    2015-06-01

    The problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment has been highlighted in breast cancer and many other cancer types, most notably prostate cancer. Addressing this problem presents an opportunity to continue the evolution of breast cancer care. Advances in technology, such as molecular subtyping, have increased the understanding of breast cancer biology and the range of associated behavior, and have provided tools that allow greater personalization of treatment. This article identifies 3 areas of breast cancer care where opportunity currently exists to refine management strategies and help decrease overtreatment and overdiagnosis: the use of adjuvant-external beam radiation in invasive breast cancer, the application of aggressive treatment for all ductal carcinoma in situ, and the authors' approach to breast cancer screening. Personalizing treatment based on patient and tumor characteristics holds promise for minimizing harms and maximizing benefits. This approach will allow continual improvement and ultimately result in providing the right treatment for each patient.

  3. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  4. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, M.A.; Hes, F.J.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Tol, M.P. van den; Seynaeve, C.; Oosterwijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    - In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. - Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. - The 1100delC muta

  5. Conservative surgery for multifocal/multicentric breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Matthijs V; Rutgers, Emiel J Th

    2015-11-01

    Multifocal (MF) and multicentric (MC) breast cancer is regularly considered a relative contraindication for breast-conserving therapy (BCT). There are two reasons for this wide spread notion: However, we concur that if optimal 'cytoreductive surgery' is achieved this will result in good local control (i.e. in-breast relapse breast irradiation and systemic treatments as indicated by primary cancer biology. Careful planning and adaptive application of oncoplastic techniques will result in an optimal cosmetic results. The meticulous work of Roland Holland and coworkers(1) in the early 1980's on whole breast specimen showed invasive foci at more then 2 cm distance from the invasive primary cancer in more then 40% of specimen. Although multiple tumor foci may occur in up to 60% of mastectomy specimens, equivalent survival outcomes were observed in prospective trials comparing BCT and mastectomy for clinically unifocal lesions, suggesting that the majority of these foci are not, or do not become, biologically relevant or clinically significant with appropriate treatment. As diagnostic tools advance, MF and MC tumors are more commonly diagnosed. Cancers that previously would have been classified as unifocal now can be detected as MF or MC. In addition, locoregional treatment modalities have improved significantly over the past decade. More recent studies reflect these advances in diagnosis and treatment. Studies evaluated staging MRI showed that up to 19% of woman with diagnosed breast cancer harbor a second malignant ipsilateral lesion. These findings should only have consequences when additional lesions are proven cancer. Multiple enhancing lesions on MRI are in itself not an indication for a mastectomy. The Z0011 trial and the AMAROS trial demonstrated a similar phenomenon for axillary treatment; less surgery does not necessarily lead to inferior local control or survival outcomes. Recent studies supplement the growing evidence that treatment of patients with MF

  6. 晚期多发转移性乳腺癌患者的药学监护%Pharmaceutical care on the advanced breast cancer with multiple metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珺; 王宇; 周海燕; 石虹; 李国辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To optimize the therapeutic regimen by clinical pharmacist participating in the clinical therapeutic practices for a case of advanced breast with multiple metastases.Methods: Based on the disease progress, clinical pharmacist analyzed the characteristics of pathology and metastatic lesions, and the influence of adverse drug reaction and other factors, provided advices and consulted clinicians to develop personalized therapy.Results:Through the analysis of pathologic results of the patient with recurrent lesions, blind use of targeted drugs was avoided, and the cost of treatment was reduced; after the adjustment of analgesic drugs, and the use of bisphosphonate, the patient with severe pain was alleviated and relatively ideal effect of palliative care was achieved.Conclusion: Clinical pharmacists participated in the clinical treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer and multiple metastasis, contributing to develop individualized dosage regimen, and improve the patient's medication compliance and quality of life.%目的:临床药师通过参与晚期转移性乳腺癌患者药物治疗的实践,优化选择有利于患者的最佳药物治疗方案.方法:临床药师综合考虑患者转移病灶部位及病理性质、并发症变化等,从疾病及药物的不良反应等多方面进行分析,为临床药物提供咨询建议,制定个体化的治疗方案并随时调整.结果:经过对患者复发病灶的病理结果分析,避免了靶向药物的盲目使用,为患者降低治疗成本;经过镇痛药物的调整及双膦酸盐的应用患者重度疼痛得以缓解,获得了较为理想的姑息治疗的效果.结论:临床药师参与晚期乳腺癌多发转移患者的临床治疗实践,有利于制定个体化给药方案,有利于提高患者药物治疗的依从性及生活质量.

  7. Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Newburger, D. E.

    2013-04-08

    Cancer evolution involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Early neoplasias, which are often found concurrently with carcinomas and are histologically distinguishable from normal breast tissue, are less advanced in phenotype than carcinomas and are thought to represent precursor stages. To elucidate their role in cancer evolution we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of early neoplasias, matched normal tissue, and carcinomas from six patients, for a total of 31 samples. By using somatic mutations as lineage markers we built trees that relate the tissue samples within each patient. On the basis of these lineage trees we inferred the order, timing, and rates of genomic events. In four out of six cases, an early neoplasia and the carcinoma share a mutated common ancestor with recurring aneuploidies, and in all six cases evolution accelerated in the carcinoma lineage. Transition spectra of somatic mutations are stable and consistent across cases, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations is a result of increased ancestral cell division rather than specific mutational mechanisms. In contrast to highly advanced tumors that are the focus of much of the current cancer genome sequencing, neither the early neoplasia genomes nor the carcinomas are enriched with potentially functional somatic point mutations. Aneuploidies that occur in common ancestors of neoplastic and tumor cells are the earliest events that affect a large number of genes and may predispose breast tissue to eventual development of invasive carcinoma.

  8. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Naku Ghartey Jnr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76% breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46% participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56% were premenopausal (<46.6 years with 7 (0.23% being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  9. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  10. The p53 pathway in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco, Milena; Shami, Shukri; Crook, Tim

    2002-01-01

    p53 mutation remains the most common genetic change identified in human neoplasia. In breast cancer, p53 mutation is associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The frequency of mutation in p53 is, however, lower in breast cancer than in other solid tumours. Changes, both genetic and epigenetic, have been identified in regulators of p53 activity and in some downstream transcriptional targets of p53 in breast cancers that express wild-type p53. Molecular pathological an...

  11. Breast Cancer: Catch It with Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Heintz, Ph.D. Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM e-mail: MWilliamson@salud.unm.edu Breast cancer ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0566 TITLE: Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound...CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer : Catch It with Ultrasound 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0566 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  12. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  13. Knowledge towards breast cancer among Libyan women in Tripoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Taher

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Libyan women have acceptable level of knowledge regarding breast cancer. However, improvement of the health systems and awareness regarding breast cancer is needed.

  14. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  15. The effect of massage therapy on the quality of sleep in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kashani, Fahimeh; Kashani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Annually, about 6000 new cases are diagnosed with breast cancer in Iran. In Iran, more women are affected with breast cancer than a decade earlier in comparison with other countries, and 70% of them are diagnosed at an advanced phase. Insomnia is the most common disorder following breast cancer, and interference in sleep quality and rest causes changes in physiological functions and reduces the body's daily performance. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ma...

  16. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Ismaili

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in early breast cancer was investigated by few authors and remains controversial. This treatment is more commonly used for locally advanced breast cancer and showed high rate of complete pathological response. A search of articles published in English literature, between 1980 and November 2012, was conducted on Medline using the following terms: "breast cancer", "chemotherapy", "concurrent radiotherapy", and "Trastuzumab". We identified five phase I/II tri...

  17. Diazepam use and progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Fraumeni, J F

    1984-03-01

    The relationship between diazepam and breast cancer was evaluated using data from a case-control study of breast cancer, in which 1075 cases and 1146 controls who were participants in a breast cancer screening program were interviewed. Diazepam use was negatively associated with extent of disease and lymph node involvement, and this effect seemed greatest for long-term users of diazepam. It is not certain to what extent these data reflect an ascertainment bias, an association with the reasons for which the drug was prescribed, or chance. Whatever the explanation, the findings do not support a previous contention that diazepam promotes or accelerates breast cancer growth.

  18. The 8th international symposium on the breast: Using next-generation science to understand the normal breast and the development of breast cancer- conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberawalla, Ameer; Love, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation is committed to performing and advancing research that will lead to the discovery of what causes cancer to develop in the human breast. As part of this effort, the Foundation hosted the 8th International Symposium on the Breast in Santa Monica, Calif., Feb. 19 to Feb. 21, 2015. More than 120 forward-thinking clinical researchers, epidemiologists, pathologists, basic scientists, translational investigators, and breast cancer advocates from six countries attended this year's conference, "Using Next Generation Science to Understand the Normal Breast and the Development of Cancer." The highlights from this year's symposium are summarized in this report.

  19. The Changing Landscape of Breast Cancer: How Biology Drives Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Friend

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most prevalent life-threatening cancer in women. Optimizing therapy to increase cure rates in early stage disease, and improving life expectancy and palliation for advanced stages, are goals driving major areas of research. The armamentarium of targeted treatments for breast cancer is ever expanding as understanding of breast cancer biology deepens. A revolution in our treatment was heralded a decade ago by the introduction of trastuzumab for human epidermal receptor-2 positive (HER2+ disease resulting in remarkable reductions in recurrence and improvements in overall survival (OS. Advances continue to be made in other breast cancer subtypes targeting key activating pathways for therapeutic development. However, for these other targeted agents, improvement in OS has been elusive. This article focuses on the development of targeted therapy in breast cancer focusing primarily on the last 5 years, to illustrate that as we understand the complex pathways allowing the dysregulated cell to become malignant, it also propels us closer towards the promise of precision and personalized medicine.

  20. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  1. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    be cultured in calcium‐ free DMEM supplemented with 1% FBS, cholera toxin (10 ng/ml), bovine insulin (3 μg/ml), hydrocortisone (0.5 μg/ml), EGF and...regimens for induction of optimal anti-tumor immunity. Then we will determine the optimal time to administer these regimens during disease ...node status. Breast Cancer Res Treat 60, 227 (Apr, 2000). 4. H. E. Kohrt et al., Profile of immune cells in axillary lymph nodes predicts disease -free

  2. Multidrug-resistant breast cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin HL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heather L Martin,1 Laura Smith,2 Darren C Tomlinson11BioScreening Technology Group, Leeds Institutes of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 2Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and resistance to the current therapeutics, often concurrently, is an increasing clinical challenge. By understanding the molecular mechanisms behind multidrug-resistant breast cancer, new treatments may be developed. Here we review the recent advances in this understanding, emphasizing the common mechanisms underlying resistance to both targeted therapies, notably tamoxifen and trastuzumab, and traditional chemotherapies. We focus primarily on three molecular mechanisms, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, the role of microRNAs in gene silencing, and epigenetic alterations affecting gene expression, and discuss how these mechanisms can interact in multidrug resistance. The development of therapeutics targeting these mechanisms is also addressed.Keywords: PI3K/Akt, epigenetics, miRNA, ER, HER2, triple negative

  3. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  4. Phenotypic and functional characterization of clinical grade dendritic cells generated from patients with advanced breast cancer for therapeutic vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Thorn, M; Gad, M;

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. However, it is not known whether in vitro-generated monocyte-derived DC from cancer patients are altered compared with DC from healthy donors. In a clinical phase I/II study, monocyte-derived DC were generated in vitro...... utilizing granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and rh-interleukin-4 (IL-4) and used for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we tested the effect of various maturation cocktails and performed a comparative evaluation of the DC phenotype and functional characteristics. Polyriboinosinic...

  5. Association between breast and thyroid cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrer S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association

  6. Engagement of Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    End of Life; Advanced Cancer; Lung Neoplasm; Gastric Cancer; Colon Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Rectum Cancer; Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Neoplasms; Liver Cancer; Cancer of Unknown Origin

  7. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  8. Weekly paclitaxel and concurrent pazopanib following doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant therapy for HER-negative locally advanced breast cancer: NSABP Foundation FB-6, a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A R; Johannes, H; Rastogi, P; Jacobs, S A; Robidoux, A; Flynn, P J; Thirlwell, M P; Fehrenbacher, L; Stella, P J; Goel, R; Julian, T B; Provencher, L; Bury, M J; Bhatt, K; Geyer, C E; Swain, S M; Mamounas, E P; Wolmark, N

    2015-01-01

    This multicenter single-arm phase II study evaluated the addition of pazopanib to concurrent weekly paclitaxel following doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant therapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Patients with HER2-negative stage III breast cancer were treated with doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) for four cycles every 3 weeks followed by weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days for four cycles concurrently with pazopanib 800 mg orally daily prior to surgery. Post-operatively, pazopanib was given daily for 6 months. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) in the breast and lymph nodes. Between July 2009 and March 2011, 101 patients with stage IIIA-C HER2-negative breast cancer were enrolled. The pCR rate in evaluable patients who initiated paclitaxel and pazopanib was 17 % (16/93). The pCR rate was 9 % (6/67) in hormone receptor-positive tumors and 38 % (10/26) in triple-negative tumors. Pre-operative pazopanib was completed in only 39 % of patients. The most frequent grade 3 and 4 adverse events during paclitaxel and pazopanib were neutropenia (27 %), diarrhea (5 %), ALT and AST elevations (each 5 %), and hypertension (5 %). Although the pCR rate of paclitaxel and pazopanib following AC chemotherapy given as neoadjuvant therapy in women with LABC met the pre-specified criteria for activity, there was substantial toxicity, which led to a high discontinuation rate of pazopanib. The combination does not appear to warrant further evaluation in the neoadjuvant setting for breast cancer.

  9. Vaccination with p53 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells is associated with disease stabilization in patients with p53 expressing advanced breast cancer; monitoring of serum YKL-40 and IL-6 as response biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Inge Marie; Pedersen, Anders E; Johansen, Julia S;

    2007-01-01

    p53 Mutations are found in up to 30% of breast cancers and peptides derived from over-expressed p53 protein are presented by class I HLA molecules and may act as tumor-associated epitopes in cancer vaccines. A dendritic cell (DC) based p53 targeting vaccine was analyzed in HLA-A2+ patients...... with progressive advanced breast cancer. DCs were loaded with 3 wild-type and 3 P2 anchor modified HLA-A2 binding p53 peptides. Patients received up to 10 sc vaccinations with 5 x 10(6) p53-peptide loaded DC with 1-2 weeks interval. Concomitantly, 6 MIU/m(2) interleukine-2 was administered sc. Results from a phase...... II trial including 26 patients with verified progressive breast cancer are presented. Seven patients discontinued treatment after only 2-3 vaccination weeks due to rapid disease progression or death. Nineteen patients were available for first evaluation after 6 vaccinations; 8/19 evaluable patients...

  10. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by ...

  11. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  12. The cancer genetics and pathology of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Siddhartha; Lakhani, Sunil R; Ottini, Laura; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and poorly understood disease. Recent molecular studies have shown important differences from female breast cancer which are likely to influence treatment strategies from the current female-based management towards a more tailored approach. Significantly more MBCs than female breast cancers arise with an underlying germline cancer predisposition, and display a vastly different penetrance compared with females. Furthermore, the genophenotypical association of basal-like cancer with BRCA1 present in female breast cancer is not observed in male breast cancer. Differences in somatic changes between male and female breast cancer have also been reported, with particular enrichment of PIK3CA mutations and a paucity of TP53 mutations. In general, chromosomal-based changes, in particular regions of gains, are seen more frequently in male than female breast cancer and methylation is seen less frequently. Clinically, several molecular subtypes with prognostic relevance have been described, including chromosomal complex high and methylation high groups, and subgroups with profiling signatures pertaining to epithelial mesenchymal transition and hormonal therapy insensitivity. As with female breast cancer, attention to male specific multicentre trials based on the individual characteristics are needed, together with establishment of reliable preclinical models to understand more clearly the pathogenesis of male breast cancer and improve the general poor outcome of this disease.

  13. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  14. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non......BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...

  15. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  16. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  17. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers after breast cancer . Ask your doctor for a survivorship care plan Talk with your doctor about ... Close Image of Previous Next Close Close Select A Hope Lodge Close Please share your thoughts about ...

  18. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  19. Evolution of surgical treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Letyagin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main surgical interventions used to treat breast cancer. It defines the role and place of conservative surgery and describes current procedures for the organ-saving treatment of cancer at this site.

  20. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  1. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    adulthood in the 1958 British born cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:1094-101. 52. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62...Biomarkers Prey 2002;11: J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1094-101. 32. He Q Karlbergj. BMI in childhood and 207-10. 28. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and its...breast cancer among young U.S. women. Epidemiology 1997; 8(5):559-565. (76) Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62(8

  2. Evaluation of the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on tumor and axillary lymph nodes in locally advanced breast cancer:a study of 50 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali H.Meebed; Ihab S.Fayek; Amany Saber; Reda H.Tabashy; Mona A.Sakr

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to correlate between ef ect of pre neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and post NACT clinical, sonographic and pathologic features of the tumor and axil ary lymph nodes (ALNs) and to raise the possibility of applying the concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with initial y positive ALNs before NACT. Methods:A prospective study of 50 female patients with local y advanced breast cancer (LABC) with clinical y palpable and cytological y (under ultrasonographic guidance) positive ALNs. Al patients received NACT and then referred for ultrasono graphic assessment of the axil a regarding any detectable sonographic criteria of metastatic deposits in ALNs as wel as the tumor size in relation to its pre chemotherapy size. Al patients were then subjected either to modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery. The clinical, sonographic and pathological response of the tumor and the ALNs were documented, classified and correlated with each other. Results:Patients’ mean age was 47.7 ± 9.1 years. The mean clinical tumor size was 6.7 ± 1.4 cm;stage IIIA that was presented in 32 patients (64%) and IIIB was presented in 18 patients (36%). Chemotherapy was given for a median of 4 cycles. there was reduction of the mean clinical tumor size from 6.7 ± 1.4 cm to 4.3 ± 2.7 cm (P<0.001). Clinical response was complete in 5 (10%) tumors, complete pathological tumor response (post neoadjuvant) was detected in 8 (16%) of patients. Complete clinical nodal response (post neoadjuvant) in 23 (46%) axil ae, on sonographic assessment of the axil a, response was complete in 17 (34%) axil ae. Complete pathological nodal response occurred in 16 (32%) axil ae. Out of 17 axil ae that showed complete sonographic response 11 axil ae showed complete pathological nodal response (P<0.001). Conclusion:Formal axil ary lymph node dissection can be avoided and replaced by SLNB post NACT in patients with LABC with metastatic ALNs if there were complete

  3. Early and delayed prediction of axillary lymph node neoadjuvant response by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Vicente, Ana Maria; Soriano Castrejon, Angel; Jimenez Londono, German Andres [University General Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Ciudad Real (Spain); Leon Martin, Alberto [University General Hospital, Investigation Unit, Ciudad Real (Spain); Relea Calatayud, Fernanda [University General Hospital, Pathology Department, Ciudad Real (Spain); Munoz Sanchez, Maria del Mar [Virgen de la Luz Hospital, Oncology Department, Cuenca (Spain); Cruz Mora, Miguel Angel [Virgen de la Salud Hospital, Oncology Department, Toledo (Spain); Espinosa Aunion, Ruth [La Mancha Centro Hospital, Oncology Department, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    To determine the utility of {sup 18}F-FDG (FDG) PET/CT performed in an early and delayed phase during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the prediction of lymph node histopathological response in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. FDG PET/CT studies performed in 76 patients (mean age 53 years) at baseline (PET-1), after the second course of chemotherapy (PET-2) and after the last course of chemotherapy (PET-3) were prospectively analysed. Inclusion criteria were lymph node involvement detected by PET/CT and non-sentinel node biopsy before or after the baseline PET/CT scan. Following the recommendations of the 12th International Breast Conference (St. Gallen), the patients were divided into five subgroups in relation to biological prognostic factors by immunohistochemistry. For diagnosis visual and semiquantitative analyses was performed. Absence of detectable lymph node uptake on the PET-2 or PET-3 scan with respect to the PET-1 scan was considered metabolic complete response (mCR). Lymph nodes were histopathologically classified according the lymph node regression grade and in response groups as pathological complete response (pCR) or not pCR (type A/D or B/C of the Smith grading system, respectively). ROC analysis was performed to determine a cut-off value of Δ% SUV1-2 and SUV1-3 for prediction of nodal status after chemotherapy. An association between mCR and pCR was found (Cohen's kappa analysis), and associations between phenotypes and metabolic behaviour and the final histopathological status were also found. Lymph node pCR was seen in 34 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of PET-2 and PET-3 in establishing the final status of the axilla after chemotherapy were 52 %, 45 %, 50 % and 47 %, and 33 %, 84 %, 67 % and 56 %, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between mCR on PET-2 and PET-3 and pCR (p = 0.31 and 0.99, respectively). Lymph node metabolism on PET-1 was not able to predict

  4. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  5. The Treatment of Breast Cancer Using Liposome Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposome-based chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of breast cancer can in principle enhance the therapeutic index of otherwise unencapsulated anticancer drugs. This is partially attributed to the fact that encapsulation of cytotoxic agents within liposomes allows for increased concentrations of the drug to be delivered to the tumor site. In addition, the presence of the phospholipid bilayer prevents the encapsulated active form of the drug from being broken down in the body prior to reaching tumor tissue and also serves to minimize exposure of the drug to healthy sensitive tissue. While clinically approved liposome-based chemotherapeutics such as Doxil have proven to be quite effective in the treatment of breast cancer, significant challenges remain involving poor drug transfer between the liposome and cancerous cells. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements made in the development of liposome-based chemotherapeutics with respect to improved drug transfer for use in breast cancer therapy.

  6. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Breast Cancer During Pregnancy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serden Ay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy breast cancer is rarely seen. In this case, when the patient was being operated for the right breast cancer which was diagnosed in the first exam, a left breast cancer was also detected in the operation. When the patient analysed retrospectively, lesion in the left breast could not detected because of the lactation period. Consequently,pregnancy patients must be re-examined after the lactation period to avoid any possible mistakes. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 492-494

  8. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Moataz Ehab,1 Mohamad Elbaz2,31Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy School, Helwan University, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic

  9. Prospective study on nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer: clinical results and biological observations in taxane-pretreated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabi A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Fabi,1 Diana Giannarelli,2 Paola Malaguti,1 Gianluigi Ferretti,1 Sabrina Vari,1 Paola Papaldo,1 Cecilia Nisticò,1 Mauro Caterino,3 Roy De Vita,4 Marcella Mottolese,5 Laura Iacorossi,6 Francesco Cognetti1 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Biostatistic Unit, 3Service of Radiology, 4Operative Unit of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Pathology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy; 5Department of Pathology, 6Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy Background: There is a deep need to improve the care of metastatic breast cancer (MBC patients, since even today it remains an incurable disease. Taxanes are considered the most effective cytotoxic drugs for the treatment of MBC, both in monotherapy and in combined schedules, but the need for synthetic solvents contributes to the severe toxicities and may have a negative impact on the efficacy. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (Nab-paclitaxel is a colloidal suspension of paclitaxel and human serum albumin initially developed to avoid the toxicities associated with conventional taxanes.Patients and methods: The aim of this prospective, single-center open-label, noncomparative study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel in MBC patients pretreated with taxanes. The patients were treated with nab-paclitaxel as a single agent, 260 mg/m2 on day 1 of each 3-week cycle or 125 mg/m2 weekly. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR. Secondary objectives were duration of response, clinical benefit rate, progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival, and safety.Results: A total of 42 patients (median age 48 years, median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0, triple-negative MBC 19%, all pretreated with a taxane-based therapy, mainly in advanced disease were enrolled in the study. The ORR was 23.8%, including one complete response (2.4% and nine partial

  10. Rapid Reduction in Breast Cancer Mortality With Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Smith

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation: We found biologically plausible major reductions in breast cancer mortality during high exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water which could not be attributed to bias or confounding. We recommend clinical trial assessment of inorganic arsenic in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.

  11. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  12. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  13. Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162498.html Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study Weak social ties linked to higher risk ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Loneliness may impede long-term breast cancer survival, a new study suggests. In the years after ...

  14. Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Giri D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide Arrays Abstract presentation USCAP 2005. 5...Bone Metastasis. Submitted Lal P, Donaton M, Girl D, Chen B, Gerald W Molecular Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Therapeutic Biomarkers Using Oligonucleotide

  15. New ways to optimize breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Carolina Pia

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer patients without apparent distant metastases at the time of primary tumor removal, may later suffer from a distant relapse, indicating the presence of occult micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Sensitive methods to detect micrometastatic breast cancer may be helpful in optimizing

  16. Breast cancer radiotherapy and cardiac risk

    OpenAIRE

    Anusheel Munshi; Kaustav Talapatra; Debanarayan Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the developed world and its incidence in the developing world is on the rise. Management of breast cancer requires a multimodality approach and an integration of the services of surgery, radiation, and medical oncology. Radiotherapy after mastectomy or breast conservation leads to reduction in local recurrence by two-thirds. Recent trials and metaanalyses have also demonstrated overall survival benefit with radiotherapy...

  17. Breast thermography. A prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J; Sweitzer, C J; Edelstein, G R

    1988-08-01

    A prognostic classification for thermographic staging of breast cancer has been applied to a cohort of 70 patients from 5040 screenees enrolled in the Albert Einstein Medical Center (AEMC) Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP). A diagnosis of breast cancer was established in each case before December 31, 1980. None of the patients have been lost to follow-up which extended from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 years. Survival rates for those with favorable, equivocal, and poor thermographic factors are compared with each other and with results in accordance with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. As of December 31, 1986, there have been 22 (31.4%) deaths, all attributed to breast cancer. The thermographic scoring system clearly shows shorter survival for patients with poor thermographic prognostic factors, 30% surviving at 5 years and only 20% at 10 years compared with overall survival of 80% at 5 years and 70% at 10 years.

  18. The potential role of breast ductoscopy in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakbi, W Al; Escobar, Pedro F; Mokbel, Kefah

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy among women in the Western world. Mammography, which is currently the main screening modality for early detection, has a low positive predictive value of only 25%, especially in young women with very dense breasts. Therefore, new screening approaches are needed for the early detection of breast cancer in all age groups. Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is a newly developed endoscopic technique that allows direct visualization and biopsy of the mammary ductal epithelium where most cancers originate. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia in the office setting. At present, MD is used as a diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge and to guide duct excision surgery. This article focuses on the potential of this technique in breast cancer screening and highlights its limitations in this context.

  19. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  20. The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Samantha R; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and regulation of the mammary cellular hierarchy and we describe the development of the concepts that have guided our investigations. We outline recent advances in in vivo lineage tracing that is now challenging many of our assumptions regarding the behavior of mammary stem cells, and we show how understanding these cellular lineages has altered our view of breast cancer.

  1. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  2. Insulin receptor what role in breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, V; Costantino, A; Belfiore, A

    1997-10-01

    It is commonly believed that the insulin receptor mainly mediates the metabolic effects of insulin, whereas the closely related IGF-I receptor is considered a major factor for the regulation of cell proliferation. Experimental and epidemiological evidence indicates, however, that insulin and insulin receptors may play an important role in breast cancer. This article reviews evidence indicating that (a) insulin receptors are overexpressed in human breast cancer, (b) insulin stimulates growth in breast cancer cells, (c) cells transfected with human insulin receptor may acquire a ligand-dependent transformed phenotype, and (d) breast cancer is associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. These findings may open new possibilities in breast cancer prevention, prognosis assessment, and therapy. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:306-312). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  3. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  4. Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, L.; Hogue, J.C.; Desbiens, C.; Poirier, B.; Poirier, E.; Boudreau, D.; Joyal, M.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Chiquette, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening clinical breast examination (cbe) is controversial; the use of cbe is declining not only as a screening tool, but also as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of cbe in breast cancer detection in a tertiary care centre for breast diseases. Methods This retrospective study of all breast cancers diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2010 at our centre categorized cases according to the mean of detection (cbe, mammography, or both). A cbe was considered “abnormal” in the presence of a mass, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, edema, erythema, peau d’orange, or ulcers. Results During the study period, a complete dataset was available for 6333 treated primary breast cancers. Cancer types were ductal carcinoma in situ (15.3%), invasive ductal carcinoma (75.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma (9.0%), or others (2.2%). Of the 6333 cancers, 36.5% (n = 2312) were detected by mammography alone, 54.8% (n = 3470) by mammography and cbe, and 8.7% (n = 551) by physician-performed cbe alone (or 5.3% if considering ultrasonography). Invasive tumours diagnosed by cbe alone were more often triple-negative, her2-positive, node-positive, and larger than those diagnosed by mammography alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions A significant number of cancers would have been missed if cbe had not been performed. Compared with cancers detected by mammography alone, those detected by cbe had more aggressive features. Clinical breast examination is a very low-cost test that could improve the detection of breast cancer and could prompt breast ultrasonography in the case of a negative mammogram. PMID:27536182

  5. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  6. [Association between cadmium and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Pranys, Darius; Poskiene, Lina; Kregzdyte, Rima; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Asadauskaite, Rūta

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen, although some studies indicate a link between cadmium exposure and human breast cancer. The objective of this study was to assess cadmium concentration in breast tissue samples of patients with breast cancer and benign breast tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The concentration of cadmium was determined in breast tissue samples of 21 breast cancer and 19 benign tumor patients. Two samples of breast tissue from each patient, i.e. tumor and normal tissue close to tumor, were taken for the analysis. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (Perkin-Elmer, Zeeman 3030). RESULTS. In patients with breast cancer, the mean cadmium concentration was 33.1 ng/g (95% CI, 21.9-44.4) in malignant breast tissue and 10.4 ng/g (95% CI, 5.6-15.2) in normal breast tissue (P=0.002). In patients with benign tumor, the corresponding values were 17.5 ng/g (95% CI, 8.4-26.5) and 11.8 ng/g (95% CI, 5.1-18.5) (P=0.3144). There was a statistically significant difference in cadmium concentration between malignant and benign breast tissues (P=0.009). CONCLUSION. The data obtained show that cadmium concentration is significantly higher in malignant breast tissue as compared with normal breast tissue of the same women or benign breast tissue. Further studies are necessary to determine the association between cadmium concentration in malignant breast tissue and estrogen receptor level, and smoking.

  7. Multidisciplinary Meeting on Male Breast Cancer : Summary and Research Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korde, Larissa A.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Kamin, Leah; Giordano, Sharon; Domchek, Susan; Anderson, William F.; Bartlett, John M. S.; Gelmon, Karen; Nahleh, Zeina; Bergh, Jonas; Cutuli, Bruno; Pruneri, Giancarlo; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Gralow, Julie; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Cardoso, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Most data on male breast cancer comes from small single-institution studies, and because of the paucity of data, the optimal treatment for male breast cancer is not known. This article summari

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Metastasis Suppression in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular mechanisms controlling melanoma and breast carcinoma...Bowman Show, August 17 Molecular regulation of melanoma and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular...Institute, April 20, Pathology ofNeoplasia Cumberland Unit, American Cancer Society, April 19; Breast Cancer Research Ministerio de Sanidad y

  9. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  10. Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles; Li, Qiyuan

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent not used routinely for breast cancer treatment. As a DNA cross-linking agent, cisplatin may be effective treatment for hereditary BRCA1-mutated breast cancers. Because sporadic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and BRCA1-associated breast cancer...

  11. Nanotoxicology and Metalloestrogens: Possible Involvement in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Wallace

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the use of nanotechnology has expanded, an increased number of metallic oxides have been manufactured, yet toxicology testing has lagged significantly. Metals used in nano-products include titanium, silicon, aluminum, silver, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, antimony, gold, etc. Even the noble metals, platinum and cerium, have been used as a treatment for cancer, but the toxicity of these metals is still unknown. Significant advances have been made in our understanding and treatment of breast cancer, yet millions of women will experience invasive breast cancer in their lifetime. The pathogenesis of breast cancer can involve multiple factors; (1 genetic; (2 environmental; and (3 lifestyle-related factors. This review focuses on exposure to highly toxic metals, (“metalloestrogens” or “endocrine disruptors” that are used as the metallic foundation for nanoparticle production and are found in a variety of consumer products such as cosmetics, household items, and processed foods, etc. The linkage between well-understood metalloestrogens such as cadmium, the use of these metals in the production of nanoparticles, and the relationship between their potential estrogenic effects and the development of breast cancer will be explored. This will underscore the need for additional testing of materials used in nano-products. Clearly, a significant amount of work needs to be done to further our understanding of these metals and their potential role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  12. Loss of heterozygosity in bilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, J; Man, S; Marafie, M; Carpenter, K; Pinder, S; Ellis, I O; Blamey, R W; Cross, G; Brook, J D

    2000-12-01

    Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age < 50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used to test for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in left and right tumours for 31 women with premenopausal bilateral breast cancer. Markers adjacent to or within candidate genes on 17p (p53), 17q (BRCA1), 13q (BRCA2), 11q (Ataxia Telangiectasia-ATM) and 3p (FHIT) were chosen. Mutational testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was performed for cases where blood was available. Concordant LOH in both left and right tumours was demonstrated for at least one of the markers tested in 16/31(54%) cases. Where allelic loss was demonstrated for both left and right breast cancer, the same allele was lost on each occasion. This may suggest a common mutational event. Four cases showed concordant loss of alleles in both left and right breast cancer at D17S791 (BRCA1). BRCA1 mutations were identified in two of these cases where blood was available. Four cases showed concordant LOH at D13S155 (BRCA2). Concordant LOH was further demonstrated in seven cases for D11S1778 (ATM) and four cases for D3S1300 (which maps to the FHIT gene), suggesting a possible role for these tumour suppressor genes in this subgroup of breast cancer patients. No concordant allelic loss was demonstrated for D17S786 suggesting that germline mutations in p53 are unlikely in such cases of bilateral breast cancer.

  13. Modern surgical management of breast cancer therapy related upper limb and breast lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Nelson; Furniss, Dominic; Giele, Henk

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in the UK. Advances in breast cancer treatment means that the sequelae of treatment are affecting more women and for a longer duration. Lymphoedema is one such sequela, with wide-ranging implications, from serious functional and psychological effects at the individual level to wider economic burdens to society. Breast cancer-related lymphoedema is principally managed by conservative therapy comprising compression garments and manual decongestive massage. This approach is effective for early stages of lymphoedema, but it is not curative and the effectiveness depends on patient compliance. Early surgical approaches were ablative, gave significant morbidity and hence, reserved for the most severe cases of refractory lymphoedema. However, recent non-ablative reconstructive surgical approaches have seen a revival of interest in the prevention or surgical management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. This review examines the modern surgical techniques for the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Liposuction reduces the volume and symptoms of lymphedema, but requires continual compressive therapy to avoid recurrence. Lymphatic reconstruction or bypass techniques including lymph node transfer (inguinal nodes are transferred to the affected limb), lymphatico-lymphatic bypass (lymphatics bypass the axilla using a lymph vessel graft reconstructing lymphatic flow from arm to neck) and lymphaticovenous anastomoses (lymphatics in the arm are joined to the venous system aiding lymph drainage) show promise in reducing lymphedema significantly. Further research is required, including into the role of primary lymphaticovenous anastomoses in the prevention of lymphedema at the time of axillary dissection.

  14. Clinical and immunological evaluation of anti-apoptosis protein, survivin-derived peptide vaccine in phase I clinical study for patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asanuma Hiroko

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that survivin-2B, a splicing variant of survivin, was expressed in various types of tumors and that survivin-2B peptide might serve as a potent immunogenic cancer vaccine. The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity of and to clinically and immunologically evaluate survivin-2B peptide in a phase I clinical study for patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. Methods We set up two protocols. In the first protocol, 10 patients were vaccinated with escalating doses (0.1–1.0 mg of survivin-2B peptide alone 4 times every 2 weeks. In the second protocol, 4 patients were vaccinated with the peptide at a dose of 1.0 mg mixed with IFA 4 times every 2 weeks. Results In the first protocol, no adverse events were observed during or after vaccination. In the second protocol, two patients had induration at the injection site. One patient had general malaise (grade 1, and another had general malaise (grade 1 and fever (grade 1. Peptide vaccination was well tolerated in all patients. In the first protocol, tumor marker levels increased in 8 patients, slightly decreased in 1 patient and were within the normal range during this clinical trial in 1 patient. With regard to tumor size, two patients were considered to have stable disease (SD. Immunologically, in 3 of the 10 patients (30%, an increase of the peptide-specific CTL frequency was detected. In the second protocol, an increase of the peptide-specific CTL frequency was detected in all 4 patients (100%, although there were no significant beneficial clinical responses. ELISPOT assay showed peptide-specific IFN-γ responses in 2 patients in whom the peptide-specific CTL frequency in tetramer staining also was increased in both protocols. Conclusion This phase I clinical study revealed that survivin-2B peptide vaccination was well tolerated. The vaccination with survivin-2B peptide mixed with IFA increased the frequency of peptide-specific CTL more

  15. Gestational Breast Cancer: Report of A Case and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Paixão-Barradas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational or pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy, within the first postpartum year, or during lactation. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in nonpregnant and pregnant women. Case presentation: A 29-year-old pregnant woman presented at eight weeks gestational age with a palpable breast nodule. On breast ultrasound evaluation, only probably benign findings were detected. The pregnancy was uneventful until the third trimester when she started to have a severe back pain which became gradually resistant to medical therapy. Therefore, at 33 weeks, she was assisted at an emergency care facility and a highly suspicious breast mass was detected. A core biopsy was performed that revealed an invasive ductal carcinoma grade 3 with lymph node metastasis. After several imaging studies, it was diagnosed as a stage 4 breast cancer with bone, liver, and pulmonary metastasis. At thirty four weeks gestation, the pregnancy was terminated by C-section and she started to receive palliative radiation therapy one week later. She also received several cycles of palliative chemotherapy. Nineteenth months after C-section, progression of the disease was observed and a cerebellar metastasis was found. Unfortunately, two months later, her clinical condition deteriorated and the patient died.Conclusion: Gestational breast cancer represents a clinical situation of utmost important in which the health of both the mother and the fetus should be taken into account. Diagnosis is difficult due to the physiological changes of the mammary glands during pregnancy and lactation, and it usually occurs at an advanced stage.

  16. Current data of targeted therapies for the treatment of triple-negative advanced breast cancer: empiricism or evidence-based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Fausto; Cabiddu, Mary; Ghilardi, Mara; Barni, Sandro

    2009-10-01

    Approximately 10 - 15% of breast carcinomas (BCs) are known to be 'triple-negative (TN) receptor' (i.e., not expressing ER or PR and not exhibiting overexpression and/or gene amplification of HER2-neu). Triple-negative BCs comprise approximately 85% of all basal-type tumours. Classically, basal-like BCs have been characterised by low expression of ER, PR, and HER2 neu and high expression of CK5, CK14, caveolin-1, CAIX, p63, and EGFR (HER1), which reflects the mammary gland basal/myoepithelial cell component. Although there is no standard first-line chemotherapy regimen for metastatic TN BCs, anthracycline- and taxane-containing regimens are acceptable treatments. A large number of agents, including DNA-damaging agents, EGFR inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents and novel taxane formulations are currently being tested in clinical trials for first-line and pretreated patients. Limited experiences with platinum salts, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, cetuximab, bevacizumab and ixabepilone have been published in recent years and will be reported. Novel immunohistochemistry analysis for identification of basal like/TN phenotype are awaited to correctly select this population. The clinical trials investigating new agents have to be designed for a specific (and possibly large) subset of patients with BC. In the future, a gene array platform with greater sensitivity for distinguishing the various BC subtypes, as well as having the power to predict the molecular biology of the disease, will be an indispensible tool for treatment selection. Currently, treatment of TN BC is more empirical than evidence-based. The cornerstone of treatment is chemotherapy, but in the near future, novel target agents will emerge as possible partners.

  17. [Male breast cancer: a challenge for urologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Gschwend, J E; Herkommer, K

    2010-09-01

    Male breast cancer (male BC) accounts for Klinefelter syndrome) and a positive family history for breast cancer. About 90% of male BC are invasive ductal carcinomas. Standard treatment for localized cancer is surgical removal. Adjuvant radiation and systemic therapy are the same as in women with breast cancer. Male BC expresses hormone receptors in about 90% of cases; therefore, tamoxifen is a therapeutic option. A future challenge for the urologist or andrologist is to diagnose the disease at an early stage to improve prognosis.

  18. GATA3 Inhibits Breast Cancer Metastasis through the Reversal of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition*

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wei; Cao, Qing Jackie; Arenas, Richard B.; Bentley, Brooke; Shao, Rong

    2010-01-01

    GATA3, a transcription factor that regulates T lymphocyte differentiation and maturation, is exclusively expressed in early stage well differentiated breast cancers but not in advanced invasive cancers. However, little is understood regarding its activity and the mechanisms underlying this differential expression in cancers. Here, we employed GATA3-positive, non-invasive (MCF-7) and GATA3-negative, invasive (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells to define its role in the transformation between thes...

  19. Suppression of Ovarian Function With Either Tamoxifen or Exemestane Compared With Tamoxifen Alone in Treating Premenopausal Women With Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  1. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, lifestyle, physical inactivity, as well as endocrine factors. These factors act separately or together in the causation of breast cancer. More recently, triple negative breast cancer has been described in certain categories of patients and is associated with poorer prognosis and earlier recurrence compared with the conventional breast cancer. Therefore, adequate knowledge of these factors is important in identifying high risk groups and individuals, which will help in screening, early detection and follow-up. This will help to decrease the morbidity and mortality from this life-threatening disease.

  2. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M. M.; Blom, Jannet; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Brekelmans, Cecile T. M.; van Houwelingen, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data

  3. Docetaxel and cisplatin combination chemotherapy in anthracyclines-resistant advanced breast cancer%多西紫杉醇联合顺铂治疗蒽环类耐药的晚期乳腺癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Xiong; Zhujun Liu; Xin Cheng; Kai Li

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect and toxicity of docetaxel with cisplatin in anthracyclines-resistant advanced breast cancer. Methods: Forty-five female patients received docetaxel 60 mg/m2 on d1 and cisplatin 30 mg/m2 on d1-d3 of every 28 days. Every patient was treated with at least 2 cycles and a median of 3 cycles (2-6 cycles ). Results: Five patients achieved complete response (11.1%) and 18 partial response (40.0%), 10 stable disease (22.2%). The overall response rate was 51.1%. The clinical disease control rate was 73.3%, median time to tumor progression (TTP) was 7.8 months (1.0-34.5months), median survival time was 17.6 months (range 1.9-48.0 months), and one year survival rate was 65.2%. The main side effect was marrow suppression. The treatment was well tolerated with grades Ⅲ and Ⅳ leukopenia in nine (20%) and ten (22.2%) patients.Conclusion:Combinative chemotherapy of docetaxel and cisplatin has a good anti-tumor activity on refractory advanced breast cancer cancer with manageable toxicity.

  4. Nursing Experience on the Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer Treated with Xeloda%希罗达治疗晚期乳腺癌的护理体会探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于绍芬; 肖丽平; 张熙婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the nursing experience on the patients with advanced breast cancer treated with xe-loda (Capecitabine Tablets).Methods A total of 46 cases of patient with advanced breast cancer who treated in our hospital from November 2013 to November 2014 were selected.During nursing progress, the patients received oral chem-otherapy Xeloda for clinical treatment, and combined with medication nursing, psychological nursing and the nursing for the adverse reaction after adminstration.Results The observation on the 46 cases of advanced breast cancer patients showed that the 46 patients had adverse reaction with different degrees, and after careful medical care and the patient′s adherence to medication, ultimately achieved good clinical efficacy, and had positive promotion effect in improving the quality of life.Conclusions Application of Xeloda monotherapy in the nursing of the patients with advanced breast canc-er can improve the therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment, and provide guarantee for the smooth treatment process, which has certain promotion role in clinical practice.%目的 探讨希罗达(卡培他滨片)治疗晚期乳腺癌患者的护理体会. 方法 选取2013年11月~2014年11月收治并确诊的46例晚期乳腺癌患者作为研究对象,在对其护理中全程配合口服化疗药物希罗达进行临床治疗,并施行用药护理、心理护理以及用药后不良反应的护理等. 结果 观察所有晚期乳腺癌患者,46例均出现不同程度副作用,经过医护人员细心护理,患者坚持用药,最终取得良好的临床疗效,对提高患者生活质量起到了积极促进作用. 结论 希罗达单药治疗方式应用于晚期乳腺癌患者护理中,可提高治疗成效,为治疗过程顺利进行提供保障,在临床上具有一定推广作用.

  5. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor in locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.A. [Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hegg, R. [Departamento de Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Freitas, F.R.; Tavares, E.R.; Almeida, C.P. [Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baracat, E.C. [Departamento de Ginecologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maranhão, R.C. [Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-04

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy.

  6. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  7. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  8. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...

  9. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  10. [Vitamin D and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László; Nagy, András Csaba

    2014-07-13

    The active form of vitamin D, in conjunction with his own receptor, affect a multitude of biological processes in the cell (inter alia it influences the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes). There is an increasing volume of scientific publications examining the relationships between serum vitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation and malignant diseases. Some articles suggest inverse relationship between the low serum levels of vitamin D and the breast cancer risk and mortality, whilst other publications do not support this view. Thus the present opinion is conflicted. Vitamin D can exert a beneficial influence on the symptoms and outcomes of a large number of ailments, but its role in affecting cancer is still not completely clear.

  11. An overview of triple negative breast cancer for surgical oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiva; Barry, Mitchel; Gallagher, David J; Kell, Malcolm; Sacchini, Virgilio

    2015-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) represent a distinct subgroup of breast cancers with an immunohistochemical phenotype that is negative for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2). The aim of this article is to provide a broad overview of recent developments in the diagnosis and management of TNBC for surgical oncologists. This overview discusses the subtypes of TNBC and the relationship between this type of breast cancer and the BRCA1 gene. In addition, the article explores recent advances in the treatment of TNBC from a surgical, radiation, and medical oncology point of view. Lastly, evolving therapeutic strategies that have potential to enhance outcomes for patients with TNBC are also discussed.

  12. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A

    1995-01-01

    The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...... of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males....

  13. Synchronous Onset of Breast and Pancreatic Cancers: Results of Germline and Somatic Genetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synchronous cancers have occasionally been detected at initial diagnosis among patients with breast and ovarian cancer. However, simultaneous coexistence and diagnosis of breast and pancreas cancer has not previously been reported. Case Report: Paternal transmission of a germline BRCA2 mutation to a patient who was diagnosed at age 40 with locally advanced breast and pancreas cancer is presented. Somatic genomic analysis of both cancers with next-generation DNA sequencing confirmed the germline result and reported a variety of variants of unknown significance alterations, of which two were present in both the breast and pancreas cancers. Discussion: The possibility that genomic alterations could have been responsible for modulating the phenotypic or clinical expression of this rare presentation is considered. The authors call attention to the practice of privatizing the clinicogenetic information gained from genetic testing and call for health policy that will facilitate sharing in order to advance the outcomes of patients diagnosed with hereditary cancers.

  14. Cancer in the "cold" breast thermogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J

    1976-11-01

    The hallmark of the normal breast thermogram is relative symmetry of vascular configuration and thermal content with preservation of the breast contour. Accepted criteria of abnormality are predicated upon graphic and thermal asymmetry with emphasis placed upon elevated temperature, an increase in the number of discernible vessels, and distorted vascular patterns. The association of a confirmed breast cancer and an avascular thermogram has been labeled a false negative. Avascularity ("cold" breast), particularly in the lower half, with normal vessels in the same location of the opposite breast is suggested as an additional characteristic of abnormality. Illustrative cases are presented.

  15. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States)

    2011-06-15

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [{sup 18F}]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([{sup 18F}]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [{sup 18F}]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [{sup 18F}]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging.

  16. Breast cancer onset in twins and women with bilateral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Mikael; Hall, Per; Edgren, Gustaf

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known of the onset of breast cancer in high-risk populations. We investigated the risk of breast cancer in twin sisters and in the contralateral breast taking family history into consideration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed a Scandinavian population-based cohort of 2......,499 female twin pairs, in which at least one had a diagnosis of breast cancer and estimated the risk of breast cancer in the sister. Using a total of 11 million individuals in Sweden with complete family links, we identified 93,448 women with breast cancer and estimated the risk of a bilateral breast cancer....... RESULTS: The incidence of breast cancer in twin sisters of breast cancer patients was 0.64% per year and 0.42% per year in mono- and dizygotic twin sisters, respectively. In comparison, the risk of familial (affected first-degree relative) and nonfamilial bilateral breast cancer was 1.03% per year and 0...

  17. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  18. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  19. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  20. The management of screen-detected breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muneer; Douek, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of mammography and introduction of breast screening programmes have resulted in a rise in clinically-occult breast cancer, with one-third of all breast carcinomata diagnosed being non-palpable. These types of cancer have a unique natural history and biology compared to symptomatic breast cancer and this needs to be taken into account when considering surgery and adjuvant treatment. The majority of studies demonstrating efficacy of adjuvant treatments are largely based on patients with symptomatic breast cancer. The current evidence for the role of surgery and adjuvant therapy for screen-detected breast cancer was reviewed in light of their improved prognosis, compared to symptomatic breast cancer.