WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced binary cycles

  1. Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, K.

    1997-12-31

    A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.

  2. Advanced heat pump cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, E.A.; Radermacher, R.

    1993-07-01

    The desorption and absorption process of a vapor compression heat pump with a solution circuit (VCHSC) proceeds at gliding temperature intervals, which can be adjusted over a wide range. In case that the gliding temperature intervals in the desorber and the absorber overlap, a modification of the VCHSC employing a desorber/absorber heat exchange (DAHX) can be introduced, which results in an extreme reduction of the pressure ratio. Although the DAHX-cycle has features of a two-stage cycle, it still requires only one solution pump, one separator and one compressor. Such a cycle for the working pair ammonia/water is built in the Energy Laboratory of the Center for Environmental Energy Engineering at the University of Maryland. The experimental results obtained with the research plant are discussed and compared to those calculated with a simulation program. The possible temperature lift between heat source and heat sink depending on the achievable COP are presented.

  3. Milankovitch Cycles of Terrestrial Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan H

    2016-01-01

    The habitability of planets in binary star systems depends not only on the radiation environment created by the two stars, but also on the perturbations to planetary orbits and rotation produced by the gravitational field of the binary and neighbouring planets. Habitable planets in binaries may therefore experience significant perturbations in orbit and spin. The direct effects of orbital resonances and secular evolution on the climate of binary planets remain largely unconsidered. We present latitudinal energy balance modelling of exoplanet climates with direct coupling to an N Body integrator and an obliquity evolution model. This allows us to simultaneously investigate the thermal and dynamical evolution of planets orbiting binary stars, and discover gravito-climatic oscillations on dynamical and secular timescales. We investigate the Kepler-47 and Alpha Centauri systems as archetypes of P and S type binary systems respectively. In the first case, Earthlike planets would experience rapid Milankovitch cycle...

  4. Milankovitch cycles of terrestrial planets in binary star systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan

    2016-12-01

    The habitability of planets in binary star systems depends not only on the radiation environment created by the two stars, but also on the perturbations to planetary orbits and rotation produced by the gravitational field of the binary and neighbouring planets. Habitable planets in binaries may therefore experience significant perturbations in orbit and spin. The direct effects of orbital resonances and secular evolution on the climate of binary planets remain largely unconsidered. We present latitudinal energy balance modelling of exoplanet climates with direct coupling to an N-Body integrator and an obliquity evolution model. This allows us to simultaneously investigate the thermal and dynamical evolution of planets orbiting binary stars, and discover gravito-climatic oscillations on dynamical and secular time-scales. We investigate the Kepler-47 and Alpha Centauri systems as archetypes of P- and S-type binary systems, respectively. In the first case, Earth-like planets would experience rapid Milankovitch cycles (of order 1000 yr) in eccentricity, obliquity and precession, inducing temperature oscillations of similar periods (modulated by other planets in the system). These secular temperature variations have amplitudes similar to those induced on the much shorter time-scale of the binary period. In the Alpha Centauri system, the influence of the secondary produces eccentricity variations on 15 000 yr time-scales. This produces climate oscillations of similar strength to the variation on the orbital time-scale of the binary. Phase drifts between eccentricity and obliquity oscillations creates further cycles that are of order 100 000 yr in duration, which are further modulated by neighbouring planets.

  5. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  6. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  8. Effects from Periastron Advance of Eccentric Binary Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 仲元红; 潘宇

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss the coefficients of Gravitational waveform due to eccentric binaries periastron advance with evolved eccentricity.For the basic harmonic modes(n ≤ 5),the frequency split and corresponding relative strengths in the spectrum are figured out.Taking the well known binary systems PSRB 1913+16 and PSRB 1534+12 as examples,we study the dominant harmonic and its frequency split caused by periastron advance in the spectra,and give an estimation of detectability for PSRB 1913+16 and PSRB 1534+12,which are the promising targets for space observatories of gravitational wave.

  9. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

  10. Accuracy of Binary Black Hole Waveform Models for Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Fong, Heather; Barkett, Kevin; Bhagwat, Swetha; Afshari, Nousha; Chu, Tony; Brown, Duncan; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) Team

    2016-03-01

    Coalescing binaries of compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars, are the primary targets for gravitational-wave (GW) detection with Advanced LIGO. Accurate modeling of the emitted GWs is required to extract information about the binary source. The most accurate solution to the general relativistic two-body problem is available in numerical relativity (NR), which is however limited in application due to computational cost. Current searches use semi-analytic models that are based in post-Newtonian (PN) theory and calibrated to NR. In this talk, I will present comparisons between contemporary models and high-accuracy numerical simulations performed using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), focusing at the questions: (i) How well do models capture binary's late-inspiral where they lack a-priori accurate information from PN or NR, and (ii) How accurately do they model binaries with parameters outside their range of calibration. These results guide the choice of templates for future GW searches, and motivate future modeling efforts.

  11. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; D.J. Francuz; J.D. Maclay; J. Brouwer; A. Verma; M. Li; G.S. Samuelsen

    2008-09-30

    The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme is developed and used to study

  12. The ``Uberbank'': A search for compact binary coalescences in the first Observing run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capano, Collin; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Modeled searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence (CBC) use a ``bank'' of template waveforms to search the wide range of parameters that binaries may have. Recent advances in waveform modeling and template placement techniques have opened up the possibility to efficiently search for systems with non-precessing spin, using waveforms that model the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of coalescing binaries. I discuss how these advances were combined to produce the template bank used to search for CBCs in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. This bank covered the full range of plausible masses and non-precessing spins of binary neutron stars, stellar-mass binary black holes, and binaries consisting of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole.

  13. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.

  14. Dry etching technologies for the advanced binary film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Yoshinori; Karyu, Makoto; Ita, Hirotsugu; Yoshimori, Tomoaki; Azumano, Hidehito; Muto, Makoto; Nonaka, Mikio

    2011-11-01

    ABF (Advanced Binary Film) developed by Hoya as a photomask for 32 (nm) and larger specifications provides excellent resistance to both mask cleaning and 193 (nm) excimer laser and thereby helps extend the lifetime of the mask itself compared to conventional photomasks and consequently reduces the semiconductor manufacturing cost [1,2,3]. Because ABF uses Ta-based films, which are different from Cr film or MoSi films commonly used for photomask, a new process is required for its etching technology. A patterning technology for ABF was established to perform the dry etching process for Ta-based films by using the knowledge gained from absorption layer etching for EUV mask that required the same Ta-film etching process [4]. Using the mask etching system ARES, which is manufactured by Shibaura Mechatronics, and its optimized etching process, a favorable CD (Critical Dimension) uniformity, a CD linearity and other etching characteristics were obtained in ABF patterning. Those results are reported here.

  15. Searches for all types of binary mergers in the first Advanced LIGO observing run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors covered September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016. In that time, two definitive observations of merging binary black hole systems were made. In particular, the second observation, GW151226, relied on matched-filter searches targeting merging binaries. These searches were also capable of detecting binary mergers from binary neutron stars and from black-hole/neutron-star binaries. In this talk, I will give an overview of LIGO compact binary coalescence searches, in particular focusing on systems that contain neutron stars. I will discuss the sensitive volumes of the first observing run, the astrophysical implications of detections and non-detections, and prospects for future observations

  16. The detectability of eccentric compact binary coalescences with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Thrane, Eric; Luo, Jialun; Christensen, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass ($M_\\text{total}\\leq10M_\\odot$) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parameterization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity ($0\\leq\\epsilon\\leq0.6$) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parameterization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Base...

  17. The PyCBC search for binary black hole coalescences in Advanced LIGO's first observing run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Joshua; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO's first observing run saw the first detections of binary black hole coalescences. We describe the PyCBC matched filter analysis, and the results of that search for binary systems with total mass up to 100 solar masses. This is a matched filter search for general-relativistic signals from binary black hole systems. Two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, were identified with very high significance, and a third possible signal, LVT151012, was found, though at much lower significance. Supported by NSF award PHY-1506254.

  18. Detectability of eccentric compact binary coalescences with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, M.; Meyers, P.; Thrane, E.; Luo, J.; Christensen, N.

    2015-03-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass (Mtotal≤10 M⊙) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parametrization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity (0 ≤ɛ ≤0.6 ) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parametrization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Based on these results, we conclude that advanced detectors will have a chance of detecting eccentric binaries if optimistic models prove true. However, a null observation is unlikely to firmly rule out models of eccentric binary populations.

  19. Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

    1983-04-01

    The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

  20. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  1. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  2. Carbon cycle in advanced coal chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qun; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Kechang

    2015-08-07

    This review summarizes how the carbon cycle occurs and how to reduce CO2 emissions in highly efficient carbon utilization from the most abundant carbon source, coal. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to CO2 emissions and its myriad of sources. Much research has been undertaken on fossil energy and renewable energy and current existing problems, challenges and opportunities in controlling and reducing CO2 emission with technologies of CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. The coal chemical industry is a crucial area in the (CO2 value chain) Carbon Cycle. The realization of clean and effective conversion of coal resources, improving the utilization and efficiency of resources, whilst reducing CO2 emissions is a key area for further development and investigation by the coal chemical industry. Under a weak carbon mitigation policy, the value and price of products from coal conversion are suggested in the carbon cycle.

  3. Recent Advances in the Numerical Simulations of Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Since the breakthrough papers from 2005/2006, the field of numerical relativity has experienced a growth spurt that took the two-body problem in general relativity from the category of "really-hard-problems" to the realm of "things-we-know-how-to-do". Simulations of binary black holes in circular orbits, the holy grail of numerical relativity, are now tractable problems that lead to some of the most spectacular results in general relativity in recent years. We cover here some of the latest achievements and highlight the field's next challenges.

  4. Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gaebel, S.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper, we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to 100 M⊙ and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational-wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than 5 σ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance and with an 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We do not observe any deviations from general relativity, and we place improved empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. From our observations, we infer stellar-mass binary black hole merger rates lying in the range 9 - 240 Gpc-3 yr-1 . These observations are beginning to inform astrophysical predictions of binary black hole formation rates and indicate that future observing runs of the Advanced detector network will yield many more gravitational-wave detections.

  5. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sienicki, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nellis, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Klein, Sanford [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Fluids operating in the supercritical state have promising characteristics for future high efficiency power cycles. In order to develop power cycles using supercritical fluids, it is necessary to understand the flow characteristics of fluids under both supercritical and two-phase conditions. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology was developed for supercritical fluids flowing through complex geometries. A real fluid property module was implemented to provide properties for different supercritical fluids. However, in each simulation case, there is only one species of fluid. As a result, the fluid property module provides properties for either supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) or supercritical water (SCW). The Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) was employed to model the two-phase flow. HEM assumes two phases have same velocity, pressure, and temperature, making it only applicable for the dilute dispersed two-phase flow situation. Three example geometries, including orifices, labyrinth seals, and valves, were used to validate this methodology with experimental data. For the first geometry, S-CO2 and SCW flowing through orifices were simulated and compared with experimental data. The maximum difference between the mass flow rate predictions and experimental measurements is less than 5%. This is a significant improvement as previous works can only guarantee 10% error. In this research, several efforts were made to help this improvement. First, an accurate real fluid module was used to provide properties. Second, the upstream condition was determined by pressure and density, which determines supercritical states more precise than using pressure and temperature. For the second geometry, the flow through labyrinth seals was studied. After a successful validation, parametric studies were performed to study geometric effects on the leakage rate. Based on these parametric studies, an optimum design strategy for the see

  6. Ability evaluation by binary tests: Problems, challenges & recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkansky, E.; Turetsky, V.

    2016-11-01

    Binary tests designed to measure abilities of objects under test (OUTs) are widely used in different fields of measurement theory and practice. The number of test items in such tests is usually very limited. The response to each test item provides only one bit of information per OUT. The problem of correct ability assessment is even more complicated, when the levels of difficulty of the test items are unknown beforehand. This fact makes the search for effective ways of planning and processing the results of such tests highly relevant. In recent years, there has been some progress in this direction, generated by both the development of computational tools and the emergence of new ideas. The latter are associated with the use of so-called “scale invariant item response models”. Together with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach, they helped to solve some problems of engineering and proficiency testing. However, several issues related to the assessment of uncertainties, replications scheduling, the use of placebo, as well as evaluation of multidimensional abilities still present a challenge for researchers. The authors attempt to outline the ways to solve the above problems.

  7. Advanced Turbine System Program: Phase 2 cycle selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latcovich, J.A. Jr. [ABB Power Generation, Inc., Midlothian, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objectives of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 2 Program were to define a commercially attractive ATS cycle and to develop the necessary technologies required to meet the ATS Program goals with this cycle. This program is part of an eight-year Department of Energy, Fossil Energy sponsored ATS Program to make a significant improvement in natural gas-fired power generation plant efficiency while providing an environmentally superior and cost-effective system.

  8. Junction temperature estimation for an advanced active power cycling test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, S.

    2015-01-01

    estimation method using on-state VCE for an advanced active power cycling test is proposed. The concept of the advanced power cycling test is explained first. Afterwards the junction temperature estimation method using on-state VCE and current is presented. Further, the method to improve the accuracy......On-state collector-emitter voltage (VCE) is a good indicator to determine the wear-out condition of power device modules. Further, it is a one of the Temperature Sensitive Electrical Parameters (TSEPs) and thus can be used for junction temperature estimation. In this paper, the junction temperature...

  9. User manual for GEOCOST: a computer model for geothermal cost analysis. Volume 2. Binary cycle version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.D.; Walter, R.A.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1976-03-01

    A computer model called GEOCOST has been developed to simulate the production of electricity from geothermal resources and calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. GEOCOST combines resource characteristics, power recovery technology, tax rates, and financial factors into one systematic model and provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate their impacts on the cost of geothermal power. Both the geothermal reservoir and power plant are simulated to model the complete energy production system. In the version of GEOCOST in this report, geothermal fluid is supplied from wells distributed throughout a hydrothermal reservoir through insulated pipelines to a binary power plant. The power plant is simulated using a binary fluid cycle in which the geothermal fluid is passed through a series of heat exchangers. The thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles are calculated for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. Physical properties of working fluids at the state points are calculated.

  10. Influence of the type of working fluid in the lower cycle and superheated steam parameters in the upper cycle on effectiveness of operation of binary power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachel Aleksander A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper presented have been the results of the analysis of effectiveness of operation of binary power plant consisting of combined two Clausius-Rankine cycles, namely the binary cycle with water as a working fluid in the upper cycle and organic substance as a working fluid in the lower cycle, as well as a single fluid component power plant operating also in line with the C-R cycle for superheated steam, with water as a working fluid. The influence of the parameters of superheated steam in the upper cycle has been assessed as well as the type of working fluid in the lower cycle. The results of calculations have been referred to the single-cycle classical steam power plant operating at the same parameters of superheated steam and the same mass flow rate of water circulating in both cycles. On the basis of accomplished analysis it has been shown that the binary power plant shows a greater power with respect to the reference power plant.

  11. Merging Black Hole Binaries in Galactic Nuclei: Implications for Advanced-LIGO Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Fabio; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of gravitational waves from the black hole binary merger GW150914, we study the dynamical evolution of (stellar-mass) black holes in galactic nuclei, where massive star clusters reside. With masses of ˜ {10}7 {M}⊙ and sizes of only a few parsecs, nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are the densest stellar systems observed in the local universe and represent a robust environment where black hole binaries can dynamically form, harden, and merge. We show that due to their large escape speeds, NSCs can retain a large fraction of their merger remnants. Successive mergers can then lead to significant growth and produce black hole mergers of several tens of solar masses similar to GW150914 and up to a few hundreds of solar masses, without the need to invoke extremely low metallicity environments. We use a semi-analytical approach to describe the dynamics of black holes in massive star clusters. Our models give a black hole binary merger rate of ≈ 1.5 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 from NSCs, implying up to a few tens of possible detections per year with Advanced LIGO. Moreover, we find a local merger rate of ˜ 1 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 for high mass black hole binaries similar to GW150914; a merger rate comparable to or higher than that of similar binaries assembled dynamically in globular clusters (GCs). Finally, we show that if all black holes receive high natal kicks, ≳ 50 {km} {{{s}}}-1, then NSCs will dominate the local merger rate of binary black holes compared to either GCs or isolated binary evolution.

  12. Science Advancements for Black Hole Binaries from Observations with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Miller, Jon M.; Homan, Jeroen; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Kara, Erin; Pasham, Dheeraj; Uttley, Phil; Nicer Science Team

    2017-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composiiton Explorer (NICER; 2017 launch) will advance investigations of black-hole physical properties and accretion physics in strong gravity, which are research themes that flourished during the RXTE era (1996-2012). One of the primary differences between NICER/XTI and RXTE/PCA Instruments is the energy response (0.2-12 keV vs 3-45 keV), with NICER affording a much more direct view of the inner accretion disk, where the maximum temperatures vary in the range 0.2-2 keV. In addition, NICER provides superior spectral resolution (140 eV at Fe K-alpha), superior time resolution (100 ns accuracy), lower background (by factor of 100), and full flexibility for data analyses (with complete information for each photon event). Finally the count rate from NICER's 56 cameras usually exceeds the count rates from RXTE (3 PCUs), except for sources obscured by very high levels of ISM column density (log Nh > 22).Simulations are shown to support the following expectations for advancement: (1) comprehensive measures of the effective radius and temperature of the inner disk during black hole hard states and transitions; (2) visibility of the disk spectrum to constrain (as seed photons) Comptonization models to infer the properties of the corona(3) derivation of black hole spin via simultaneous use of the disk continuum and Fe line profile; (4) investigations of both high- and low-freqency QPOs in an energy range that samples both disk and corona; (5) partnerships with NuSTAR and ASTROSAT to use reflection spectra/timing to study the disk/corona geometry and interplay in different X-ray states.

  13. The PyCBC search for compact binary mergers in the second run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Canton, Tito; PyCBC Team

    2017-01-01

    The PyCBC software implements a matched-filter search for gravitational-wave signals associated with mergers of compact binaries. During the first observing run of Advanced LIGO, it played a fundamental role in the discovery of the binary-black-hole merger signals GW150914, GW151226 and LVT151012. In preparation for Advanced LIGO's second run, PyCBC has been modified with the goal of increasing the sensitivity of the search, reducing its computational cost and expanding the explored parameter space. The ability to report signals with a latency of tens of seconds and to perform inference on the parameters of the detected signals has also been introduced. I will give an overview of PyCBC and present the new features and their impact.

  14. Development of binary cycle generation plant (Development of 10 MW class plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-20

    In a binary cycle power generation system, medium/high temperature water, unutilized because of insufficient flowing force, is poured up with a DHP (Down Haul Pump) and a generator turbine is driven by an air medium obtained by heat-exchanging between the geothermal water and low boiling point medium. Merits of this system are as follows: Reduction of well drilling risk. High output obtained by a compact turbine. Enhancement of goethermal utilization. This report describes the following items. History of development (Drilling of a test well, plant design). Results in 1987 (Test well drilling, production regenerating test, reservoir analysis, plant design, natural earthwuake observation and underground water variation observation). (8 figs, 3 tabs)

  15. Binary Black Hole Mergers in the first Advanced LIGO Observing Run

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to $100 M_\\odot$ and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than $5\\sigma$ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance, which has a 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We d...

  16. Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation

  17. Detecting binary neutron star systems with spin in advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Duncan A; Lundgren, Andrew; Nitz, Alexander H

    2012-01-01

    The detection of gravitational waves from binary neutron stars is a major goal of the gravitational-wave observatories Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Previous searches for binary neutron stars with LIGO and Virgo neglected the component stars' angular momentum (spin). We demonstrate that neglecting spin in matched-filter searches causes advanced detectors to lose more than 3% of the possible signal-to-noise ratio for 59% (6%) of sources, assuming that neutron star dimensionless spins, $cJ/GM^2$, are uniformly distributed with magnitudes between 0 and 0.4 (0.05) and that the neutron stars have isotropically distributed spin orientations. We present a new method of constructing filter banks for advanced-detector searches, which can create template banks of signals with non-zero spins that are (anti-)aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We show that this search loses more than 3% of the maximium signal-to-noise for only 9% (0.2%) of BNS sources with dimensionless spins between 0 and 0.4 (0.05) and isotr...

  18. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. (Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.)

    1992-03-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  19. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: black hole - neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Pürrer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The pioneering observations of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO have ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for GW observations, of which black hole - neutron star (BHNS) binaries form an important subset. GWs from coalescing BHNS systems carry signatures of the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, as well as of its disruption close to merger. In this talk, I will discuss how well we can measure tidal effects from individual and populations of LIGO observations of disruptive BHNS mergers. I will also talk about how our measurements of non-tidal parameters can get affected by ignoring tidal effects in BHNS parameter estimation.

  20. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of

  1. Early Advanced LIGO binary neutron-star sky localization and parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, C P L; Farr, W M; Haster, C-J; Mandel, I; Middleton, H; Singer, L P; Urban, A L; Vecchio, A; Vitale, S; Cannon, K; Graff, P B; Hanna, C; Mohapatra, S; Pankow, C; Price, L R; Sidery, T; Veitch, J

    2016-01-01

    2015 will see the first observations of Advanced LIGO and the start of the gravitational-wave (GW) advanced-detector era. One of the most promising sources for ground-based GW detectors are binary neutron-star (BNS) coalescences. In order to use any detections for astrophysics, we must understand the capabilities of our parameter-estimation analysis. By simulating the GWs from an astrophysically motivated population of BNSs, we examine the accuracy of parameter inferences in the early advanced-detector era. We find that sky location, which is important for electromagnetic follow-up, can be determined rapidly (~5 s), but that sky areas may be hundreds of square degrees. The degeneracy between component mass and spin means there is significant uncertainty for measurements of the individual masses and spins; however, the chirp mass is well measured (typically better than 0.1%).

  2. Cycle update : advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, G. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provided a summary of key achievements of the Program of Energy Research and Development advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction (AFTER) program over the funding cycle from fiscal year 2005/2006 to 2008/2009. The purpose of the paper was to inform interested parties of recent advances in knowledge and in science and technology capacities in a concise manner. The paper discussed the high level research and development themes of the AFTER program through the following 4 overarching questions: how could advanced fuels and internal combustion engine designs influence emissions; how could emissions be reduced through the use of engine hardware including aftertreatment devices; how do real-world duty cycles and advanced technology vehicles operating on Canadian fuels compare with existing technologies, models and estimates; and what are the health risks associated with transportation-related emissions. It was concluded that the main issues regarding the use of biodiesel blends in current technology diesel engines are the lack of consistency in product quality; shorter shelf life of biodiesel due to poorer oxidative stability; and a need to develop characterization methods for the final oxygenated product because most standard methods are developed for hydrocarbons and are therefore inadequate. 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  3. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transitions: Optimization, Modeling Choices, and Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Robert W.

    Many nuclear fuel cycle simulators have evolved over time to help understan the nuclear industry/ecosystem at a macroscopic level. Cyclus is one of th first fuel cycle simulators to accommodate larger-scale analysis with it liberal open-source licensing and first-class Linux support. Cyclus also ha features that uniquely enable investigating the effects of modeling choices o fuel cycle simulators and scenarios. This work is divided into thre experiments focusing on optimization, effects of modeling choices, and fue cycle uncertainty. Effective optimization techniques are developed for automatically determinin desirable facility deployment schedules with Cyclus. A novel method fo mapping optimization variables to deployment schedules is developed. Thi allows relationships between reactor types and scenario constraints to b represented implicitly in the variable definitions enabling the usage o optimizers lacking constraint support. It also prevents wasting computationa resources evaluating infeasible deployment schedules. Deployed power capacit over time and deployment of non-reactor facilities are also included a optimization variables There are many fuel cycle simulators built with different combinations o modeling choices. Comparing results between them is often difficult. Cyclus flexibility allows comparing effects of many such modeling choices. Reacto refueling cycle synchronization and inter-facility competition among othe effects are compared in four cases each using combinations of fleet of individually modeled reactors with 1-month or 3-month time steps. There are noticeable differences in results for the different cases. The larges differences occur during periods of constrained reactor fuel availability This and similar work can help improve the quality of fuel cycle analysi generally There is significant uncertainty associated deploying new nuclear technologie such as time-frames for technology availability and the cost of buildin advanced reactors

  4. Prospects for intermediate mass black hole binary searches with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzolo, G; Drago, M; Necula, V; Pankow, C; Prodi, G A; Re, V; Tiwari, V; Vedovato, G; Yakushin, I; Klimenko, S

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the sensitivity of the upcoming advanced, ground-based gravitational-wave observatories (the upgraded LIGO and Virgo and the KAGRA interferometers) to coalescing intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHB). We added waveforms modeling the gravitational radiation emitted by IMBHBs to detectors' simulated data and searched for the injected signals with the coherent WaveBurst algorithm. The tested binary's parameter space covers non-spinning IMBHBs with source-frame total masses between 50 and 1050 $\\text{M}_{\\odot}$ and mass ratios between $1/6$ and 1$\\,$. We found that advanced detectors could be sensitive to these systems up to a range of a few Gpc. A theoretical model was adopted to estimate the expected observation rates, yielding up to a few tens of events per year. Thus, our results indicate that advanced detectors will have a reasonable chance to collect the first direct evidence for intermediate mass black holes and open a new, intriguing channel for probing the Universe over cosmological...

  5. Strategic research of advanced fuel cycle technologies in JNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, T.; Fukushima, M.; Nomura, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Key technologies for the future nuclear fuel cycle have been proposed and are being reviewed in JNC as a part of the Feasibility Study for an Advanced Fuel Cycle, which is to achieve a more flexible energy choice to satisfy a sustainable energy security and global environmental protection. The candidate reprocessing technologies are: 1) aqueous simplified PUREX process, 2) oxide or metallic electrowinning, and 3) fluoride volatilization for oxide, metal, or nitride fuels. The fuel fabrication methods being investigated are: 1) simplified pellet process, 2) sphere/vibro-packed process for MOX/MN fuel, and 3) casting for metal fuel. These candidate technologies are currently being compared based on past experiences, technical issues to be solved, industrial applicability for future plants, feasible options for MA/LLFP separation, and nonproliferation aspects. Alter two years of the present reviewing process, selected key technologies will be developed over the next five years to evaluate industrial applicability of reprocessing and fuel manufacturing processes for the advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

  6. Low-latency analysis pipeline for compact binary coalescences in the advanced gravitational wave detector era

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, T; Germain, V; Guidi, G M; Marion, F; Montani, M; Mours, B; Piergiovanni, F; Wang, G

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Band Template Analysis (MBTA) pipeline is a low-latency coincident analysis pipeline for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences (CBCs). MBTA runs with a low computational cost, and can identify candidate GW events online with a sub-minute latency. The low computational running cost of MBTA also makes it useful for data quality studies. Events detected by MBTA online can be used to alert astronomical partners for electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. We outline the current status of MBTA and give details of recent pipeline upgrades and validation tests that were performed in preparation for the first advanced detector observing period. The MBTA pipeline is ready for the outset of the advanced detector era and the exciting prospects it will bring.

  7. Low-latency analysis pipeline for compact binary coalescences in the advanced gravitational wave detector era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T.; Buskulic, D.; Germain, V.; Guidi, G. M.; Marion, F.; Montani, M.; Mours, B.; Piergiovanni, F.; Wang, G.

    2016-09-01

    The multi-band template analysis (MBTA) pipeline is a low-latency coincident analysis pipeline for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences. MBTA runs with a low computational cost, and can identify candidate GW events online with a sub-minute latency. The low computational running cost of MBTA also makes it useful for data quality studies. Events detected by MBTA online can be used to alert astronomical partners for electromagnetic follow-up. We outline the current status of MBTA and give details of recent pipeline upgrades and validation tests that were performed in preparation for the first advanced detector observing period. The MBTA pipeline is ready for the outset of the advanced detector era and the exciting prospects it will bring.

  8. Advanced combustion turbines and cycles: An EPRI perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchton, G.; Cohn, A. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    EPRI conducts a broad program of research in combustion turbine technology on behalf of its funders which is directed toward improving their competitive positions through lower cost of generation and risk mitigation. The major areas of EPRI interest are: (1) Combustion Turbine Technology Development, Assessment, and Procurement Information and Products. (2) Risk mitigation of emerging combustion turbines through durability surveillance. (3) Existing Fleet Management and Improvement Technology. In the context of the DOE ATS Review, the present paper will address new advanced turbines and cycles and durability surveillance, of emerging combustion turbines. It will touch on existing fleet management and improvement technology as appropriate.

  9. Life-cycle cost analysis of advanced design mixer pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-23

    This analysis provides cost justification for the Advanced Design Mixer Pump program based on the cost benefit to the Hanford Site of 4 mixer pump systems defined in terms of the life-cycle cost.A computer model is used to estimate the total number of service hours necessary for each mixer pump to operate over the 20-year retrieval sequence period for single-shell tank waste. This study also considered the double-shell tank waste retrieved prior to the single-shell tank waste which is considered the initial retrieval.

  10. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  11. Towards an Extended Binary Black Hole Search using Advanced LIGO: from Stellar to Intermediate-Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debnandini; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) binaries, make up the mass space between stellar-mass and super massive black holes, with their total mass in the range of about 100 to 100,000 solar masses. Detection of IMBH mergers would help us explore their formation channels. The IMBH search is currently sensitive to coalescences of black hole binaries covering a total mass range between 50-600 solar masses. Recent publications in astrophysics point to the physical importance of the IMBH search (they may shed light on certain supernova mechanisms). In light of the conclusion of the 1st Advanced LIGO search conducted between September 2015 and January 2016 (O1 run), I will provide an update on the IMBH search (software GstLAL based, using matched-filter) on this data and will discuss the feasibility of including the IMBH search with the stellar-mass black hole search space (total mass range 2-100 solar masses), thus achieving a combined search for future runs. NSF PHY-1607585.

  12. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Shropshire

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from

  13. Advanced fusion MHD power conversion using the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Campbell, R.; Logan, B.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-10-01

    The CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept for a tokamak reactor involves the use of a high-temperature Rankine cycle in combination with microwave superheaters and nonequilibrium MHD disk generators to obtain a compact, low-capital-cost power conversion system which fits almost entirely within the reactor vault. The significant savings in the balance-of-plant costs are expected to result in much lower costs of electricity than previous concepts. This paper describes the unique features of the CFAR cycle and a high- temperature blanket designed to take advantage of it as well as the predicted performance of the MHD disk generators using mercury seeded with cesium. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Supplement: The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Maga~na-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Porter, E; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental information for a Letter reporting the rate of binary black hole (BBH) coalescences inferred from 16 days of coincident Advanced LIGO observations surrounding the transient gravitational wave signal GW150914. In that work we reported various rate estimates whose 90\\% credible intervals fell in the range $2$--$600 \\, \\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3} \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$. Here we give details of our method and computations, including information about our search pipelines, a derivation of our likelihood function for the analysis, a description of the astrophysical search trigger distribution expected from merging BBHs, details on our computational methods, a description of the effects and our model for calibration uncertainty, and an analytic method of estimating our detector sensitivity that is calibrated to our measurements.

  15. The Adoption of Advanced Fuel Cycle Technology Under a Single Repository Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Wilson

    2009-11-02

    Develops the tools to investiage the hypothesis that the savings in repository space associated with the implementation of advanced nuclear fuel cycles can result in sufficient cost savings to offset the higher costs of those fuel cycles.

  16. Periastron Advance in Spinning Black Hole Binaries: Comparing Effective-One-Body and Numerical Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hinderer, Tanja; Mroué, Abdul H; Hemberger, Daniel A; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Pfeiffer, Harald P

    2013-01-01

    We compute the periastron advance using the effective-one-body formalism for binary black holes moving on quasi-circular orbits and having spins collinear with the orbital angular momentum. We compare the predictions with the periastron advance recently computed in accurate numerical-relativity simulations and find remarkable agreement for a wide range of spins and mass ratios. These results do not use any numerical-relativity calibration of the effective-one-body model, and stem from two key ingredients in the effective-one-body Hamiltonian: (i) the mapping of the two-body dynamics of spinning particles onto the dynamics of an effective spinning particle in a (deformed) Kerr spacetime, fully symmetrized with respect to the two-body masses and spins, and (ii) the resummation, in the test-particle limit, of all post-Newtonian (PN) corrections linear in the spin of the particle. In fact, even when only the leading spin PN corrections are included in the effective-one-body spinning Hamiltonian but all the test-p...

  17. Parameter estimation for binary neutron-star coalescences with realistic noise during the Advanced LIGO era

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Christopher P L; Middleton, Hannah; Singer, Leo P; Urban, Alex L; Vecchio, Alberto; Vitale, Salvatore; Cannon, Kipp; Farr, Ben; Farr, Will M; Graff, Philip B; Hanna, Chad; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mohapatra, Satya; Pankow, Chris; Price, Larry R; Sidery, Trevor; Veitch, John

    2014-01-01

    Advanced ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors begin operation imminently. Their intended goal is not only to make the first direct detection of GWs, but also to make inferences about the source systems. Binary neutron-star mergers are among the most promising sources. We investigate the performance of the parameter-estimation pipeline that will be used during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) in 2015: we concentrate on the ability to reconstruct the source location on the sky, but also consider the ability to measure masses and the distance. Accurate, rapid sky-localization is necessary to alert electromagnetic (EM) observatories so that they can perform follow-up searches for counterpart transient events. We consider parameter-estimation accuracy in the presence of realistic, non-Gaussian noise. We find that the character of the noise makes negligible difference to the parameter-estimation performance. The source luminosity distance ...

  18. Scale Resistant Heat Exchanger for Low Temperature Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Energent Corporation, Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Phase 1 of the investigation of improvements to low temperature geothermal power systems was completed. The improvements considered were reduction of scaling in heat exchangers and a hermetic turbine generator (eliminating seals, seal system, gearbox, and lube oil system). A scaling test system with several experiments was designed and operated at Coso geothermal resource with brine having a high scaling potential. Several methods were investigated at the brine temperature of 235 ºF. One method, circulation of abradable balls through the brine passages, was found to substantially reduce scale deposits. The test heat exchanger was operated with brine outlet temperatures as low as 125 ºF, which enables increased heat input available to power conversion systems. For advanced low temperature cycles, such as the Variable Phase Cycle (VPC) or Kalina Cycle, the lower brine temperature will result in a 20-30% increase in power production from low temperature resources. A preliminary design of an abradable ball system (ABS) was done for the heat exchanger of the 1 megawatt VPC system at Coso resource. The ABS will be installed and demonstrated in Phase 2 of this project, increasing the power production above that possible with the present 175 ºF brine outlet limit. A hermetic turbine generator (TGH) was designed and manufacturing drawings produced. This unit will use the working fluid (R134a) to lubricate the bearings and cool the generator. The 200 kW turbine directly drives the generator, eliminating a gearbox and lube oil system. Elimination of external seals eliminates the potential of leakage of the refrigerant or hydrocarbon working fluids, resulting in environmental improvement. A similar design has been demonstrated by Energent in an ORC waste heat recovery system. The existing VPC power plant at Coso was modified to enable the “piggyback” demonstration of the TGH. The existing heat exchanger, pumps, and condenser will be operated to provide the required

  19. Results of the GstLAL Search for Compact Binary Mergers in Advanced LIGO's First Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ryan; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO's first observing period ended in January 2016. We discuss the GstLAL matched-filter search over this data set for gravitational waves from compact binary objects with total mass up to 100 solar masses. In particular, we discuss the recovery of the unambiguous gravitational wave signals GW150914 and GW151226, as well as the possible third signal LVT151012. Additionally, we discuss the constraints we can place on binary-neutron-star and neutron-star-black-hole system merger rates.

  20. Development of hydrothermal power generation plant. Development of binary cycle power generation plant (development of 10 MW-class plant); 1995 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu. 10MW kyu plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A 10 MW-class binary cycle power generation plant has been developed using a down hole pump (DHP) which exchanges the hydrothermal energy with secondary medium in the heat exchanger. For constructing the plant at Kuju-machi, Oita Prefecture, site preparation works, foundation of cooling tower, reconstruction of roads, and survey on environmental influences were conducted. To investigate installation and removal methods of DHP, a geothermal water pump-up system, current status of the binary cycle power generating system in the USA was surveyed. In this survey, a trailer mounting handling machine was inspected. Based on the survey results, a simple assembled, easy-installation type handling equipment was designed. In addition, the replacement work for motor connector joint of DHP and the strength of coil end were improved. Construction and method allowing reuse of the motor cable were considered by improving the cable and cable end portion. The air tight soundness of incoloy corrugate sheath was confirmed. Finally, a reproduction system for waste oil of DHP bearing oil was investigated. 106 figs., 52 tabs.

  1. Illuminating Black Hole Binary Formation Channels with Spins in Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Pankow, Chris; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    The recent detections of the binary black hole mergers GW150914 and GW151226 have inaugurated the field of gravitational-wave astronomy. For the two main formation channels that have been proposed for these sources, isolated binary evolution in galactic fields and dynamical formation in dense star clusters, the predicted masses and merger rates overlap significantly, complicating any astrophysical claims that rely on measured masses alone. Here, we examine the distribution of spin- orbit misalignments expected for binaries from the field and from dense star clusters. Under standard assumptions for black-hole natal kicks, we find that black-hole binaries similar to GW150914 could be formed with significant spin-orbit misalignment only through dynamical processes. In particular, these heavy-black-hole binaries can only form with a significant spin-orbit anti-alignment in the dynamical channel. Our results suggest that future detections of merging black hole binaries with measurable spins will allow us to identi...

  2. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  3. The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; 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    2016-01-01

    A transient gravitational-wave signal was identified in the twin Advanced LIGO detectors on September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC (GW150914). To assess the implications of this discovery, the detectors remained in operation with unchanged configurations over a period of 39 d around the time of the signal. A search of 16 days of simultaneous two-detector observational data found GW150914 to have a false alarm probability (FAP) of $2 \\times 10^{-7}$. Parameter estimation followup on this trigger identifies its source as a binary black hole (BBH) merger with component masses $(m_1, m_2) = 36^{+5}_{-4}, 29^{+4}_{-4} \\, M_\\odot$ at redshift $z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. Here we report on the constraints these observations place on the rate of BBH coalescences. Considering only GW150914, assuming that all BBHs in the universe have the same masses and spins as this event, imposing a false alarm threshold of 1 per 100 years, and assuming that the BBH merger rate is constant in the comoving frame, we infer a 90% credible r...

  4. Current Status and Advancements in Research of Plantation Nutrient Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; ZHANG Changshun; SUN Yongyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts and current research status of plantation nutrients cyclings, and analyzes main contents of plantation nutrients cycling as nutrients contents, accumulation and distribution of nutrients elements, understory species and forest litter. At the same time, the paper summarizes the problems in plantation nutrients cycling and its prospects.

  5. Geothermal power plant R and D: an analysis of cost-performance tradeoffs and the Heber Binary-Cycle Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.

    1983-06-30

    A study of advancements in power plant designs for use at geothermal resources in the low to moderate (300 to 400F) temperature range is reported. In 3 case studies, the benefits of R and D to achieve these advancements are evaluated in terms of expected increases in installed geothermal generating capacity over the next 2 decades. A parametric sensitivity study is discussed which analyzes differential power development for combinations of power plant efficiency and capitol cost. Affordable tradeoffs between plant performance and capital costs are illustrated. The independent review and analysis of the expected costs of construction, operation and maintenance of the Heber Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Demonstration Plant are described. Included in this assessment is an analysis of each of the major cost components of the project, including (1) construction cost, (2) well field development costs, (3) fluid purchase costs, and (4) well field and power plant operation and maintenance costs. The total cost of power generated from the Heber Plant (in terms of mills per kWh) is then compared to the cost of power from alternative fossil-fueled base load units. Also evaluated are the provisions of both: (a) the Cooperative Agreement between the federal government and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG and E); and (b) the Geothermal Heat Sales Contract with Union Oil Company.

  6. Calibration of the Advanced LIGO detectors for the discovery of the binary black-hole merger GW150914

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the det...

  7. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts. Report on Phases 1 and 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.

    1992-03-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  8. The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

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D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    A transient gravitational-wave signal, GW150914, was identified in the twin Advanced LIGO detectors on 2015 September 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC. To assess the implications of this discovery, the detectors remained in operation with unchanged configurations over a period of 39 days around the time of the signal. At the detection statistic threshold corresponding to that observed for GW150914, our search of the 16 days of simultaneous two-detector observational data is estimated to have a false-alarm rate (FAR) of \\lt 4.9× {10}-6 {{yr}}-1, yielding a p-value for GW150914 of \\lt 2× {10}-7. Parameter estimation follow-up on this trigger identifies its source as a binary black hole (BBH) merger with component masses ({m}1,{m}2)=({36}-4+5,{29}-4+4) {M}⊙ at redshift z={0.09}-0.04+0.03 (median and 90% credible range). Here, we report on the constraints these observations place on the rate of BBH coalescences. Considering only GW150914, assuming that all BBHs in the universe have the same masses and spins as this event, imposing a search FAR threshold of 1 per 100 years, and assuming that the BBH merger rate is constant in the comoving frame, we infer a 90% credible range of merger rates between 2{--}53 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 (comoving frame). Incorporating all search triggers that pass a much lower threshold while accounting for the uncertainty in the astrophysical origin of each trigger, we estimate a higher rate, ranging from 13{--}600 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 depending on assumptions about the BBH mass distribution. All together, our various rate estimates fall in the conservative range 2{--}600 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1.

  9. Study on an advanced adsorption desalination cycle with evaporator–condenser heat recovery circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the efficacy of a silica gel-water based advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. A mathematical model of the AD cycle was developed and the performance data were compared with the experimental results. The advanced AD cycle is able to produce the specific daily water production (SDWP) of 9.24 m3/tonne of silica gel per day at 70 °C hot water inlet temperature while the corresponding performance ratio (PR) is comparatively high at 0.77. It is found that the cycle can be operational at 50 °C hot water temperature with SDWP 4.3. The SDWP of the advanced cycle is almost twice that of the conventional AD cycle. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The active RS Canum Venaticorum binary II Pegasi. IV. The SPOT activity cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Ilyin, I.; Tuominen, I.

    1999-10-01

    A total of 6 new surface images of II Peg obtained for the years 1997 and 1998 confirms the recently revealed permanent active longitude structure. The lower limit of the active longitudes' lifetime is now extended up to 25 years. A new ``flip-flop'' phenomenon, redefined as a switch of the activity between the active longitudes, has started in summer of 1998. It coincides reasonably well with the moment predicted from the activity cycle of the star. This confirms definitely the cyclic behaviour of the activity of II Peg we recently discovered. Therefore, we assign numbers to the cycles of 4.65 yr since the earliest photoelectric observations of II Peg and define the active longitudes as ``odd'' and ``even'' corresponding to odd and even numbers of cycles. With such a definition, in late 1998 the 7th cycle began and the ``odd'' active longitude became more active. From the analysis of the spot area evolution within the active longitudes we conclude that the activity cycle is developed as a rearrangement of the nearly constant amount of the spot area between the active longitudes. We discuss the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon as a tracer of stellar activity and the role of the unseen secondary in establishing the cycle. Based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), La Palma, Spain; the 1.25m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Ukraine; the Phoenix 10 robotic telescope, APT Observatory, Arizona, USA.}

  11. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus in...

  12. Illuminating Black Hole Binary Formation Channels with Spins in Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Zevin, Michael; Pankow, Chris; Kalogera, Vasilliki; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-11-01

    The recent detections of the binary black hole mergers GW150914 and GW151226 have inaugurated the field of gravitational-wave astronomy. For the two main formation channels that have been proposed for these sources, isolated binary evolution in galactic fields and dynamical formation in dense star clusters, the predicted masses and merger rates overlap significantly, complicating any astrophysical claims that rely on measured masses alone. Here, we examine the distribution of spin-orbit misalignments expected for binaries from the field and from dense star clusters. Under standard assumptions for black hole natal kicks, we find that black hole binaries similar to GW150914 could be formed with significant spin-orbit misalignment only through dynamical processes. In particular, these heavy-black hole binaries can only form with a significant spin-orbit anti-alignment in the dynamical channel. Our results suggest that future detections of merging black hole binaries with measurable spins will allow us to identify the main formation channel for these systems.

  13. Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Szilagyi, Bela; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as $45.5\\,M_\\odot$. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  14. Parameter estimation using a complete signal and inspiral templates for nonspinning low mass binary black holes with Advanced LIGO sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Hee-Suk

    2015-01-01

    We study the validity of the inspiral templates in gravitational wave data analysis for nonspinning binary black holes with Advanced LIGO sensitivity. We use the phenomenological waveform model, which contains the inspiral-merger-ring down (IMR) phases defined in the Fourier domain. For parameter estimation purposes, we calculate the statistical errors assuming the IMR signals and IMR templates for the binaries with total masses M $\\leq$ 30Msun. Especially, we explore the systematic biases caused by a mismatch between the IMR signal model (IMR) and inspiral template model (Imerg), and investigate the impact on the parameter estimation accuracy by comparing the biases with the statistical errors. For detection purposes, we calculate the fitting factors of the inspiral templates with respect to the IMR signals. We find that the valid criteria for Imerg templates are obtained by Mcrit ~ 24Msun (if M < Mcrit, the fitting factor is higher than 0.97) for detection and M < 26Msun (where the systematic bias is ...

  15. JAEA key facilities for global advanced fuel cycle R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Ryuichi [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Labos, JAEA, 4-33 Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Advanced fuel cycle will be realized with the mid and long term R and D during the long-term transition period from LWR cycle to advanced reactor fuel cycle. Most of JAEA facilities have been utilized to establish the current LWR and FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) fuel cycle by implementing evolutionary R and D. An assessment of today's state experimental facilities concerning the following research issues: reprocessing, Mox fuel fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examination, waste management and nuclear data measurement, is made. The revolutionary R and D requests new issues to be studied: the TRU multi-recycling, minor actinide recycling, the assessment of proliferation resistance and the assessment of cost reduction. To implement the revolutionary R and D for advanced fuel cycle, however, these facilities should be refurbished to install new machines and process equipment to provide more flexible testing parameters.

  16. Advanced adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle: A thermodynamic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a thermodynamic framework to calculate adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle performances as a function of pore widths and pore volumes of highly porous adsorbents, which are formulated from the rigor of thermodynamic property surfaces of adsorbent-adsorbate system and the adsorption interaction potential between them. Employing the proposed formulations, the coefficient of performance (COP) and overall performance ratio (OPR) of adsorption cycle are computed for various pore widths of solid adsorbents. These results are compared with experimental data for verifying the proposed thermodynamic formulations. It is found from the present analysis that the COP and OPR of adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle is influenced by (i) the physical characteristics of adsorbents, (ii) characteristics energy and (iii) the surface-structural heterogeneity factor of adsorbent-water system. The present study confirms that there exists a special type of adsorbents having optimal physical characteristics that allows us to obtain the best performance.

  17. Advancing life cycle economics in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Kim; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2005-01-01

    that the configuration of the roles as client, owner and user is indicative of a client's interest in life cycle economics. Second, a proposal for a common Nordic cost classification was put forward. Third, it was argued that there is a strong need to develop tools and methodologies to depict the cost/value ratio...

  18. Suzaku Monitoring of Hard X-ray Emission from Eta Carinae over a Single Binary Orbital Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Yuasa, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu; Gull, Theodore R; Pittard, Julian M; Russell, Christopher M P; Madura, Thomas I

    2014-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray observatory monitored the supermassive binary system Eta Carinae 10 times during the whole 5.5 year orbital cycle between 2005-2011. This series of observations presents the first long-term monitoring of this enigmatic system in the extremely hard X-ray band between 15-40 keV. During most of the orbit, the 15-25 keV emission varied similarly to the 2-10 keV emission, indicating an origin in the hard energy tail of the kT ~4 keV wind-wind collision (WWC) plasma. However, the 15-25 keV emission declined only by a factor of 3 around periastron when the 2-10 keV emission dropped by two orders of magnitude due probably to an eclipse of the WWC plasma. The observed minimum in the 15-25 keV emission occurred after the 2-10 keV flux had already recovered by a factor of ~3. This may mean that the WWC activity was strong, but hidden behind the thick primary stellar wind during the eclipse. The 25-40 keV flux was rather constant through the orbital cycle, at the level measured with INTEGRAL in 2004. Thi...

  19. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  20. Advanced Low Temperature Geothermal Power Cycles (The ENTIV Organic Project) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugerwa, Michael [Technip USA, Inc., Claremont, CA (United States)

    2015-11-18

    Feasibility study of advanced low temperature thermal power cycles for the Entiv Organic Project. Study evaluates amonia-water mixed working fluid energy conversion processes developed and licensed under Kalex in comparison with Kalina cycles. Both cycles are developed using low temperature thermal resource from the Lower Klamath Lake Geothermal Area. An economic feasibility evaluation was conducted for a pilot plant which was deemed unfeasible by the Project Sponsor (Entiv).

  1. High-potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research; Sevincer, Edip; Chen, Huijuan; Hardy, Ajilli; Wickersham, Paul; Kalra, Chiranjeev; Laursen, Anna Lis; Vandeputte, Thomas

    2013-06-29

    A thermo-economic model has been built and validated for prediction of project economics of Enhanced Geothermal Projects. The thermo-economic model calculates and iteratively optimizes the LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) for a prospective EGS (Enhanced Geothermal) site. It takes into account the local subsurface temperature gradient, the cost of drilling and reservoir creation, stimulation and power plant configuration. It calculates and optimizes the power plant configuration vs. well depth. Thus outputs from the model include optimal well depth and power plant configuration for the lowest LCOE. The main focus of this final report was to experimentally validate the thermodynamic properties that formed the basis of the thermo-economic model built in Phase 2, and thus build confidence that the predictions of the model could be used reliably for process downselection and preliminary design at a given set of geothermal (and/or waste heat) boundary conditions. The fluid and cycle downselected was based on a new proprietary fluid from a vendor in a supercritical ORC cycle at a resource condition of 200°C inlet temperature. The team devised and executed a series of experiments to prove the suitability of the new fluid in realistic ORC cycle conditions. Furthermore, the team performed a preliminary design study for a MW-scale turbo expander that would be used for a supercritical ORC cycle with this new fluid. The following summarizes the main findings in the investigative campaign that was undertaken: 1. Chemical compatibility of the new fluid with common seal/gasket/Oring materials was found to be problematic. Neoprene, Viton, and silicone materials were found to be incompatible, suffering chemical decomposition, swelling and/or compression set issues. Of the materials tested, only TEFLON was found to be compatible under actual ORC temperature and pressure conditions. 2. Thermal stability of the new fluid at 200°C and 40 bar was found to be acceptable after 399

  2. Results of studies on application of CCMHD to advanced fossil fuel power plant cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, J.P.; Wu, Y.C.L.S.; Lineberry, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the potential for application of a Closed Cycle MHD disk generator (CCMHD) in advanced fossil fuel power generation systems. Cycle analyses were conducted for a variety of candidate power cycles, including simple cycle CCMHD (MHD); a cycle combining CCMHD and gas turbines (MHD/GT); and a triple combined cycle including CCMHD, gas turbines, and steam turbines (MHD/GT/ST). The above cycles were previously considered in cycle studies reported by Japanese researchers. Also considered was a CCMHD cycle incorporating thermochemical heat recovery through reforming of the fuel stream (MHD/REF), which is the first consideration of this approach. A gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GT/ST) was also analyzed for baseline comparison. The only fuel considered in the study was CH4. Component heat and pressure losses were neglected, and the potential for NOx emission due to high combustion temperatures was not considered. Likewise, engineering limitations for cycle components, particularly the high temperature argon heater, were not considered. This approach was adopted to simplify the analysis for preliminary screening of candidate cycles. Cycle calculations were performed using in-house code. Ideal gas thermodynamic properties were calculated using the NASA SP- 273 data base, and thermodynamic properties for steam were calculated using the computerized ASME Steam Tables. High temperature equilibrium compositions for combustion gas were calculated using tabulated values of the equilibrium constants for the important reactions.

  3. High-potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research; Sevincer, Edip; Chen, Huijuan; Hardy, Ajilli; Wickersham, Paul; Kalra, Chiranjeev; Laursen, Anna Lis; Vandeputte, Thomas

    2013-06-29

    A thermo-economic model has been built and validated for prediction of project economics of Enhanced Geothermal Projects. The thermo-economic model calculates and iteratively optimizes the LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) for a prospective EGS (Enhanced Geothermal) site. It takes into account the local subsurface temperature gradient, the cost of drilling and reservoir creation, stimulation and power plant configuration. It calculates and optimizes the power plant configuration vs. well depth. Thus outputs from the model include optimal well depth and power plant configuration for the lowest LCOE. The main focus of this final report was to experimentally validate the thermodynamic properties that formed the basis of the thermo-economic model built in Phase 2, and thus build confidence that the predictions of the model could be used reliably for process downselection and preliminary design at a given set of geothermal (and/or waste heat) boundary conditions. The fluid and cycle downselected was based on a new proprietary fluid from a vendor in a supercritical ORC cycle at a resource condition of 200°C inlet temperature. The team devised and executed a series of experiments to prove the suitability of the new fluid in realistic ORC cycle conditions. Furthermore, the team performed a preliminary design study for a MW-scale turbo expander that would be used for a supercritical ORC cycle with this new fluid. The following summarizes the main findings in the investigative campaign that was undertaken: 1. Chemical compatibility of the new fluid with common seal/gasket/Oring materials was found to be problematic. Neoprene, Viton, and silicone materials were found to be incompatible, suffering chemical decomposition, swelling and/or compression set issues. Of the materials tested, only TEFLON was found to be compatible under actual ORC temperature and pressure conditions. 2. Thermal stability of the new fluid at 200°C and 40 bar was found to be acceptable after 399

  4. Discriminating Formation Channels of Binary Black Hole Systems with Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Michael; Rodriguez, Carl; Pankow, Chris; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Fred

    2017-01-01

    The field of gravitational-wave astronomy has been initiated by the recent observations of binary black hole mergers. These observations illuminate objects that are inaccessible with electromagnetic telescopes, and open inquiries as to how heavy binary black hole systems form and merge. Two possible formation channels proposed for such systems are isolated binary evolution in galactic fields and dynamical formation in star clusters. Currently, the coarse localization of these gravitational-wave events cannot indicate the environment in which the binary formed, and the mass distributions and merger rates from simulations of the aforementioned formation channels do not have an appreciable difference. However, the component spins of the black holes have the potential to unveil the formation history of the system. In this talk, I will discuss how to match measurements of the black hole component spin alignment with the projected spin distributions produced by population synthesis simulations. Using this framework we will link the estimated black hole spin to the formation channel of a merger, thus leading to a more detailed picture of their environments and origins.

  5. Analysis of Superimposed Elementary Thermodynamic Cycles: from the Brayton-Joule to Advanced Mixed (Auto-Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Manente

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The need for efficiency improvement in energy conversion systems leads to a stricter functional integration among system components. This results in structures of increasing complexity, the high performance of which are often difficult to be understood easily. To make the comprehension of these structures easier, a new approach is followed in this paper, consisting in their representation as partial or total superimposition of elementary thermodynamic cycles. Although system performance cannot, in general, be evaluated as the sum of the performance of the separate thermodynamic cycles, this kind of representation and analysis can be of great help in understanding directions of development followed in the literature for the construction of advanced energy systems, and could suggest new potential directions of work. The evolution from the simple Brayton-Joule cycle to the so called “mixed” cycles, in which heat at the turbine discharge is exploited using internal heat sinks only without using a separate bottoming section, is used to demonstrate the potentiality of the approach. Mixed cycles are named here "auto-combined cycles” to highlight the combination of different (gas and steam cycles within the same system components.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  6. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the advanced treatment technologies, i...

  7. Advances in Telescope and Detector Technologies - Impacts on the Study and Understanding of Binary Star and Exoplanet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott; Devinney, Edward J.

    2012-04-01

    Current and planned telescope systems (both on the ground and in space) as well as new technologies will be discussed with emphasis on their impact on the studies of binary star and exoplanet systems. Although no telescopes or space missions are primarily designed to study binary stars (what a pity!), several are available (or will be shortly) to study exoplanet systems. Nonetheless those telescopes and instruments can also be powerful tools for studying binary and variable stars. For example, early microlensing missions (mid-1990s) such as EROS, MACHO and OGLE were initially designed for probing dark matter in the halos of galaxies but, serendipitously, these programs turned out to be a bonanza for the studies of eclipsing binaries and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds and in the Galactic Bulge. A more recent example of this kind of serendipity is the Kepler Mission. Although Kepler was designed to discover exoplanet transits (and so far has been very successful, returning many planetary candidates), Kepler is turning out to be a ``stealth'' stellar astrophysics mission returning fundamentally important and new information on eclipsing binaries, variable stars and, in particular, providing a treasure trove of data of all types of pulsating stars suitable for detailed Asteroseismology studies. With this in mind, current and planned telescopes and networks, new instruments and techniques (including interferometers) are discussed that can play important roles in our understanding of both binary star and exoplanet systems. Recent advances in detectors (e.g. laser frequency comb spectrographs), telescope networks (both small and large - e.g. Super-WASP, HAT-net, RoboNet, Las Combres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network), wide field (panoramic) telescope systems (e.g. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-Starrs), huge telescopes (e.g. the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the Overwhelming Large Telescope (OWL) and the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT

  8. GW150914: First results from the search for binary black hole coalescence with Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bohémier, K.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cokelaer, T.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Dietz, A.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Goggin, L. M.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.

    2016-06-01

    On September 14, 2015, at 09∶50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) simultaneously observed the binary black hole merger GW150914. We report the results of a matched-filter search using relativistic models of compact-object binaries that recovered GW150914 as the most significant event during the coincident observations between the two LIGO detectors from September 12 to October 20, 2015 GW150914 was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ .

  9. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-02

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater.

  10. Merging black hole binaries in galactic nuclei: implications for advanced-LIGO detections

    CERN Document Server

    Antonini, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of gravitational waves from the black hole binary merger GW150914, we study the dynamical evolution of black holes in galactic nuclei where massive star clusters reside. With masses of ~10^7M_Sun and sizes of only a few parsecs, nuclear star clusters are the densest stellar systems observed in the local universe and represent a robust environment where (stellar mass) black hole binaries can dynamically form, harden and merge. We show that due to their large escape speeds, nuclear star clusters can keep a large fraction of their merger remnants while also evolving rapidly enough that the holes can sink back to the central regions where they can swap in new binaries that can subsequently harden and merge. This process can repeat several times and produce black hole mergers of several tens of solar masses similar to GW150914 and up to a few hundreds of solar masses, without the need of invoking extremely low metallicity environments or implausible initial conditions. We use a se...

  11. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  13. Conventional and Advanced Silicagel-water Adsorption Cycles Driven by Near - environmental Temperature Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Elisa; B. Saha, Bidyut; Tanaka, Aiharu; Kashiwagi, Takao

    This work aims at clarifying the possible operating temperature ranges for silica gel-water adsorption refrigeration cycles driven by near-environmental temperature heat sources (between 50°C and 85°C), with relatively small regenerating temperature lifts (10 K to 65 K). A newly developed three stage advanced silica gel-water cycle, which is operational with 50°C driving heat source and 30°C cooling source is introduced and compared with a conventional single stage cycle. The cycles are evaluated in terms of cooling capacity, COP and the viability of operation with near-environmental temperature driving heat sources. The analysis is based on experimental and cycle simulation work. The results showed the advanced three stage cycle to be particularly suited for operation with low grade waste heat driving sources, since it worked with small regenerating temperature lifts (ΔTregen)of 10K to 30K. Another significant advantage of operation with small ΔTregen is the possibility to reduce irreversible heat losses from batched cycle operation. Experiments carried out on full-size machine suggested that, even with smallΔTregen, adsorber /desorber heat exchanger improvements such as higher thermal conductance and smaller heat capacitance can contribute to reduce heat losses while improving cycle performance in terms of cooling capacity and COP.

  14. Advanced Accelerated Power Cycling Test for Reliability Investigation of Power Device Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Jørgensen, Søren; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of tested power IGBT module. The various realistic electrical operating conditions close to real three-phase converter applications can be achieved by the simple control method. Further, by the proposed concept of applying the temperature stress, it is possible to apply various magnitudes of temperature......This paper presents an apparatus and methodology for an advanced accelerated power cycling test of insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules. In this test, the accelerated power cycling test can be performed under more realistic electrical operating conditions with online wear-out monitoring...... power cycling test setup is given. Then, an improved in situ junction temperature estimation method using on-state collector–emitter voltage VCE ON and load current is proposed. In addition, a procedure of advanced accelerated power cycling test and test results with 600 V, 30 A transfer molded IGBT...

  15. Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R N; Nutt, W M; Laidler, J J

    2011-01-01

    The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U.S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described.

  16. Prospects for early localization of gravitational-wave signals from compact binary coalescences with advanced detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Manzotti, Alessandro; Dietz, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A leading candidate source of detectable gravitational waves is the inspiral and merger of pairs of stellar-mass compact objects. The advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo detectors will allow scientists to detect inspiral signals from more massive systems and at earlier times in the detector band, than with first generation detectors. The signal from a coalescence of two neutron stars is expected to stay in the sensitive band of advanced detectors for several minutes, thus allowing detection befo...

  17. Recovery of Information from the Fast Flux Test Facility for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Deborah L.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2009-09-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor to operate in the United States. Information from the design, construction, and operation of this reactor was at risk as the facilities associated with the reactor are being shut down. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is a program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy with a mission to develop new fuel cycle technologies to support both current and advanced reactors. Securing and preserving the knowledge gained from operation and testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility is an important part of the Knowledge Preservation activity in this program.

  18. Recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based hydrogen production and the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naterer, G. [Canada Research Chair Professor, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Suppiah, S. [Manager, Hydrogen Isotopes Technology Branch, AECL, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Lewis, M. [Chemist, Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gabriel, K. [Associate Provost, Research, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. [Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Fowler, M. [Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Rizvi, G. [Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Easton, E.B. [Assistant Professor of Chemistry, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Ikeda, B.M.; Pioro, I. [Associate Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe St., Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 (Canada); Kaye, M.H.; Lu, L. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Spekkens, P. [Vice President of Science and Technology Development, Ontario Power Generation, 889 Brock Road, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Tremaine, P. [Professor of Chemistry, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mostaghimi, J. [Canada Research Chair Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Avsec, J. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Technology, Univ. of Maribor, Hocevarjev trg 1, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia); Jiang, J. [Professor and NSERC/UNENE Senior Industrial Research Chair, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based production of hydrogen by electrolysis and the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. This includes individual process and reactor developments within the Cu-Cl cycle, thermochemical properties, advanced materials, controls, safety, reliability, economic analysis of electrolysis at off-peak hours, and integrating hydrogen plants with Canada's nuclear power plants. These enabling technologies are being developed by a Canadian consortium, as part of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for hydrogen production from the next generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  19. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: a Bayesian analysis of neutron star - black hole binary observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO has ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for LIGO, of which neutron star-black hole (NSBH) binaries form an important subset. GWs from NSBH sources carry signatures of (a) the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, and (b) its potential tidal disruption near merger. In this paper, we present a Bayesian study of the measurability of neutron star tidal deformability $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{NS}\\propto (R/M)^{5}$ using observation(s) of inspiral-merger GW signals from disruptive NSBH coalescences, taking into account the crucial effect of black hole spins. First, we find that if non-tidal templates are used to estimate source parameters for an NSBH signal, the bias introduced in the estimation of non-tidal physical parameters will only be significant for loud signals with signal-to-noise ratios greater than $30$. For similarly loud signals, we also f...

  20. Measuring intermediate mass black hole binaries with advanced gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Veitch, John; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms (SEOBNR) to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50 and 500 $M_\\odot$ and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ~200 $M_\\odot$, where the signal-to-noise-ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; (iv) sp...

  1. Experimental Investigation of a Three-Bed Adsorption Refrigeration Chiller Employing an Advanced Mass Recovery Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an advanced three-bed adsorption chiller with a mass recovery cycle has been experimentally investigated in the present study. The temperature and pressure of various components of the chiller were monitored to observe the dynamic behaviour of the chiller. The performances in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP and specific cooling power (SCP were compared with a conventional single stage. The results show that the proposed cycle produces COP and SCP values superior to those of the conventional single stage cycle for heat source temperature below 75 °C.

  2. Calibration of the Advanced LIGO detectors for the discovery of the binary black-hole merger GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P

    2016-01-01

    In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the detector's opto-mechanical response and the properties of its feedback control system. The measurements used to validate the model and characterize its uncertainty are derived primarily from a dedicated photon radiation pressure actuator, with cross-checks provided by optical and radio frequency references. We describe how the gravitational-wave readout signal is calibrated into equivalent gravitational-wave-induced strain and how the statistical uncertainties and systematic errors are assessed. Detector data collected over ...

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  4. Simultaneous detection rates of binary neutron star systems in advanced Virgo/LIGO and GRB detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Siellez, Karelle; Gendre, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The coalescence of two compact objects is a key target for the new gravitational wave observatories such as Advanced-Virgo (AdV), Advanced-LIGO (aLIGO) and KAGRA. This phenomenon can lead to the simultaneous detection of electromagnetic waves in the form of short GRBs (sGRBs) and gravitational wave transients. This will potentially allow for the first time access to the fireball and the central engine properties. We present an estimation of the detection rate of such events, seen both by a Swift-like satellite and AdV/ALIGO. This rate is derived only from the observations of sGRBs. We show that this rate, if not very high, predicts a few triggers during the whole life time of Advanced LIGO-Virgo. We discuss how to increase it using some dedicated observational strategies. We apply our results to other missions such as the SVOM French-Chinese satellite project or LOFT.

  5. Investigating the effect of precession on searches for neutron-star-black-hole binaries with Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Harry, I W; Brown, Duncan A; Lundgren, A; Ochsner, Evan; Keppel, D

    2013-01-01

    The first direct detection of neutron-star-black-hole binaries will likely be made with gravitational-wave observatories. Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will be able to observe neutron-star-black-hole mergers at a maximum distance of 900Mpc. To acheive this sensitivity, gravitational-wave searches will rely on using a bank of filter waveforms that accurately model the expected gravitational-wave signal. The angular momentum of the black hole is expected to be comparable to the orbital angular momentum. This angular momentum will affect the dynamics of the inspiralling system and alter the phase evolution of the emitted gravitational-wave signal. In addition, if the black hole's angular momentum is not aligned with the orbital angular momentum it will cause the orbital plane of the system to precess. In this work we demonstrate that if the effect of the black hole's angular momentum is neglected in the waveform models used in gravitational-wave searches, the detection rate of $(10+1.4)M_{\\odot}$ neutron-star...

  6. Upper Limits on the Rates of Binary Neutron Star and Neutron Star-Black Hole Mergers from Advanced LIGO’s First Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio., M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary-neutron star systems and neutron star-black hole systems during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). In particular, we searched for gravitational-wave signals from binary-neutron star systems with component masses \\in [1,3] {M}⊙ and component dimensionless spins detected the merger of binary-neutron star systems with component mass distributions of 1.35 ± 0.13 M ⊙ at a volume-weighted average distance of ˜70 Mpc, and for neutron star-black hole systems with neutron star masses of 1.4 M ⊙ and black hole masses of at least 5 M ⊙, a volume-weighted average distance of at least ˜110 Mpc. From this we constrain with 90% confidence the merger rate to be less than 12,600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for binary-neutron star systems and less than 3600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for neutron star-black hole systems. We discuss the astrophysical implications of these results, which we find to be in conflict with only the most optimistic predictions. However, we find that if no detection of neutron star-binary mergers is made in the next two Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observing runs we would place significant constraints on the merger rates. Finally, assuming a rate of {10}-7+20 Gpc-3 yr-1, short gamma-ray bursts beamed toward the Earth, and assuming that all short gamma-ray bursts have binary-neutron star (neutron star-black hole) progenitors, we can use our 90% confidence rate upper limits to constrain the beaming angle of the gamma-ray burst to be greater than 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.1+1.7 (4\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.9+3.1).

  7. Frequency-domain gravitational waves from nonprecessing black-hole binaries. II. A phenomenological model for the advanced detector era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sebastian; Husa, Sascha; Hannam, Mark; Ohme, Frank; Pürrer, Michael; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Bohé, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    We present a new frequency-domain phenomenological model of the gravitational-wave signal from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of nonprecessing (aligned-spin) black-hole binaries. The model is calibrated to 19 hybrid effective-one-body-numerical-relativity waveforms up to mass ratios of 1 ∶18 and black-hole spins of |a /m |˜0.85 (0.98 for equal-mass systems). The inspiral part of the model consists of an extension of frequency-domain post-Newtonian expressions, using higher-order terms fit to the hybrids. The merger ringdown is based on a phenomenological ansatz that has been significantly improved over previous models. The model exhibits mismatches of typically less than 1% against all 19 calibration hybrids and an additional 29 verification hybrids, which provide strong evidence that, over the calibration region, the model is sufficiently accurate for all relevant gravitational-wave astronomy applications with the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. Beyond the calibration region the model produces physically reasonable results, although we recommend caution in assuming that any merger-ringdown waveform model is accurate outside its calibration region. As an example, we note that an alternative nonprecessing model, SEOBNRv2 (calibrated up to spins of only 0.5 for unequal-mass systems), exhibits mismatch errors of up to 10% for high spins outside its calibration region. We conclude that waveform models would benefit most from a larger number of numerical-relativity simulations of high-aligned-spin unequal-mass binaries.

  8. Fiscal 1995 survey of promotion of the geothermal development. Report on a usage feasibility test of a small scale geothermal binary cycle power generation system; 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chusho chinetsu binary hatsuden system jissho shiken hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In this survey, studies for popularization and practical utilization of small and medium size geothermal binary cycle power systems which assesses low and medium temperature geothermal resources were conducted, and studies for development of the system to be introduced for practical use and for promotion of the popularization were made. A study was carried out of preconditions and various conditions of a demonstrative test plant (100kW class, 500kW class) in view of the initial cost of the actual plant, and an analysis was made of the power generation cost. Acceptability of the demonstrative test plant (100kW class) was examined to analyze problems on the introduction. A thermodynamic analysis was made of the output of geothermal binary cycle power generation. Analysis/evaluation of the results of the 100kW demonstrative test plant were carried out in view of the operation results of the plant of the same kind, and checks/reviews were conducted of performance and reliability of the system, equipment simplification, etc. Inspection of the system was made in the stage of design/manufacture of the 500kW demonstrative test plant. Concerning the spread/expansion of the system, studied were multiple stage geothermal utilization and PR promotion method. 14 refs., 62 figs., 55 tabs.

  9. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Biogeochemical Cycling of Sulfur and Nitrogen in the Remote Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Charlson, Robert; Andreae, Meinrat; Rodhe, Henning

    1985-01-01

    Viewed from space, the Earth appears as a globe without a beginning or an end. Encompassing the globe is the atmosphere with its three phases-­ gaseous, liquid, and solid--moving in directions influenced by sunlight, gravity, and rotation. The chemical compositions of these phases are determined by biogeochemical cycles. Over the past hundred years, the processes governing the rates and reactions in the atmospheric biogeochemical cycles have typically been studied in regions where scientists lived. Hence, as time has gone by, the advances in our knowledge of atmospheric chemical cycles in remote areas have lagged substantially behind those for more populated areas. Not only are the data less abundant, they are also scattered. Therefore, we felt a workshop would be an excellent mechanism to assess the state­ of-knowledge of the atmospheric cycles of sulfur and nitrogen in remote areas and to make recommendations for future research. Thus, a NATO Advanced Research Workshop '~he Biogeochemical Cycling of Sulfu...

  10. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  11. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team

  12. Numerical simulation and performance investigation of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles offer high potential as one of the most economically viable and environmental-friendly desalination methods. This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle that employs internal heat recovery between the evaporator and the condenser, utilizing an encapsulated evaporator-condenser unit for effective heat transfer. A simulation model has been developed based on the actual sorption characteristics of the adsorbent-adsorbate pair, energy and mass balances applied to the components of the AD cycle. With an integrated design, the temperature in the evaporator and the vapor pressurization of the adsorber are raised due to the direct heat recovery from the condenser, resulting in the higher water production rates, typically improved by as much as three folds of the conventional AD cycle. In addition, the integrated design eliminates two pumps, namely, the condenser cooling water and the chilled water pumps, lowering the overall electricity consumption. The performance of the cycle is analyzed at assorted heat source and cooling water temperatures, and different cycle times as well as the transient heat transfer coefficients of the evaporation and condensation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Extending the world's uranium resources through advanced CANDU fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vuono, Tony; Yee, Frank; Aleyaseen, Val; Kuran, Sermet; Cottrell, Catherine

    2010-09-15

    The growing demand for nuclear power will encourage many countries to undertake initiatives to ensure a self-reliant fuel source supply. Uranium is currently the only fuel utilized in nuclear reactors. There are increasing concerns that primary uranium sources will not be enough to meet future needs. AECL has developed a fuel cycle vision that incorporates other sources of advanced fuels to be adaptable to its CANDU technology.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach C. Winfield

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced vehicle technologies, including electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs, are gaining attention throughout the World due to their capability to improve fuel efficiencies and emissions. When evaluating the operational successes of these new fuel-efficient vehicles, it is essential to consider energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions throughout the entire lifetimes of the vehicles, which are comprised of two independent cycles: a fuel cycle and a vehicle cycle. This paper intends to contribute to the assessment of the environmental impacts from the alternative technologies throughout the lifetimes of various advanced vehicles through objective comparisons. The methodology was applied to six commercial vehicles that are available in the U.S. and that have similar dimensions and performances. We also investigated the shifts in energy consumption and emissions through the use of electricity and drivers’ behavior regarding the frequencies of battery recharging for EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This study thus gives insight into the impacts of the electricity grid on the total energy cycle of a vehicle lifetime. In addition, the total ownership costs of the selected vehicles were examined, including considerations of the fluctuating gasoline prices. The cost analysis provides a resource for drivers to identify optimal choices for their driving circumstances.

  15. Performance investigation of an advanced multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination system with quantum performance improvement. The proposed multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle utilizes a single heat source i.e., low-temperature hot water (as low as 55°C). Passive heating of the feed water (no direct heating) is adopted using total internal heat recovery from the kinetic energy of desorbed vapor and water vapor uptake potential of the adsorbent. Thus, the evaporation in the MEAD cycle ensues at low temperatures ranging from 35°C to 7°C yet providing significantly high performance ratio. The energy from the regenerated vapor is recovered for multiple evaporation/condensation of saline water by a water-run-around circuit between the top brine temperature (TBT) effect and the AD condenser. The adsorbent material is the hydrophilic mesoporous silica gel with high pore surface area. Numerical simulation for such a cycle is developed based on experimentally verified model extending to multi-effect cycle. The system is investigated under several operation conditions such as cycle time allocation, heat source temperature and the number of intermediate effects. It is observed that most of the evaporating-condensing effects operate at low temperature i.e., below 35°C as opposed to conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) cycle. For a MEAD cycle with 7 intermediate effects, the specific water production rate, the performance ratio and the gain output ratio are found to be 1.0m3/htonne of silica gel, 6.3 and 5.1, respectively. Low scaling and fouling potentials being evaporation at low temperatures yet high recovery ratio makes the cycle suitable for effectively and efficiently handling highly concentrated feed water such as produced water, brine rejected from other desalination plants and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Energy and periastron advance of compact binaries on circular orbits at the fourth post-Newtonian order

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Laura; Bohé, Alejandro; Faye, Guillaume; Marsat, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we complete our preceding work on the Fokker Lagrangian describing the dynamics of compact binary systems at the fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) order in harmonic coordinates. We clarify the impact of the non-local character of the Fokker Lagrangian or the associated Hamiltonian on both the conserved energy and the relativistic periastron precession for circular orbits. We show that the non-locality of the action, due to the presence of the tail effect at the 4PN order, gives rise to an extra contribution to the conserved integral of energy with respect to the Hamiltonian computed on shell, which was not taken into account in our previous work. We also provide a direct derivation of the periastron advance by taking carefully into account this non-locality. We then argue that the infra-red (IR) divergences in the calculation of the gravitational part of the action are problematic, which motivates us to introduce a second ambiguity parameter, in addition to the one already assumed previously. After f...

  17. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Repository Impact Evaluation FY-05 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G

    2005-09-12

    An important long-term objective of advanced nuclear fuel cycle (AFC) technologies is to provide improvement in the long-term management of radioactive waste. Compared to a once-thru fuel cycle, it is possible to generate far less waste, and potentially easier waste to manage, with advanced fuel cycles. However, the precise extent and value of these benefits are complex and difficult to quantify. This document presents a status report of efforts within AFCI Systems Analysis to define and quantify the AFC benefits to geologic disposal, development of cooperative efforts with the US repository program, and participation with international evaluations of AFC impacts on waste management. The primary analysis of repository benefits is conducted by ANL. This year repository impact evaluations have included: (1) Continued evaluation of LWR recycle benefits in support of scenario analysis. (2) Extension of repository analyses to consider long-term dose reductions. (3) Developing the opportunity for cooperation with the U.S. repository program. (4) International cooperation with OECD-NEA.

  18. Utilization of spent PWR fuel-advanced nuclear fuel cycle of PWR/CANDU synergism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Xiao-Dong; XIE Zhong-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    High neutron economy, on line refueling and channel design result in the unsurpassed fuel cycle flexibility and variety for CANDU reactors. According to the Chinese national conditions that China has both PWR and CANDU reactors and the closed cycle policy of reprocessing the spent PWR fuel is adopted, one of the advanced nuclear fuel cycles of PWR/CANDU synergism using the reprocessed uranium of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactor is proposed, which will save the uranium resource (~22.5%), increase the energy output (~41%), decrease the quantity of spent fuels to be disposed (~2/3) and lower the cost of nuclear power. Because of the inherent flexibility of nuclear fuel cycle in CANDU reactor, and the low radiation level of recycled uranium(RU), which is acceptable for CANDU reactor fuel fabrication, the transition from the natural uranium to the RU can be completed without major modification of the reactor core structure and operation mode. It can be implemented in Qinshan Phase Ⅲ CANDU reactors with little or no requirement of big investment in new design. It can be expected that the reuse of recycled uranium of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactor is a feasible and desirable strategy in China.

  19. A preliminary study of a D-T tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket using compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Ohnishi, M.; Yamamoto, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Key issues on a D-T Tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket concept using CFAB (Compact Fusion Advanced Brayton) cycle are presented. Although the previously proposed and studied compact fusion advanced Rankine cycle using mercury liquid metal has shown, in general, excellent performance characteristics in extracting energy and electricity with high efficiency by the {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} nonequilibrium MHD disk generator, and in enhancing safety potential, there was a fear about uses of hazardous mercury as primary coolant as well as its limited natural resources. To overcome these disadvantages while retaining the advantage features of a ultra-high temperature coolant inherent in the synchrotron energy-enhanced D-T tokamak reactor, a compact fusion advanced Brayton cycle using helium was reexamined which was once considered relatively not superior in the CFAR study, at the expense of high, but acceptable circulation power, lower heat transfer characteristics, and probably of a little bit reduced safety.

  20. Studies on effect of spark advance angle and spark gap on cycle-by-cycle fluctuations in four stroke spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar, H.B.; Chandrasheaker, T.K. [Sri Siddhartha Inst. of Technology, Maralur, Tumkur (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Antony, A.J. [Sahyedri Inst. of Technology, Mangalore (India)

    2009-07-01

    In response to environmental concerns and the depletion of fossil fuels, the automotive industry is striving to increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions such as soot and nitrous oxides (NOx). This paper focused on the nature of cyclic variability and its manifestation in the characteristics of spark-ignition (SI) engine combustion. Cycle-by-cycle fluctuation is a major phenomenon that limits the range of operating conditions. The parameters affecting cycle-by-cycle fluctuation include mixture distribution, mixture homogeneity, spark intensity, spark timing, spark plug location, spark plug gap, number of spark plugs, swirl, combustion chamber geometry, compression ratio, equivalence ratio, load and speed. The degree to which these parameters influence cycle-by-cycle fluctuations was investigated. The cycle-by-cycle fluctuations in the engine reduces the power output, but increases the engine roughness and emissions. Experiments were carried out on a four stroke single cylinder computerized spark ignition engine. The results revealed the best operating spark gap and advanced spark angle to minimize the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations. The overall engine performance was improved with better drivability. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. The Chemically Homogeneous Evolutionary Channel for Binary Black Hole Mergers: Rates and Properties of Gravitational-Wave Events Detectable by Advanced Ligo

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E

    2016-01-01

    We explore the predictions for detectable gravitational-wave signals from merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in massive short-period stellar binaries. We find that ~500 events per year could be detected with advanced ground-based detectors operating at full sensitivity. We analyze the distribution of detectable events, and conclude that there is a very strong preference for detecting events with nearly equal components (mass ratio >0.66 at 90% confidence in our default model) and high masses (total source-frame mass between 57 and $103\\, M_\\odot$ at 90% confidence). We consider multiple alternative variations to analyze the sensitivity to uncertainties in the evolutionary physics and cosmological parameters, and conclude that while the rates are sensitive to assumed variations, the mass distributions are robust predictions. Finally, we consider the recently reported results of the analysis of the first 16 double-coincident days of the O1 LIGO observing run, and find tha...

  2. Mercury in freshwater ecosystems of the Canadian Arctic: recent advances on its cycling and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc; Arp, Paul; Blais, Jules M; Depew, David; Emmerton, Craig A; Evans, Marlene; Gamberg, Mary; Gantner, Nikolaus; Girard, Catherine; Graydon, Jennifer; Kirk, Jane; Lean, David; Lehnherr, Igor; Muir, Derek; Nasr, Mina; Poulain, Alexandre J; Power, Michael; Roach, Pat; Stern, Gary; Swanson, Heidi; van der Velden, Shannon

    2015-03-15

    The Canadian Arctic has vast freshwater resources, and fish are important in the diet of many Northerners. Mercury is a contaminant of concern because of its potential toxicity and elevated bioaccumulation in some fish populations. Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in characterizing the cycling and fate of mercury in these freshwater environments. Large amounts of new data on concentrations, speciation and fluxes of Hg are provided and summarized for water and sediment, which were virtually absent for the Canadian Arctic a decade ago. The biogeochemical processes that control the speciation of mercury remain poorly resolved, including the sites and controls of methylmercury production. Food web studies have examined the roles of Hg uptake, trophic transfer, and diet for Hg bioaccumulation in fish, and, in particular, advances have been made in identifying determinants of mercury levels in lake-dwelling and sea-run forms of Arctic char. In a comparison of common freshwater fish species that were sampled across the Canadian Arctic between 2002 and 2009, no geographic patterns or regional hotspots were evident. Over the last two to four decades, Hg concentrations have increased in some monitored populations of fish in the Mackenzie River Basin while other populations from the Yukon and Nunavut showed no change or a slight decline. The different Hg trends indicate that the drivers of temporal change may be regional or habitat-specific. The Canadian Arctic is undergoing profound environmental change, and preliminary evidence suggests that it may be impacting the cycling and bioaccumulation of mercury. Further research is needed to investigate climate change impacts on the Hg cycle as well as biogeochemical controls of methylmercury production and the processes leading to increasing Hg levels in some fish populations in the Canadian Arctic.

  3. Parameter estimation using a complete signal and inspiral templates for low-mass binary black holes with Advanced LIGO sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee-Suk

    2015-12-01

    We study the validity of inspiral templates in gravitational wave data analysis with Advanced LIGO sensitivity for low mass binary black holes with total masses of M≤slant 30{M}⊙ . We mainly focus on the nonspinning system. As our complete inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model ({I}{M}{R} ), we assume the phenomenological model, ‘PhenomA’, and define our inspiral template model ({{I}}{{merg}}) by taking the inspiral part into account from {I}{M}{R} up to the merger frequency ({f}{{merg}}). We first calculate the true statistical uncertainties using {I}{M}{R} signals and {I}{M}{R} templates. Next, using {I}{M}{R} signals and {{I}}{{merg}} templates, we calculate fitting factors and systematic biases, and compare the biases with the true statistical uncertainties. We find that the valid criteria of the bank of {{I}}{{merg}} templates are obtained as {M}{{crit}}˜ 24{M}⊙ for detection (if M\\gt {M}{{crit}}, the fitting factor is smaller than 0.97), and {M}{{crit}}˜ 26{M}⊙ for parameter estimation (if M\\gt {M}{{crit}}, the systematic bias is larger than the true statistical uncertainty where the signal-to-noise ratio is 20), respectively. In order to see the dependence on the cutoff frequency of the inspiral waveforms, we define another inspiral model {{I}}{{isco}} which is terminated at the innermost-stable-circular-orbit frequency ({f}{{isco}}\\lt {f}{{merg}}). We find that the valid criteria of the bank of {{I}}{{isco}} templates are obtained as {M}{{crit}}˜ 15{M}⊙ and ˜ 17{M}⊙ for detection and parameter estimation, respectively. We investigate the statistical uncertainties for the inspiral template models considering various signal-to-noise ratios, and compare those to the true statistical uncertainties. We also consider the aligned-spinning system with fixed mass ratio ({m}1/{m}2=3) and spin (χ =0.5) by employing the recent phenomenological model, ‘PhenomC’. In this case, we find that the true statistical uncertainties can be much larger

  4. Approaching the Post-Newtonian Regime with Numerical Relativity: A Compact-Object Binary Simulation Spanning 350 Gravitational-Wave Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-07-17

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{⊙}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  5. Energy systems. Tome 3: advanced cycles, low environmental impact innovative systems; Systeme energetiques, TOME 3: cycles avances, systemes innovants a faible impact environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gicquel, R

    2009-07-01

    This third tome about energy systems completes the two previous ones by showing up advanced thermodynamical cycles, in particular having a low environmental impact, and by dealing with two other questions linked with the study of systems with a changing regime operation: - the time management of energy, with the use of thermal and pneumatic storage systems and time simulation (schedule for instance) of systems (solar energy type in particular); - the technological dimensioning and non-nominal regime operation studies. Because this last topic is particularly complex, new functionalities have been implemented mainly by using the external classes mechanism, which allows the user to freely personalize his models. This tome is illustrated with about 50 examples of cycles modelled with Thermoptim software. Content: foreword; 1 - generic external classes; 2 - advanced gas turbine cycles; 3 - evaporation-concentration, mechanical steam compression, desalination, hot gas drying; 4 - cryogenic cycles; 5 - electrochemical converters; 6 - global warming, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration; 7 - future nuclear reactors (coupled to Hirn and Brayton cycles); 8 - thermodynamic solar cycles; 10 - pneumatic and thermal storage; 11 - calculation of thermodynamic solar facilities; 12 - problem of technological dimensioning and non-nominal regime; 13 - exchangers modeling and parameterizing for the dimensioning and the non-nominal regime; 14 - modeling and parameterizing of volumetric compressors; 15 - modeling and parameterizing of turbo-compressors and turbines; 16 - identification methodology of component parameters; 17 - case studies. (J.S.)

  6. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  7. Long-term efficacy of intensive cycle ergometer exercise training program for advanced COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Athavudh Deesomchok, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Atikun Limsukon Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Exercise training has been incorporated into the international guidelines for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the long-term efficacy of the training program for patients with advanced COPD has never been evaluated in Thailand. Purpose: To determine the long-term efficacy of intensive cycle ergometer exercise program on various clinical parameters of patients with advanced COPD. Materials and methods: The patients with advanced COPD were separated into two groups: the intensive ergometer exercise program group and the control group. The clinical parameters of all the patients were assessed at baseline, every month for the first 3 months, and then every 3 months until they had completed the 24-month follow-up. Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare baseline mean differences between the groups. Repeated measure analysis was applied to determine the progress in all parameters during the entire follow-up period. Mean incase imputation method was applied to estimate the parameters of dropout cases. Results: A total of 41 patients were enrolled: 27 in the intensive ergometer exercise program group and 14 in the control group. The intensive cycle ergometer exercise program group showed statistically significant improvements in muscle strength (from month 1 till the end of the study, month 24, endurance time (from month 1 till the end of measurement, month 12 and clinically significant improvements in 6-minute walk distance (from month 2 until month 9, dyspnea severity by transitional dyspnea index (from month 1 till the end of the study, month 24, and quality of life (from month 1 till the end of

  8. Upper limits on the rates of binary neutron star and neutron-star--black-hole mergers from Advanced LIGO's first observing run

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J -D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Zertuche, L Magana; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron star systems and neutron-star--black-hole systems during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. In particular we searched for gravitational wave signals from binary neutron star systems with component masses $\\in [1,3] M_{\\odot}$ and component dimensionless spins $< 0.05$. We also searched for neutron-star--black-hole systems with the same neutron star parameters, black hole mass $\\in [2,99] M_{\\odot}$ and no restriction on the black hole spin magnitude. We assess the sensitivity of the two LIGO detectors to these systems, and find that they could have detected the merger of binary neutron star systems with component mass distributions of $1.35\\pm0.13 M_{\\odot}$ at a volume-weighted average distance of $\\sim$ 70Mpc, and for neutron-star--black-hole systems with neutron star masses of $1.4M_\\odot$ and black hole masses of at least $5M_\\odot$, a volume-weighted average distance of at least $\\sim$ 110Mpc. From this we...

  9. Analysis of R&D Strategy for Advanced Combined Cycle Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Keigo; Hayashi, Ayami; Kosugi, Takanobu; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    This article analyzes and evaluates the R&D strategy for advanced power generation technologies, such as natural gas combined cycles, IGCCs (Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycles), and large-scale fuel cell power generation systems with a mixed-integer programming model. The R&D processes are explicitly formulated in the model through GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique), and the data on each required time of R&D was collected through questionnaire surveys among the experts. The obtained cost-effective strategy incorporates the optimum investment allocation among the developments of various elemental technologies, and at the same time, it incorporates the least-cost expansion planning of power systems in Japan including other power generation technologies such as conventional coal, oil, and gas fired, and hydro and wind power. The simulation results show the selection of the cost-effective technology developments and the importance of the concentrated investments in them. For example, IGCC, which has a relatively high thermal efficiency, and LNG-CCs of the assumed two efficiencies are the cost-effective investment targets in the no-CO2-regulation case.

  10. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  11. Advanced fuel cycle cost estimation model and its cost estimation results for three nuclear fuel cycles using a dynamic model in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungki, E-mail: sgkim1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Saerom; Gao, Ruxing [University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajungro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Sungsig, E-mail: ssbang@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Business and Technology Management, 291 Deahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The nuclear fuel cycle cost using a new cost estimation model was analyzed. • The material flows of three nuclear fuel cycle options were calculated. • The generation cost of once-through was estimated to be 66.88 mills/kW h. • The generation cost of pyro-SFR recycling was estimated to be 78.06 mills/kW h. • The reactor cost was identified as the main cost driver of pyro-SFR recycling. - Abstract: The present study analyzes advanced nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation models such as the different discount rate model and its cost estimation results. To do so, an analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle cost of three options (direct disposal (once through), PWR–MOX (Mixed OXide fuel), and Pyro-SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)) from the viewpoint of economic sense, focusing on the cost estimation model, was conducted using a dynamic model. From an analysis of the fuel cycle cost estimation results, it was found that some cost gap exists between the traditional same discount rate model and the advanced different discount rate model. However, this gap does not change the priority of the nuclear fuel cycle option from the viewpoint of economics. In addition, the fuel cycle costs of OT (Once-Through) and Pyro-SFR recycling based on the most likely value using a probabilistic cost estimation except for reactor costs were calculated to be 8.75 mills/kW h and 8.30 mills/kW h, respectively. Namely, the Pyro-SFR recycling option was more economical than the direct disposal option. However, if the reactor cost is considered, the economic sense in the generation cost between the two options (direct disposal vs. Pyro-SFR recycling) can be changed because of the high reactor cost of an SFR.

  12. An improved effective-one-body model of spinning, nonprecessing binary black holes for the era of gravitational-wave astrophysics with advanced detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bohé, Alejandro; Taracchini, Andrea; Buonanno, Alessandra; Babak, Stanislav; Harry, Ian W; Hinder, Ian; Ossokine, Serguei; Pürrer, Michael; Raymond, Vivien; Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A; Kidder, Lawrence E; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A; Szilágyi, Béla

    2016-01-01

    We improve the accuracy of the effective-one-body (EOB) waveforms that were employed during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO for binaries of spinning, nonprecessing black holes by calibrating them to a set of 141 numerical-relativity (NR) waveforms. The NR simulations expand the domain of calibration towards larger mass ratios and spins, as compared to the previous EOBNR model. Merger-ringdown waveforms computed in black-hole perturbation theory for Kerr spins close to extremal provide additional inputs to the calibration. For the inspiral-plunge phase, we use a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently explore the calibration space. For the merger-ringdown phase, we fit the NR signals with phenomenological formulae. After extrapolation of the calibrated model to arbitrary mass ratios and spins, the (dominant-mode) EOBNR waveforms have faithfulness --- at design Advanced-LIGO sensitivity --- above $99\\%$ against all the NR waveforms, including 16 additional waveforms used for validation, when ...

  13. Starspot evolution, differential rotation, and magnetic cycles in the chromospherically active binaries lambda andromedae, sigma Geminorum, II Pegasi, and V711 Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gregory W.; Eaton, Joel A.; Hamer, Jamesia; Hall, Douglas S.

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed 15-19 yr of photoelectric photometry, obtained manually and with automated telescopes, of the chromospherically active binaries lambda And, sigma Gem, II Peg, and V711 Tau. These observations let us identify individual dark starspots on the stellar surfaces from periodic dimming of the starlight, follow the evolution of these spots, and search for long-term cyclic changes in the properties of these starspots that might reveal magnetic cycles analogous to the Sun's 11 yr sunspot cycle. We developed a computer code to fit a simple two-spot model to our observed light curves that allows us to extract the most easily determinable and most reliable spot parameters from the light curves, i.e., spot longitudes and radii. We then used these measured properties to identify individual spots and to chart their life histories by constructing migration and amplitude curves. We identified and followed 11 spots in lambda And, 16 in sigma Gem, 12 in II Peg, and 15 in V711 Tau. Lifetimes of individual spots ranged from a few months to longer than 6 yr. Differential rotation coefficients, estimated from the observed range of spot rotation periods for each star and defined by equation (2), were 0.04 for lambda And, 0.038 for sigma Gem, 0.005 for II Peg, and 0.006 for V711 Tau, versus 0.19 for the Sun. We searched for cyclic changes in mean brightness, B-V color index, and spot rotation period as evidence for long-term cycles. Of these, long-term variability in mean brightness appears to offer the best evidence for such cycles in these four stars. Cycles of 11.1 yr for lambda And, 8.5 yr for sigma Gem, 11 yr for II Peg, and 16 yr V711 Tau are implied by these mean brightness changes. Cyclic changes in spot rotation period were found in lambda And and possibly II Peg. Errors in B-V were too large for any long-term changes to be detectable.

  14. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  15. Evolution of Binaries in Dense Stellar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the field, the binaries in dense stellar systems are frequently not primordial, and could be either dynamically formed or significantly altered from their primordial states. Destruction and formation of binaries occur in parallel all the time. The destruction, which constantly removes soft binaries from a binary pool, works as an energy sink and could be a reason for cluster entering the binary-burning phase. The true binary fraction is greater than observed, as a result, the observable binary fraction evolves differently from the predictions. Combined measurements of binary fractions in globular clusters suggest that most of the clusters are still core-contracting. The formation, on other hand, affects most the more evolutionary advanced stars, which significantly enhances the population of X-ray sources in globular clusters. The formation of binaries with a compact objects proceeds mainly through physical collisions, binary-binary and single-binary encounters; however, it is the dynamical for...

  16. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes;

    2007-01-01

    -off was investigated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and based on a literature review of advanced treatment performance. The LCA evaluation comprised sand filtration, ozonation and MBRs and assessed the effect of extending existing tertiary treatment with these technologies on a variety of micro...

  17. Improved effective-one-body model of spinning, nonprecessing binary black holes for the era of gravitational-wave astrophysics with advanced detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohé, Alejandro; Shao, Lijing; Taracchini, Andrea; Buonanno, Alessandra; Babak, Stanislav; Harry, Ian W.; Hinder, Ian; Ossokine, Serguei; Pürrer, Michael; Raymond, Vivien; Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla

    2017-02-01

    We improve the accuracy of the effective-one-body (EOB) waveforms that were employed during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO for binaries of spinning, nonprecessing black holes by calibrating them to a set of 141 numerical-relativity (NR) waveforms. The NR simulations expand the domain of calibration toward larger mass ratios and spins, as compared to the previous EOBNR model. Merger-ringdown waveforms computed in black-hole perturbation theory for Kerr spins close to extremal provide additional inputs to the calibration. For the inspiral-plunge phase, we use a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently explore the calibration space. For the merger-ringdown phase, we fit the NR signals with phenomenological formulae. After extrapolation of the calibrated model to arbitrary mass ratios and spins, the (dominant-mode) EOBNR waveforms have faithfulness—at design Advanced-LIGO sensitivity—above 99% against all the NR waveforms, including 16 additional waveforms used for validation, when maximizing only on initial phase and time. This implies a negligible loss in event rate due to modeling for these binary configurations. We find that future NR simulations at mass ratios ≳4 and double spin ≳0.8 will be crucial to resolving discrepancies between different ways of extrapolating waveform models. We also find that some of the NR simulations that already exist in such region of parameter space are too short to constrain the low-frequency portion of the models. Finally, we build a reduced-order version of the EOBNR model to speed up waveform generation by orders of magnitude, thus enabling intensive data-analysis applications during the upcoming observation runs of Advanced LIGO.

  18. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  19. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  20. Development of a Thin Film Primary Surface Heat Exchanger for Advanced Power Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Tim [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Beck, Griffin [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Bennett, Jeffrey [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Hoopes, Kevin [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Miller, Larry [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This project objective is to develop a high-temperature design upgrade for an existing primary surface heat exchanger so that the redesigned hardware is capable of operation in CO2 at temperatures up to 1,510°F (821°C) and pressure differentials up to 130 psi (9 bar). The heat exchanger is proposed for use as a recuperator in an advanced low-pressure oxy-fuel Brayton cycle that is predicted to achieve over 50% thermodynamic efficiency, although the heat exchanger could also be used in other high-temperature, low-differential pressure cycles. This report describes the progress to date, which includes continuing work performed to select and test new candidate materials for the recuperator redesign, final mechanical and thermal performance analysis results of various redesign concepts, and the preliminary design of a test loop for the redesigned recuperator including a budgetary estimate for detailed test loop design, procurement, and test operation. A materials search was performed in order to investigate high-temperature properties of many candidate materials, including high-temperature strength and nickel content. These properties were used to rank the candidate materials, resulting in a reduced list of nine materials for corrosion testing. Multiple test rigs were considered and analyzed for short-term corrosion testing and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was selected as the most cost-effective option for evaluating corrosion resistance of the candidate materials. In addition, tantalum, niobium, and chromium coatings were identified as potential options for increased corrosion resistance. The test results show that many materials exhibit relatively low weight gain rates, and that niobium and tantalum coatings may improve corrosion resistance for many materials, while chromium coatings appear to oxidize and debond quickly. Metallurgical analysis of alloys was also performed, showing evidence of intergranular attack in 282 that may cause long

  1. Use of Multiple Reheat Helium Brayton Cycles to Eliminate the Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop for Advanced Loop Type SFRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Samuel E. Bays

    2009-05-01

    The sodium intermediate heat transfer loop is used in existing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plant design as a necessary safety measure to separate the radioactive primary loop sodium from the water of the steam Rankine power cycle. However, the intermediate heat transfer loop significantly increases the SFR plant cost and decreases the plant reliability due to the relatively high possibility of sodium leakage. A previous study shows that helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling for SFRs with reactor outlet temperature in the range of 510°C to 650°C can achieve thermal efficiencies comparable to or higher than steam cycles or recently proposed supercritical CO2 cycles. Use of inert helium as the power conversion working fluid provides major advantages over steam or CO2 by removing the requirement for safety systems to prevent and mitigate the sodium-water or sodium-CO2 reactions. A helium Brayton cycle power conversion system therefore makes the elimination of the intermediate heat transfer loop possible. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design of multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle for an advanced loop type SFR. This design widely refers the new horizontal shaft distributed PBMR helium power conversion design features. For a loop type SFR with reactor outlet temperature 550°C, the design achieves 42.4% thermal efficiency with favorable power density comparing with high temperature gas cooled reactors.

  2. Test summary for advanced H2 cycle NI-CD cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee

    1987-01-01

    To improve operational tolerances and mass, the H2 gas recombination design provisions of the Ni-H2 system were incorporated into the sealed Ni-Cd system. Produced is a cell design capable of operating on the H2 cycle versus the normal O2 cycle. Three test cells have now completed approximately 4,330 LEO (90 minute) cycles at 20 percent depth of discharge (DOD). Performance remains stable although one cell exhibited a temporary pressure anomaly.

  3. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2008-01-01

    has the best balance between prevented and induced impacts, and sand filtration proved to have a net environmental benefit under the assumptions used in the study. But the outcome of the study suggests that this is not always the case for ozonation and MBR. Keywords: advanced wastewater treatment; LCA......Much research and development effort is directed towards advances in municipal wastewater treatment aiming at reducing the effluent content of micro-pollutants and pathogens. The objective is to further reduce the eco-toxicity, hormone effects and pathogenic effects of the effluent. Such further......-off was investigated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and based on a literature review of advanced treatment performance. The LCA evaluation comprised sand filtration, ozonation and MBRs and assessed the effect of extending existing tertiary treatment with these technologies on a variety of micro...

  4. Advanced LIGO's ability to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem through compact binary coalescence detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Madeline; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Ochsner, Evan; Nielsen, Alex B.

    2013-10-01

    We study the ability of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. The cosmic censorship conjecture, which is believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, limits the spin-to-mass-squared ratio of a Kerr black hole, χ≡j/m2≤1. The no-hair theorem, which is also believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, suggests a particular value for the tidal Love number of a nonrotating black hole (k2=0). Using the Fisher matrix formalism, we examine the measurability of the spin and tidal deformability of compact binary systems involving at least one putative black hole. Using parameter measurement errors and correlations obtained from the Fisher matrix, we determine the smallest detectable violation of bounds implied by the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. We examine the effect of excluding unphysical areas of parameter space when determining the smallest detectable apparent violations, and we examine the effect of different post-Newtonian corrections to the amplitude of the compact binary coalescence gravitational waveform, as given in Arun et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 104023 (2009)]. In addition, we perform a brief study of how the recently calculated 3.0 pN and 3.5 pN spin-orbit corrections to the phase [Marsat et al., Classical Quantum Gravity 30, 055007 (2013)] affect spin and mass parameter measurability. We find that physical priors on the symmetric mass ratio and higher harmonics in the gravitational waveform could significantly affect the ability of aLIGO to investigate cosmic censorship and the no-hair theorem for certain systems.

  5. Aging study in advanced photomasks: impact of EFM effects on lithographic performance with MoSi binary and 6% attenuated PSM masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, I.; Belledent, J.; Fialeyre, M. O.; Connolly, B.; Lamantia, M.; Sczyrba, M.; Jullian, M. K.; Le Gratiet, B.; Pain, L.

    2010-09-01

    As mask dimensions continue to shrink to meet the ITRS roadmap and with the extension of 193 nm immersion lithography, the masks are affected by electromagnetic field at high NA. Absorber degradation is regularly reported under long term 193 nm exposures in the subwavelength diffraction regime. The damage mechanism known as Electric Field induced Migration of chrome (EFM) partly contributes to the lifetime reduction of advanced masks. The EFM results in a progressive alteration of the Critical Dimension (CD), CD uniformity (CDU) degradation and assist features. This study evaluates the impact and the rate of absorber degradation due to an intensive ArF irradiation on assist features and its influence on the through pitch process window for sub-45 nm technology nodes. Lithographic performance is characterized after cumulative reticle aging stages. The aging test exposures are carried out directly on 193 nm scanner to duplicate the production environment. The analysis of printed wafers is correlated to advanced mask inspection (AIMSTM). This paper reports results on irradiation damage sensitivity on two types of reticles: conventional 6% attenuated PSM and new binary material OMOG (Opaque MoSi On Glass) reticle. Test patterns have been generated with and without a set of Optical Proximity Corrections (OPC) model calibration structures based on 45nm down to 28nm half-pitch design. The combination of metrology measurements used in this work between printed wafers and reticles enables to define accurately the impact of mask damage caused by EFM effects on various test patterns and CD evolution and highlight some trends about advances masks aging phenomenon.

  6. Advanced gas turbine cycles a brief review of power generation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Horlock, JH

    2003-01-01

    Primarily this book describes the thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles. The search for high gas turbine efficiency has produced many variations on the simple ""open circuit"" plant, involving the use of heat exchangers, reheating and intercooling, water and steam injection, cogeneration and combined cycle plants. These are described fully in the text. A review of recent proposals for a number of novel gas turbine cycles is also included. In the past few years work has been directed towards developing gas turbines which produce less carbon dioxide, or plants from which the CO2 can be d

  7. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles For High Efficiency Zero Emission Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. D. Rao; J. Francuz; A. Verma; G. S. Samuelsen

    2006-10-30

    The ultimate goal of this program is to identify the power block cycle conditions and/or configurations which could increase the overall thermal efficiency of the Baseline IGCC by about 8% on a relative basis (i.e., 8% on a heat rate basis). This document presents the cycle conditions and/or the configurations for evaluation in an initial screening analysis. These cycle conditions and/or configurations for investigation in the screening analysis are identified by literature searches and brain storming sessions. The screening analysis in turn narrows down the number of promising cases for detailed analysis.

  8. THE MISSION AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS FROM DOE’S FUEL CYCLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (FCRD) ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Carmack; L. Braase; F. Goldner

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors, enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel, effectively utilize nuclear energy resources, and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state of the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of a “goal oriented science based approach.” AFC uses a “goal oriented, science based approach” aimed at a fundamental understanding of fuel and cladding fabrication methods and performance under irradiation, enabling the pursuit of multiple fuel forms for future fuel cycle options. This approach includes fundamental experiments, theory, and advanced modeling and simulation. One of the most challenging aspects of AFC is the management, integration, and coordination of major R&D activities across multiple organizations. AFC interfaces and collaborates with Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) campaigns, universities, industry, various DOE programs and laboratories, federal agencies (e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC]), and international organizations. Key challenges are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Challenged with the research and development of fuels for two different reactor technology platforms, AFC targeted transmutation fuel development and focused ceramic fuel development for Advanced LWR Fuels.

  9. Thermoeconomic impact on combined cycle performance of advanced blade cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghigliazza, Francesco; Traverso, Alberto; Massardo, Aristide Fausto [Thermochemical Power Group (TPG), Dipartimento di Macchine, Sistemi Energetici e Trasporti (DIMSET) - University of Genoa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    In this work the thermoeconomic features of two different combined cycles using air ''open loop'' and steam ''closed loop'' cooled gas turbines are presented and compared in depth. In order to properly estimate both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performance of the different combined cycles an analytical model of the blade cooling system has been developed in details and outlined in the paper. Internal Thermoeconomic functional analysis is not performed here, as only economic results are shown and discussed. The blade cooling detailed model, originally developed by TPG researchers, has been integrated into the web based modular code WTEMP, already validated for GT based cycles, developed in the last ten years by TPG. It is shown that the closed loop blade cooling configuration has the greatest potential in terms of thermodynamic efficiency and economic competitivity in the mid-term. (author)

  10. Advances and challenges in logical modeling of cell cycle regulation: perspective for multi-scale, integrative yeast cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Matteo; Todd, Robert G; van der Zee, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell cycle is robustly designed, with interacting molecules organized within a definite topology that ensures temporal precision of its phase transitions. Its underlying dynamics are regulated by molecular switches, for which remarkable insights have been provided by genetic and molecular biology efforts. In a number of cases, this information has been made predictive, through computational models. These models have allowed for the identification of novel molecular mechanisms, later validated experimentally. Logical modeling represents one of the youngest approaches to address cell cycle regulation. We summarize the advances that this type of modeling has achieved to reproduce and predict cell cycle dynamics. Furthermore, we present the challenge that this type of modeling is now ready to tackle: its integration with intracellular networks, and its formalisms, to understand crosstalks underlying systems level properties, ultimate aim of multi-scale models. Specifically, we discuss and illustrate how such an integration may be realized, by integrating a minimal logical model of the cell cycle with a metabolic network.

  11. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  12. Frequency-domain gravitational waves from non-precessing black-hole binaries. II. A phenomenological model for the advanced detector era

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Sebastian; Hannam, Mark; Ohme, Frank; Pürrer, Michael; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Bohé, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We present a new frequency-domain phenomenological model of the gravitational-wave signal from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of non-precessing (aligned-spin) black-hole binaries. The model is calibrated to 19 hybrid effective-one-body--numerical-relativity waveforms up to mass ratios of 1:18 and black-hole spins of $|a/m| \\sim 0.85$ ($0.98$ for equal-mass systems). The inspiral part of the model consists of an extension of frequency-domain post-Newtonian expressions, using higher-order terms fit to the hybrids. The merger-ringdown is based on a phenomenological ansatz that has been significantly improved over previous models. The model exhibits mismatches of typically less than 1\\% against all 19 calibration hybrids, and an additional 29 verification hybrids, which provide strong evidence that, over the calibration region, the model is sufficiently accurate for all relevant gravitational-wave astronomy applications with the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. Beyond the calibration region the model produce...

  13. Advanced LIGO's ability to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem through compact binary coalescence detections

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, Madeline; Ochsner, Evan; Nielsen, Alex B

    2013-01-01

    We study the ability of the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. The cosmic censorship conjecture, which is believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, limits the spin-to-mass-squared ratio of a Kerr black hole. The no-hair theorem, which is also believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, suggests a particular value for the tidal Love number of a non-rotating black hole. Using the Fisher matrix formalism, we examine the measurability of the spin and tidal deformability of compact binary systems involving at least one putative black hole. Using parameter measurement errors and correlations obtained from the Fisher matrix, we determine the smallest detectable violation of bounds implied by the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. We examine the effect of excluding unphysical areas of parameter space when determining the smallest detectable apparen...

  14. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units of an adsorption desalination (AD) cycle. By recovering the latent heat of condenser and dumping it into the evaporative process of the evaporator, it elevates the evaporating temperature and hence the adsorption pressure seen by the adsorbent. From isotherms, this has an effect of increasing the vapour uptake. In the proposed configurations, one approach is simply to have a run-about water circuit between the condenser and the evaporator and a pump is used to achieve the water circulation. This run-around circuit is a practical method for retrofitting purposes. The second method is targeted towards a new AD cycle where an encapsulated condenser-evaporator unit is employed. The heat transfer between the condensing and evaporative vapour is almost immediate and the processes occur in a fully integrated vessel, thereby minimizing the heat transfer resistances of heat exchangers. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  15. Binary cobalt ferrite nanomesh arrays as the advanced binder-free electrode for applications in oxygen evolution reaction and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Huijuan; Mu, Yanping; Bai, Yuanjuan; Wang, Yu

    2016-09-01

    The porous CoFe2O4nanomesh arrays are successfully synthesized on nickel foam substrate through a high temperature and pressure hydrothermal method, following by the thermal post-treatment in air. The CoFe2O4 nanomesh arrays own numerous pores and large specific surface area, which is in favor of exposing more active sites. In consideration of the structural preponderances and versatility of the materials, the CoFe2O4 nanomesh arrays have been researched as the binder-free electrode materials for electrocatalysis and supercapacitors. When the CoFe2O4nanomesh arrays on nickel foam (CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni) directly act as the free-binder catalyst toward catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of electrochemical water splitting, CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni exhibits an admirable OER property with a low onset potential of 1.47 V(corresponding to the onset overpotential of 240 mV), a minimal overpotential (η10 = 253 mV), a small Tafel slope (44 mV dec-1), large anodic currents and long-term durability for 35 h in alkaline media. In addition, as an electrode of supercapacitors, CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni obtains a desired specific capacitance (1426 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g), remarkable rate capability (1024 F/g at the current density of 20 A/g) and eminent capacitance retention (92.6% after 3000 cycles). The above results demonstrate the CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni possesses great potential application in electrocatalysis and supercapacitors.

  16. ALTERNATING CYCLES OF PVB AND BEP IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED SEMINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIETEMA, JA; WILLEMSE, PHB; MULDER, NH; OLDHOFF, J; DEVRIES, EGE; SLEIJFER, DT

    1991-01-01

    33 patients (median age 39 years) with advanced seminoma were treated with 4 courses of alternating cisplatin-containing chemotherapy PVB/BEP (cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin; bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin). Patients were classified as stage IIC (n = 7), IID (n = 9), III (n = 13) and IV (n

  17. Advanced Shock Position Control for Mode Transition in a Turbine Based Combined Cycle Engine Inlet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Stueber, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    A dual flow-path inlet system is being tested to evaluate methodologies for a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion system to perform a controlled inlet mode transition. Prior to experimental testing, simulation models are used to test, debug, and validate potential control algorithms. One simulation package being used for testing is the High Mach Transient Engine Cycle Code simulation, known as HiTECC. This paper discusses the closed loop control system, which utilizes a shock location sensor to improve inlet performance and operability. Even though the shock location feedback has a coarse resolution, the feedback allows for a reduction in steady state error and, in some cases, better performance than with previous proposed pressure ratio based methods. This paper demonstrates the design and benefit with the implementation of a proportional-integral controller, an H-Infinity based controller, and a disturbance observer based controller.

  18. Advancement of Double Effect Absorption Cycle by Input of Low Temperture Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hiroshi; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Energy conservation is becoming important for global environmental protection. New simple techniques of more efficiently using the waste heat of gas co-generation systems for refrigeration are required. This paper proposes a new method of using low temperature waste heat below 100°C for refrigeration. In the new method, the low temperature waste heat is fed into the weak solution line of the double effect absorption cycle directly via an auxiliary heat exchanger. In this paper, first, the location of the auxiliary waste heat recovery heat exchanger on the solution line was studied for each solution flow type of double effect absorption cycle. Then six promising methods of recovering waste heat were selected, and moreover, the basic model was constructed and the effect of input of the low temperature waste heat was investigated for each selected method.

  19. Recent advances in sleep-wake cycle and biological rhythms in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Naismith, Sharon L; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-10-01

    The cyclical nature of periodic switches in energy, motor activation and sleep-wake cycles in bipolar disorder suggests a strong underlying relationship with disturbances in chronobiology. Current research is refining our understanding of the various patterns of sleep-wake and biological rhythms alterations at early and later stages of this illness, as well as across its depressive/fatigue, manic/hypomanic and euthymic phases. This research focuses on early detection and subsequent monitoring to predict and better manage recurrent episodes. Sleep-wake cycle and biological rhythms disturbances are also well known to affect other key aspects of physical health (notably metabolic functions), cognitive performance and elevated risks for suicide. Increasing evidence now supports the integration of behavioural or pharmacological therapeutic strategies that target the sleep-wake and circadian systems in the ongoing treatment of various phases of bipolar disorder.

  20. Advances and critical aspects in the life-cycle assessment of battery electric cars

    OpenAIRE

    HELMERS Eckard; WEISS MARTIN

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over climate change, air pollution, and oil supply have stimulated the market for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). The environmental impacts of BEVs are typically evaluated through a standardized life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Here, the LCA literature was surveyed with the objective to sketch the major trends and challenges in the impact assessment of BEVs. It was found that BEVs tend to be more energy efficient and less polluting than conventional cars. BEVs decrease expo...

  1. Advanced Turbomachinery Components for Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Michael [Gas Technology Inst., Woodland Hills, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Six indirectly heated supercritical CO2 (SCO2 ) Brayton cycles with turbine inlet conditions of 1300°F and 4000 psia with varying plant capacities from 10MWe to 550MWe were analyzed. 550 MWe plant capacity directly heated SCO2 Brayton cycles with turbine inlet conditions of 2500°F and 4000 psia were also analyzed. Turbomachinery configurations and conceptual designs for both indirectly and directly heated cycles were developed. Optimum turbomachinery and generator configurations were selected and the resulting analysis provides validation that the turbomachinery conceptual designs meet efficiency performance targets. Previously identified technology gaps were updated based on these conceptual designs. Material compatibility testing was conducted for materials typically used in turbomachinery housings, turbine disks and blades. Testing was completed for samples in unstressed and stressed conditions. All samples exposed to SCO2 showed some oxidation, the extent of which varied considerably between the alloys tested. Examination of cross sections of the stressed samples found no evidence of cracking due to SCO2 exposure.

  2. Advancement of Double Effect Absorption Cycle by Input of Low Temperature Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hiroshi; Edera, Masaru; Nakamura, Makoto; Oka, Masahiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Energy conservation is becoming important for global environmental protection. New simple techniques of more efficient1y using the waste heat of gas co-generation systems for refrigerationare required. In first report, a new method of using the low temperature waste heat for refrigeration was proposed, and the basic characteristics of the promising methods of recovering waste heat were c1arified. In this report, the more detailed simulation model of the series flow type double effect absorption refrigerator with auxiliary heat exchanger was constructed and the static characteristics were investigated. Then experiments on this advanced absorption refrigerator were carried out, and the results of the calculation and experiments were compared and discussed. Moreover, the betterment of the simulation model of this advanced absorption refrigerator was carried out.

  3. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  4. NAN-190 potentiates the circadian response to light and speeds re-entrainment to advanced light cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, E J; Sprouse, J; Harrington, M E

    2008-07-17

    Health problems can arise from de-synchrony between the external environment and the endogenous circadian rhythm, yet the circadian system is not able to quickly adjust to large, abrupt changes in the external daily cycle. In this study, we investigated the ability of NAN-190 to potentiate the circadian rhythm response to light as measured by phase of behavioral activity rhythms. NAN-190 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to significantly potentiate the response to light both in dark-adapted and entrained hamsters. Furthermore, NAN-190 was effective even when administered up to 6 h after light onset. Response to a light pulse was both greater in magnitude and involved fewer unstable transient cycles. Finally, NAN-190 was able to speed re-entrainment to a 6 h advance of the light/dark cycle by an average of 6 days when compared with vehicle-treated animals. This work suggests that compounds like NAN-190 may hold great potential as a pharmaceutical treatment for jetlag, shift work, and other circadian disorders.

  5. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels in order to access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver quality-controlled biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”. Preprocessing depots densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The logistics of biomass commodity supply chains could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of corn stover logistics within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. The first scenario sited four preprocessing depots evenly across the state of Kansas but within the vicinity of counties having high biomass supply density. The second scenario located five depots based on the shortest depot-to-biorefinery rail distance and biomass availability. The logistics supply chain consists of corn stover harvest, collection and storage, feedstock transport from field to biomass preprocessing depot, preprocessing depot operations, and commodity transport from the biomass preprocessing depot to the biorefinery. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the feedstock logistics gate-to-gate sequence. Within the logistics supply chain GHG emissions are most sensitive to the

  6. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Jr., W. W.; Hancher, C. W.; Patton, B. D.; Shumate, II, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods are presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. However, a strong case is made for the use of biological processes for removing nitrates and heavy metals fron nuclear fuel cycle effluents. The estimated costs for these methods are as low as, or lower than, those for alternate processes. In addition, the resulting disposal products - nitrogen gas, CO/sub 2/, and heavy metals incorporated into microorganisms - are much more ecologically desirable than the end products of other waste treatment methods.

  7. FURTHER ASSESSMENTS OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIALS IN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FROM A SAFEGUARDS PERSPECTIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C. G.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Wallace, R. K.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Bradley, Keith S.; Collins, Brian A.; Smith, Brian W.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2008-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an extension to an earlier study [ ] that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the PUREX, UREX+, and COEX reprocessing schemes. This study focuses on the materials associated with the UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study also examines what is required to render plutonium as “unattractive.” Furthermore, combining the results of this study with those from the earlier study permits a comparison of the uranium and thorium based fuel cycles on the basis of the attractiveness of the SNM associated with each fuel cycle. Both studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of “attractiveness levels” that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities [ ]. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed.

  8. Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota): advances in understanding their taxonomy, life cycle, ecology, role and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruninger, Robert J; Puniya, Anil K; Callaghan, Tony M; Edwards, Joan E; Youssef, Noha; Dagar, Sumit S; Fliegerova, Katerina; Griffith, Gareth W; Forster, Robert; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammalian herbivores, where they play an important role in the degradation of plant material. The Neocallimastigomycota represent the earliest diverging lineage of the zoosporic fungi; however, understanding of the relationships of the different taxa (both genera and species) within this phylum is in need of revision. Issues exist with the current approaches used for their identification and classification, and recent evidence suggests the presence of several novel taxa (potential candidate genera) that remain to be characterised. The life cycle and role of anaerobic fungi has been well characterised in the rumen, but not elsewhere in the ruminant alimentary tract. Greater understanding of the 'resistant' phase(s) of their life cycle is needed, as is study of their role and significance in other herbivores. Biotechnological application of anaerobic fungi, and their highly active cellulolytic and hemi-cellulolytic enzymes, has been a rapidly increasing area of research and development in the last decade. The move towards understanding of anaerobic fungi using -omics based (genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic) approaches is starting to yield valuable insights into the unique cellular processes, evolutionary history, metabolic capabilities and adaptations that exist within the Neocallimastigomycota.

  9. Life cycle assessment of advanced bioethanol production from pulp and paper sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Diogo; Gonçalves, Margarida S; Marques, Susana; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco; Oliveira, Ana C; Matos, Cristina T

    2016-05-01

    This work evaluates the environmental performance of using pulp and paper sludge as feedstock for the production of second generation ethanol. An ethanol plant for converting 5400 tons of dry sludge/year was modelled and evaluated using a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach. The sludge is a burden for pulp and paper mills that is mainly disposed in landfilling. The studied system allows for the valorisation of the waste, which due to its high polysaccharide content is a valuable feedstock for bioethanol production. Eleven impact categories were analysed and the results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis and neutralisation of the CaCO3 are the environmental hotspots of the system contributing up to 85% to the overall impacts. Two optimisation scenarios were evaluated: (1) using a reduced HCl amount in the neutralisation stage and (2) co-fermentation of xylose and glucose, for maximal ethanol yield. Both scenarios displayed significant environmental impact improvements.

  10. Intelligent Human Machine Interface Design for Advanced Product Life Cycle Management Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and implementing an intelligent and user friendly human machine interface for any kind of software or hardware oriented application is always be a challenging task for the designers and developers because it is very difficult to understand the psychology of the user, nature of the work and best suit of the environment. This research paper is basically about to propose an intelligent, flexible and user friendly machine interface for Product Life Cycle Management products or PDM Systems since studies show that usability and human computer interaction issues are a major cause of acceptance problems introducing or using such systems. Going into details of the proposition, we present prototype implementations about theme based on design requirements, designed designs and technologies involved for the development of human machine interface.

  11. Overview of recent activities in the Heat Cycle Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting the improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. To meet this objective, the program has as one of its goals to improve the performance of geothermal binary cycles to levels approaching the practicable thermodynamic maximum. In pursuit of this goal, tests are being conducted at the Heat Cycle Research Facility located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility, East Mesa, California. The current testing involves the investigation of binary power cycle performance utilizing mixtures of non-adjacent hydrocarbons as the working fluids, with supercritical vaporization and in-tube condensation of the working fluid. In addition to the present test program, preparations are being made to investigate the binary cycle performance improvements which can be achieved by allowing supersaturated vapor expansions in the turbine. These efforts are anticipated to verify that through the utilization of these advanced power cycle concepts and allowing the supersaturated turbine expansions, improvements of up to 28% in the net geofluid effectiveness (net watt hours plant output per pound of geofluid) over conventional binary power plants can be achieved. Results presented for the recent testing, including those tests examining the performance of the countercurrent condenser at different tube inclinations, support the assumptions used in projected performance improvements. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Thyø, Kathrine Anker; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    of whether a global or European perspective is applied, the amount of biomass, which can become available for bioethanol or other energy uses, will be physically and economically constrained. This implies that use of biomass or land for bioethanol production will most likely happen at the expense......Among the existing environmental assessments of bioethanol, the studies suggesting an environmental benefit of bioethanol all ignore the constraints on the availability of biomass resources and the implications competition for biomass has on the assessment. We show that toward 2030, regardless...... of alternative uses. In this perspective, we show that for the case of a new advanced bioethanol technology, in terms of reducing greenhouse emissions and fossil fuel dependency, more is lost than gained when prioritizing biomass or land for bioethanol. Technology pathways involving heat and power production and...

  13. Advanced Energy Harvesting from Macroalgae—Innovative Integration of Drying, Gasification and Combined Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aziz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art integrated macroalgae utilization processes, consisting of drying, gasification, and combined cycle, are proposed and their performance with respect to energy efficiency are evaluated. To achieve high exergy efficiency, the integration is performed through two main principles: exergy recovery and process integration. Initially, the energy involved in one process is recirculated intensively through exergy elevation and effective heat coupling. Furthermore, the unrecoverable energy from one process will be utilized in the other processes through process integration. As the result, the total exergy destruction from the whole integrated processes can be minimized significantly leading to significant improvement in energy efficiency. The first analysis relates to the performance of integrated drying process, especially the influence of target moisture content to energy consumption. Furthermore, the influences of gasification fluidization velocity to the total generated power and power generation efficiency are also calculated. As the results of study, the proposed integrated-processes proved a very high energy efficiency. A positive energy harvesting with the total power generation efficiency of about 40% could be achieved.

  14. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  15. Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle Reliability, Availability & Maintainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2005-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established Operation and Maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that, in real time, interpret data to assess the 'total health' of combustion turbines. The 'Combustion Turbine Health Management System' (CTHMS) will consist of a series of 'Dynamic Link Library' (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. CTHMS interprets sensor and instrument outputs, correlates them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, the CTHMS enables real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical component remaining useful life and turbine degradation.

  16. Concentrating solar power (CSP) power cycle improvements through application of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, John A.; Libby, Cara; Shingledecker, John

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) capability offer unique advantages to other renewable energy technologies in that solar radiation can be captured and stored for utilization when the sun is not shining. This makes the technology attractive as a dispatchable resource, and as such the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been engaged in research and development activities to understand and track the technology, identify key technical challenges, and enable improvements to meet future cost and performance targets to enable greater adoption of this carbon-free energy resource. EPRI is also involved with technically leading a consortium of manufacturers, government labs, and research organizations to enable the next generation of fossil fired power plants with advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam temperatures up to 760°C (1400°F). Materials are a key enabling technology for both of these seemingly opposed systems. This paper discusses how major strides in structural materials for A-USC fossil fired power plants may be translated into improved CSP systems which meet target requirements.

  17. Decadal variations in the season advancement of spring water cycle over Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO RuiXia; ZHANG Hong; WU GuoXiong; LI WeiPing; SHI AiLi

    2012-01-01

    Spring is the critical period for atmospheric circulation transition from winter to summer.The spring water cycle is very important to agriculture in planting crop and the initial growth of crop.Note that there was a significant abrupt decadal change in the water budget increase during early spring over eastern China in the late 1970s.Studied here are the decadal variations of water budgets over the key regions and the associated change of water cycle over East Asia and atmospheric circulation over Asia-West Pacific region in early spring,using the observed (OBS) precipitation,the ECMWF (ERA) and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (NRA),and the Mantua's Pacific decadal oscillation index (PDOI).The water budget increments from March to April exhibited a sharp decrease over the key region around Huaihe River basin (HHR) (111°-120°E; 31°-36°N) after year 1978.Before 1977 the water vapor flux through south boundary of the HHR region increased greatly during March to April by 1.52mm d-1 in ERA and 1.88 mm d-1 in NRA.Concurrently the moisture convergence and precipitation over the region also increased greatly.The increment for the moisture convergence was 1.11 mm d-1 in ERA and 1.22 mm d< in NRA,and for the precipitation was 1.08 mm d 1 in observation and 1.05 mmd 1 in ERA.April was the time that the water budgets over HHR increased most rapidly before 1977.But after 1978 the water budgets decreased conversely from Mach to April.The water vapor flux increment through the south boundary was-0.03 mm d 1 in ERA and 0.01 mm d-1 in NRA.the moisture convergence increment was-0.91 mm d-1 in ERA and-0.53 mmd-1 in NRA,and precipitation increment was-0.f08 mm d 1 in observation and-0.15 mm d-1 in ERA.Further investigation has shown that the large-scale atmospheric circulation in the early spring has correspondingly changed significantly after the late 1970s.During March to April,the weakening of the trough over East Asia became significantly slower,and the strengthening of the ridge over

  18. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Jr, W W; Hancher, C W; Patton, B D; Shumate, II, S E

    1980-01-01

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods will be presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. The fluidized-bed biological denitrification process is an environmentally acceptable and economically sound method for the disposal of nonreusable sources of nitrate effluents. A very high denitrification rate can be obtained in a FBR as the result of a high concentration of denitrification bacteria in the bioreactor and the stagewise operation resulting from plug flow in the reactor. The overall denitrification rate in an FBR ranges from 20- to 100-fold greater than that observed for an STR bioreactor. It has been shown that the system can be operated using Ca/sup 2 +/, Na/sup +/, or NH/sub 4//sup +/ cations at nitrate concentrations up to 1 g/liter without inhibition. Biological sorption of uranium and other radionuclides (particularly the actinides) from dilute aqueous waste streams shows considerable promise as a means of recovering these valuable resources and reducing the environmental impact, however, further development efforts are required.

  19. Development and Utilization of mathematical Optimization in Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul; Hays, Ross

    2011-09-02

    Over the past sixty years, a wide variety of nuclear power technologies have been theorized, investigated and tested to various degrees. These technologies, if properly applied, could provide a stable, long-term, economical source of CO2-free electric power. However, the recycling of nuclear fuel introduces a degree of coupling between reactor systems which must be accounted for when making long term strategic plans. This work investigates the use of a simulated annealing optimization algorithm coupled together with the VISION fuel cycle simulation model in order to identify attractive strategies from economic, evironmental, non-proliferation and waste-disposal perspectives, which each have associated an objective function. The simulated annealing optimization algorithm works by perturbing the fraction of new reactor capacity allocated to each available reactor type (using a set of heuristic rules) then evaluating the resulting deployment scenario outcomes using the VISION model and the chosen objective functions. These new scenarios, which are either accepted or rejected according the the Metropolis Criterion, are then used as the basis for further perturbations. By repeating this process several thousand times, a family of near-optimal solutions are obtained. Preliminary results from this work using a two-step, Once-through LWR to Full-recycle/FRburner deployment scenario with exponentially increasing electric demand indicate that the algorithm is capable of nding reactor deployment pro les that reduce the long-term-heat waste disposal burden relative to an initial reference scenario. Further work is under way to re ne the current results and to extend them to include the other objective functions and to examine the optimization trade-o s that exist between these di erent objectives.

  20. Applied studies in advanced boiler technology for Rankine cycle power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, F.W.; Negreanu, M.J.

    1978-02-01

    A study is presented on a new rotational boiler design which has improved passive dynamic response and two-phase flow stability characteristics. A survey of small boiler manufacturers in the United States indicated that currently available designs are based on steady-state operating requirements rather than for dynamic performance. Recent work by EPA and ERDA which addressed boiler designs for mobile automotive Rankine cycle power systems showed that boilers of a monotube or multipass tube configuration design could be developed which were physically compact, but still were subject to the two-phase flow instability problem when coupled within an operating power system. The objectives of this work were to evaluate alternative boiler configurations which would improve boiler dynamic response and also have good two-phase liquid-vapor interface flow stability. The major physical design limitation of any boiler is the small external hot gas heat transfer coefficient. Such a low coefficient requires considerable design enhancements to increase the rate of energy transfer to the circulation system fluid. The rotational boiler is a physical design configuration which addresses this problem. The results of an analytic study using several mathematical model formulations showed that a rotational boiler could have a passive response time constant which was approximately one-half the magnitude for an equivalent single pass monotube boiler. An experimental prototype rotational boiler was designed, manufactured and tested, with the experimental results confirming that the experimental passive response time constants were comparable to the estimates from the analytic models. The experimental boiler operating in two-phase flow was found to be stable and responsive to external inputs. A rotational boiler configuration is a good alternative design configuration for small compact vapor generator designs based on fast transient passive response and two-phase flow stability.

  1. THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIALS IN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FOR VARIOUS PROLIFERATION AND THEFT SCENARIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C. G.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Collins, Brian A.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Wallace, R. K.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J. R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Johnson, M. W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2012-08-29

    We must anticipate that the day is approaching when details of nuclear weapons design and fabrication will become common knowledge. On that day we must be particularly certain that all special nuclear materials (SNM) are adequately accounted for and protected and that we have a clear understanding of the utility of nuclear materials to potential adversaries. To this end, this paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing SNM and alternate nuclear materials associated with the plutonium-uranium reduction extraction (Purex), uranium extraction (UREX), coextraction (COEX), thorium extraction (THOREX), and PYROX (an electrochemical refining method) reprocessing schemes. This paper provides a set of figures of merit for evaluating material attractiveness that covers a broad range of proliferant state and subnational group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this paper is that all fissile material must be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and must be provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by subnational groups; no 'silver bullet' fuel cycle has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. The work reported herein has been performed at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for, the nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security is discussed.

  2. Advanced Engine Cycles Analyzed for Turbofans With Variable-Area Fan Nozzles Actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced, large commercial turbofan engines using low-fan-pressure-ratio, very high bypass ratio thermodynamic cycles can offer significant fuel savings over engines currently in operation. Several technological challenges must be addressed, however, before these engines can be designed. To name a few, the high-diameter fans associated with these engines pose a significant packaging and aircraft installation challenge, and a large, heavy gearbox is often necessary to address the differences in ideal operating speeds between the fan and the low-pressure turbine. Also, the large nacelles contribute aerodynamic drag penalties and require long, heavy landing gear when mounted on conventional, low wing aircraft. Nevertheless, the reduced fuel consumption rates of these engines are a compelling economic incentive, and fans designed with low pressure ratios and low tip speeds offer attractive noise-reduction benefits. Another complication associated with low-pressure-ratio fans is their need for variable flow-path geometry. As the design fan pressure ratio is reduced below about 1.4, an operational disparity is set up in the fan between high and low flight speeds. In other words, between takeoff and cruise there is too large a swing in several key fan parameters-- such as speed, flow, and pressure--for a fan to accommodate. One solution to this problem is to make use of a variable-area fan nozzle (VAFN). However, conventional, hydraulically actuated variable nozzles have weight, cost, maintenance, and reliability issues that discourage their use with low-fan-pressure-ratio engine cycles. United Technologies Research, in cooperation with NASA, is developing a revolutionary, lightweight, and reliable shape memory alloy actuator system that can change the on-demand nozzle exit area by up to 20 percent. This "smart material" actuation technology, being studied under NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program and Revolutionary Concepts in Aeronautics (Rev

  3. Evidence for Subglacial Deformation and Deposition during a Complete Advance-Stagnation Cycle of Kötlujökull, Iceland – A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klint, K E S; Richardt, N; Krüger, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    deformation and deposition from dynamically active ice, (4) subglacial deposition from stagnant ice and (5) supraglacial re-deposition in dead-ice environment during de-icing. This complete sedimentary sequence represents a single glacier advance-stagnation cycle. The melt-out till displays moderate...

  4. The Formation of Contact and Very Close Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisseleva-Eggleton, L; Eggleton, P P

    2007-08-10

    We explore the possibility that all close binaries, i.e. those with periods {approx}< 3 d, including contact (W UMa) binaries, are produced from initially wider binaries (periods of say 10's of days) by the action of a triple companion through the medium of Kozai Cycles with Tidal Friction (KCTF).

  5. A preliminary design and analysis of an advanced heat-rejection system for an extreme altitude advanced variable cycle diesel engine installed in a high-altitude advanced research platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite surveillance in such areas as the Antarctic indicates that from time to time concentration of ozone grows and shrinks. An effort to obtain useful atmospheric data for determining the causes of ozone depletion would require a flight capable of reaching altitudes of at least 100,000 ft and flying subsonically during the sampling portion of the mission. A study of a heat rejection system for an advanced variable cycle diesel (AVCD) engine was conducted. The engine was installed in an extreme altitude, high altitude advanced research platform. Results indicate that the waste heat from an AVCD engine propulsion system can be rejected at the maximum cruise altitude of 120,000 ft. Fifteen performance points, reflecting the behavior of the engine as the vehicle proceeded through the mission, were used to characterize the heat exchanger operation. That portion of the study is described in a appendix titled, 'A Detailed Study of the Heat Rejection System for an Extreme Altitude Atmospheric Sampling Aircraft,' by a consultant, Mr. James Bourne, Lytron, Incorporated.

  6. Zeolite Y adsorbents with high vapor uptake capacity and robust cycling stability for potential applications in advanced adsorption heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, XS; Narayanan, S; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Keeler, EG; Kim, H; Mckay, IS; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg, Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the lab-scale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N-2 sorption, Al-27/Si-29 MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N-2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S; Griffin, Robert G; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg(2+) ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N2 sorption, (27)Al/(29)Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2(nd) law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H2O and N2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications.

  8. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2016-01-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations t...

  9. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  10. Heber geothermal binary demonstration plant: Design, construction, and early startup: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, J. R.

    1987-10-01

    Study of the concept for a large commercial size binary-cycle geothermal demonstration plant began in 1974. It was perceived that such a project would fill the need to advance the art of binary-cycle technology to the point that it could be used on a large scale for the development of moderate temperature geothermal resources. The Plant is rated at 45 MWe (net) and is located near Heber in the Imperial Valley of California. Construction began in June 1983 and as completed in June 1985. This report presents the results of design studies and field experiments that provided the data for detailed design. It discusses the plant's final design, highlights the logic behind key design decisions, and gives project costs. It describes the planned three-year test and demonstration program. It also includes a list of reports, studies, project documents, and technical papers related to the project.

  11. Parameter estimation of neutron star-black hole binaries using an advanced gravitational-wave detector network: Effects of the full post-Newtonian waveform

    CERN Document Server

    Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Pai, Archana; Arun, K G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effects of using the {\\it full} waveform (FWF) over the conventional {\\it restricted} waveform (RWF) of the inspiral signal from a coalescing compact binary (CCB) system in extracting the parameters of the source, using a global network of second generation interferometric detectors. We study a hypothetical population of (1.4-10)$M_\\odot$ NS-BH binaries (uniformly distributed and oriented in the sky) by employing the full post-Newtonian waveforms, which not only include contributions from various harmonics other than the dominant one (quadrupolar mode) but also the post-Newtonian amplitude corrections associated with each harmonic, of the inspiral signal expected from this system. It is expected that the GW detector network consisting of the two LIGO detectors and a Virgo detector will be joined by KAGRA and by proposed LIGO-India. We study the problem of parameter estimation with all 16 possible detector configurations. Comparing medians of error distributions obtained using FWFs with thos...

  12. Status and Future of Deep Searches for Compact Binary Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitz, Alexander` Harvey; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Deep offline searches for gravitational waves from binary black hole, binary neutron star, and neutron star- black hole mergers were conducted during the first Advanced LIGO observing run, and recently Advanced LIGO announced the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. We discuss the recent results, the methodology of the high latency searches, along with improvements for the upcoming observing runs.

  13. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study of Laser-Assisted Hatching on the Outcome of First Fresh IVF-ET Cycle in Advanced Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenhao; Hongwei, Tan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Na; Li, Mingzhao; Li, Wei; Shi, Juanzi

    2016-10-01

    There is no sufficient data to conclude the benefit of assisted hatching (AH) for advanced age patients. However, AH is routinely performed for advanced age patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China based on some retrospective evidence. It is important to assess the benefit of AH procedure for advanced age patients, especially by analyzing the data from China. This is a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of laser AH in the advanced age patients undergoing IVF. A total of 256 patients conformed to the inclusion criteria, and 78 were excluded by exclusion criteria. A total of 178 patients were eligible and randomized to 2 groups (82 AH group and 96 control group). Laser AH (zona thinning) was performed in the AH group. There were no statistical significance in basic clinical parameters between the 2 groups. No difference was found in implantation rate (AH vs control, 32.45% vs 39.29%) and clinical pregnancy rate (AH vs control, 48.78% vs 59.38%). Our data did not find any benefit of laser AH in improving implantation or pregnancy rates in advanced age women. Due to the potential risk and increasing financial burden, AH should not be routinely performed in first fresh IVF embryo transfer cycle for advanced age women.

  14. On the dynamical evolution and end states of binary centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical integration of 666 fictitious binary Centaurs coming from the trans Neptunian space. Our population is restricted to tight binaries whose components have sizes between 30 and 100 km. We included the dynamical perturbations from the giant planets, Kozai Cycles induced by the Sun and tidal friction on the orbits of the binaries. We found that most binaries are disrupted during one of the close planetary encounters, making the mean lifetime of binary Centaurs much shorter than the one of single Centaurs. Nearly 10 per cent of the binaries reach a very tight circular orbit, arguing in favour of the existence of a non-negligible population of contact Centaurs. Another 10 per cent survive as a binary during their lifetime as Centaur. Our simulations favour the existence of a small population of very tight binary Centaurs.

  15. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2017-03-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multidimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed neutron star-black hole binaries with tens of observations.

  16. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2016-01-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed black hole -- neutron star binaries.

  17. T-R CYCLE CHARACTERIZATION AND IMAGING: ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC METHODOLOGY FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIR AND TRAP DETECTION AND DELINEATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-09-24

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been T-R cycle characterization and modeling. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 was on outcrop study, well log analysis, seismic interpretation and data integration and for the remainder of the year the emphasis has been on T-R cycle model development. Information regarding the characteristics of T-R cycles has been assembled from the study of outcrops, from well log analyses, and from seismic reflection interpretation. From these studies, stratal boundaries separating T-R cycles have been found to be useful for the recognition and delineation of these cycles. The key stratal surfaces include subaerial unconformities, shoreface ravinement surfaces, transgressive surfaces, surfaces of maximum regression, and surfaces of maximum transgression. These surfaces can be identified and mapped in surface exposures and can be recognized in well log signatures and seismic reflection profiles as discontinuities. The findings from the study of outcrop, well log, and seismic reflection data are being integrated into a database for use in constructing a model for T-R cycle development.

  18. Towards low-latency real-time detection of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences in the era of advanced detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Jing; Wen, Linqing; Chen, Yanbei

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of gravitational wave (GW) events will help shed light on the nature of the sources, and more can be learned if the EM follow-ups can start as soon as the GW event becomes observable. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient time-domain algorithm capable of detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binaries of compact objects with nearly zero time delay. In case when the signal is strong enough, our algorithm also has the flexibility to trigger EM observation before the merger. The key to the efficiency of our algorithm arises from the use of chains of so-called Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filters, which filter time-series data recursively. Computational cost is further reduced by a template interpolation technique that requires filtering to be done only for a much coarser template bank than otherwise required to sufficiently recover optimal signal-to-noise ratio. Towards future detectors with sensitivity extending to lower frequencies, ou...

  19. Advanced binary search pattern for impedance spectra classification for determining the state of charge of a lithium iron phosphate cell using a support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Patrick; Vollnhals, Michael; Renner, Daniel; Vergossen, David; John, Werner; Götze, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Further improvements on the novel method for state of charge (SOC) determination of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells based on the impedance spectra classification are presented. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is applied to impedance spectra of a LFP cell, with each impedance spectrum representing a distinct SOC for a predefined temperature. As a SVM is a binary classifier, only the distinction between two SOC can be computed in one iteration of the algorithm. Therefore a search pattern is necessary. A balanced tree search was implemented with good results. In order to further improvements of the SVM method, this paper discusses two new search pattern, namely a linear search and an imbalanced tree search, the later one based on an initial educated guess. All three search pattern were compared under various aspects like accuracy, efficiency, tolerance of disturbances and temperature dependancy. The imbalanced search tree shows to be the most efficient search pattern if the initial guess is within less than ±5 % SOC of the original SOC in both directions and exhibits the best tolerance for high disturbances. Linear search improves the rate of exact classifications for almost every temperature. It also improves the robustness against high disturbances and can even detect a certain number of false classifications which makes this search pattern unique. The downside is a much lower efficiency as all impedance spectra have to be evaluated while the tree search pattern only evaluate those on the tree path.

  20. A Review of Thorium Utilization as an option for Advanced Fuel Cycle--Potential Option for Brazil in the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, J.R.; Carluccio, T.

    2004-10-03

    Since the beginning of Nuclear Energy Development, Thorium was considered as a potential fuel, mainly due to the potential to produce fissile uranium 233. Several Th/U fuel cycles, using thermal and fast reactors were proposed, such as the Radkwoski once through fuel cycle for PWR and VVER, the thorium fuel cycles for CANDU Reactors, the utilization in Molten Salt Reactors, the utilization of thorium in thermal (AHWR), and fast reactors (FBTR) in India, and more recently in innovative reactors, mainly Accelerator Driven System, in a double strata fuel cycle. All these concepts besides the increase in natural nuclear resources are justified by non proliferation issues (plutonium constrain) and the waste radiological toxicity reduction. The paper intended to summarize these developments, with an emphasis in the Th/U double strata fuel cycle using ADS. Brazil has one of the biggest natural reserves of thorium, estimated in 1.2 millions of tons of ThO{sub 2}, as will be reviewed in this paper, and therefore R&D programs would be of strategically national interest. In fact, in the past there was some projects to utilize Thorium in Reactors, as the ''Instinto/Toruna'' Project, in cooperation with France, to utilize Thorium in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, in the mid of sixties to mid of seventies, and the thorium utilization in PWR, in cooperation with German, from 1979-1988. The paper will review these initiatives in Brazil, and will propose to continue in Brazil activities related with Th/U fuel cycle.

  1. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-08-30

    Characterization of stratigraphic sequences (T-R cycles or sequences) included outcrop studies, well log analysis and seismic reflection interpretation. These studies were performed by researchers at the University of Alabama, Wichita State University and McGill University. The outcrop, well log and seismic characterization studies were used to develop a depositional sequence model, a T-R cycle (sequence) model, and a sequence stratigraphy predictive model. The sequence stratigraphy predictive model developed in this study is based primarily on the modified T-R cycle (sequence) model. The T-R cycle (sequence) model using transgressive and regressive systems tracts and aggrading, backstepping, and infilling intervals or sections was found to be the most appropriate sequence stratigraphy model for the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico to improve petroleum stratigraphic trap and specific reservoir facies imaging, detection and delineation. The known petroleum reservoirs of the Mississippi Interior and North Louisiana Salt Basins were classified using T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The transgressive backstepping reservoirs have been the most productive of oil, and the transgressive backstepping and regressive infilling reservoirs have been the most productive of gas. Exploration strategies were formulated using the sequence stratigraphy predictive model and the classification of the known petroleum reservoirs utilizing T-R cycle (sequence) terminology. The well log signatures and seismic reflector patterns were determined to be distinctive for the aggrading, backstepping and infilling sections of the T-R cycle (sequence) and as such, well log and seismic data are useful for recognizing and defining potential reservoir facies. The use of the sequence stratigraphy predictive model, in combination with the knowledge of how the distinctive characteristics of the T-R system tracts and their subdivisions are expressed in well log patterns

  2. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2008-01-01

    -pollutants being: heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni), endocrine disruptors (E2 and EE2), PAH, DEHP, and detergents (LAS & NPE). It was found, in some of the studied scenarios, that more environmental impact may be induced than removed by the advanced treatment. The study showed that for the 3 technologies, sand filtration...

  3. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2007-01-01

    -pollutants being: heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni), endocrine disruptors (E2 and EE2), PAH, DEHP, and detergents (LAS & NPE). It was found, in some of the studied scenarios, that more environmental impact may be induced than removed by the advanced treatment. The study showed that for the 3 technologies, sand filtration...

  4. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  5. Microstructure characteristics and temperature-dependent high cycle fatigue behavior of advanced 9% Cr/CrMoV dissimilarly welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qingjun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui, E-mail: Lfg119@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Cui, Haichao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ding, Yuming; Liu, Xia [Shanghai Turbine Plant of Shanghai Electric Power Generation Equipment Co. Ltd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yulai, E-mail: ylgao@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2014-10-06

    Advanced 9% Cr and CrMoV steels chosen as candidate materials are first welded by narrow-gap submerged arc welding (NG-SAW) to fabricate the heavy section rotor. The present work focuses on studying the high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior of advanced 9% Cr/CrMoV dissimilarly welded joint at different temperatures. Conditional fatigue strength of this dissimilarly welded joint was obtained by HCF tests at room temperature (RT), 400 °C and 470 °C. It was observed that the failure occurred at the side of CrMoV base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and heat affected zone (HAZ) of CrMoV side over 5×10{sup 7} cycles for the specimens tested at RT, 400 °C and 470 °C. The detailed microstructures of BMs, WMs and HAZs as well as fracture appearance were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Precipitation and aggregation of carbides along the grain boundaries were clearly detected with the increase of temperature, which brought a negative effect on the fatigue properties. It is interesting to note that the inclusion size leading to crack initiation became smaller for the HCF test at higher temperature. Therefore, reduction in the inclusion size in a welded joint helps to improve the HCF performance at high temperature.

  6. Report on the workshop "Decay spectroscopy at CARIBU: advanced fuel cycle applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics". 14-16 April 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondev, F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chowdhury, P.; Clark, J.A.; Lister, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.; Swewryniak, D. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Univ. of Massachusetts); (Univ. of Surrey)

    2011-10-06

    A workshop on 'Decay Spectroscopy at CARIBU: Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications, Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics' will be held at Argonne National Laboratory on April 14-16, 2011. The aim of the workshop is to discuss opportunities for decay studies at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS facility with emphasis on advanced fuel cycle (AFC) applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics research. The workshop will consist of review and contributed talks. Presentations by members of the local groups, outlining the status of relevant in-house projects and availabile equipment, will also be organized. time will also be set aside to discuss and develop working collaborations for future decay studies at CARIBU. Topics of interest include: (1) Decay data of relevance to AFC applications with emphasis on reactor decay heat; (2) Discrete high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy following radioactive decya and related topics; (3) Calorimetric studies of neutron-rich fission framgents using Total ABsorption Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (TAGS) technique; (4) Beta-delayed neutron emissions and related topics; and (5) Decay data needs for nuclear astrophysics.

  7. Supplement: “The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914” (2016, ApJL, 833, L1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    This article provides supplemental information for a Letter reporting the rate of (BBH) coalescences inferred from 16 days of coincident Advanced LIGO observations surrounding the transient (GW) signal GW150914. In that work we reported various rate estimates whose 90% confidence intervals fell in the range 2-600 Gpc-3 yr-1. Here we give details on our method and computations, including information about our search pipelines, a derivation of our likelihood function for the analysis, a description of the astrophysical search trigger distribution expected from merging BBHs, details on our computational methods, a description of the effects and our model for calibration uncertainty, and an analytic method for estimating our detector sensitivity, which is calibrated to our measurements.

  8. T-R Cycle Characterization and Imaging: Advanced Diagnostic Methodology for Petroleum Reservoir and Trap Detection and Delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; William C. Parcell; Bruce S. Hart

    2005-09-19

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project is on stratigraphic model assessment and development. The research focus for the first six (6) months of Year 2 is on T-R cycle model development. The emphasis for the remainder of the year is on assessing the depositional model and developing and testing a sequence stratigraphy model. The development and testing of the sequence stratigraphy model has been accomplished through integrated outcrop, well log and seismic studies of Mesozoic strata in the Gulf of Mexico, North Atlantic and Rocky Mountain areas.

  9. Advancing absolute sustainability assessments of products with a new Planetary Boundaries based life-cycle impact assessment methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Richardson, Katherine

    an operational life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology where the definition of the impact categories is based on the control variables as defined in the PB-framework by Steffen et al (2015). This included the development and calculation of characterization factors for the Earth System processes......The Planetary Boundaries (PB)-framework introduced quantitative boundaries for a set of biophysical Earth System processes. The PBs delimit a ‘safe operating space' for humanity to act within to keep Earth in a Holocene-like state (Rockström et al 2009). The concept has gained strong interest from...

  10. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  11. Reactor applications of the compact fusion advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle for a D-T tokamak fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, H.A.; Logan, B.G.; Campbell, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    We have made a preliminary design of a D-T fusion reactor blanket and MHD power conversion system based on the CFAR concept, and found that the performance and costs for the reference cycle are very attractive. While much remains to be done, the potential advantage of liquid metal Rankine cycles for fusion applications are much clearer now. These include low pressures and mass flow rates, a nearly isothermal module shell which minimizes problems of thermal distortion and stresses, and an insensitivity to pressure losses in the blanket so that the two-phase MHD pressure drops in the boilling part of the blanket and the ordinary vapor pressure drops in the pebble-bed superheating zones are acceptable (the direct result of pumping a liquid rather than having to compress a gas). There are no moving parts in the high-temperature MHD power generators, no steam bottoming plant is required, only small vapor precoolers and condensers are needed because of the high heat rejection trmperatures, and only a relatively small natural-draft heat exhanger is required to reject the heat to the atmosphere. The net result is a very compact fusion reactor and power conversion system which fit entirely inside an 18 meter radius reactor vault. Although we have not yet performed a detailed cost analysis, preliminary cost estimates indicate low capital costs and a very attractive cost of electricity. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effect of imbalance and intracluster correlation coefficient in cluster randomization trials with binary outcomes when the available number of clusters is fixed in advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chul; Hu, Fan; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Ahn, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    In some cluster randomization trials, the number of clusters cannot exceed a specified maximum value due to cost constraints or other practical reasons. Donner and Klar [Donner A, and Klar N. Design and analysis of cluster randomization trials in health research. Oxford University Press 2000] provided the sample size formula for the number of subjects required per cluster when the number of clusters cannot exceed a specified maximum value. The sample size formula of Donner and Klar assumes that the number of subjects is the same in each cluster. In practical situations, the number of subjects may be different among clusters. We conducted simulation studies to investigate the effect of the cluster size variability (kappa) and the intracluster correlation coefficient (rho) on the power of the study in which the number of available clusters is fixed in advance. For the balanced case (kappa=1.0), i.e., equal cluster size among clusters, the sample size formula yielded empirical powers close to the nominal level even when the number of available clusters per group (k*) is as small as 10. The sample size formula yielded empirical powers close to the nominal level when the number of available clusters per group (k*) is at least 20 and the imbalance parameter (kappa) is at least 0.8. Empirical powers were close to the nominal level when (rho or =0.8, and k*=10) or (rho< or =0.02, kappa=0.8, and k*=20).

  13. 125I brachytherapy of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy:a comparison with best supportive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Song* Xiaoxi Fan* Zhongwei Zhao* Minjiang Chen* Weiqian Chen, Fazong Wu, Dengke Zhang, Li Chen, Jianfei Tu, Jiansong Ji Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhejiang University Lishui Hospital, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui Central Hospital, Lishui, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of computed tomography (CT-guided 125I brachytherapy alone in improving the survival and quality of life of patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy.Patients and methods: Sixteen patients with locally advanced NSCLC were treated with CT-guided 125I brachytherapy after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy (group A. Sixteen patients who received only best supportive care (group B were matched up with the patients in group A. Primary end point included survival, and secondary end point included assessment of safety, effectiveness of CT-guided 125I brachytherapy, and improvement in the quality of life.Results: The two groups were well balanced in terms of age, disease histology, tumor stage, tumor location, and performance status (P>0.05. The median follow-up time was 16 months (range, 3–30. The total tumor response rate was 75.0% in group A, which was significantly higher than that in group B (0.0% (P<0.01. The median progression-free survival time was 4.80 months for patients in group A and 1.35 months for patients in group B (P<0.001. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the median survival time of group A was 9.4±0.3 months versus 8.4±0.1 months in group B (P=0.013. Tumor-related symptoms of patients were significantly relieved, and the quality of life was markedly improved in group A than in group B.Conclusion: CT-guided 125I brachytherapy improved the survival of patients with locally advanced

  14. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, the College of Engineering at the University of South Carolina has conducted an assessment of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle related areas. The study was initiated as a regional effort focusing on the concentration of nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. The project was envisioned as providing base line information for the eventual implementation of a program in line with the needs of the Southeast's nuclear community. Specific objectives were to establish the content of such a program and to determine those specialized features which would make the program most attractive and useful.

  15. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle-related areas, focusing on the nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. As a result of the study, a list of subject areas has been compiled as best representing the current content of an educational program. In addition to identifying subject areas, a set of course descriptions and reference materials has been developed around each subject. Each course description contains information regarding objectives, anticipated audience, and prerequisites and offers a suggested course outline. An initial modest program of implementation is recommended which would continue to concentrate on the Southeast as a target area.

  16. Development of advanced process-based model towards evaluation of boundless biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial-aquatic continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2014-05-01

    Recent research shows inland water may play some role in continental biogeochemical cycling though its contribution has remained uncertain due to a paucity of data (Battin et al. 2009). The author has developed process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model (Nakayama, 2008a-b, 2010, 2011a-b, 2012a-c, 2013; Nakayama and Fujita, 2010; Nakayama and Hashimoto, 2011; Nakayama and Shankman, 2013a-b; Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004, 2006, 2008a-b; Nakayama et al., 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012), which incorporates surface-groundwater interactions, includes up- and down-scaling processes between local, regional and global scales, and can simulate iteratively nonlinear feedback between hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological processes. In this study, NICE was extended to evaluate global hydrologic cycle by using various global datasets. The simulated result agreed reasonably with that in the previous research (Fan et al., 2013) and extended to clarify further eco-hydrological process in global scale. Then, NICE was further developed to incorporate the biogeochemical cycle including the reaction between inorganic and organic carbons (DOC, POC, DIC, pCO2, etc.) in the biosphere (terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems including surface water and groundwater). The model simulated the carbon cycle, for example, CO2 evasion from inland water in global scale, which is relatively in good agreement in that estimated by empirical relation using the previous pCO2 data (Aufdenkampe et al., 2011; Global River Chemistry Database, 2013). This simulation system would play important role in identification of full greenhouse gas balance of the biosphere and spatio-temporal hot spots in boundless biogeochemical cycle (Cole et al. 2007; Frei et al. 2012). References; Aufdenkampe, A.K., et al., Front. Ecol. Environ., doi:10.1890/100014, 2011. Battin, T.J., et al., Nat. Geosci., 2, 598-600, 2009. Cole, J.J. et al., Ecosystems, doi:10.1007/s10021-006-9013-8, 2007. Fan, Y. et al

  17. Advances in life cycle assessment and emergy evaluation with case studies in gold mining and pineapple production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Wesley W.

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally standardized framework for assessing the environmental impacts of products that is rapidly evolving to improve understanding and quantification of how complex product systems depend upon and affect the environment. This dissertation contributes to that evolution through the development of new methods for measuring impacts, estimating the uncertainty of impacts, and measuring ranges of environmental performance, with a focus on product systems in non-OECD countries that have not been well characterized. The integration of a measure of total energy use, emergy, is demonstrated in an LCA of gold from the Yanacocha mine in Peru in the second chapter. A model for estimating the accuracy of emergy results is proposed in the following chapter. The fourth chapter presents a template for LCA-based quantification of the range of environmental performance for tropical agricultural products using the example of fresh pineapple production for export in Costa Rica that can be used to create product labels with environmental information. The final chapter synthesizes how each methodological contribution will together improve the science of measuring product environmental performance.

  18. Design concepts and advanced telerobotics development for facilities in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Fuel Recycle Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past seven years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of tasks accomplished by remote means and increasing the efficiency of remote work undertaken. Five areas of the development effort are primary contributors to the goal of higher operating efficiency for major facilities for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These areas are the single-cell concept, the low-flow ventilation concept, television viewing, equipment-mounting racks, and force-reflecting manipulation. These somewhat innovative directions are products of a design process where the technical scenario to be accomplished, the remote equipment to accomplish the scenario, and the facility design to house the equipment, are considered in an iterative design process to optimize performance, maximize long-term costs effectiveness, and minimize initial capital outlay. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  19. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    encapsulated in borosilicate glass. Because the heat load of the glass was much less than the PWR and BWR assemblies, the glass waste form was able to be co-disposed with the open cycle waste, by interspersing glass waste packages among the spent fuel assembly waste packages. In addition, the Yucca Mountain repository was designed to include some research reactor spent fuel and naval reactor spent fuel, within the envelope that was set using the commercial reactor assemblies as the design basis waste form. This milestone report supports Sandia National Laboratory milestone M2FT-12SN0814052, and is intended to be a chapter in that milestone report. The independent technical review of this LLNL milestone was performed at LLNL and is documented in the electronic Information Management (IM) system at LLNL. The objective of this work is to investigate what aspects of quantifying, characterizing, and representing the uncertainty associated with the engineered barrier are affected by implementing different advanced nuclear fuel cycles (e.g., partitioning and transmutation scenarios) together with corresponding designs and thermal constraints.

  20. Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Pines, D.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Significant improvements in efficiency for the conversion of coal into electricity can be achieved by cycles which employ a high temperature gas turbine topping cycle. The objective of this project is the development of an externally fired gas turbine system. The project computationally tested a new concept for a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) and high temperature heat exchanger with a proprietary design to reduce the problems associated with the harsh coal environment. The program addressed two key technology issues: (1) the HITAF/heat exchanger heat transfer through a 2-D computer analysis of the HITAF configuration; (2) 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model application to simulate the exclusion of particles and corrosive gases from the heat exchanger surface. The basic concept of this new combustor design was verified through the 2D and 3D modeling. It demonstrated that the corrosion and erosion of the exchanger material caused by coal and ash particles can be largely reduced by employing a specially designed firing scheme. It also suggested that a proper combustion geometry design is necessary to maximize the cleaning effect.

  1. Severe Organizing Pneumonia after Two Cycles of Docetaxel as Fourth-Line Chemotherapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hasskarl

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing pneumonia (formerly known as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, BOOP is an inflammatory process of the bronchioles that can lead to the destruction of small airways and surrounding lung tissue. Although the majority of cases are idiopathic, certain chemicals and drugs can induce OP. Here, we report a 54-year-old male patient with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC who developed therapy-associated OP. He had undergone several other chemotherapies before being switched to docetaxel as monotherapy (75 mg/m2. Treatment was initially well tolerated, but after the second cycle the patient developed increasing shortness of breath. Computed tomography (CT for staging after the second cycle showed bilateral predominantly interstitial infiltration highly suggestive of acute lung fibrosis. Bronchoscopy revealed signs of chronic bronchitis and watery discharge from both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial needle biopsy was performed. Based on histopathologic examination, diagnosis of OP was made. After cessation of docetaxel and initial high dose steroids, the infiltration ameliorated rapidly. This is the second case in the literature that associates docetaxel with rapid onset of bronchiolitis obliterans. Therefore, patients with lung cancer receiving docetaxel who develop respiratory symptoms should be suspected to develop OP.

  2. Finding advanced third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902 in Mexico from natural and experimental host and contributions to the life cycle description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Carranza Calderón, Laura; Ortiz Nájera, Héctor Ernesto

    2009-04-01

    In order to clarify the role of Gnathostoma turgidum as an etiological agent involved in human gnathostomiasis in Mexico, establish the taxonomic identity of the advanced third-stage larvae (AdvL(3)), and contribute to the knowledge of its life cycle, experimental host infections, examination of potential natural hosts, and morphological comparisons were carried out. Examination of ten species of potential hosts at San Pedro las Playas and Tres Palos Lagoon in Guerrero state, Mexico revealed that two (Kinosternon integrum and Rana zweifeli) were infected by 15 AdvL(3) of G. turgidum. A specific identity was obtained comparing these larvae with those recovered from hosts experimentally infected. The AdvL(3) measured 1.6 mm in length, with two cervical papillae (both in 12th row) and an excretory pore on the 19th row. The average of cephalic hooklets, from first to fourth row, was 30.8, 34.0, 36.7, and 39.6, respectively. This is the first record of AdvL(3) of G. turgidum in America, and it represents a significant contribution for the understanding of the life cycle of this species.

  3. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  4. ACSEPT: a new FP7-Euratom Collaborative Project in the field of partitioning processes for advanced fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, Stephane; Touron, Emmanuel; Caravaca, Concha; Ekberg, Christian; Gaubert, Emmanuel; Hill, Clement [CEA/DEN/MAR/DRCP, Bat 181, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Actinide recycling by separation and transmutation is considered worldwide and particularly in several European countries as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste, thus contributing to the sustainability of nuclear energy. Consistently with potentially viable recycling strategies, the Collaborative Project ACSEPT will provide a structured research and development framework to develop chemical separation processes compatible with fuel fabrication techniques, with a view to their future demonstration at the pilot level. Two strategies are proposed for the recycling of the actinides issuing from various forms of future nuclear fuels: -) their homogeneous recycling in mixed fuels via a prior group separation of the actinides and -) their heterogeneous recycling in targets or core blankets via their selective separation from fission products. Two major technologies are considered to meet these challenges: hydrometallurgical processes and pyrochemical processes. A training and education programme will also be implemented to share the knowledge among communities and generations so as to maintain the nuclear expertise at the fore-front of Europe. The challenging objectives of ACSEPT will be addressed by a multi-disciplinary consortium composed of European universities, nuclear research bodies and major industrial players. This consortium will generate fundamental improvements for the future design of a potential Advanced Processing Pilot Unit.

  5. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  6. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  7. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  8. ADVANCED MONITORING TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION TURBINE/COMBINED CYCLE CT/(CC) RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2004-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established operation and maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that will, in real time, interpret data to assess the ''total health'' of combustion turbines. The Combustion Turbine Health Management System (CTHM) will consist of a series of dynamic link library (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. The CTHM system will be a significant improvement over currently available techniques for turbine monitoring and diagnostics. CTHM will interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, it will enable real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical component remaining useful life and turbine degradation.

  9. ADVANCED MONITORING TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION TURBINE/COMBINED CYCLE CT/(CC) RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2003-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established operation and maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. Such systems would interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to the machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, forward projections of servicing intervals, estimate remaining component life, and identify faults. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that will, in real time, interpret data to assess the ''total health'' of combustion turbines. The Combustion Turbine Health Management System (CTHM) will consist of a series of dynamic link library (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. The CTHM system will be a significant improvement over currently available techniques for turbine monitoring and diagnostics. CTHM will interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, it will enable real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical

  10. ADVANCED MONITORING TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION TURBINE/COMBINED CYCLE CT/(CC) RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2004-03-31

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established operation and maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that will, in real time, interpret data to assess the ''total health'' of combustion turbines. The Combustion Turbine Health Management System (CTHM) will consist of a series of dynamic link library (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. The CTHM system will be a significant improvement over currently available techniques for turbine monitoring and diagnostics. CTHM will interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, it will enable real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical component remaining useful life and turbine degradation.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment as a tool for green Chemistry: Application to different advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ortiz, I.; Domenech Antunez, X.; Malato Rodriguez, S.

    2006-07-01

    The development of chemistry during the twentieth century has changed our lives. In fact, chemistry and chemicals surrounds US in our daily activities, due to the huge supply of products aimed at improving our quality of life. Chemistry has resulted in the medical revolution of the past century, in which drugs as antibiotics have been used to cure diseases that affected mankind for centuries. These advances have led to the rise in the average life expectancy from 47 in 1900, to 75 years in the 1990s (Breslow 1997). On the other hand, the world's food supply has seen an explosive expansion because of the development of pesticides as well as fertilisers that protect crops and improve their productivity. Other common chemicals are those related to hygiene, such as soaps, detergents, disinfectants, toothpaste, etc. Therefore, there is practically no facet in material life-transportation communication, clothing, shelter, office- in which chemistry does not play an important role, either to supply consumer products or to improve services addressed to society in general (Domenech 2005). In spite of all these clear benefits, the chemical industry is often viewed by the general public as causing more harm than good (Lancaster 2002). A major reason for this is that the industry is perceived as being polluting and causing significant environmental damage. Indeed, the manufacture, use and disposal of chemicals consume large amounts of resources, and originates emissions of pollutants to all environmental compartments, not to mention the numerous accidents and disasters in which the chemical industry has been involved in the recent past. (Author)

  12. Flip-flopping binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James

    2015-04-10

    We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.

  13. Reactor physics studies for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Reactor-Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovskiy, Evgeny Yuryevich

    In the recently completed RACE Project of the AFCI, accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADS) experiments were conducted to develop technology of coupling accelerators to nuclear reactors. In these experiments electron accelerators induced photon-neutron reactions in heavy-metal targets to initiate fission reactions in ADS. Although the Idaho State University (ISU) RACE ADS was constructed only to develop measurement techniques for advanced experiments, many reactor kinetics experiments were conducted there. In the research reported in this dissertation, a method was developed to calculate kinetics parameters for measurement and calculation of the reactivity of ADS, a safety parameter that is necessary for control and monitoring of power production. Reactivity is measured in units of fraction of delayed versus prompt neutron from fission, a quantity that cannot be directly measured in far-subcritical reactors such as the ISU RACE configuration. A new technique is reported herein to calculate it accurately and to predict kinetic behavior of a far-subcritical ADS. Experiments conducted at ISU are first described and experimental data are presented before development of the kinetic theory used in the new computational method. Because of the complexity of the ISU ADS, the Monte-Carlo method as applied in the MCNP code is most suitable for modeling reactor kinetics. However, the standard method of calculating the delayed neutron fraction produces inaccurate values. A new method was developed and used herein to evaluate actual experiments. An advantage of this method is that its efficiency is independent of the fission yield of delayed neutrons, which makes it suitable for fuel with a minor actinide component (e.g. transmutation fuels). The implementation of this method is based on a correlated sampling technique which allows the accurate evaluation of delayed and prompt neutrons. The validity of the obtained results is indicated by good agreement between experimental

  14. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    2004-10-01

    We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20-30% of the maximum possible values.

  15. Distinguishing types of compact-object binaries using the gravitational-wave signatures of their mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya; Dominik, Michal; Belczynsk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the distinguishability of populations of coalescing binary neutron stars, neutron-star black-hole binaries, and binary black holes, whose gravitational-wave signatures are expected to be observed by the advanced network of ground-based interferometers LIGO and Virgo. We consider population-synthesis predictions for plausible merging binary distributions in mass space, along with measurement accuracy estimates from the main gravitational-wave parameter-estimation pipeline. We find that for our model compact-object binary mass distribution, we can always distinguish binary neutron stars and black-hole--neutron-star binaries, but not necessarily black-hole--neutron-star binaries and binary black holes; however, with a few tens of detections, we can accurately identify the three subpopulations and measure their respective rates.

  16. Research advances on GS/GOGAT cycle i n higher plants%高等植物GS/GOGAT循环研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫良玉; 吴良欢; 陶勤南

    2001-01-01

    The aims of this ar ticle are to review recent studies onammonium assimilation via the GS/GOGAT cyc le in higher plants. More than 95% of the ammonium, derived from various metabo l isms and uptake from soil, are thought to be assimilated via GS/GOGAT cycle. GS and GOGAT can be found in leave, nodules and roots. The role of GS/GOGAT cycle i s to assimilate the ammonium from photorespiration and nitrate reduction in leav e, the ammonium from nitrogen fixation in nodule and the ammonium from absorptio n by roots from soil and nitrate reduction in roots. The regulatory mechanisms o f the GS/GOGAT cycle are not clear. But the advances of gene engineering techno l ogy, immunocyto-chemistry and modern physiological technology can help us to be tter understand the regulatory mechanisms of the GS/GOGAT cycle. With modern bi o technology held, the plant nutrition studies can expand more. To better underst a nd the regulatory mechanisms of the GS/GOGAT cycle is essential to adequately ap ply nitrogen fertilizer and improve plant nitrogen use efficiency.%高等植物体内95%以上的NH4+通过GS/GOGAT(谷氨酰胺合成酶/谷氨酸合成酶)循环同化。GS、GOGAT在植物叶片、根瘤以及根中均有分布,但在不同器官中GS/GOGAT循环的作用不尽相同。在绿色组织中,GS/GOGAT循环的主要作用是同化光呼吸产生的NH4+以及硝酸盐在叶中还原产生的NH4+,在根瘤中则主要同化根瘤菌固N产生的NH4+,而在根中则是同化吸收到体内的NH4+以及硝酸盐被吸收后在根中还原产生的NH4+。迄今有关植物GS/GOGAT循环的研究还不太深入,但是随着基因工程技术、免疫组织化学技术以及现代植物生理学技术的发展,GS/GOGAT循环研究展示广阔前景。对该循环及其调控机制的进一步了解,可为合理利用氮肥、提高植物N的利用率提供理论依据。本文综述了近年来对GS/GOGAT循环的研究进展情况。

  17. Secular evolution of compact binaries near massive black holes: Gravitational wave sources and other exotica

    CERN Document Server

    Antonini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The environment near super massive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei contain a large number of stars and compact objects. A fraction of these are likely to be members of binaries. Here we discuss the binary population of stellar black holes and neutron stars near SMBHs and focus on the secular evolution of such binaries, due to the perturbation by the SMBH. Binaries with highly inclined orbits in respect to their orbit around the SMBH are strongly affected by secular Kozai processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (Kozai-cycles). During periapsis approach, at the highest eccentricities during the Kozai-cycles, gravitational wave emission becomes highly efficient. Some binaries in this environment can inspiral and coalesce at timescales much shorter than a Hubble time and much shorter than similar binaries which do not reside near a SMBH. The close environment of SMBHs could therefore serve as catalyst for the inspiral and coalescence of binaries, and strongly affect their...

  18. Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Fernanda Viana; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Chiappa, Gaspar R; Müller, Paulo de Tarso

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential in the homocysteine, mitochondrial, muscle and hematopoietic metabolisms, and its effects on exercise tolerance and kinetics adjustments of oxygen consumption (V'O2p) in rest-to-exercise transition in COPD patients are unknown. This randomized, double-blind, controlled study aimed to verify a possible interaction between vitamin B12 supplementation and these outcomes. After recruiting 69 patients, 35 subjects with moderate-to-severe COPD were eligible and 32 patients concluded the study, divided into four groups (n = 8 for each group): 1. rehabilitation group; 2. rehabilitation plus B12 group; 3. B12 group; and 4. placebo group. The primary endpoint was cycle ergometry endurance before and after 8 weeks and the secondary endpoints were oxygen uptake kinetics parameters (time constant). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was high (34.4%) and there was a statistically significant interaction (p  0.05 for both). Supplementation with vitamin B12 appears to lead to discrete positive effects on exercise tolerance in groups of subjects with more advanced COPD and further studies are needed to establish indications for long-term supplementation.

  19. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  20. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...

  1. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  2. Prototype Demonstration of Gamma- Blind Tensioned Metastable Fluid Neutron/Multiplicity/Alpha Detector – Real Time Methods for Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The content of this report summarizes a multi-year effort to develop prototype detection equipment using the Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detector (TMFD) technology developed by Taleyarkhan [1]. The context of this development effort was to create new methods for evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detector (TMFD) is a transformational technology that is uniquely capable of both alpha and neutron spectroscopy while being “blind” to the intense gamma field that typically accompanies used fuel – simultaneously with the ability to provide multiplicity information as well [1-3]. The TMFD technology was proven (lab-scale) as part of a 2008 NERI-C program [1-7]. The bulk of this report describes the advancements and demonstrations made in TMFD technology. One final point to present before turning to the TMFD demonstrations is the context for discussing real-time monitoring of SNM. It is useful to review the spectrum of isotopes generated within nuclear fuel during reactor operations. Used nuclear fuel (UNF) from a light water reactor (LWR) contains fission products as well as TRU elements formed through neutron absorption/decay chains. The majority of the fission products are gamma and beta emitters and they represent the

  3. The Samurai Project: verifying the consistency of black-hole-binary waveforms for gravitational-wave detection

    CERN Document Server

    Hannam, Mark; Baker, John G; Boyle, Michael; Bruegmann, Bernd; Chu, Tony; Dorband, Nils; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Kelly, Bernard J; Kidder, Lawrence E; Laguna, Pablo; Matthews, Keith D; van Meter, James R; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Pollney, Denis; Reisswig, Christian; Scheel, Mark A; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    We quantify the consistency of numerical-relativity black-hole-binary waveforms for use in gravitational-wave (GW) searches with current and planned ground-based detectors. We compare previously published results for the $(\\ell=2,| m | =2)$ mode of the gravitational waves from an equal-mass nonspinning binary, calculated by five numerical codes. We focus on the 1000M (about six orbits, or 12 GW cycles) before the peak of the GW amplitude and the subsequent ringdown. We find that the phase and amplitude agree within each code's uncertainty estimates. The mismatch between the $(\\ell=2,| m| =2)$ modes is better than $10^{-3}$ for binary masses above $60 M_{\\odot}$ with respect to the Enhanced LIGO detector noise curve, and for masses above $180 M_{\\odot}$ with respect to Advanced LIGO, Virgo and Advanced Virgo. Between the waveforms with the best agreement, the mismatch is below $2 \\times 10^{-4}$. We find that the waveforms would be indistinguishable in all ground-based detectors (and for the masses we consider...

  4. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime...... mask using a directional system and a method for correcting errors in the target binary mask. The last part of the thesis, proposes a new method for objective evaluation of speech intelligibility.......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...

  5. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  6. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  7. Bipolar mood cycles and lunar tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, T A

    2017-01-24

    In 17 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, time-series analyses detected synchronies between mood cycles and three lunar cycles that modulate the amplitude of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides: the 14.8-day spring-neap cycle, the 13.7-day declination cycle and the 206-day cycle of perigee-syzygies ('supermoons'). The analyses also revealed shifts among 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 and other modes of coupling of mood cycles to the two bi-weekly lunar cycles. These shifts appear to be responses to the conflicting demands of the mood cycles' being entrained simultaneously to two different bi-weekly lunar cycles with slightly different periods. Measurements of circadian rhythms in body temperature suggest a biological mechanism through which transits of one of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides might have driven the patients' bipolar cycles, by periodically entraining the circadian pacemaker to its 24.84-h rhythm and altering the pacemaker's phase-relationship to sleep in a manner that is known to cause switches from depression to mania.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.263.

  8. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  9. Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    Binary population synthesis (BPS), an approach to evolving millions of stars (including binaries) simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis (EPS) model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.

  10. Merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in short-period stellar binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    We explore a newly proposed channel to create binary black holes of stellar origin. This scenario applies to massive, tight binaries where mixing induced by rotation and tides transports the products of hydrogen burning throughout the stellar envelopes. This slowly enriches the entire star with helium, preventing the build-up of an internal chemical gradient. The stars remain compact as they evolve nearly chemically homogeneously, eventually forming two black holes, which, we estimate, typically merge 4 to 11 Gyr after formation. Like other proposed channels, this evolutionary pathway suffers from significant theoretical uncertainties, but could be constrained in the near future by data from advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected merger rate over cosmic time to explore the implications and uncertainties. Our default model for this channel yields a local binary black hole merger rate of about $10$ Gpc$^{-3}$ yr$^{-1}$ at redshift $z=0$, peaking at...

  11. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  12. Eclipsing Binary Update, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Contents: 1. Wrong again! The elusive period of DHK 41. 2. Stars observed and not observed. 3. Eclipsing binary chart information. 4. Eclipsing binary news and notes. 5. A note on SS Arietis. 6. Featured star: TX Ursae Majoris.

  13. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  14. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  15. Orbits for sixteen binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361−2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB,WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB,WDS 08017−0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277−0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 = STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  16. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  17. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  18. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Massive Black Hole Binary Mergers in Dynamical Galactic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational Waves (GW) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GW from Massive Black Hole (MBH) Binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GW from MBHB, have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW Background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBH and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations ('Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar 'loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disk. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most...

  20. Mangarevan invention of binary steps for easier calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2014-01-28

    When Leibniz demonstrated the advantages of the binary system for computations as early as 1703, he laid the foundation for computing machines. However, is a binary system also suitable for human cognition? One of two number systems traditionally used on Mangareva, a small island in French Polynesia, had three binary steps superposed onto a decimal structure. Here, we show how this system functions, how it facilitated arithmetic, and why it is unique. The Mangarevan invention of binary steps, centuries before their formal description by Leibniz, attests to the advancements possible in numeracy even in the absence of notation and thereby highlights the role of culture for the evolution of and diversity in numerical cognition.

  1. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than ten degrees, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masse...

  2. Effective-one-body modeling of precessing black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taracchini, Andrea; Babak, Stanislav; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    Merging black hole binaries with generic spins that undergo precessional motion emit complicated gravitational-wave signals. We discuss how such waveforms can be accurately modeled within an effective-one-body approach by (i) exploiting the simplicity of the signals in a frame that corotates with the orbital plane of the binary and (ii) relying on an accurate model of nonprecessing black hole binaries. The model is validated by extensive comparisons to 70 numerical relativity simulations of precessing black hole binaries and can generate inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms for mass ratios up to 100 and any spin configuration. This work is an essential tool for studying and characterizing candidate gravitational-wave events in science runs of advanced LIGO.

  3. Mergers of binary neutron stars with realistic spin

    CERN Document Server

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bruegmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of binary neutron stars have seen great advances in terms of physical detail and numerical quality. However, the spin of the neutron stars, one of the simplest global parameters of binaries, remains mostly unstudied. We present the first, fully nonlinear general relativistic dynamical evolutions of the last three orbits for constraint satisfying initial data of spinning neutron star binaries, with astrophysically realistic spins aligned and anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum. The initial data is computed with the constant rotational velocity approach. The dynamics of the systems is analyzed in terms of gauge-invariant binding energy vs. orbital angular momentum curves. By comparing to a binary black hole configuration we can estimate the different tidal and spin contributions to the binding energy for the first time. First results on the gravitational wave forms are presented. The phase evolution during the orbital motion is significantly affected by spin-orbit interactions, leading to d...

  4. The Binary Garrote

    CERN Document Server

    Kappen, H J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I present a new model and solution method for sparse regression. The model introduces binary selector variables $s_i$ for the features $i$ in a way that is similar to Breiman's Garrote model. I refer to this method as the binary Garrote (BG). The posterior probability for $s_i$ is computed in the variational approximation. The BG is compared numerically with the Lasso method and with ridge regression. Numerical results on synthetic data show that the BG yields more accurate predictions and more accurately reconstructs the true model than the other methods. The naive implementation of the BG requires the inversion of a modified covariance matrix which scales cubic in the number of features. We indicate how for sparse problem the solution can be computed linear in the number of features.

  5. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  6. Binary Love Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars imprint onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the gravitational wave model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately universal relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the gravitational wave model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between equation-of-state models, and improve tests of General Relativity and cosmology.

  7. Binary Love relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars get imprinted onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave (GW) observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the GW model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately equation-of-state (EoS)-insensitive relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the GW model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between EoS models, and improve tests of general relativity and cosmology.

  8. Modified Binary Exponential Backoff Algorithm to Minimize Mobiles Communication Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Sayed Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available the field of Wireless Local Area Networks (LANs is expanding rapidly as a result of advances in digital communications, portable computers, and semiconductor technology. The early adopters of this technology have primarily been vertical application that places a premium on the mobility offered by such systems. Binary Exponential Backoff (BEB refers to a collision resolution mechanism used in random access MAC protocols. This algorithm is used in Ethernet (IEEE 802.3 wired LANs. In Ethernet networks, this algorithm is commonly used to schedule retransmissions after collisions. The paper’s goal is to minimize the time transmission cycle of the information between mobiles moving in a Wi-Fi by changing the BEB algorithm. The Protocol CSMA / CA manage access to the radio channel by performing an arbitration based on time. This causes many problems in relation to time transmission between mobiles moving in a cell 802.11. what we have done show that the protocol using CSMA / CA access time believed rapidly when the number of stations and / or the network load increases or other circumstances affects the network.

  9. Binary-Signal Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  10. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  11. Binary module test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, J.R.; Colley, T.C.; Pundyk, J.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test a binary loop module representative of and scaleable to commercial size units. The design was based on state-of-the-art heat exchanger technology, and the purpose of the tests was to confirm performance of a supercritical boiling cycle using isobutane and a mixture of isobutane and isopentane as the secondary working fluid. The module was designed as one percent of a 50 MW unit. It was installed at Magma Power's East Mesa geothermal field and tested over a period of approximately 4 months. Most of the test runs were with isobutane but some data were collected for hydrocarbon mixtures. The results of the field tests are reported. In general these results indicate reasonably good heat balances and agreement with overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by current stream analysis methods and available fluid property data; however, measured pressure drops across the heat exchangers were 20 percent higher than estimated. System operation was stable under all conditions tested.

  12. Visual binary stars: data to investigate formation of binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva,, D.; Malkov,, O.; Yungelson, L.; Chulkov, D.

    Statistics of orbital parameters of binary stars as well as statistics of their physical characteristics bear traces of star formation history. However, statistical investigations of binaries are complicated by incomplete or missing observational data and by a number of observational selection effects. Visual binaries are the most common type of observed binary stars, with the number of pairs exceeding 130 000. The most complete list of presently known visual binary stars was compiled by cross-matching objects and combining data of the three largest catalogues of visual binaries. This list was supplemented by the data on parallaxes, multicolor photometry, and spectral characteristics taken from other catalogues. This allowed us to compensate partly for the lack of observational data for these objects. The combined data allowed us to check the validity of observational values and to investigate statistics of the orbital and physical parameters of visual binaries. Corrections for incompleteness of observational data are discussed. The datasets obtained, together with modern distributions of binary parameters, will be used to reconstruct the initial distributions and parameters of the function of star formation for binary systems.

  13. Film induced intergranular cracking of binary noble alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedersdorf, F. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States); Sieradzki, K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Dealloying of a binary noble alloy produces a porous layer rich in the more noble element. Application of a tensile load may initiate a brittle intergranular crack in the dealloyed layer that advances into the unattached material. The relationships between the dealloying potential, dealloyed layer thickness and alloy susceptibility to film induced intergranular cracking have been studied. Ag-Au alloys were studied.

  14. Expected Bounds on Compact Binary Coalescence Rates from LIGO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Laura; LIGO Scientific Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced LIGO detectors have recently completed their first observing run, with a sensitive spacetime volume over 27 times larger than the initial LIGO configuration. In this talk we will examine the expected bounds on compact binary coalescence rates from O1 observations, and discuss the corresponding impact on astrophysical models.

  15. Rotational mixing in close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Yoon, S -Ch; Brott, I; Glebbeek, E; Verkoulen, M; Pols, O R

    2008-01-01

    Rotational mixing is a very important but uncertain process in the evolution of massive stars. We propose to use close binaries to test its efficiency. Based on rotating single stellar models we predict nitrogen surface enhancements for tidally locked binaries. Furthermore we demonstrate the possibility of a new evolutionary scenario for very massive (M > 40 solar mass) close (P < 3 days) binaries: Case M, in which mixing is so efficient that the stars evolve quasi-chemically homogeneously, stay compact and avoid any Roche-lobe overflow, leading to very close (double) WR binaries.

  16. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  17. Chaos in Binary Category Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Category computation theory deals with a web-based systemic processing that underlies the morphic webs, which constitute the basis of categorial logical calculus. It is proven that, for these structures, algorithmically incompressible binary patterns can be morphically compressed, with respect to the local connectivities, in a binary morphic program. From the local connectivites, there emerges a global morphic connection that can be characterized by a low length binary string, leading to the identification of chaotic categorial dynamics, underlying the algorithmically random pattern. The work focuses on infinite binary chains of C2, which is a category that implements an X-OR-based categorial logical calculus.

  18. An ultracompact X-ray binary in the globular cluster M15 (NGC7078)

    CERN Document Server

    Dieball, A; Zurek, D R; Shara, M M; Long, K S; Charles, P A; Hannikainen, D C; Van Zyl, L

    2005-01-01

    We have used the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope to image the core of the globular cluster M15 in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) waveband. Based on these observations, we identify the FUV counterpart of the recently discovered low-mass X-ray binary M15 X-2. Our time-resolved FUV photometry shows a modulation with 0.062+/-0.004 mag semi-amplitude and we clearly detect a period of 22.5806+/-0.0002 min. We have carried out extensive Monte Carlo simulations which show that the signal is consistent with being coherent over the entire observational time range of more than 3000 cycles. This strongly suggests that it represents the orbital period of the binary system. M15 X-2 is FUV bright (approx. 17 mag) and is characterized by an extremely blue spectral energy distribution (F_lambda ~ lambda^{-2.0}). We also find evidence for an excess of flux between 1500 and 1600 \\AA and probably between 1600 and 2000 \\AA, which might be due to CIV 1550 and HeII 1640 emission lines. We also show that M...

  19. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  20. Microlensing modulation by binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, F; Durrer, R; Dubath, Florian; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Durrer, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We compute the effect of the lens quadrupole on microlensing. The time dependence of the quadrupole can lead to specific modulations of the amplification signal. We study especially binary system lenses in our galaxy. The modulation is observable if the rotation period of the system is smaller than the time over which the amplification is significant and if the impact parameter of the passing light ray is sufficiently close to the Einstein radius so that the amplification is very large. Observations of this modulation can reveal important information on the quadrupole and thus on the gravitational radiation emitted by the lens.

  1. Spectral modelling of massive binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palate, Matthieu; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Moreno, Edmundo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We simulate the spectra of massive binaries at different phases of the orbital cycle, accounting for the gravitational influence of the companion star on the shape and physical properties of the stellar surface. Methods: We used the Roche potential modified to account for radiation pressure to compute the stellar surface of close circular systems and we used the TIDES code for surface computation of eccentric systems. In both cases, we accounted for gravity darkening and mutual heating generated by irradiation to compute the surface temperature. We then interpolated NLTE plane-parallel atmosphere model spectra in a grid to obtain the local spectrum at each surface point. We finally summed all contributions, accounting for the Doppler shift, limb-darkening, and visibility to obtain the total synthetic spectrum. We computed different orbital phases and sets of physical and orbital parameters. Results: Our models predict line strength variations through the orbital cycle, but fail to completely reproduce t...

  2. Multi-Messenger Astronomy: White Dwarf Binaries, LISA and GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Michael; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves has ushered in a new era in astronomy. The low-frequency band covered by the future LISA detector provides unprecedented opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy. With the Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA) mission, we expect to discover about 1,000 eclipsing binary systems composed of a WD and a main sequence star - a sizeable increase from the approximately 34 currently known binaries of this type. In advance of the first GAIA data release and the launch of LISA within the next decade, we used the Binary Stellar Evolution (BSE) code simulate the evolution of White Dwarf Binaries (WDB) in a fixed galaxy population of about 196,000 sources. Our goal is to assess the detectability of a WDB by LISA and GAIA using the parameters from our population synthesis, we calculate GW strength h, and apparent GAIA magnitude G. We can then use a scale factor to make a prediction of how many multi- messenger sources we expect to be detectable by both LISA and GAIA in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way. We create binaries 10 times to ensure randomness in distance assignment and average our results. We then determined whether or not astronomical chirp is the difference between the total chirp and the GW chirp. With Astronomical chirp and simulations of mass transfer and tides, we can gather more information about the internal astrophysics of stars in ultra-compact binary systems.

  3. A Proposed Search for the Detection of Gravitational Waves from Eccentric Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Christensen, Nelson; Huerta, Eliu; Mohapatra, Satya; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Haney, Maria; Parameswaran, Ajith; McWilliams, Sean; Vedovato, Gabriele; Drago, Marco; Salemi, Francesco; Prodi, Giovanni; Lazzaro, Claudia; Tiwari, Shubhanshu; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Da Silva, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Most of compact binary systems are expected to circularize before the frequency of emitted gravitational waves (GWs) enters the sensitivity band of the ground based interferometric detectors. However, several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of binary systems, which retain eccentricity throughout their lifetimes. Since no matched-filtering algorithm has been developed to extract continuous GW signals from compact binaries on orbits with low to moderate values of eccentricity, and available algorithms to detect binaries on quasi-circular orbits are sub-optimal to recover these events, in this paper we propose a search method for detection of gravitational waves produced from the coalescences of eccentric binary black holes (eBBH). We study the search sensitivity and the false alarm rates on a segment of data from the second joint science run of LIGO and Virgo detectors, and discuss the implications of the eccentric binary search for the advanced GW detectors.

  4. Robust parameter estimation for compact binaries with ground-based gravitational-wave observations using LALInference

    CERN Document Server

    Veitch, John; Farr, Benjamin; Farr, Will M; Graff, Philip; Vitale, Salvatore; Aylott, Ben; Blackburn, Kent; Christensen, Nelson; Coughlin, Michael; Del Pozzo, Walter; Feroz, Farhan; Gair, Jonathan; Haster, Carl-Johan; Kalogera, Vicky; Littenberg, Tyson; Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Pitkin, Matthew; Rodriguez, Carl; Röver, Christian; Sidery, Trevor; Smith, Rory; Van Der Sluys, Marc; Vecchio, Alberto; Vousden, Will; Wade, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors will begin operation in the coming years, with compact binary coalescence events a likely source for the first detections. The gravitational waveforms emitted directly encode information about the sources, including the masses and spins of the compact objects. Recovering the physical parameters of the sources from the GW observations is a key analysis task. This work describes the LALInference software library for Bayesian parameter estimation of compact binary coalescence (CBC) signals, which builds on several previous methods to provide a well-tested toolkit which has already been used for several studies. We are able to show using three independent sampling algorithms that our implementation consistently converges on the same results, giving confidence in the parameter estimates thus obtained. We demonstrate this with a detailed comparison on three compact binary systems: a binary neutron star, a neutron star-black hole binary and a bin...

  5. On X-ray Variability in Active Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kashyap, V L; Kashyap, Vinay; Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    We compare the count-rates of active binaries observed by Einstein and ROSAT. We find significant evidence for short-term variability (approx 0.32) and marginal evidence for a larger variability at longer timescales (approx 0.38). Modeling this excess as cyclic variability, we place an upper limit on the relative amplitude of the cyclic component (I_cyc/I_min < 4) for active binaries, significantly less than the variations seen in the Solar X-ray output over the Solar cycle.

  6. Advanced analysis of a cryptochrome mutation's effects on the robustness and phase of molecular cycles in isolated peripheral tissues of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jeffrey C

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we reported effects of the cryb mutation on circadian rhythms in period and timeless gene expression within isolated peripheral Drosophila tissues. We relied on luciferase activity driven by the respective regulatory genomic elements to provide real-time reporting of cycling gene expression. Subsequently, we developed a tool kit for the analysis of behavioral and molecular cycles. Here, we use these tools to analyze our earlier results as well as additional data obtained using the same experimental designs. Results Isolated antennal pairs, heads, bodies, wings and forelegs were evaluated under light-dark cycles. In these conditions, the cryb mutation significantly decreases the number of rhythmic specimens in each case except the wing. Moreover, among those specimens with detectable rhythmicity, mutant rhythms are significantly weaker than cry+ controls. In addition, cryb alters the phase of period gene expression in these tissues. Furthermore, peak phase of luciferase-reported period and timeless expression within cry+ samples is indistinguishable in some tissues, yet significantly different in others. We also analyze rhythms produced by antennal pairs in constant conditions. Conclusions These analyses further show that circadian clock mechanisms in Drosophila may vary in a tissue-specific manner, including how the cry gene regulates circadian gene expression.

  7. The timing and cause of glacial advances in the southern mid-latitudes during the last glacial cycle based on a synthesis of exposure ages from Patagonia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvill, Christopher M.; Bentley, Michael J.; Stokes, Chris R.; Shulmeister, James

    2016-10-01

    Glacier advances in the southern mid-latitudes during the last glacial cycle (ca. 110-10 ka) were controlled by changes in temperature and precipitation linked to several important ocean-climate systems. As such, the timing of glacial advance and retreat can yield important insights into the mechanisms of Southern Hemisphere climate change. This is particularly important given that several recent studies have demonstrated significant glacial advances prior to the global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM) in Patagonia and New Zealand, the cause of which are uncertain. The recent increase in chronological studies in these regions offers the opportunity to compare regional trends in glacial activity. Here, we compile the first consistent 10Be exposure-dating chronologies for Patagonia and New Zealand to highlight the broad pattern of mid-latitude glacial activity over the last glacial cycle. Our results show that advances or still stands culminated at 26-27 ka, 18-19 ka and 13-14 ka in both Patagonia and New Zealand and were broadly synchronous, but with an offset between regions of up to 900 years that cannot be explained by age calculation or physically plausible erosion differences. Furthermore, there is evidence in both regions for glacial advances culminating from at least 45 ka, during the latter half of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. Glacial activity prior to the gLGM differed from the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, likely due to favourable Southern Hemisphere conditions during late MIS 3: summer insolation reached a minimum, seasonality was reduced, winter duration was increasing, and sea ice had expanded significantly, inducing stratification of the ocean and triggering northward migration of oceanic fronts and the Southern Westerly Winds. Glacial advances in Patagonia and New Zealand during the gLGM were probably primed by underlying orbital parameters. However, the precise timing is likely to have been intrinsically linked to migration of the coupled ocean

  8. The combination of FDG PET and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI improves the prediction of disease-free survival in patients with advanced breast cancer after the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ilhan; Kim, Byung II; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, 75 Nowongil, Nowon Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Eun-Kyu [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jihyun; Byun, Byung Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, 75 Nowongil, Nowon Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Ae; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ko Woon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Department of Pathology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); You, Eun Young [Gachon University School of Medicine and Science, Department of Radiology, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of FDG PET/CT and MRI in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery in patients with advanced breast cancer. The analysis included 54 women with advanced breast cancer. All patients received three cycles of NAC, underwent curative surgery, and then received three cycles of additional chemotherapy. Before and after the first cycle of NAC, all patients underwent sequential PET/CT and MRI. All patients were analysed using a diverse range of parameters. including maximal standardized uptake value (SUV), percent change in SUV (ΔSUV), initial slope of the enhancement curve (MRslope), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tumour size, change in MRslope (ΔMRslope), change in ADC (ΔADC), change in tumour size (Δsize) and other clinicopathological parameters. The relationships between covariates and DFS after surgery were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cut-off values of imaging parameters for DFS. Of the 54 patients, 13 (24 %) experienced recurrence at a median follow-up of 38 months (range 25 - 45 months). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that a lesser decline in SUV, a lesser decline in MRslope, a lesser increase in ADC, and ER negativity were significantly associated with a poorer DFS (P = 0.0006, ΔSUV threshold -41 %; P = 0.0016, ΔMRslope threshold -6 %; P = 0.011, ΔADC threshold 11 %; and P = 0.0086, ER status, respectively). Patients with a combination of ΔSUV >-41 % and ΔMRslope >-6 % showed a significantly higher recurrence rate (77.8 %) than the remaining of patients (13.3 %, P < 0.0001). Functional parameters of both FDG PET and MRI after the first cycle of NAC are useful for predicting DFS in patients with advanced breast cancer. This approach could lead to an improvement in patient care because

  9. Gravitational Radiation from Compact Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, John

    2014-01-01

    An outstanding question in modern Physics is whether general relativity (GR) is a complete description of gravity among bodies at macroscopic scales. Currently, the best experiments supporting this hypothesis are based on high-precision timing of radio pulsars. This chapter reviews recent advances in the field with a focus on compact binary millisecond pulsars with white-dwarf (WD) companions. These systems - if modeled properly - provide an unparalleled test ground for physically motivated alternatives to GR that deviate significantly in the strong-field regime. Recent improvements in observational techniques and advances in our understanding of WD interiors have enabled a series of precise mass measurements in such systems. These masses, combined with high-precision radio timing of the pulsars, result to stringent constraints on the radiative properties of gravity, qualitatively very different from what was available in the past.

  10. Spin Correlation in Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farbiash, N; Farbiash, Netzach; Steinitz, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    We examine the correlation of projected rotational velocities in binary systems. It is an extension of previous work (Steinitz and Pyper, 1970; Levato, 1974). An enlarged data basis and new tests enable us to conclude that there is indeed correlation between the projected rotational velocities of components of binaries. In fact we suggest that spins are already correlated.

  11. Evolutionary Memory in Binary Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Steinitz, N F R

    2004-01-01

    Correlation between the spins (rotational velocities) in binaries has previously been established. We now continue and show that the degree of spin correlation is independent of the components' separation. Such a result might be related for example to Zhang's non-linear model for the formation of binary stars from a nebula.

  12. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  13. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  14. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  15. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  16. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  17. Gravitational waveforms for neutron star binaries from binary black hole simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Barkett, Kevin; Haas, Roland; Ott, Christian D; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brown, Duncan A; Szilágyi, Béla; Kaplan, Jeffrey D; Lippuner, Jonas; Muhlberger, Curran D; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves from binary neutron star (BNS) and black-hole/neutron star (BHNS) inspirals are primary sources for detection by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The tidal forces acting on the neutron stars induce changes in the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, and these changes can be used to constrain the nuclear equation of state. Current methods of generating BNS and BHNS waveforms rely on either computationally challenging full 3D hydrodynamical simulations or approximate analytic solutions. We introduce a new method for computing inspiral waveforms for BNS/BHNS systems by adding the post-Newtonian (PN) tidal effects to full numerical simulations of binary black holes (BBHs), effectively replacing the non-tidal terms in the PN expansion with BBH results. Comparing a waveform generated with this method against a full hydrodynamical simulation of a BNS inspiral yields a phase difference of $<1$ radian over $\\sim 15$ orbits. The numerical phase accuracy ...

  18. Merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in short-period stellar binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ilya; de Mink, Selma E.

    2016-05-01

    We explore a newly proposed channel to create binary black holes of stellar origin. This scenario applies to massive, tight binaries where mixing induced by rotation and tides transports the products of hydrogen burning throughout the stellar envelopes. This slowly enriches the entire star with helium, preventing the build-up of an internal chemical gradient. The stars remain compact as they evolve nearly chemically homogeneously, eventually forming two black holes, which we estimate typically merge 4-11 Gyr after formation. Like other proposed channels, this evolutionary pathway suffers from significant theoretical uncertainties, but could be constrained in the near future by data from advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected merger rate over cosmic time to explore the implications and uncertainties. Our default model for this channel yields a local binary black hole merger rate of about 10 Gpc-3 yr-1 at redshift z = 0, peaking at twice this rate at z = 0.5. This means that this channel is competitive, in terms of expected rates, with the conventional formation scenarios that involve a common-envelope phase during isolated binary evolution or dynamical interaction in a dense cluster. The events from this channel may be distinguished by the preference for nearly equal-mass components and high masses, with typical total masses between 50 and 110 M⊙. Unlike the conventional isolated binary evolution scenario that involves shrinkage of the orbit during a common-envelope phase, short time delays are unlikely for this channel, implying that we do not expect mergers at high redshift.

  19. A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Eliu; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Kumar, Prayush

    2016-03-01

    The detection of compact binaries with significant eccentricity in the sensitivity band of gravitational wave detectors will provide critical insights on the dynamics and formation channels of these events. In order to search for these systems and place constraints on their rates, we present an inspiral-merger-ringdown time domain waveform model that describes the GW emission from compact binaries on orbits with low to moderate values of eccentricity. We use this model to explore the detectability of these events in the context of advanced LIGO.

  20. Observing binary inspiral with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, L S

    1994-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a binary neutron star or black hole system leads to orbital decay and the eventual coalescence of the binary's components. During the last several minutes before the binary components coalesce, the radiation will enter the bandwidth of the United States Laser Inteferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and the French/Italian VIRGO gravitational radiation detector. The combination of detector sensitivity, signal strength, and source density and distribution all point to binary inspiral as the most likely candidate for observation among all the anticipated sources of gravitational radiation for LIGO/VIRGO. Here I review briefly some of the questions that are posed to theorists by the impending observation of binary inspiral.

  1. Developing an Advanced Automated Method for Solar Filament Recognition and Its Scientific Application to a Solar Cycle of MLSO Hα Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Q.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.

    2013-09-01

    We developed a method to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in Hα full-disk images. The program is able not only to recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area, the spine, and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. The program consists of three steps: First, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect filaments; third, filament properties are recognized through morphological operators. To test the algorithm, we successfully applied it to observations from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). We analyzed Hα images obtained by the MLSO from 1998 to 2009 and obtained a butterfly diagram of filaments. This shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum, after which it became relatively slow. After 2006, the migration became divergent, signifying the solar minimum. About 60 % of the filaments with latitudes higher than 50∘ migrate toward the polar regions with relatively high velocities, and the latitudinal migrating speeds in the northern and the southern hemispheres do not differ significantly in Solar Cycle 23.

  2. Towards Physarum Binary Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  3. Towards Physarum binary adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al. (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show - in computer models - that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate x, y-->xy, x+y and three-input two-output x,y,z-->x yz,x+y+z. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  4. Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.

  5. Technology Development of an Advanced Small-scale Microchannel-type Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) for Hydrogen Production in Iodine-sulfur Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Injin; Kim, Chan Soo; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Min-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, ongoing manufacturing processes of the components employed in an advanced small-scale microchannel-type PHE are presented. The components, such as mechanically machined microchannels and a diffusion-bonded stack are introduced. Also, preliminary studies on surface treatment techniques for improving corrosion resistance from the corrosive sulfuric environment will be covered. Ongoing manufacturing process for an advanced small-size microchannel-type PHE in KAERI is presented. Through the preliminary studies for optimizing diffusion bonding condition of Hastelloy-X, a diffusion-bonded stack, consisting of primary and secondary side layer by layer, is scheduled to be fabricated in a few months. Also, surface treatment for enhancing the corrosion resistance from the sulfuric acid environment is in progress for the plates with microchannels. A massive production of hydrogen with electricity generation is expected in a Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) in a Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) system. For the application of hydrogen production, a small-scale gas loop for feasibility testing of a laboratory-scale has constructed and operated in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) as a precursor to an experimental- and a pilot-scale gas loops.

  6. General Relativistic Simulations of Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca; Link, David; Font, José A.

    2011-08-01

    Binary neutron star mergers are one of the possible candidates for the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and they are also powerful sources of gravitational waves. We have used our fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code Whisky to investigate the merger of binary neutron star systems and we have in particular studied the properties of the tori that can be formed by these systems, their possible connection with the engine of short GRBs and the gravitational wave signals that detectors such as advanced LIGO will be able to detect. We have also shown how the mass of the torus varies as a function of the total mass of the neutron stars composing the binary and of their mass ratio and we have found that tori sufficiently massive to power short GRBs can indeed be formed.

  7. Dynamical Evolution of Wide Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda H. Mallada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulate numerically encounters of wide binaries with field stars and Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs by means of the impulse approximation. We analyze the time evolution of the distributions of eccentricities and semimajor axes of wide binaries with given initial conditions, at intervals of 109 yr, up to 1010 yr (assumed age of the Galaxy. We compute the fraction of surviving binaries for stellar encounters, for GMC encounters and for a combination of both, and hence, the dynamical lifetime for different semimajor axes and different masses of binaries (0.5, 1, 1.2, 1.5, 2.5, and 3 Msolar. We find that the dynamical lifetime of wide binaries considering only GMCs is half than that considering only stars. For encounters with GMCs we analyze the influence of the initial inclination of the orbital plane of the binary with respect to the plane perpendicular to the relative velocity vector of the binary and the GMC. We find that the perturbation is maximum when the angle is minimum.

  8. Biogeochemical Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  9. Chaotic zones around gravitating binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound bodies (a double star, a double black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, in function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the binary periods. The binary's mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present, is also estimated.

  10. Modified evolution of stellar binaries from supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries resided in the galactic centre is influenced a lot by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to this perturbation, the stars in a dense environment are likely to experience mergers or collisions through secular or non-secular interactions. In this work, we study the dynamics of the stellar binaries at galactic centre, perturbed by another distant SMBH. Geometrically, such a four-body system is supposed to be decomposed into the inner triple (SMBH-star-star) and the outer triple (SMBH-stellar binary-SMBH). We survey the parameter space and determine the criteria analytically for the stellar mergers and the tidal disruption events (TDEs). For a relative distant and equal masses SMBH binary, the stars have more opportunities to merge as a result from the Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the inner triple. With a sample of tight stellar binaries, our numerical experiments reveal that a significant fraction of the binaries, ∼70 per cent, experience merger eventually. Whereas the majority of the stellar TDEs are likely to occur at a close periapses to the SMBH, induced by the outer Kozai effect. The tidal disruptions are found numerically as many as ∼10 per cent for a close SMBH binary that is enhanced significantly than the one without the external SMBH. These effects require the outer perturber to have an inclined orbit (≥40°) relatively to the inner orbital plane and may lead to a burst of the extremely astronomical events associated with the detection of the SMBH binary.

  11. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that

  12. Stability of binaries. Part II: Rubble-pile binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2016-10-01

    We consider the stability of the binary asteroids whose members are granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever both its members are orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability analysis of Sharma (Sharma [2015] Icarus, 258, 438-453), that is applicable to binaries with rigid members, to the case of binary systems with rubble members. We employ volume averaging (Sharma et al. [2009] Icarus, 200, 304-322), which was inspired by past work on elastic/fluid, rotating and gravitating ellipsoids. This technique has shown promise when applied to rubble-pile ellipsoids, but requires further work to settle some of its underlying assumptions. The stability test is finally applied to some suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope. We also see that equilibrated binaries that are close to mobilizing their maximum friction can sustain only a narrow range of shapes and, generally, congruent shapes are preferred.

  13. Variations on the Zilch Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, P.-M.; Tanoue, C. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Thermo dynamic cycles in introductory physics courses are usually made up from a small number of permutations of isothermal, adiabatic, and constant-pressure and volume quasistatic strokes, with the working fluid usually being an ideal gas. Among them we find the Carnot, Stirling, Otto, Diesel, and Joule-Brayton cycles; in more advanced courses,…

  14. The Brave New World of Binary Star Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the new and exciting developments in the study of binary stars. Recent technological advances (such as CCDs) now make it possible (even easy) to study faint, astrophysically important binaries that in the past could only be done with large 4 + meter class telescopes. Also, the panoramic nature of CCDs (and the use of mosaics), permit large numbers of stars to be imaged and studied. At this conference, most of the observational material discussed was secured typically with smaller aperture 0.5 - 2 m telescopes. Excellent examples are the discovery of over 104 new ˜13 - 20 mag eclipsing (and interacting) binaries now found in nearby galaxies from the EROS, OGLE, MACHO and DIRECT programs. As briefly discussed here, and in more detail in several papers in this volume, a small fraction of these extragalactic eclipsing binaries are now serving as “standard candles” to secure accurate distances to the Magellanic Clouds, as well as to M31 and M33. Moreover, the discovery of increasingly larger numbers of eclipsing binaries has stimulated the development of automatic methods for reducing and analyzing the light curves of thousands of systems. In the near future, hundreds of thousands (possibly millions) of additional systems are expected to be discovered by Pan-STARRS, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescopes (LSST), and later by GAIA. Over the last decade, new classes of binary systems have also been found which contain Jupiter-size planets and binaries containing pulsating stars. Some examples of these important binaries are discussed. Also discussed are the increasing numbers (now eight) of eclipsing binary planet-star systems that have been found from high precision photometry. These systems are very important since the radii and masses of the hosted planets can be directly measured. Moreover, from the upcoming COROT and KEPLER missions hundreds of additional transiting planet-star systems are expected to be found. All in all, we hope

  15. Dynamical Formation of the GW150914 Binary Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Chatterjee, Sourav; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility that GW150914, the binary black hole merger recently detected by Advanced LIGO, was formed by gravitational interactions in the core of a dense star cluster. Using models of globular clusters with detailed $N$-body dynamics and stellar evolution, we show that a typical cluster with a mass of $3\\times10^5M_{\\odot}$ to $6\\times10^5M_{\\odot}$ is optimal for forming GW150914-like binary black holes that will merge in the local universe. We identify the most likely dynamical processes for forming GW150914 in such a cluster, and we show that the detection of GW150914 is consistent with the masses and merger rates expected for binary black hole mergers from globular clusters. Our results show that dynamical processes provide a significant and well-understood pathway for forming binary black hole mergers in the local universe. Understanding the contribution of dynamics to the binary black hole merger problem is a critical step in unlocking the full potential of gravitational-wave astronomy.

  16. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than 10°, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masses increase. This study may help restrict future stability analyses to architectures which resemble exoplanetary systems, and might hint at where observers may discover dust, asteroids and/or planets in binary-star systems.

  17. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  18. Development of an Advanced Automated Method for Solar Filament Recognition and Its Scientific Application to a Solar Cycle of MLSO H\\alpha\\ Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Qi; Chen, P F

    2013-01-01

    We developed a method to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in H\\alpha\\ full-disk images. The program is able not only to recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area, the spine, and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. The program consists of three steps: First, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; Second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect filaments; Third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. To test the algorithm, we applied it to the observations from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO), and the program is demonstrated to be robust and efficient. H\\alpha\\ images obtained by MLSO from 1998 to 2009 are analyzed, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; After the solar maximum...

  19. Focused training boosts revenue cycle skills, accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Craig

    2011-09-01

    In 2009, the MetroHealth System took its first steps toward creating a comprehensive revenue cycle university, with the goal of developing revenue cycle staff talent and achieving best-in-class revenue cycle operations. MetroHealth became a beta site for HFMA's online Credentialed Revenue Cycle Representative (CRCR) program, and asked its revenue cycle leaders to present classes on key revenue cycle issues. As of June 2011, 62 percent of 122 revenue cycle employees who had taken the CRCR course passed the exam. The CRCR designation is now a prerequisite for career advancement in certain revenue cycle areas at MetroHealth.

  20. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption

  1. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  2. Simulating relativistic binaries with Whisky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiotti, L.

    We report about our first tests and results in simulating the last phase of the coalescence and the merger of binary relativistic stars. The simulations were performed using our code Whisky and mesh refinement through the Carpet driver.

  3. An adaptable binary entropy coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.

  4. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  5. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.

  6. AN IMPROVED DESIGN OF REVERSIBLE BINARY TO BINARY CODED DECIMAL CONVERTER FOR BINARY CODED DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic gates under ideal conditions produce zero power dissipation. This factor highlights the usage of these gates in optical computing, low power CMOS design, quantum optics and quantum computing. The growth of decimal arithmetic in various applications as stressed the need to propose the study on reversible binary to BCD converter which plays a greater role in decimal multiplication for providing faster results. The different parameters such as gate count,garbage output and constant input are more optimized in the proposed fixed bit binary to binary coded decimal converter than the existing design.

  7. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  8. Residue arithmetic in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barsi, Ferruccio

    1988-01-01

    A natural approach to the problem of performing mod m computations in a binary system is presented and a solution is suggested which is based upon a straightforward relation between the residues of a same integer X with respect to different moduli. The proposed solution proves fruitful in various applications, such as converting binary integers to residue notation and mod m addition or multiplication. Even if the most usual implementation approach for mod m processors is based on look-up tabl...

  9. The Light Curve of the Weakly-Accreting T Tauri Binary KH 15D from 2005-10: Insights into the Nature of its Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Herbst, William; Hamilton, Catrina M; Winn, Joshua N; Ibrahimov, Mansur; Mundt, Reinhard; Johns-Krull, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    Photometry of the unique pre-main sequence binary system KH 15D is presented, spanning the years 2005-2010. This system has exhibited photometric variations and eclipses over the last 50 years caused by a precessing circumbinary disk. Advancement of the occulting edge across the binary orbit has continued and the photospheres of both stars are now completely obscured at all times. The system is now visible only by scattered light, and yet it continues to show a periodic variation on the orbital cycle with an amplitude exceeding two magnitudes. This variation, which depends only on the binary phase, has likely been present in the data since at least 1995. It can, by itself, account for shoulders on the light curve prior to ingress and following egress, obviating the need for components of extant models such as a scattering halo around star A or forward scattering from a fuzzy disk edge. A plausible source for the variable scattering component is reflected light from the far side of a warped occulting disk. We ...

  10. Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, David P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...

  11. An Ultracompact X-Ray Binary in the Globular Cluster M15 (NGC 7078)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieball, A.; Knigge, C.; Zurek, D. R.; Shara, M. M.; Long, K. S.; Charles, P. A.; Hannikainen, D. C.; van Zyl, L.

    2005-11-01

    We have used the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope to image the core of the globular cluster M15 in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) wave band. Based on these observations, we identify the FUV counterpart of the recently discovered low-mass X-ray binary M15 X-2. Our time-resolved FUV photometry shows a modulation with 0.062+/-0.004 mag semiamplitude, and we clearly detect a period of 22.5806+/-0.0002 minutes. We have carried out extensive Monte Carlo simulations, which show that the signal is consistent with being coherent over the entire observational time range of more than 3000 cycles. This strongly suggests that it represents the orbital period of the binary system. M15 X-2 is FUV-bright (FUV~=17 mag) and is characterized by an extremely blue spectral energy distribution (Fλ~λ-2.0). We also find evidence for an excess of flux between 1500 and 1600 Å and probably between 1600 and 2000 Å that might be due to C IV 1550 Å and He II 1640 Å emission lines. We also show that M15 X-2's X-ray luminosity can be powered by accretion at the rate expected for mass transfer driven by gravitational waves at this binary period. The observed FUV emission appears to be dominated by an irradiated accretion disk around the neutron star primary, and the variability can be explained by irradiation of the low-mass white dwarf donor if the inclination of the system is ~34°. We conclude that all observational characteristics of M15 X-2 are consistent with its being an ultracompact X-ray binary, only the third confirmed such object in a globular cluster. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1978. [Advanced solvent extraction; accidents; pyrochemical; radwaste in metal matrix; waste migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R. E.

    1979-12-01

    Fuel cycle studies reported include development of centrifugal contactors for Purex processes. Tricaprylmethyl-ammonium nitrate and di-n-amyl-n-amylphosphonate are being evaluated as Thorex extractants. Dispersion of uranium and plutonium by fires, and mechanisms for subdividing and dispersing liquids and solids were reviewed. In the pyrochemical and dry processing program, a facility for testing containment materials is under construction; a flowsheet for carbide fuel processing has been designed and studies of carbide reactions in bismuth are underway; salt transport processes are being studied; process-size refractory metal vessels are being fabricated; the feasibility of AIROX reprocessing is being determined; the solubility of UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/ + fission products, and PuO/sub 2/ in molten alkali metal nitrates, has been investigated; a flowsheet was developed for reprocessing actinide oxides in molten salts; preparation of Th-U carbide from the oxide is being studied; new flowsheets based on the Dow Aluminum Pyrometallurgical process for reprocessing of spent uranium metal fuel have been prepared; the chloride volitility processing of thorium-based fuels is being studied; the reprocessing of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in KCl-LiCl-ThCl/sub 4/-Th is being studied; and a flowsheet for processing spent nuclear fuel in molten tin has been constructed. Leach rates of simulated encapsulated waste forms in a metal matrix were studied. Nine criteria for handling waste cladding hulls were established. Strontium and tin migration in glauconite columns was measured. Radioactive Sr in a stream of water moved through oolitic limestone as rapidly as water, but in a stream of water equilibrated with the limestone, Sr moved through the limestone one-tenth as fast. Migration of trace quantities of Cs and I through kaolinite was studied. 88 figures, 53 tables.

  13. eLISA eccentricity measurements as tracers of binary black hole formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Berti, Emanuele; Klein, Antoine; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Up to hundreds of black hole binaries individually resolvable by eLISA will coalesce in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo band within 10 yr, allowing for multiband gravitational wave observations. Binaries formed via dynamical interactions in dense star clusters are expected to have eccentricities e0˜10-3-10-1 at the frequencies f0=10-2 Hz where eLISA is most sensitive, while binaries formed in the field should have negligible eccentricity in both frequency bands. We estimate that eLISA should always be able to detect a nonzero e0 whenever e0≳10-2; if e0˜10-3, eLISA should detect nonzero eccentricity for a fraction ˜90 % (˜25 %) of binaries when the observation time is Tobs=5 (2) yr, respectively. Therefore eLISA observations of black hole binaries have the potential to distinguish between field and cluster formation scenarios.

  14. eLISA eccentricity measurements as tracers of binary black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Klein, Antoine; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Up to hundreds of black hole binaries individually resolvable by eLISA will coalesce in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo band within ten years, allowing for multi-band gravitational wave observations. Binaries formed via dynamical interactions in dense star clusters are expected to have eccentricities $e_0\\sim 10^{-3}$-$10^{-1}$ at the frequencies $f_0=10^{-2}$ Hz where eLISA is most sensitive, while binaries formed in the field should have negligible eccentricity in both frequency bands. We estimate that eLISA should always be able to detect a nonzero $e_0$ whenever $e_0\\gtrsim 10^{-2}$; if $e_0\\sim 10^{-3}$, eLISA should detect nonzero eccentricity for a fraction $\\sim 90\\%$ ($\\sim 25\\%$) of binaries when the observation time is $T_{\\rm obs}=5$ ($2$) years, respectively. Therefore eLISA observations of BH binaries have the potential to distinguish between field and cluster formation scenarios.

  15. Projected Constraints on Scalarization with Gravitational Waves from Neutron Star Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Sampson, Laura; Cornish, Neil; Ponce, Marcelo; Barausse, Enrico; Klein, Antoine; Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Certain scalar-tensor theories have the property of endowing stars with scalar hair, sourced either by the star's own compactness (spontaneous scalarization) or, for binary systems, by the companion's scalar hair (induced scalarization) or by the orbital binding energy (dynamical scalarization). Scalarized stars in binaries present different conservative dynamics than in General Relativity, and can also excite a scalar mode in the metric perturbation that carries away dipolar radiation. As a result, the binary orbit shrinks faster than predicted in General Relativity, modifying the rate of decay of the orbital period. In spite of this, scalar-tensor theories can pass existing binary pulsar tests, because observed pulsars may not be compact enough or sufficiently orbitally bound to activate scalarization. Gravitational waves emitted during the last stages of compact binary inspirals are thus ideal probes of scalarization effects. For the standard projected sensitivity of advanced LIGO, we here show that, if ne...

  16. A synthetic model of the gravitational wave background from evolving binary compact objects

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorkin, Irina; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the stochastic gravitational wave background from various astrophysical sources is a key objective in view of upcoming observations with ground- and space-based gravitational wave observatories such as Advanced LIGO, VIRGO, eLISA and PTA. We develop a synthetic model framework that follows the evolution of single and binary compact objects in an astrophysical context. We describe the formation and merger rates of binaries, the evolution of their orbital parameters with time and the spectrum of emitted gravitational waves at different stages of binary evolution. Our approach is modular and allows us to test and constrain different ingredients of the model, including stellar evolution, black hole formation scenarios and the properties of binary systems. We use this framework in the context of a particularly well-motivated astrophysical setup to calculate the gravitational wave background from several types of sources, including inspiraling stellar-mass binary black holes that have not merged during a H...

  17. Analysis of Error Floors of Non-Binary LDPC Codes over MBIOS Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Nozaki, Takayuki; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the error floors of non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes transmitted over the memoryless binary-input output-symmetric (MBIOS) channels. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for successful decoding of zigzag cycle codes over the MBIOS channel by the belief propagation decoder. We consider an expurgated ensemble of non-binary LDPC codes by using the above necessary and sufficient condition, and hence exhibit lower error floors. Finally, we show lower bounds of the error floors for the expurgated LDPC code ensembles over the MBIOS channel.

  18. Historicising the Hydrosocial Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J. Schmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the historical claims made in support of the hydrosocial cycle. In particular, it considers how arguments advancing the hydrosocial cycle make historical claims regarding modernist conceptions of what water is (i.e. H2O and its fit with society. The paper gives special emphasis to the society/nature dualism and to the notion of agency as key sites of contest in arguments regarding the hydrosocial cycle. It finds that, while several versions of the hydrosocial cycle seek to advance a political ecology more sensitive to non-human actions, these same accounts often do not address the robust account of non-human agency in the historical record. Evidence is presented regarding water’s agency amongst late 19th and early 20th century architects of key water management norms in the United States. This evidence troubles accounts of the hydrosocial cycle that critique the US experience and suggests new directions for rethinking the role of historical and institutional norms in water policy.

  19. Analysis and Design of Binary Message-Passing Decoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Binary message-passing decoders for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are studied by using extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts. The channel delivers hard or soft decisions and the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. A hard decision channel results...... message-passing decoders. Finally, it is shown that errors on cycles consisting only of degree two and three variable nodes cannot be corrected and a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a cycle-free subgraph is derived....

  20. Approach to criticality in cold core of the Unit 1 of the cycle 10 of the Laguna Verde power plant with control rods similar in design to the original ones and the advanced ones; Aproximacion a criticidad en frio de la Unidad 1 del ciclo 10 de la CLV con barras de control de diseno similar al original y avanzadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Ramirez, J.R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Hernandez, J.L.; Montes, J.L. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In the Laguna Verde power plant (CLV) worn out control bars have been replacing for control rods of advanced design. At the moment of the 109 rods of similar design to the original of the Unit 1 of the CLV, 14 of them have been substituted with two types of different advanced control rods. The same as the original rods the advanced rods use boron carbide as control element for neutrons, but additionally they use hafnium, to achieve a longer useful half life. The rods of similar design to the original are homogeneous axially on the other hand the advanced presenting several zones. In principle the advanced rods were designed to be neutronically compatible to the original rods. However the differences in the design and of constituents assumed to consider a different performance during the operation. Since the one numbers of advanced bars is growing with the number of cycles of the CLV reactor has requested to the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) to evaluate in detailed form the performance of the control rods. Previously the calculations and analysis of cycle design that that were carried out assumed that control rods should be of similar design as the original. Using the HELIOS/CM-LENDS system, the effect of the inclusion of advanced rods was analyzed in the approximation of the criticality in cold (20 C) in the cycle 10 of the Unit 1. Four scenarios were poposed, where the type of the rod of substitution control is varied. The value of reactivity was calculated for the rods similar in design to the original and for the advanced one. By comparison of these values, it was found that the value of reactivity of the control rods of the advanced design was superior to the value for rods similar to the original ones by 7.6% for one of the advanced designs and of 13.6% for the other one. (Author)

  1. Unsupervised learning of binary vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli Lopes da Silva, Mauro

    In this thesis, unsupervised learning of binary vectors from data is studied using methods from Statistical Mechanics of disordered systems. In the model, data vectors are distributed according to a single symmetry-breaking direction. The aim of unsupervised learning is to provide a good approximation to this direction. The difference with respect to previous studies is the knowledge that this preferential direction has binary components. It is shown that sampling from the posterior distribution (Gibbs learning) leads, for general smooth distributions, to an exponentially fast approach to perfect learning in the asymptotic limit of large number of examples. If the distribution is non-smooth, then first order phase transitions to perfect learning are expected. In the limit of poor performance, a second order phase transition ("retarded learning") is predicted to occur if the data distribution is not biased. Using concepts from Bayesian inference, the center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble is shown to have maximal average (Bayes-optimal) performance. This upper bound for continuous vectors is extended to a discrete space, resulting in the clipped center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble having maximal average performance among the binary vectors. To calculate the performance of this best binary vector, the geometric properties of the center of mass of binary vectors are studied. The surprising result is found that the center of mass of infinite binary vectors which obey some simple constraints, is again a binary vector. When disorder is taken into account in the calculation, however, a vector with continuous components is obtained. The performance of the best binary vector is calculated and shown to always lie above that of Gibbs learning and below the Bayes-optimal performance. Making use of a variational approach under the replica symmetric ansatz, an optimal potential is constructed in the limits of zero temperature and mutual overlap 1. Minimization of this potential

  2. FES cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, D J; Donaldson, N de N

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a partial or complete disruption of motor, sensory, and autonomic nerve pathways below the level of the lesion. In paraplegic patients, functional electrical stimulation (FES) was originally widely considered as a means to restore walking function but this was proved technically very difficult because of the numerous degrees of freedom involved in walking. FES cycling was developed for people with SCI and has the advantages that cycling can be maintained for reasonably long periods in trained muscles and the risk of falls is low. In the article, we review research findings relevant to the successful application of FES cycling including the effects on muscle size, strength and function, and the cardiovascular and bone changes. We also describe important practical considerations in FES cycling regarding the application of surface electrodes, training and setting up the stimulator limitations, implanted stimulators and FES cycling including FES cycling in groups and other FES exercises such as FES rowing.

  3. Probability distribution function for inclinations of merging compact binaries detected by gravitational wave interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Seto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    We analytically discuss probability distribution function (PDF) for inclinations of merging compact binaries whose gravitational waves are coherently detected by a network of ground based interferometers. The PDF would be useful for studying prospects of (1) simultaneously detecting electromagnetic signals (such as gamma-ray-bursts) associated with binary mergers and (2) statistically constraining the related theoretical models from the actual observational data of multi-messenger astronomy. Our approach is similar to Schutz (2011), but we explicitly include the dependence of the polarization angles of the binaries, based on the concise formulation given in Cutler and Flanagan (1994). We find that the overall profiles of the PDFs are similar for any networks composed by the second generation detectors (Advanced-LIGO, Advanced-Virgo, KAGRA, LIGO-India). For example, 5.1% of detected binaries would have inclination angle less than 10 degree with at most 0.1% differences between the potential networks. A perturb...

  4. Modified Binary Exponential Backoff Algorithm to Minimize Mobiles Communication Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Sayed Ahmad; Ali Kalakech; Seifedine Kadry

    2014-01-01

    the field of Wireless Local Area Networks (LANs) is expanding rapidly as a result of advances in digital communications, portable computers, and semiconductor technology. The early adopters of this technology have primarily been vertical application that places a premium on the mobility offered by such systems. Binary Exponential Backoff (BEB) refers to a collision resolution mechanism used in random access MAC protocols. This algorithm is used in Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) wired LANs. In Ethe...

  5. Study of practical cycles for geothermal power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskesen, J.H.

    1977-04-01

    A comparison is made of the performance and cost of geothermal power cycles designed specifically, utilizing existing technology, to exploit the high temperature, high salinity resource at Niland and the moderate temperature, moderately saline resource at East Mesa in California's Imperial Valley. Only two kinds of cycles are considered in the analysis. Both employ a dual flash arrangement and the liberated steam is either utilized directly in a condensing steam turbine or used to heat a secondary working fluid in a closed Rankine (binary) cycle. The performance of several organic fluids was investigated for the closed cycle and the most promising were selected for detailed analysis with the given resource conditions. Results show for the temperature range investigated that if the noncondensible gas content in the brine is low, a dual flash condensing steam turbine cycle is potentially better in terms of resource utilization than a dual flash binary cycle. (The reverse is shown to be true when the brine is utilized directly for heat exchange.) It is also shown that despite the higher resource temperature, the performance of the dual flash binary cycle at Niland is degraded appreciably by the high salinity and its output per unit of brine flow is almost 20 percent lower than that of the steam turbine cycle at East Mesa. Turbine designs were formulated and costs established for power plants having a nominal generating capacity of 50 MW. Three cycles were analyzed in detail. At East Mesa a steam turbine and a binary cycle were compared. At Niland only the binary cycle was analyzed since the high CO/sub 2/ content in the brine precludes the use of a steam turbine there. In each case only the power island equipment was considered and well costs and the cost of flash separators, steam scrubbers and piping to the power plant boundary were excluded from the estimate.

  6. Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...

  7. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em

    2002-01-01

    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  8. Massive black hole binary mergers in dynamical galactic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GWs from massive black hole (MBH) binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar timing arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GWs from MBH binaries (MBHBs), have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBHs and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations (`Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar `loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disc. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most stringent PTA upper limit of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 10^{-15}. Our fairly conservative fiducial model predicts an amplitude of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 0.4× 10^{-15}. At lower frequencies, we find A_{0.1 yr^{-1}} ≈ 1.5× 10^{-15} with spectral indices between -0.4 and -0.6 - significantly flatter than the canonical value of -2/3 due to purely GW-driven evolution. Typical MBHBs driving the GWB signal come from redshifts around 0.3, with total masses of a few times 109 M⊙, and in host galaxies with very large stellar masses. Even without GWB detections, our results can be connected to observations of dual active galactic nuclei to constrain binary evolution.

  9. Evaporative Instability in Binary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ranga; Uguz, Erdem

    2012-11-01

    In this talk we depict the physics of evaporative convection for binary systems in the presence of surface tension gradient effects. Two results are of importance. The first is that a binary system, in the absence of gravity, can generate an instability only when heated from the vapor side. This is to be contrasted with the case of a single component where instability can occur only when heated from the liquid side. The second result is that a binary system, in the presence of gravity, will generate an instability when heated from either the vapor or the liquid side provided the heating is strong enough. In addition to these results we show the conditions at which interfacial patterns can occur. Support from NSF OISE 0968313, Partner Univ. Fund and a Chateaubriand Fellowship is acknowledged.

  10. Marangoni Convection in Binary Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Oron, A; Behringer, Robert P.; Oron, Alexander; Zhang, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Marangoni instabilities in binary mixtures are different from those in pure liquids. In contrast to a large amount of experimental work on Marangoni convection in pure liquids, such experiments in binary mixtures are not available in the literature, to our knowledge. Using binary mixtures of sodium chloride/water, we have systematically investigated the pattern formation for a set of substrate temperatures and solute concentrations in an open system. The flow patterns evolve with time, driven by surface-tension fluctuations due to evaporation and the Soret effect, while the air-liquid interface does not deform. A shadowgraph method is used to follow the pattern formation in time. The patterns are mainly composed of polygons and rolls. The mean pattern size first decreases slightly, and then gradually increases during the evolution. Evaporation affects the pattern formation mainly at the early stage and the local evaporation rate tends to become spatially uniform at the film surface. The Soret effect becomes i...

  11. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  12. Black Hole Binaries in Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    I discuss some of what is known and unknown about the behavior of black hole binary systems in the quiescent accretion state. Quiescence is important for several reasons: 1) the dominance of the companion star in the optical and IR wavelengths allows the binary parameters to be robustly determined - as an example, we argue that the longer proposed distance to the X-ray source GRO J1655-40 is correct; 2) quiescence represents the limiting case of an extremely low accretion rate, in which both accretion and jets can be observed; 3) understanding the evolution and duration of the quiescent state is a key factor in determining the overall demographics of X-rary binaries, which has taken on a new importance in the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

  13. Combined cycles with gas turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Y.S.H.; Akyurt, M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-03-01

    Simple cycle gas turbine engines suffer from limited efficiencies and consequential dominance of fuel prices on generation costs. Combined cycles, however. exploit the waste heat from exhaust gases to boost power output, resulting in overall efficiencies around 50%, which are significantly above those of steam power plants. This paper reviews various types of combined cycles, including repowering, integrated gasification and other advanced systems. (author)

  14. precession: Dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries with python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We present the numerical code precession, a new open-source python module to study the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. The code provides a comprehensive toolbox to (i) study the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, (ii) perform gravitational-wave-driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and (iii) predict the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulas obtained from numerical-relativity simulations. precession is a ready-to-use tool to add the black-hole spin dynamics to larger-scale numerical studies such as gravitational-wave parameter estimation codes, population synthesis models to predict gravitational-wave event rates, galaxy merger trees and cosmological simulations of structure formation. precession provides fast and reliable integration methods to propagate statistical samples of black-hole binaries from/to large separations where they form to/from small separations where they become detectable, thus linking gravitational-wave observations of spinning black-hole binaries to their astrophysical formation history. The code is also a useful tool to compute initial parameters for numerical-relativity simulations targeting specific precessing systems. precession can be installed from the python Package Index, and it is freely distributed under version control on github, where further documentation is provided.

  15. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  16. Statistical Study of Visual Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Rahman, H I; Elsanhoury, W H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, some statistical distributions of wide pairs included in Double Star Catalogue are investigated. Frequency distributions and testing hypothesis are derived for some basic parameters of visual binaries. The results reached indicate that, it was found that the magnitude difference is distributed exponentially, which means that the majority of the component of the selected systems is of the same spectral type. The distribution of the mass ratios is concentrated about 0.7 which agree with Salpeter mass function. The distribution of the linear separation appears to be exponentially, which contradict with previous studies for close binaries.

  17. Results from Binary Black Hole Simulations in Astrophysics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Present and planned gravitational wave observatories are opening a new astronomical window to the sky. A key source of gravitational waves is the merger of two black holes. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in particular, is expected to observe these events with signal-to-noise ratio's in the thousands. To fully reap the scientific benefits of these observations requires a detailed understanding, based on numerical simulations, of the predictions of General Relativity for the waveform signals. New techniques for simulating binary black hole mergers, introduced two years ago, have led to dramatic advances in applied numerical simulation work. Over the last two years, numerical relativity researchers have made tremendous strides in understanding the late stages of binary black hole mergers. Simulations have been applied to test much of the basic physics of binary black hole interactions, showing robust results for merger waveform predictions, and illuminating such phenomena as spin-precession. Calculations have shown that merging systems can be kicked at up to 2500 km/s by the thrust from asymmetric emission. Recently, long lasting simulations of ten or more orbits allow tests of post-Newtonian (PN) approximation results for radiation from the last orbits of the binary's inspiral. Already, analytic waveform models based PN techniques with incorporated information from numerical simulations may be adequate for observations with current ground based observatories. As new advances in simulations continue to rapidly improve our theoretical understanding of the systems, it seems certain that high-precision predictions will be available in time for LISA and other advanced ground-based instruments. Future gravitational wave observatories are expected to make precision.

  18. Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries. II. Toward the Increased Model Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, A.; Conroy, K. E.; Horvat, M.; Pablo, H.; Kochoska, A.; Bloemen, S.; Giammarco, J.; Hambleton, K. M.; Degroote, P.

    2016-12-01

    The precision of photometric and spectroscopic observations has been systematically improved in the last decade, mostly thanks to space-borne photometric missions and ground-based spectrographs dedicated to finding exoplanets. The field of eclipsing binary stars strongly benefited from this development. Eclipsing binaries serve as critical tools for determining fundamental stellar properties (masses, radii, temperatures, and luminosities), yet the models are not capable of reproducing observed data well, either because of the missing physics or because of insufficient precision. This led to a predicament where radiative and dynamical effects, insofar buried in noise, started showing up routinely in the data, but were not accounted for in the models. PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs; http://phoebe-project.org) is an open source modeling code for computing theoretical light and radial velocity curves that addresses both problems by incorporating missing physics and by increasing the computational fidelity. In particular, we discuss triangulation as a superior surface discretization algorithm, meshing of rotating single stars, light travel time effects, advanced phase computation, volume conservation in eccentric orbits, and improved computation of local intensity across the stellar surfaces that includes the photon-weighted mode, the enhanced limb darkening treatment, the better reflection treatment, and Doppler boosting. Here we present the concepts on which PHOEBE is built and proofs of concept that demonstrate the increased model fidelity.

  19. Gravitational radiation from compact binaries in scalar-tensor gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Ryan N

    2014-01-01

    General relativity (GR) has been extensively tested in the solar system and in binary pulsars, but never in the strong-field, dynamical regime. Soon, gravitational-wave (GW) detectors like Advanced LIGO and eLISA will be able to probe this regime by measuring GWs from inspiraling and merging compact binaries. One particularly interesting alternative to GR is scalar-tensor gravity. We present progress in the calculation of second post-Newtonian (2PN) gravitational waveforms for inspiraling compact binaries in a general class of scalar-tensor theories. The waveforms are constructed using a standard GR method known as "direct integration of the relaxed Einstein equations," appropriately adapted to the scalar-tensor case. We find that differences from general relativity can be characterized by a reasonably small number of parameters. Among the differences are new hereditary terms which depend on the past history of the source. In one special case, binary black hole systems, we find that the waveform is indistingu...

  20. Parameter Estimation for Compact Binaries with Ground-Based Gravitational-Wave Observations Using the LALInference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, J.; Raymond, V.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Graff, P.; Vitale, S.; Aylott, B.; Blackburn, K.; Christensen, N.; Coughlin, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors will begin operation in the coming years, with compact binary coalescence events a likely source for the first detections. The gravitational waveforms emitted directly encode information about the sources, including the masses and spins of the compact objects. Recovering the physical parameters of the sources from the GW observations is a key analysis task. This work describes the LALInference software library for Bayesian parameter estimation of compact binary signals, which builds on several previous methods to provide a well-tested toolkit which has already been used for several studies. We show that our implementation is able to correctly recover the parameters of compact binary signals from simulated data from the advanced GW detectors. We demonstrate this with a detailed comparison on three compact binary systems: a binary neutron star (BNS), a neutron star - black hole binary (NSBH) and a binary black hole (BBH), where we show a cross-comparison of results obtained using three independent sampling algorithms. These systems were analysed with non-spinning, aligned spin and generic spin configurations respectively, showing that consistent results can be obtained even with the full 15-dimensional parameter space of the generic spin configurations. We also demonstrate statistically that the Bayesian credible intervals we recover correspond to frequentist confidence intervals under correct prior assumptions by analysing a set of 100 signals drawn from the prior. We discuss the computational cost of these algorithms, and describe the general and problem-specific sampling techniques we have used to improve the efficiency of sampling the compact binary coalescence (CBC) parameter space.

  1. Application of Gas Dynamical Friction for Planetesimals. II. Evolution of Binary Planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Evgeni; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-04-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs long before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. At this stage gas-planetesimal interactions play a key role in the dynamical evolution of single intermediate-mass planetesimals (mp ˜ 1021-1025 g) through gas dynamical friction (GDF). A significant fraction of all solar system planetesimals (asteroids and Kuiper-belt objects) are known to be binary planetesimals (BPs). Here, we explore the effects of GDF on the evolution of BPs embedded in a gaseous disk using an N-body code with a fiducial external force accounting for GDF. We find that GDF can induce binary mergers on timescales shorter than the disk lifetime for masses above mp ≳ 1022 g at 1 au, independent of the binary initial separation and eccentricity. Such mergers can affect the structure of merger-formed planetesimals, and the GDF-induced binary inspiral can play a role in the evolution of the planetesimal disk. In addition, binaries on eccentric orbits around the star may evolve in the supersonic regime, where the torque reverses and the binary expands, which would enhance the cross section for planetesimal encounters with the binary. Highly inclined binaries with small mass ratios, evolve due to the combined effects of Kozai-Lidov (KL) cycles with GDF which lead to chaotic evolution. Prograde binaries go through semi-regular KL evolution, while retrograde binaries frequently flip their inclination and ˜50% of them are destroyed.

  2. APPLICATION OF GAS DYNAMICAL FRICTION FOR PLANETESIMALS. II. EVOLUTION OF BINARY PLANETESIMALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, Evgeni; Perets, Hagai B. [Physics Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 3200003 (Israel)

    2016-04-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs long before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. At this stage gas–planetesimal interactions play a key role in the dynamical evolution of single intermediate-mass planetesimals (m{sub p} ∼ 10{sup 21}–10{sup 25} g) through gas dynamical friction (GDF). A significant fraction of all solar system planetesimals (asteroids and Kuiper-belt objects) are known to be binary planetesimals (BPs). Here, we explore the effects of GDF on the evolution of BPs embedded in a gaseous disk using an N-body code with a fiducial external force accounting for GDF. We find that GDF can induce binary mergers on timescales shorter than the disk lifetime for masses above m{sub p} ≳ 10{sup 22} g at 1 au, independent of the binary initial separation and eccentricity. Such mergers can affect the structure of merger-formed planetesimals, and the GDF-induced binary inspiral can play a role in the evolution of the planetesimal disk. In addition, binaries on eccentric orbits around the star may evolve in the supersonic regime, where the torque reverses and the binary expands, which would enhance the cross section for planetesimal encounters with the binary. Highly inclined binaries with small mass ratios, evolve due to the combined effects of Kozai–Lidov (KL) cycles with GDF which lead to chaotic evolution. Prograde binaries go through semi-regular KL evolution, while retrograde binaries frequently flip their inclination and ∼50% of them are destroyed.

  3. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Orosz, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1221 (United States); Peters, G. J., E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: rmatson@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: gjpeters@mucen.usc.edu [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  4. Binary/BCD-to-ASCII data converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Converter inputs multiple precision binary words, converts data to multiple precision binary-coded decimal, and routes data back to computer. Converter base can be readily changed without need for new gate structure for each base changeover.

  5. Binary stars in the RAVE survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwitter T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We searched the sample of RAVE survey spectra for both types of spectroscopic binary stars in order to estimate their number in the sample and perform a study on newly discovered binaries.

  6. Fes cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkelmans Rik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many research with functional electrical stimulation (FES has been done to regain mobility and for health benefits. Better results have been reported for FES-cycling than for FES-walking. The majority of the subjects during such research are people with a spinal cord injury (SCI, cause they often lost skin sensation. Besides using surface stimulation also implanted stimulators can be used. This solves the skin sensation problem, but needs a surgery. Many physiological effects of FES-cycling has been reported, e.g., increase of muscles, better blood flow, reduction of pressure ulcers, improved self-image and some reduction of bone mineral density (BMD loss. Also people with an incomplete SCI benefit by FES-cycling, e.g. cycling time without FES, muscle strength and also the walking abilities increased. Hybrid exercise gives an even better cardiovascular training. Presently 4 companies are involved in FES-cycling. They all have a stationary mobility trainer. Two of them also use an outdoor tricycle. One combined with voluntary arm cranking. By optimizing the stimulation parameters the power output and fatigue resistance will increase, but will still be less compared to voluntary cycling.

  7. No circumbinary planets transiting the tightest Kepler binaries - a fingerprint of a third star

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, David V; Fabrycky, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler mission has yielded the discovery of eight eclipsing binaries, within period range of 7 - 40 d, hosting circumbinary planets. This is longer than the typical eclipsing binary period found by Kepler, and hence there is a dearth of planets around the closest binaries. In this paper we demonstrate how this dearth may be explained by the presence of a distant stellar tertiary companion, which shrunk the inner binary orbit by the process of Kozai cycles and tidal friction, a mechanism that has been implicated for producing most binaries with periods below 7 d. We show that the geometry and orbital dynamics of these evolving triple-star systems are highly restrictive for a circumbinary planet, which is subject itself to Kozai modulation, on one hand, and can shield the two inner stars from their Kozai cycle and subsequent shrinking, on the other hand. Only small planets on wide and inclined orbits may form, survive and allow for the inner binary shrinkage. Those are difficult to detect.

  8. Bayesian analysis of binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, David C.

    2005-03-01

    This manuscript details Bayesian methodology for "learning by example", with binary n-sequences encoding the objects under consideration. Priors prove influential; conformable priors are described. Laplace approximation of Bayes integrals yields posterior likelihoods for all n-sequences. This involves the optimization of a definite function over a convex domain--efficiently effectuated by the sequential application of the quadratic program.

  9. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I., E-mail: iis@gao.spb.ru [Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoje ave. 65, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  10. A Galactic Binary Detection Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2011-01-01

    The Galaxy is suspected to contain hundreds of millions of binary white dwarf systems, a large fraction of which will have sufficiently small orbital period to emit gravitational radiation in band for space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA's main science goal is the detection of cosmological events (supermassive black hole mergers, etc.) however the gravitational signal from the galaxy will be the dominant contribution to the data - including instrumental noise over approximately two decades in frequency. The catalogue of detectable binary systems will serve as an unparalleled means of studying the Galaxy. Furthermore, to maximize the scientific return from the mission, the data must be "cleansed" of the galactic foreground. We will present an algorithm that can accurately resolve and subtract 2:: 10000 of these sources from simulated data supplied by the Mock LISA Data Challenge Task Force. Using the time evolution of the gravitational wave frequency, we will reconstruct the position of the recovered binaries and show how LISA will sample the entire compact binary population in the Galaxy.

  11. The Meritfactor of Binary Seqences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Binary sequences with small aperiodic correlations play an important role in many applications ranging from radar to modulation and testing of systems. Golay(1977) introduced the merit factor as a measure of the goodness of the sequence and conjectured an upper bound for this. His conjecture is s...

  12. Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...

  13. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  14. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  15. Error analysis of numerical gravitational waveforms from coalescing binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Heather; Chu, Tony; Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel; Kidder, Lawrence; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; SXS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) has finished a successful first observation run and will commence its second run this summer. Detection of compact object binaries utilizes matched-filtering, which requires a vast collection of highly accurate gravitational waveforms. This talk will present a set of about 100 new aligned-spin binary black hole simulations. I will discuss their properties, including a detailed error analysis, which demonstrates that the numerical waveforms are sufficiently accurate for gravitational wave detection purposes, as well as for parameter estimation purposes.

  16. idaho Accelerator Center Advanced Fuel Cycle Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Douglas; Dale, Dan

    2011-10-20

    The technical effort has been in two parts called; Materials Science and Instrumentation Development. The Materials Science technical program has been based on a series of research and development achievements in Positron-Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for defect detection in structural materials. This work is of particular importance in nuclear power and its supporting systems as the work included detection of defects introduced by mechanical and thermal phenomena as well as those caused by irradiation damage. The second part of the program has focused on instrumentation development using active interrogation techniques supporting proliferation resistant recycling methodologies and nuclear material safeguards. This effort has also lead to basic physics studies of various phenomena relating to photo-fission. Highlights of accomplishments and facility improvement legacies in these areas over the program period include

  17. Analytic gravitational waveforms for generic precessing compact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Binary systems of two compact objects circularize and spiral toward each other via the emission of gravitational waves. The coupling of the spins of each object with the orbital angular momentum causes the orbital plane to precess, which leads to modulation of the gravitational wave signal. Until now, generating frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing systems for use in gravitational wave data analysis meant numerically integrating the equations of motion, then Fourier transforming the result, which is very computationally intensive for systems that complete hundreds or thousands of cycles in the sensitive band of a detector. Previously, analytic solutions were only available for certain special cases or for simplified models. Here we describe the construction of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for fully-precessing, quasi-circular binary inspirals.

  18. Migration into a Companion's Trap: Disruption of Multiplanet Systems in Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Touma, Jihad R

    2015-01-01

    Most exoplanetary systems in binary stars are of S--type, and consist of one or more planets orbiting a primary star with a wide binary stellar companion. Gravitational forcing of a single planet by a sufficiently inclined binary orbit can induce large amplitude oscillations of the planet's eccentricity and inclination through the Kozai-Lidov (KL) instability. KL cycling was invoked to explain: the large eccentricities of planetary orbits; the family of close--in hot Jupiters; and the retrograde planetary orbits in eccentric binary systems. However, several kinds of perturbations can quench the KL instability, by inducing fast periapse precessions which stabilize circular orbits of all inclinations: these could be a Jupiter--mass planet, a massive remnant disc or general relativistic precession. Indeed, mutual gravitational perturbations in multiplanet S--type systems can be strong enough to lend a certain dynamical rigidity to their orbital planes. Here we present a new and faster process that is driven by t...

  19. Gravitational Microlensing of Binary and Binary and Multiple Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    1995-08-01

    Recent observations of the effect of microlensing of stars of large Magellanic Clouds by dark bodies of Galactic Halo have led to the discovery of new population in our galaxy - dark bodies with amsses ~ 0.1 M(sun). As a consequence, astronomers have gained a unique possibility of using gravitational microlensing as an effective extraterestrial telescope with extremely high angular resolution. Application of this to binary stars is discussed. of particular interest is to apply microlensing to search for planetary stars . Planets and stars move about the center of gravity of the system , so the appaarent motion of a star in nonuniform and the light curve is asymetrical and colour dependent. This allows to determin basic parameters of binary system

  20. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  1. Gravitational waveforms for neutron star binaries from binary black hole simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkett, Kevin; Scheel, Mark; Haas, Roland; Ott, Christian; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brown, Duncan; Szilagyi, Bela; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Lippuner, Jonas; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waves from binary neutron star (BNS) and black-hole/neutron star (BHNS) inspirals are primary sources for detection by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The tidal forces acting on the neutron stars induce changes in the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, and these changes can be used to constrain the nuclear equation of state. Current methods of generating BNS and BHNS waveforms rely on either computationally challenging full 3D hydrodynamical simulations or approximate analytic solutions. We introduce a new method for computing inspiral waveforms for BNS/BHNS systems by adding the post-Newtonian (PN) tidal effects to full numerical simulations of binary black holes (BBHs), effectively replacing the non-tidal terms in the PN expansion with BBH results. Comparing a waveform generated with this method against a full hydrodynamical simulation of a BNS inspiral yields a phase difference of < 1 radian over ~ 15 orbits. The numerical phase accuracy required of BNS simulations to measure the accuracy of the method we present here is estimated as a function of the tidal deformability parameter λ.

  2. Adaptive Monte Carlo on multivariate binary sampling spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm is said to be adaptive if it can adjust automatically its current proposal distribution, using past simulations. The choice of the parametric family that defines the set of proposal distributions is critical for a good performance. We treat the problem of constructing such parametric families for adaptive sampling on multivariate binary spaces. A practical motivation for this problem is variable selection in a linear regression context, where we need to either find the best model, with respect to some criterion, or to sample from a Bayesian posterior distribution on the model space. In terms of adaptive algorithms, we focus on the Cross-Entropy (CE) method for optimisation, and the Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods for sampling. Raw versions of both SMC and CE algorithms are easily implemented using binary vectors with independent components. However, for high-dimensional model choice problems, these straightforward proposals do not yields satisfactory results. The key to advanced a...

  3. Spin effects on the dynamics of compact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhoff, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Compact binaries are the most promising source for the advanced gravitational wave detectors, which will start operating this year. The influence of spin on the binary evolution is an important consequence of general relativity and can be large. It is argued that the spin supplementary condition, which is related to the observer dependence of the center, gives rise to a gauge symmetry in the action principle of spinning point-particles. These spinning point-particles serve as an analytic model for extended bodies. The internal structure can be modelled by augmenting the point-particle with higher-order multipole moments. Consequences of the recently discovered universal (equation of state independent) relations between the multipole moments of neutron stars are discussed.

  4. The Purple Haze of Eta Carinae: Binary-Induced Variability?

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, N; Collins, N R; Gull, T R; Smith, Nathan; Morse, Jon A.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gull, Theodore R.

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetric variability in ultraviolet images of the Homunculus obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/High Resolution Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope suggests that Eta Carinae is indeed a binary system. Images obtained before, during, and after the recent ``spectroscopic event'' in 2003.5 show alternating patterns of bright spots and shadows on opposite sides of the star before and after the event, providing a strong geometric argument for an azimuthally-evolving, asymmetric UV radiation field as one might predict in some binary models. The simplest interpretation of these UV images, where excess UV escapes from the secondary star in the direction away from the primary, places the major axis of the eccentric orbit roughly perpendicular to our line of sight, sharing the same equatorial plane as the Homunculus, and with apastron for the hot secondary star oriented toward the southwest of the primary. However, other orbital orientations may be allowed with more complicated geometries. Selective UV il...

  5. The Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsar in NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C; Gupta, Yashwant

    2007-01-01

    PSR J0514-4002A is a 5-ms pulsar is located in the globular cluster NGC 1851; it belongs to a highly eccentric (e = 0.888) binary system. It is one of the earliest known examples of a numerous and fast-growing class of eccentric binary MSPs recently discovered in globular clusters. Using the GBT, we have obtained a phase-coherent timing solution for the pulsar, which includes a measurement of the rate of advance of periastron: 0.01289(4) degrees per year, which if due completely to general relativity, implies a total system mass of 2.453(14) solar masses. We also derive m_p 0.96 solar masses. The companion is likely to be a massive white dwarf star.

  6. Spacelike gravitational radiation extraction from rotating binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbiriba, Breno C. O.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce an alternate method for gravitational radiation extraction for binary black hole mergers where we do not use a single extraction radius at the intermediate field region but instead use a whole spherical shell of three-dimensional (3D) data and continue its evolution using the linearized (Teukolsky) evolution to a final distant radiation extraction radius. We implement this using the Hahndol code for the 3D evolution, and use the “Lazarus” procedure to convert the numerical data into the linearized data. The final waveform is compatible with the ones obtained from the full 3D evolutions with some minor variations that require further study. In the process, we tested the “Lazarus” method with our numerical 3D implementation and gauges showing that even with the advanced gauges suitable for 3D rotating binary evolutions, we recover the same type of limited results obtained in the original work.

  7. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...

  8. Massive Black Hole Binary Mergers in Dynamical Galactic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Gravitational Waves (GW) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GW from Massive Black Hole (MBH) Binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GW from MBHB, have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW Background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBH and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations ('Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar `loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disk. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most stringent PTA upper limit of A_yr^{-1} ≈ 10^{-15}. Our fairly conservative fiducial model predicts an amplitude of A_yr^{-1} ≈ 0.4× 10^{-15}. At lower frequencies, we find A_{0.1 yr^{-1} ≈ 1.5× 10^{-15} with spectral indices between -0.4 and -0.6-significantly flatter than the canonical value of -2/3 due to purely GW-driven evolution. Typical MBHB driving the GWB signal come from redshifts around 0.3, with total masses of a few times 109 M⊙, and in host galaxies with very large stellar masses. Even without GWB detections, our results can be connected to observations of dual AGN to constrain binary evolution.

  9. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias

    2016-11-11

    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.

  10. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Mandic, Vuk; Cholis, Ilias

    2016-01-01

    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational wave detectors, and discuss the possibility of using the stochastic gravitational-wave background measurement to constrain the dark matter component in the form of black holes.

  11. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias

    2016-11-01

    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.

  12. Populating the Galaxy with close Be binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kiel, P D; Murray, J R; Hayasaki, K

    2007-01-01

    Be/X-ray binaries comprise roughly two-thirds of the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which is a class of X-ray binaries that results from the high mass of the companion or donor star (> 10 solar masses). Currently the formation and evolution of X-ray producing Be binaries is a matter of great debate. Modelling of these systems requires knowledge of Be star evolution and also consideration of how the evolution changes when the star is in close proximity to a companion. Within this work we complete a full population synthesis study of Be binaries for the Galaxy. The results for the first time match aspects of the observational data, most notably the observed upper limit to the period distribution. We conclude that greater detailed studies on the evolution of Be stars within X-ray binaries needs to be completed, so that rapid binary evolution population synthesis packages may best evolve these systems.

  13. The Quasi-Roche lobe overflow state in the evolution of Close Binary Systems containing a radio pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuto, O G; Horvath, J E

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of close binary systems formed by a normal (solar composition), intermediate mass donor star together with a neutron star. We consider models including irradiation feedback and evaporation. These non-standard ingredients deeply modify the mass transfer stages of these binaries. While models that neglect irradiation feedback undergo continuous, long standing mass transfer episodes, models including these effect suffer a number cycles of mass transfer and detachment. During mass transfer the systems should reveal themselves as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whereas when detached they behave as a binary radio pulsars. We show that at these stages irradiated models are in a Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) state or in a quasi-RLOF state. Quasi-RLOF stars have a radius slightly smaller than its Roche lobe. Remarkably, these conditions are attained for orbital period and donor mass values in the range corresponding to a family of binary radio pulsars known as "redbacks". Thus, redback companions ...

  14. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...

  15. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  16. Koszul cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Bruns, Winfreid; Römer, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We prove regularity bounds for Koszul cycles holding for every ideal of dimension at most 1 in a polynomial ring. We generalize the lower bound for the Green-Lazarsfeld index of Veronese rings we proved in arXiv:0902.2431 to the multihomogeneous setting.

  17. Close supermassive binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

  18. Desktop setup for binary holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Olaf; Rothe, Hendrik

    1996-08-01

    Binary gratings as holograms itself or as photographic masking tools for further fabrication steps can fulfill a lot of applications. The commonly used semiconductor technologies for direct writing of high resolution structures are often too expensive. On the other hand computer plots at a reasonable price with photographic reduction do not meet the needs of precision e.g. for interferometric inspection. The lack of cheap and reliable instruments for direct writing in an appropriate resolution is still a problem in fabricating synthetic holograms. Using off-the-shelf components a direct writing plotter for binary patterns can be built at moderate costs. Typical design rules as well as experimental results are given and the final setup is introduced.

  19. Slim Sets of Binary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Grünewald, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A classical problem in phylogenetic tree analysis is to decide whether there is a phylogenetic tree $T$ that contains all information of a given collection $\\cP$ of phylogenetic trees. If the answer is "yes" we say that $\\cP$ is compatible and $T$ displays $\\cP$. This decision problem is NP-complete even if all input trees are quartets, that is binary trees with exactly four leaves. In this paper, we prove a sufficient condition for a set of binary phylogenetic trees to be compatible. That result is used to give a short and self-contained proof of the known characterization of quartet sets of minimal cardinality which are displayed by a unique phylogenetic tree.

  20. Mass transfer between binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.

  1. Classification with binary gene expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna, Salih; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2009-01-01

    Microarray gene expression measurements are reported, used and archived usually to high numerical precision. However, properties of mRNA molecules, such as their low stability and availability in small copy numbers, and the fact that measurements correspond to a population of cells, rather than a single cell, makes high precision meaningless. Recent work shows that reducing measurement precision leads to very little loss of information, right down to binary levels. In this paper we show how p...

  2. Binary neuron with optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Degeratu, Ştefania; Şchiopu, Paul; Şchiopu, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of binary neuron, a model of McCulloch-Pitts neuron with optical devices. This model of neuron can be implemented not only in the optic integrated circuits but also in the classic optical circuits it being cheap and immune not only into electromagnetic fields but also into any kind of radiation. The transfer speed of information through the neuron is very higher, it being limited only by the light speed from the received medium.

  3. Be/X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called "Be phenomenon", such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass transfer. Until recently, it was thought that the Be stars' disc was not significantly affected by the neutron star. In this review, I present the observational evidence accumulated in recent years on the interaction between the circumstellar disc and the compact companion. The most obvious effect is the tidal truncation of the disc. As a result, the equatorial discs in Be/X-ray binaries are smaller and denser than those around isolat...

  4. Stellar magnetic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliunas, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Is hope for understanding the solar magnetic cycle to be found in stars? Observations of stars with significant sub-surface convective zones -- masses smaller than about 1.5 solar masses on the lower main sequence and many types of cool, post-main-sequence stars -- indicate the presence of surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities analogous to solar magnetic features, making stellar magnetic activity a cosmically widespread phenomenon. Observations have been made primarily in visible wavelengths, and important information has also been derived from the ultraviolet and x-ray spectrum regions. Interannual to interdecadal variability of spectrum indicators of stellar magnetic features is common, and in some cases similar in appearance to the 11-year sunspot cycle. Successful models of the physical processes responsible for stellar magnetic cycles, typically cast as a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo, require advances in understanding not only convection but also the magnetic field's interaction with it. The observed facts that underpin the hope for models will be summarized. Properties of stellar magnetic cycles will be compared and contrasted with those of the sun, including inferences from paleo-environmental reservoirs that contain information on solar century- to millennial-scale magnetic variability. Partial support of this research came from NASA NAG5-7635, NRC COBASE, CRDF 322, MIT-MSG 5710001241, JPL 1236821, AF 49620-02-1-0194, Richard Lounsberry Foundation, Langley-Abbot, Rollins, Scholarly Studies and James Arthur Funds (Smithsonian Institution) and several generous individuals.

  5. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740/sup 0/C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th-/sup 233/U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized.

  6. Visual Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Reipurth, Bo; Connelley, Michael S; Bally, John

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a major survey for visual binaries towards the Orion Nebula Cluster using HST images obtained with an H-alpha filter. Among 781 likely ONC members more than 60" from theta-1 Ori C, we find 78 multiple systems (75 binaries and 3 triples), of which 55 are new discoveries, in the range from 0.1" to 1.5". About 9 binaries are likely line-of-sight associations. We find a binary fraction of 8.8%+-1.1% within the limited separation range from 67.5 to 675 AU. The field binary fraction in the same range is a factor 1.5 higher. Within the range 150 AU to 675 AU we find that T Tauri associations have a factor 2.2 more binaries than the ONC. The binary separation distribution function of the ONC shows unusual structure, with a sudden steep decrease in the number of binaries as the separation increases beyond 0.5", corresponding to 225 AU. We have measured the ratio of binaries wider than 0.5" to binaries closer than 0.5" as a function of distance from the Trapezium, and find that this ratio is signifi...

  7. XZ And a semidetached asynchronous binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoori, Davood

    2016-05-01

    In this work the light curves (LCs) solutions along with the radial velocity curve of the semidetached binary systemXZ And are presented using the PHOEBE program(ver 0.31a). Absolute parameters of the stellar components were then determined, enabling us to discuss structure and evolutionary status of the system. The analysis indicates that the primary is a non-synchronous (i.e., F1 = 3.50 ± 0.01) Main Sequence (MS) star and the secondary is a bit more evolved, and fills its Roche critical surface. In addition, times of minima data (" O - C curve") were analyzed. Apart from an almost parabolic variation in the general trend of O - C data, which was attributed to a mass transfer from the secondary with the rate ˙2 = (9.52 ± 0.41) × 10-10 M ⊙ yr-1; two cyclic variations with mean periods of 34.8 ± 2.4 and 23.3 ± 3.0 yr, modulating the orbital period, were found, which were attributed to a third body orbiting around the system, and magnetic activity cycle effect, respectively.

  8. PRECESSION. Dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries with python

    CERN Document Server

    Gerosa, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical code PRECESSION: a new open-source python module to study the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. The code provides a comprehensive toolbox to (i) study the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, (ii) perform gravitational-wave driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and (iii) predict the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulae obtained from numerical-relativity simulations. PRECESSION is a ready-to-use tool to add the black-hole spin dynamics to larger-scale numerical studies such as gravitational-wave parameter estimation codes, population synthesis models to predict gravitational-wave event rates, galaxy merger trees and cosmological simulations of structure formation. PRECESSION provides fast and reliable integration methods to propagate statistical samples of black-hole binaries from/to large separations where they form to/from small separations where t...

  9. Jets and Accretion Disks in X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John

    The outflow of material in the form of jets is a common phenomenon in astronomical sources with accretion disks. Even though jets are seen coming from the cores of galaxies, Galactic compact objects in X-ray binaries, and stars as they are forming, we do not understand in detail what accretion disk conditions are necessary to support a relativistic jet. This proposal focuses on multi-wavelength studies of X-ray binaries in order to improve our understanding of the connection between the disk and the jet. Specifically, this proposal includes work on two approved cycle 14 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) programs, an approved XMM-Newton program, as well as a synthesis study of transient black hole X-ray binaries using archival RXTE and radio data. We plan to use X-ray spectral and timing properties to determine the disk properties during the re-activation of the compact jet (as seen in the radio and infrared) during the decays of black hole transient outbursts, to determine how the inner disk properties change at low mass accretion rates, and to use RXTE along with multi-wavelength observations to constrain the jet properties required for the microquasar Cygnus~X-3 to produce high- energy emission. Due to the ubiquity of jets in astrophysical settings, these science topics are relevant to NASA programs dealing with the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the Universe, and especially to understanding phenomena near black holes.

  10. GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calderón; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Haris, K; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-04-01

    The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30M_{⊙}, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict Ω_{GW}(f=25  Hz)=1.1_{-0.9}^{+2.7}×10^{-9} with 90% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We conclude that this background is potentially measurable by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors operating at their projected final sensitivity.

  11. GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30 M⊙, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict ΩGW(f =25 Hz )=1. 1-0.9+2.7×10-9 with 90% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We conclude that this background is potentially measurable by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors operating at their projected final sensitivity.

  12. Contact line dynamics in binary lattice Boltzmann simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Pooley, C M; Yeomans, J M; 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.056709

    2008-01-01

    We show that, when a single relaxation time lattice Boltzmann algorithm is used to solve the hydrodynamic equations of a binary fluid for which the two components have different viscosities, strong spurious velocities in the steady state lead to incorrect results for the equilibrium contact angle. We identify the origins of these spurious currents, and demonstrate how the results can be greatly improved by using a lattice Boltzmann method based on a multiple-relaxation-time algorithm. By considering capillary filling we describe the dependence of the advancing contact angle on the interface velocity.

  13. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  14. Detection of unresolved binaries with multicolor photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chulkov, D; Malkov, O; Sichevskij, S; Krussanova, N; Mironov, A; Zakharov, A; Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    The principal goal of this paper is to specify conditions of detection of unresolved binaries by multicolor photometry. We have developed a method for estimating the critical distance at which an unresolved binary of given mass and age can be detected. The method is applied to the photometric system of the planned Lyra-B spaceborne experiment. We have shown that some types of unresolved binary stars can be discovered and distinguished from single stars solely by means of photometric observations.

  15. Formation and Evolution of Binary Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Satellites of asteroids have been discovered in nearly every known small body population, and a remarkable aspect of the known satellites is the diversity of their properties. They tell a story of vast differences in formation and evolution mechanisms that act as a function of size, distance from the Sun, and the properties of their nebular environment at the beginning of Solar System history and their dynamical environment over the next 4.5 Gyr. The mere existence of these systems provides a laboratory to study numerous types of physical processes acting on asteroids and their dynamics provide a valuable probe of their physical properties otherwise possible only with spacecraft. Advances in understanding the formation and evolution of binary systems have been assisted by: 1) the growing catalog of known systems, increasing from 33 to nearly 250 between the Merline et al. (2002) Asteroids III chapter and now, 2) the detailed study and long-term monitoring of individual systems such as 1999 KW4 and 1996 FG3, 3...

  16. Measuring Massive Black Hole Binaries with LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ryan N.; Hughes, Scott A.; Cornish, Neil J.

    2009-01-01

    The coalescence of two massive black holes produces gravitational waves (GWs) which can be detected by the space-based detector LISA. By measuring these waves, LISA can determine the various parameters which characterize the source. Measurements of the black hole masses and spins will provide information about the growth of black holes and their host galaxies over time. Measurements of a source's sky position and distance may help astronomers identify an electromagnetic counterpart to the GW event. The counterpart's redshift, combined with the GW-measured luminosity distance, can then be used to measure the Hubble constant and the dark energy parameter $w$. Because the potential science output is so high, it is useful to know in advance how well LISA can measure source parameters for a wide range of binaries. We calculate expected parameter estimation errors using the well-known Fisher matrix method. Our waveform model includes the physics of spin precession, as well as subleading harmonics. When these higher-order effects are not included, strong degeneracies between some parameters cause them to be poorly determined by a GW measurement. When precession and subleading harmonics are properly included, the degeneracies are broken, reducing parameter errors by one to several orders of magnitude.

  17. Object tracking on mobile devices using binary descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savakis, Andreas; Quraishi, Mohammad Faiz; Minnehan, Breton

    2015-03-01

    With the growing ubiquity of mobile devices, advanced applications are relying on computer vision techniques to provide novel experiences for users. Currently, few tracking approaches take into consideration the resource constraints on mobile devices. Designing efficient tracking algorithms and optimizing performance for mobile devices can result in better and more efficient tracking for applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper, we use binary descriptors, including Fast Retina Keypoint (FREAK), Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB), Binary Robust Independent Features (BRIEF), and Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK) to obtain real time tracking performance on mobile devices. We consider both Google's Android and Apple's iOS operating systems to implement our tracking approach. The Android implementation is done using Android's Native Development Kit (NDK), which gives the performance benefits of using native code as well as access to legacy libraries. The iOS implementation was created using both the native Objective-C and the C++ programing languages. We also introduce simplified versions of the BRIEF and BRISK descriptors that improve processing speed without compromising tracking accuracy.

  18. Compact Binary Mergers as Multimessenger Sources of Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    On the centennial anniversary of Einstein's theory of general relativity, we are on the verge of directly detecting one of its most remarkable predictions - gravitational waves (GWs). The inspiral and merger of compact binaries - binaries with black hole, neutron star or white dwarf companions - are among the most promising sources of GWs. Many of these sources are likely to generate observable electromagnetic (EM) and/or neutrino counterparts to the GWs, constituting a major advance in multimessenger astronomy. By way of illustration, we describe recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations in general relativity (GRMHD) that show how black hole-neutron star mergers can launch jets, lending support to the idea that such mergers could be the engines that power short-hard gamma-ray bursts. We also discuss other recent GRMHD simulations that show how an inspiraling, supermassive binary black hole in a galaxy core stirs and accretes magnetized plasma that orbits the holes in a circumbinary disk. This process can generate ``precursor'' and ``aftermath'' EM radiation with respect to the peak GW emission at merger. Computer-generated movies highlighting some of these simulations will be shown. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF Grant PHY-1300903 and NASA Grant NNX13AH44G at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  19. High Resolution Studies of Mass Loss from Massive Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richardson, Noel; Madura, Thomas; Post Russell, Christopher Michael; Teodoro, Mairan; Nichols, Joy S.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shenar, Tomer; Pablo, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss from hot luminous single and binary stars has a significant, perhaps decisive, effect on their evolution. The combination of X-ray observations of hot shocked gas embedded in the stellar winds and high-resolution optical/UV spectra of the cooler mass in the outflow provides unique ways to study the unstable process by which massive stars lose mass both through continuous stellar winds and rare, impulsive, large-scale mass ejections. The ability to obtain coordinated observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) and other X-ray observatories has allowed, for the first time, studies of resolved line emisssion over the temperature range of 104- 108K, and has provided observations to confront numerical dynamical models in three dimensions. Such observations advance our knowledge of mass-loss asymmetries, spatial and temporal variabilities, and the fundamental underlying physics of the hot shocked outflow, providing more realistic constraints on the amount of mass lost by different luminous stars in a variety of evolutionary stages. We discuss the impact that these joint observational studies have had on our understanding of dynamical mass outflows from massive stars, with particular emphasis on two important massive binaries, Delta Ori Aa, a linchpin of the mass luminosity relation for upper HRD main sequence stars, and the supermassive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae.

  20. Speech perception of noise with binary gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind;

    2008-01-01

    For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed...... by the ideal binary mask. Only 16 filter channels and a frame rate of 100 Hz are sufficient for high intelligibility. The results show that, despite a dramatic reduction of speech information, a pattern of binary gains provides an adequate basis for speech perception....

  1. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  2. Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale Edward

    2013-02-12

    This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  3. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  4. Rapid and Bright Stellar-mass Binary Black Hole Mergers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Imre; Kocsis, Bence; Haiman, Zoltán; Márka, Szabolcs

    2017-02-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) found direct evidence for double black hole binaries emitting gravitational waves. Galactic nuclei are expected to harbor the densest population of stellar-mass black holes. A significant fraction (∼ 30 % ) of these black holes can reside in binaries. We examine the fate of the black hole binaries in active galactic nuclei, which get trapped in the inner region of the accretion disk around the central supermassive black hole. We show that binary black holes can migrate into and then rapidly merge within the disk well within a Salpeter time. The binaries may also accrete a significant amount of gas from the disk, well above the Eddington rate. This could lead to detectable X-ray or gamma-ray emission, but would require hyper-Eddington accretion with a few percent radiative efficiency, comparable to thin disks. We discuss implications for gravitational-wave observations and black hole population studies. We estimate that Advanced LIGO may detect ∼20 such gas-induced binary mergers per year.

  5. Synthetic model of the gravitational wave background from evolving binary compact objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, Irina; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Modeling the stochastic gravitational wave background from various astrophysical sources is a key objective in view of upcoming observations with ground- and space-based gravitational wave observatories such as Advanced LIGO, VIRGO, eLISA, and the pulsar timing array. We develop a synthetic model framework that follows the evolution of single and binary compact objects in an astrophysical context. We describe the formation and merger rates of binaries, the evolution of their orbital parameters with time, and the spectrum of emitted gravitational waves at different stages of binary evolution. Our approach is modular and allows us to test and constrain different ingredients of the model, including stellar evolution, black hole formation scenarios, and the properties of binary systems. We use this framework in the context of a particularly well-motivated astrophysical setup to calculate the gravitational wave background from several types of sources, including inspiraling stellar-mass binary black holes that have not merged during a Hubble time. We find that this signal, albeit weak, has a characteristic shape that can help constrain the properties of binary black holes in a way complementary to observations of the background from merger events. We discuss possible applications of our framework in the context of other gravitational wave sources, such as supermassive black holes.

  6. Gamma-ray binaries : a bridge between Be stars and high energy astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lamberts, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Advances in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy have opened a new window on our universe and revealed a wide variety of binaries composed of a compact object and a Be star. In Be X-ray binaries, a neutron star accretes the Be disk and truncates it through tidal interactions. Such systems have important X-ray outbursts, some related to the disk structure. In other systems, strong gamma ray emission is observed. In gamma-ray binaries, the neutron star is not accreting but driving a highly relativistic wind. The wind collision region presents similarities to colliding wind binaries composed of massive stars. The high energy emission is coming from particles being accelerated at the relativistic shock. I will review the physics of X-ray and gamma-ray binaries, focusing particularly on the recent developments on gamma-ray binaries. I will describe physical mechanisms such as relativistic hydrodynamics, tidal forces and non thermal emission. I will highlight how high energy astrophysics can shed a new light on Be star ph...

  7. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  8. R144 : a very massive binary likely ejected from R136 through a binary-binary encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seungkyung; Banerjee, Sambaran

    2013-01-01

    R144 is a recently confirmed very massive, spectroscopic binary which appears isolated from the core of the massive young star cluster R136. The dynamical ejection hypothesis as an origin for its location is claimed improbable by Sana et al. due to its binary nature and high mass. We demonstrate here by means of direct N-body calculations that a very massive binary system can be readily dynamically ejected from a R136-like cluster, through a close encounter with a very massive system. One out of four N-body cluster models produces a dynamically ejected very massive binary system with a mass comparable to R144. The system has a system mass of $\\approx$ 355 Msun and is located at 36.8 pc from the centre of its parent cluster, moving away from the cluster with a velocity of 57 km/s at 2 Myr as a result of a binary-binary interaction. This implies that R144 could have been ejected from R136 through a strong encounter with an other massive binary or single star. In addition, we discuss all massive binaries and sin...

  9. The Possibility of Multiple Habitable Worlds Orbiting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. A.

    2014-03-01

    Are there planetary systems for which there is life on multiple worlds? Where are these fruitful planetary systems and how do we detect them? In order to address these questions; conditions which enable life and those that prevent or destroy it must be considered. Many constraints are specific to planetary systems, independent of the number of worlds in habitable zones. For instance, life on rocky planets or moons likely requires the right abundance of volatiles and radiogenic elements for prolonged geologic activity. Catastrophic sterilization events such as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts affect entire planetary systems not just specific worlds. Giant planets may either enhance or disrupt the development of complex life within a given system. It might be rare for planetary systems to possess qualities that promote life and lucky enough to avoid cataclysm. However, multiple habitable planets may provide enhanced chances for advanced life to develop. The best predictor of life on one habitable zone planet might be the presence of life on its neighbor as panspermia may occur in planetary systems with several habitable worlds. Circumbinary habitability may go hand in hand with habitability of multiple worlds. The circumstances in which the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) operates are reviewed. In some cases, the early synchronization of the primary's rotation with the binary period results in a reduction of XUV flux and stellar winds. Main sequence binaries with periods in the 10-50 days provide excellent habitable environments, within which multiple worlds may thrive. Planets and moons in these habitable zones need less magnetic protection than their single star counterparts. Exomoons orbiting a Neptune-like planet, within a BHM protected habitable zone, are expected to be habitable over a wide range of semimajor axes due to a larger planetary Hill radius. A result confirmed by numerical orbital calculations. Binaries containing a solar type star with a

  10. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  11. Interacting Jets from Binary Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, G C; O'Sullivan, S; Spicer, D; Bacciotti, F; Rosén, A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly pa...

  12. The Young Visual Binary Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa A.; Avilez, Ian; Allen, Thomas; Zoonematkermani, Saeid; Biddle, Lauren; Muzzio, Ryan; Wittal, Matthew; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution H-band and in some cases K-band spectra of each component in close to 100 young multiple systems in the nearby star forming regions of Taurus, Ophiuchus, TW Hya, and Orion. The binary separations for the pairs in our sample range from 30 mas to 3 arcseconds. The imaging and most of our spectra were obtained with instruments behind adaptive optics systems in order to resolve even the closest companions. We are in the process of determining fundamental stellar and circumstellar properties, such as effective temperature, Vsin(i), veiling, and radial velocity, for each component in the entire sample. The beta version of our database includes systems in the Taurus region and provides plots, downloadable ascii spectra, and values of the stellar and circumstellar properties for both stars in each system. This resource is openly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. In this poster we describe initial results from our analysis of the survey data. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  13. Millisecond Pulsars in Close Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    In this Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) I present my research carried out over the last four years at the Argelander Institute for Astronomy (AIfA) and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR). The thesis summarizes my main findings and has been written to fulfill the requirements for the Habilitation qualification at the University of Bonn. Although my work is mainly focused on the topic of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), there is a fairly broad spread of research areas ranging from the formation of neutron stars (NSs) in various supernova (SN) events, to their evolution, for example, via accretion processes in binary and triple systems, and finally to their possible destruction in merger events. The thesis is organized in the following manner: A general introduction to neutron stars and millisecond pulsars is given in Chapter 1. A selection of key papers published in 2011-2014 are presented in Chapters 2-10, ordered within five main research areas (ultra-stripped SNe in close binaries, ma...

  14. The binary populations of eight globular clusters in the outer halo of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Bedin, L. R.; Dotter, A.; Jerjen, H.; Kim, D.; Nardiello, D.; Piotto, G.; Cong, J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse colour-magnitude diagrams of eight globular clusters (GCs) in the outer Galactic halo. Images were taken with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Survey and the Ultraviolet and Visual Channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 on board of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have determined the fraction of binary stars along the main sequence and combined results with those of a recent paper where some of us have performed a similar analysis on 59 Galactic GCs. In total, binaries have been now studied homogeneously in 67 GCs. We studied the radial and luminosity distributions of the binary systems, the distribution of their mass ratios and investigated univariate relations with several parameters of the host GCs. We confirm the anticorrelation between the binary fraction and the luminosity of the host cluster, and find that low-luminosity clusters can host a large population in excess of ˜40 per cent in the cluster core. However, our results do not support a significant correlation with the cluster age as suggested in the literature. In most GCs, binaries are more centrally concentrated than single stars. If the fraction of binaries is normalized to the core binary fraction the radial density profiles follow a common trend. It has a maximum in the centre and declines by a factor of 2 at a distance of about two core radii from the cluster centre. After dropping to its minimum at a radial distance of ˜5 core radii it stays approximately constant at larger radii. We also find that the mass ratio and the distribution of binaries as a function of the mass of the primary star is almost flat.

  15. A quest for activity cycles in low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, K; Oláh, K

    2013-01-01

    Long-term photometric measurements in a sample of ultrashort-period (P~0.5 days or less) single and binary stars of different interior structures are analysed. A loose correlation exists between the rotational rate and cycle lengths of active stars, regardless of their evolutionary state and the corresponding physical parameters. The shortest cycles are expected on the fastest rotators in the order of 1-2 years, which is reported in this paper.

  16. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, J.; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a mo

  17. Binary Structure in David Lodge's Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍

    2008-01-01

    David Lodge is one of the most renowned modern English writers.He is known for the binary structure in his novels.In this paper,the writer will try to the binary structure in some of his novels to show his reflections on Catholicism and culture conflicts.

  18. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  19. Helium in atmospheres of binary stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leushin, V.V. (Rostovskij-na-Donu Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Fiziki)

    The helium abundances were obtained for 25 bright components of binary stars by model atmosphere analysis. The helium abundance for binary stars that lie on the main sequence are larger in the average than in single normal stars. The stars on the Hertzsppung - russel diagram lie at a larger distance from the zero age line than those with normal helium abundance.

  20. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  1. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  2. Bayesian analysis of exoplanet and binary orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze-Hartung, Tim; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We introduce BASE (Bayesian astrometric and spectroscopic exoplanet detection and characterisation tool), a novel program for the combined or separate Bayesian analysis of astrometric and radial-velocity measurements of potential exoplanet hosts and binary stars. The capabilities of BASE are demonstrated using all publicly available data of the binary Mizar A.

  3. Binary Representations of Fingerprint Spectral Minutiae Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Haiyun; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    A fixed-length binary representation of a fingerprint has the advantages of a fast operation and a small template storage. For many biometric template protection schemes, a binary string is also required as input. The spectral minutiae representation is a method to represent a minutiae set as a fixe

  4. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R

    2014-01-01

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  5. First order post-Newtonian gravitational waveforms of binaries on eccentric orbits with Hansen coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikóczi, Balázs; Forgács, Péter; Vasúth, Mátyás

    2015-08-01

    The inspiral and merger of supermassive black hole binary systems with high orbital eccentricity are among the promising sources of the advanced gravitational wave observatories. In this paper we compute gravitational waveforms in the frequency domain to the first post-Newtonian order, emitted by compact binary systems with arbitrary eccentricity. Our results are fully analytic, ready-to-use expressions of the waveforms in terms of a suitable generalization of Hansen coefficients known from celestial mechanics. Secular terms induced by the eccentricity are eliminated by introducing a suitable phase shift. The obtained waveforms have a rather simple structure, greatly facilitating their use in applications.

  6. Prospects for joint observations of gravitational waves and gamma rays from merging neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, B.; Razzano, M.; Cella, G.; Fidecaro, F.; Pian, E.; Branchesi, M.; Stamerra, A.

    2016-11-01

    The detection of the events GW150914 and GW151226, both consistent with the merger of a binary black hole system (BBH), opened the era of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy. Besides BBHs, the most promising GW sources are the coalescences of binary systems formed by two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. These mergers are thought to be connected with short Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), therefore combined observations of GW and electromagnetic (EM) signals could definitively probe this association. We present a detailed study on the expectations for joint GW and high-energy EM observations of coalescences of binary systems of neutron stars with Advanced Virgo and LIGO and with the Fermi gamma-ray telescope. To this scope, we designed a dedicated Montecarlo simulation pipeline for the multimessenger emission and detection by GW and gamma-ray instruments, considering the evolution of the GW detector sensitivities. We show that the expected rate of joint detection is low during the Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO 2016-2017 run; however, as the interferometers approach their final design sensitivities, the rate will increase by ~ a factor of ten. Future joint observations will help to constrain the association between short GRBs and binary systems and to solve the puzzle of the progenitors of GWs. Comparison of the joint detection rate with the ones predicted in this paper will help to constrain the geometry of the GRB jet.

  7. Astrophysical Implications of the Binary Black-hole Merger GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of the gravitational-wave (GW) source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black hole (BH) systems that inspiral and merge within the age of the universe. Such BH mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively “heavy” BHs (≳ 25 {M}⊙ ) can form in nature. This discovery implies relatively weak massive-star winds and thus the formation of GW150914 in an environment with a metallicity lower than about 1/2 of the solar value. The rate of binary-BH (BBH) mergers inferred from the observation of GW150914 is consistent with the higher end of rate predictions (≳ 1 Gpc-3 yr-1) from both types of formation models. The low measured redshift (z≃ 0.1) of GW150914 and the low inferred metallicity of the stellar progenitor imply either BBH formation in a low-mass galaxy in the local universe and a prompt merger, or formation at high redshift with a time delay between formation and merger of several Gyr. This discovery motivates further studies of binary-BH formation astrophysics. It also has implications for future detections and studies by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, and GW detectors in space.

  8. Binary Planetary Nebulae Nuclei towards the Galactic Bulge. I. Sample Discovery, Period Distribution and Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Udalski, A

    2009-01-01

    Binarity has been hypothesised to play an important, if not ubiquitous, role in the formation of planetary nebulae (PNe). Yet there remains a severe paucity of known binary central stars required to test the binary hypothesis and to place strong constraints on the physics of the common-envelope (CE) phase of binary stellar evolution. Large photometric surveys offer an unrivalled opportunity to efficiently discover many binary central stars. We have combined photometry from the OGLE microlensing survey with the largest sample of PNe towards the Galactic Bulge to systematically search for new binaries. A total of 21 periodic binaries were found thereby more than doubling the known sample. The orbital period distribution was found to be best described by CE population synthesis models when no correlation between primary and secondary masses is assumed for the initial mass ratio distribution. A comparison with post-CE white dwarf binaries indicates both distributions are representative of the true post-CE period ...

  9. Observing Mergers of Non-Spinning Black-Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied m8BS ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our equal-mass and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This is an indicator of the amount of degeneracy in mass ratio for mergers of moderate mass ratio systems.

  10. Observing mergers of non-spinning black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliams, Sean T; Baker, John G

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied mass ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our 1:1 (equal mass) and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This i...

  11. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Smullen, Rachel A; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Asid...

  12. Evolution of non-synchronized binary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for binary evolution is introduced which can determine whether the rotation of components is synchronized with the orbital motion, and can calculate the evolution of both the synchronized and non-synchronized binary systems. With this model, the evolution of a binary system consisting of a 9 M⊙ star and a 6 M⊙ star is studied with mass transfer Case B. The result shows that the synchronization of the rotational and orbital periods can be reached when the binary system is a detached system and before the occurrence of the first mass transfer. After the onset of the first mass transfer, the binary system becomes non-synchronized. The mass accepted component (the secondary) rotates faster with a period much smaller than that of the orbital motion.

  13. Evolution of non-synchronized binary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄润乾; 曾艺蓉

    2000-01-01

    A model for binary evolution is introduced which can determine whether the rotation of components is synchronized with the orbital motion, and can calculate the evolution of both the synchronized and non-synchronized binary systems. With this model, the evolution of a binary system consisting of a 9 M star and a 6 M star is studied with mass transfer Case B. The result shows that the synchronization of the rotational and orbital periods can be reached when the binary system is a detached system and before the occurrence of the first mass transfer. After the onset of the first mass transfer, the binary system becomes non-synchronized. The mass accepted component (the secondary) rotates faster with a period much smaller than that of the orbital motion.

  14. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.

  15. Fundamental stellar and accretion disc parameters of the eclipsing binary DQ Velorum

    CERN Document Server

    Barría, D; Schmidtobreick, L; Djurasević, G; Kołaczkowski, Z; Michalska, G; Vucković, M; Niemczura, E; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220230

    2013-01-01

    To add to the growing collection of well-studied double periodic variables (DPVs) we have carried out the first spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the eclipsing binary DQ Velorum to obtain its main physical stellar and orbital parameters. Combining spectroscopic and photometric observations that cover several orbital cycles allows us to estimate the stellar properties of the binary components and the orbital parameters. We also searched for circumstellar material around the more massive star. We separated DQ Velorum composite spectra and measured radial velocities with an iterative method for double spectroscopic binaries. We obtained the radial velocity curves and calculated the spectroscopic mass ratio. We compared our single-lined spectra with a grid of synthetic spectra and estimated the temperature of the stars. We modeled the V-band light curve with a fitting method based on the simplex algorithm, which includes an accretion disc. To constrain the main stellar parameters we fixed the mass ratio a...

  16. Binary mixtures of chiral gases

    CERN Document Server

    Presilla, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A possible solution of the well known paradox of chiral molecules is based on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At low pressure the molecules are delocalized between the two minima of a given molecular potential while at higher pressure they become localized in one minimum due to the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Evidence for such a phase transition is provided by measurements of the inversion spectrum of ammonia and deuterated ammonia at different pressures. In particular, at pressure greater than a critical value no inversion line is observed. These data are well accounted for by a model previously developed and recently extended to mixtures. In the present paper, we discuss the variation of the critical pressure in binary mixtures as a function of the fractions of the constituents.

  17. Binary Cepheids from optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Mérand, A; Monnier, J D; Pietrzyński, J Breitfelder G; Gieren, W

    2013-01-01

    Classical Cepheid stars have been considered since more than a century as reliable tools to estimate distances in the universe thanks to their Period-Luminosity (P-L) relationship. Moreover, they are also powerful astrophysical laboratories, providing fundamental clues for studying the pulsation and evolution of intermediate-mass stars. When in binary systems, we can investigate the age and evolution of the Cepheid, estimate the mass and distance, and constrain theoretical models. However, most of the companions are located too close to the Cepheid (1-40 mas) to be spatially resolved with a 10-meter class telescope. The only way to spatially resolve such systems is to use long-baseline interferometry. Recently, we have started a unique and long-term interferometric program that aims at detecting and characterizing physical parameters of the Cepheid companions, with as main objectives the determination of accurate masses and geometric distances.

  18. Record-Breaking Eclipsing Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    A new record holder exists for the longest-period eclipsing binary star system: TYC-2505-672-1. This intriguing system contains a primary star that is eclipsed by its companion once every 69 years with each eclipse lasting several years!120 Years of ObservationsIn a recent study, a team of scientists led by Joseph Rodriguez (Vanderbilt University) characterizes the components of TYC-2505-672-1. This binary star system consists of an M-type red giant star that undergoes a ~3.45-year-long, near-total eclipse with a period of ~69.1 years. This period is more than double that of the previous longest-period eclipsing binary!Rodriguez and collaborators combined photometric observations of TYC-2505-672-1 by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) with a variety of archival data, including observations by the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) network and historical data from the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) program.In the 120 years spanned by these observations, two eclipses are detected: one in 1942-1945 and one in 2011-2015. The authors use the observations to analyze the components of the system and attempt to better understand what causes its unusual light curve.Characterizing an Unusual SystemObservations of TYC-2505-672-1 plotted from 1890 to 2015 reveal two eclipses. (The blue KELT observations during the eclipse show upper limits only.) [Rodriguez et al. 2016]By modeling the systems emission, Rodriguez and collaborators establish that TYC-2505-672-1 consists of a 3600-K primary star thats the M giant orbited by a small, hot, dim companion thats a toasty 8000 K. But if the companion is small, why does the eclipse last several years?The authors argue that the best model of TYC-2505-672-1 is one in which the small companion star is surrounded by a large, opaque circumstellar disk. Rodriguez and collaborators suggest that the companion could be a former red giant whose atmosphere was stripped from it, leaving behind

  19. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.; Gallina, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman & Wiegert (1999, AJ, 117, 621) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Δ determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Both these parameters are derived in different contexts, i.e. Δ is usually adopted for computing the stability limit of two planets around a single star while ac is computed for a single planet in a binary system. Aims: Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. Methods: We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. Results: First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability and it does not account for planets trapped in resonance with the companion star well beyond ac. For two-planet systems, the value of Δ is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoticity close to it substantially increases for smaller semimajor axes and higher eccentricities of the binary orbit. In these configurations ac also begins to be unreliable and non-linear secular resonances with the stellar companion lead to chaotic behaviour well within ac, even for single planet systems. For two planet systems, the superposition of mean motion resonances, either mutual or with the binary companion, and non-linear secular resonances may lead to chaotic behaviour in all cases. We have developed a parametric semi-empirical formula determining the minimum value of the binary semimajor axis, for a given

  20. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  1. A more effective coordinate system for parameter estimation of precessing compact binaries from gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Farr, Benjamin; Farr, Will M; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Ground-based gravitational wave detectors are sensitive to a narrow range of frequencies, effectively taking a snapshot of merging compact-object binary dynamics just before merger. We demonstrate that by adopting analysis parameters that naturally characterize this 'picture', the physical parameters of the system can be extracted more efficiently from the gravitational wave data, and interpreted more easily. We assess the performance of MCMC parameter estimation in this physically intuitive coordinate system, defined by (a) a frame anchored on the binary's spins and orbital angular momentum and (b) a time at which the detectors are most sensitive to the binary's gravitational wave emission. Using anticipated noise curves for the advanced-generation LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors, we find that this careful choice of reference frame and reference time significantly improves parameter estimation efficiency for BNS, NS-BH, and BBH signals.

  2. Modelling gravitational waves from precessing black-hole binaries: Progress, challenges and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Hannam, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The inspiral and merger of two orbiting black holes is among the most promising sources for the first (hopefully imminent) direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs), and measurements of these signals could provide a wealth of information about astrophysics, fundamental physics and cosmology. Detection and measurement require a theoretical description of the GW signals from all possible black-hole-binary configurations, which can include complicated precession effects due to the black-hole spins. Modelling the GW signal from generic precessing binaries is therefore one of the most urgent theoretical challenges facing GW astronomy. This article briefly reviews the phenomenology of generic-binary dynamics and waveforms, and recent advances in modelling them.

  3. Binary dynamics near a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical evolution of binary stars that interact with a static background of single stars in the environment of a massive black hole (MBH). All stars are considered to be single mass, Newtonian point particles. We follow the evolution of the energy E and angular momentum J of the center of mass of the binaries with respect to the MBH, as well as their internal semi-major axis a, using a Monte Carlo method. For a system like the Galactic center, the main conclusions are the following: (1) The binary fraction can be of the order of a few percent outside 0.1 pc, but decreases quickly closer to the MBH. (2) Within ~0.1 pc, binaries can only exist on eccentric orbits with apocenters much further away from the MBH. (3) Far away from the MBH, loss-cone effects are the dominant mechanism that disrupts binaries with internal velocities close to the velocity dispersion. Closer to the MBH, three-body encounters are more effective in disrupting binaries. (4) The rate at which hard binaries become tighter ...

  4. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...

  5. The origin of very wide binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Davies, Melvyn B; Parker, Richard J; Kroupa, P; Malmberg, D

    2011-01-01

    A large population of fragile, wide (> 1000 AU) binary systems exists in the Galactic field and halo. These wide binary stars cannot be primordial because of the high stellar density in star forming regions, while formation by capture in the Galactic field is highly improbable. We propose that these binary systems were formed during the dissolution phase of star clusters (see Kouwenhoven et al. 2010, for details). Stars escaping from a dissolving star cluster can have very similar velocities, which can lead to the formation of a wide binary systems. We carry out N-body simulations to test this hypothesis. The results indicate that this mechanism explains the origin of wide binary systems in the Galaxy. The resulting wide binary fraction and semi-major axis distribution depend on the initial conditions of the dissolving star cluster, while the distributions in eccentricity and mass ratio are universal. Finally, since most stars are formed in (relatively tight) primordial binaries, we predict that a large fract...

  6. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Geller, Aaron M.; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Binary mass transfer (MT) is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including SNe Ia, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this timescale to the mean time for stable MT to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing MT that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster properties. We find that for lower-mass clusters (≲ {10}4 {M}⊙ ), on the order of a few to a few tens of percent of binaries undergoing MT are expected to be interrupted by an interloping single, or more often binary, star, over the course of the cluster lifetime, whereas in more massive globular clusters we expect \\ll 1% to be interrupted. Furthermore, using numerical scattering experiments performed with the FEWBODY code, we show that the probability of interruption increases if perturbative fly-bys are considered as well, by a factor ˜2.

  7. Artificial Intelligence and the Brave New World of Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E.; Guinan, E.; Bradstreet, D.; DeGeorge, M.; Giammarco, J.; Alcock, C.; Engle, S.

    2005-12-01

    The explosive growth of observational capabilities and information technology over the past decade has brought astronomy to a tipping point - we are going to be deluged by a virtual fire hose (more like Niagara Falls!) of data. An important component of this deluge will be newly discovered eclipsing binary stars (EBs) and other valuable variable stars. As exploration of the Local Group Galaxies grows via current and new ground-based and satellite programs, the number of EBs is expected to grow explosively from some 10,000 today to 8 million as GAIA comes online. These observational advances will present a unique opportunity to study the properties of EBs formed in galaxies with vastly different dynamical, star formation, and chemical histories than our home Galaxy. Thus the study of these binaries (e.g., from light curve analyses) is expected to provide clues about the star formation rates and dynamics of their host galaxies as well as the possible effects of varying chemical abundance on stellar evolution and structure. Additionally, minimal-assumption-based distances to Local Group objects (and possibly 3-D mapping within these objects) shall be returned. These huge datasets of binary stars will provide tests of current theories (or suggest new theories) regarding binary star formation and evolution. However, these enormous data will far exceed the capabilities of analysis via human examination. To meet the daunting challenge of successfully mining this vast potential of EBs and variable stars for astrophysical results with minimum human intervention, we are developing new data processing techniques and methodologies. Faced with an overwhelming volume of data, our goal is to integrate technologies of Machine Learning and Pattern Processing (Artificial Intelligence [AI]) into the data processing pipelines of the major current and future ground- and space-based observational programs. Data pipelines of the future will have to carry us from observations to

  8. Fast algorithms for generating binary holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Dustin; Kuhn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We describe three algorithms for generating binary-valued holograms. Our methods are optimised for producing large arrays of tightly focussed optical tweezers for trapping particles. Binary-valued holograms allow us to use a digital mirror device (DMD) as the display element, which is much faster than other alternatives. We describe how our binary amplitude holograms can be used to correct for phase errors caused by optical aberrations. Furthermore, we compare the speed and accuracy of the algorithms for both periodic and arbitrary arrangements of traps, which allows one to choose the ideal scheme depending on the circumstances.

  9. Discovery of a 2 Kpc Binary Quasar

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, G. A.; Junkkarinen, V.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, R. D.; Hamann, F.; Lyons, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    LBQS 0103$-$2753 is a binary quasar with a separation of only 0.3 arcsec. The projected spacing of 2.3 kpc at the distance of the source (z = 0.848) is much smaller than that of any other known binary QSO. The binary nature is demonstrated by the very different spectra of the two components and the low probability of a chance pairing. LBQS 0103$-$2753 presumably is a galaxy merger with a small physical separation between the two supermassive black holes. Such objects may provide important con...

  10. Binary Cu-Zr Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mei-Bo; ZHAO De-Qian; PAN Ming-Xiang; WANG Wei-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report that bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) can be produced up to 2 mm by a copper mould casting in Cux Zr1-x binary alloy with a wide glass forming composition range (45 < x < 60 at.%). We find that the formation mechanism for the binary Cu-Zr binary BMG-forming alloy is obviously different from that of the intensively studied multicomponent BMGs. Our results demonstrate that the criteria for the multicomponent alloys with composition near deep eutectic and strong liquid behaviour are no longer the major concern for designing BMGs.

  11. Dynamical mass transfer in cataclysmic binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Fulvio; Lamb, D. Q.

    1987-01-01

    When a binary comes into contact and mass transfer begins, orbital angular momentum is stored in the accretion disk until the disk couples tidally to the binary system. Taam and McDermott (1987) have suggested that this leads to unstable dynamical mass transfer in many cataclysmic variables in which mass transfer would otherwise be stable, and that it explains the gap between 2 and 3 h in the orbital period distribution of these systems. Here the consequences of this hypothesis for the evolution of cataclysmic binaries are explored. It is found that systems coming into contact longward of the period gap undergo one or more episodes of dynamical mass transfer.

  12. Blind iterative deconvolution of binary star images

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K

    1997-01-01

    The technique of Blind Iterative De-convolution (BID) was used to remove the atmospherically induced point spread function (PSF) from short exposure images of two binary stars, HR 5138 and HR 5747 obtained at the cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope(VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur. The position angles and separations of the binary components were seen to be consistent with results of the auto-correlation technique, while the Fourier phases of the reconstructed images were consistent with published observations of the binary orbits.

  13. Division Unit for Binary Integer Decimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    -recurrence algorithm to BID representation and implement the division unit in standard cell technology. The implementation of the proposed BID division unit is compared to that of a BCD based unit implementing the same algorithm. The comparison shows that for normalized operands the BID unit has the same latency......In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm and implements binary encodings (binary integer decimal or BID) for significands. Recent decimal division designs are all based on the binary coded decimal (BCD) encoding. We adapt the radix-10 digit...

  14. Busting Up Binaries: Encounters Between Compact Binaries and a Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, Eric; Larson, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Given the stellar density near the galactic center, close encounters between compact object binaries and the supermassive black hole are a plausible occurrence. We present results from a numerical study of close to 13 million such encounters. Consistent with previous studies, we corroborate that, for binary systems tidally disrupted by the black hole, the component of the binary remaining bound to the hole has eccentricity ~ 0.97 and circularizes dramatically by the time it enters the classical LISA band. Our results also show that the population of surviving binaries merits attention. These binary systems experience perturbations to their internal orbital parameters with potentially interesting observational consequences. We investigated the regions of parameter space for survival and estimated the distribution of orbital parameters post-encounter. We found that surviving binaries harden and their eccentricity increases, thus accelerating their merger due gravitational radiation emission and increasing the p...

  15. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  16. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Predictions for the rates of compact binary coalescences observable by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Aoudia, S.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D. E.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, K.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bigotta, S.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Blomberg, A.; Boccara, C.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Boyle, M.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Budzyński, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campagna, E.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corda, C.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coulon, J. P.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dari, A.; Das, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; del Prete, M.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J. C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J. D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garofoli, J. A.; Garufi, F.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gholami, I.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Jaranowski, P.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Leong, J.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Lin, H.

    2010-09-01

    We present an up-to-date, comprehensive summary of the rates for all types of compact binary coalescence sources detectable by the initial and advanced versions of the ground-based gravitational-wave detectors LIGO and Virgo. Astrophysical estimates for compact-binary coalescence rates depend on a number of assumptions and unknown model parameters and are still uncertain. The most confident among these estimates are the rate predictions for coalescing binary neutron stars which are based on extrapolations from observed binary pulsars in our galaxy. These yield a likely coalescence rate of 100 Myr-1 per Milky Way Equivalent Galaxy (MWEG), although the rate could plausibly range from 1 Myr-1 MWEG-1 to 1000 Myr-1 MWEG-1 (Kalogera et al 2004 Astrophys. J. 601 L179; Kalogera et al 2004 Astrophys. J. 614 L137 (erratum)). We convert coalescence rates into detection rates based on data from the LIGO S5 and Virgo VSR2 science runs and projected sensitivities for our advanced detectors. Using the detector sensitivities derived from these data, we find a likely detection rate of 0.02 per year for Initial LIGO-Virgo interferometers, with a plausible range between 2 × 10-4 and 0.2 per year. The likely binary neutron-star detection rate for the Advanced LIGO-Virgo network increases to 40 events per year, with a range between 0.4 and 400 per year.

  18. Accuracy in measuring the neutron star mass in gravitational wave parameter estimates for nonspinning compact binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee-Suk

    2015-09-01

    In gravitational wave (GW) data analysis, the parameter estimate is performed to find the physical parameters of GW sources. The result of the parameter estimate is given by a posterior probability density function, and the measurement errors can be computed by using the Fisher matrix method. Using this method, we investigate the accuracy in estimates of neutron star (NS) masses ( M NS) for GWs emitted from merging compact binaries. As GW sources, we consider nonspinning binaries in which the primary component is assumed to be a NS and the companion is assumed to be a NS or a stellar-mass black hole (BH). Adopting GW signals with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 for Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) sensitivity, we calculate measurement errors (σ) of M NS. We find that the errors strongly depend on the mass ratio of the companion mass ( M com) to the NS mass ( M NS). For NS-NS binaries, the fractional errors (σ/ M NS) are larger than 10% only in the symmetric mass region. For BH-NS binaries, the fractional errors tend to decrease with increasing mass ratio ( M com/ M NS), and the measurement accuracies are better than those for NS-NS binaries. In this case, the errors are always smaller than ~ 3%.

  19. The multi-band CCD photometric investigation of short-period eclipsing binary V1044 Her

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongpeng; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Pi, Qingfeng; Wang, Daimei

    2016-10-01

    We present new CCD photometric observations of V1044 Her obtained on May 22, 23 and 24, 2015. From our data, we derived five new light curve minimum times. Combining our new results with previously available CCD light minimum times, we derived an updated ephemeris and discovered that the period of this binary system exhibits an oscillation. The cyclic variation may be caused by the light-time effect via the presence of a third body or magnetic activity cycle. We calculated the corresponding period of the third body to be 14.1 ± 1.4 years or magnetic cycle to be 12.2 ± 0.7 years. We analyzed our new asymmetric light curves to obtain photometric solutions and starspot parameters using the Wilson and Devinney program. The final results show that V1044 Her is a contact binary system with a degree of contact factor f = 3.220(± 0.002)%.

  20. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; G. E. Matthern; S. J. Piet; A. Moisseytsev

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing a system dynamics model as part of their broad systems analysis of future nuclear energy in the United States. The model will be used to analyze and compare various proposed technology deployment scenarios. The model will also give a better understanding of the linkages between the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle that includes uranium resources, reactor number and mix, nuclear fuel type and waste management. Each of these components is tightly connected to the nuclear fuel cycle but usually analyzed in isolation of the other parts. This model will attempt to bridge these components into a single model for analysis. This work is part of a multi-national laboratory effort between Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory and United States Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the basics of the system dynamics model and looks at some results from the model.