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Sample records for advanced aqueous reprocessing

  1. Research on advanced aqueous reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel: literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the partitioning and transmutation strategy is to reduce the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel to the level of natural uranium in a short period of time (about 1000 years) and thus the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. Furthermore, it aims to reduce the volume of waste requiring deep geological disposal and hence the associated space requirements and costs. Several aqueous as well as pyrochemical separation processes have been developed for the partitioning of the long-lived radionuclides from the remaining of the spent fuel. This report aims to describe and compare advanced aqueous reprocessing methods.

  2. Research on advanced aqueous reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel: literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hecke, K.; Goethals, P.

    2006-07-15

    The goal of the partitioning and transmutation strategy is to reduce the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel to the level of natural uranium in a short period of time (about 1000 years) and thus the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. Furthermore, it aims to reduce the volume of waste requiring deep geological disposal and hence the associated space requirements and costs. Several aqueous as well as pyrochemical separation processes have been developed for the partitioning of the long-lived radionuclides from the remaining of the spent fuel. This report aims to describe and compare advanced aqueous reprocessing methods.

  3. Advanced aqueous reprocessing in P and T strategies: process demonstrations on genuine fuels and targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satmark, B.; Apostolidis, C.; Courson, O.; Malmbeck, R.; Carlos, R.; Pagliosa, G.; Romer, K.; Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, DG-JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Hot Cell Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work the performance of several processes used for advanced reprocessing of commercial LWR fuels as well as transmutation targets is compared. As a first step uranium and plutonium were recovered by PUREX type reprocessing. The raffinate, containing fission products, lanthanides and the minor actinides (MA) were used as feed for the second step in which minor actinides and lanthanides were separated from the bulk of the fission products. The five different processes tested use CMPO, DIDPA, TRPO, Diamide and CYANEX 923 as extractant. In the third step MA are separated from lanthanides. Here three processes were tested, i.e. using CYANEX 301, the synergistic mixture of di-chloro substituted CYANEX 301 and TOPO, and BTP solvents. Column-, batch- and continuous counter-current extraction techniques were used for the tests. The different processes will be described and discussed in terms of performances and efficiencies for Am and Cm. Efficient separation of MA from different genuine fuel solutions could be demonstrated and thereby also the possibility of closing a future transmutation fuel cycle. The combination, Diamide and BTP was found to be the best among extractants tested to achieve an efficient MA recovery from spent fuel. (authors)

  4. Advanced aqueous reprocessing in P and T strategies: process demonstrations on genuine fuels and targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, B.; Apostolidis, C.; Carlos, R.; Courson, O.; Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Pagliosa, G.; Roemer, K.; Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, JRC, Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the present work the performance of several processes used for advanced reprocessing of commercial LWR fuels as well as transmutation targets is compared. As a first step uranium and plutonium were recovered by PUREX type reprocessing. The raffinate, containing fission products including lanthanides and the minor actinides (MA) was used as feed for the second step in which minor actinides and lanthanides were separated from the bulk of the fission products. The five different processes tested use CMPO, DIDPA, TRPO, diamide and CYANEX 923 as extractants. In the third step MA are separated from lanthanides. Here three processes were tested, i.e. using CYANEX 301, the synergistic mixture of di-chloro substituted CYANEX 301 and TOPO, and BTP solvents. Column-, batch- and continuous counter-current extraction techniques were used for the tests. The different processes will be described and discussed in terms of performances and efficiencies for Am and Cm separation. Efficient separation of MA from different genuine fuel solutions could be demonstrated and thereby also the possibility of closing a future transmutation fuel cycle. The combination of diamide and BTP seems to be the best, among extractants tested, to achieve an efficient MA recovery from spent fuel. (orig.)

  5. Advanced instrumentation for reprocessing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2005-10-01

    Recent interest in reprocessing nuclear fuel in the U.S. has led to advanced separations processes that employ continuous processing and multiple extraction steps. These advanced plants will need to be designed with state-of-the-art instrumentation for materials accountancy and control. This research examines the current and upcoming instrumentation for nuclear materials accountancy for those most suited to the reprocessing environment. Though this topic has received attention time and again in the past, new technologies and changing world conditions require a renewed look and this subject. The needs for the advanced UREX+ separations concept are first identified, and then a literature review of current and upcoming measuring techniques is presented. The report concludes with a preliminary list of recommended instruments and measurement locations.

  6. Design study on advanced reprocessing systems for FR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study has been carried out for four advanced reprocessing technologies for the future fast rector (FR) recycle systems (advanced aqueous, and three non-aqueous systems based on oxide electrowinning, metal electrorefining, and fluoride volatility methods). The systems were evaluated mainly from the viewpoint of economics. It has been shown that, for MOX fuel reprocessing, all the systems with a capacity of 200 t/y attains the economical target, whereas for such a small capacity as 50 t/y, only the non-aqueous systems have potential to attain the target. For metallic and nitride fuel, a metal electrorefining system has been shown to be advantageous. (author)

  7. FaCT Phase-I evaluation on the advanced aqueous reprocessing process (3). Highly effective dissolution technology for FBR MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing an efficient dissolution technology for irradiated MOX fuel in the framework of Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) Project. In the fuel dissolution process for advanced aqueous reprocessing system named NEXT (New Extraction System for TRU Recovery), highly concentrated dissolution is required to adapt to the crystallization process. Optimum dissolution condition including short stroke shearing or pulverization of the irradiated fuel has been discussed, being based on the calculation results of continuous dissolver simulation code which reflects the results of dissolution tests using irradiated MOX fuel. We have been also developing rotary drum type continuous dissolver to adapt to the dissolution process for high heavy metal (U and Pu) concentration. This paper describes the summary and evaluation of R and D results on highly effective dissolution technology in the framework of FaCT Phase-I from 2006 to 2010. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the Use of Synroc to Solidify the Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Vince Maio

    2006-03-01

    This report is a literature evaluation on the Synroc process for determining the potential for application to solidification of the Cs/Sr strip product from advanced aqueous fuel separations activities.

  9. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Richard; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-06-24

    U.S. efforts to promote the international expansion of nuclear energy through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will result in a dramatic expansion of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the United States. New demonstration facilities, such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF), the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), and the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC) will use advanced nuclear and chemical process technologies that must incorporate increased proliferation resistance to enhance nuclear safeguards. The ASA-100 Project, “Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities,” commissioned by the NA-243 Office of NNSA, has been tasked with reviewing and developing advanced safeguards approaches for these demonstration facilities. Because one goal of GNEP is developing and sharing proliferation-resistant nuclear technology and services with partner nations, the safeguards approaches considered are consistent with international safeguards as currently implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This first report reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new fuel reprocessing processes to be deployed at the AFCF and CFTC facilities. Similar analyses addressing the ABR and transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication lines at AFCF and CFTC will be presented in subsequent reports.

  10. The search for advanced remote technology in fast reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development in fast reactor reprocessing has been under way ∼ 20 yr in several countries. During the past decade, France and the United Kingdom have developed active programs in breeder reprocessing. Actual fuels from their demonstration reactors have been reprocessed in small-scale facilities. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels. A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and Japan have also carried out development programs in breeder reprocessing, and Japan appears committed to major demonstration of breeder reactors and their fuel cycles. While much of the effort in these programs addressed process chemistry and process hardware, a significant element of many of these programs, particularly the CFRP, has been on advancements in facility concepts and remote maintenance features. This paper focuses on the search for improved facility concepts and better maintenance systems in the CFRP, and, in turn, on how developments at ORNL have influenced the technology elsewhere

  11. Issues for Conceptual Design of AFCF and CFTC LWR Spent Fuel Separations Influencing Next-Generation Aqueous Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Hebditch; R. Henry; M. Goff; K. Pasamehmetoglu; D. Ostby

    2007-09-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) strategic plan, which aims to meet US and international energy, safeguards, fuel supply and environmental needs by harnessing national laboratory R&D, deployment by industry and use of international partnerships. Initially, two industry-led commercial scale facilities, an advanced burner reactor (ABR) and a consolidated fuel treatment center (CFTC), and one developmental facility, an advanced fuel cycle facility (AFCF) are proposed. The national laboratories will lead the AFCF to provide an internationally recognized R&D center of excellence for developing transmutation fuels and targets and advancing fuel cycle reprocessing technology using aqueous and pyrochemical methods. The design drivers for AFCF and the CFTC LWR spent fuel separations are expected to impact on and partly reflect those for industry, which is engaging with DOE in studies for CFTC and ABR through the recent GNEP funding opportunity announcement (FOA). The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of aqueous reprocessing, gives an assessment of engineering drivers for U.S. aqueous processing facilities, examines historic plant capital costs and provides conclusions with a view to influencing design of next-generation fuel reprocessing plants.

  12. Process optimization for effective column separation of 106Ru from aqueous waste associated with spent reprocessing solvent in storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with another waste stream resulting from reprocessing operations, viz. the aqueous solution present in substantial quantities as the bottom layer in tanks storing spent TBP-dodecane solvent. The effective separation of 106Ru from aqueous waste streams generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is difficult because of its complex aqueous chemistry

  13. Development of challengeable reprocessing and fuel fabrication technologies for advanced fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R and D in the next five years in Feasibility Study Phase-2 are focused on selected key technologies for the advanced fuel cycle. These are the reference technology of simplified aqueous extraction and fuel pellet short process based on the oxide fuel and the innovative technology of oxide-electrowinning and metal- electrorefining process and their direct particle/metal fuel fabrication methods in a hot cell. Automatic and remote handling system operation in both reprocessing and fuel manufacturing can handle MA and LLFP concurrently with Pu and U attaining the highest recovery and an accurate accountability of these materials. (author)

  14. Advanced Purex process for the new French reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the main process innovations of the new Cogema reprocessing plants of La Hague (UP3 and UP2 800). Major improvements of process like the use of rotary dissolvers and annular columns, and also entirely new processes like solvent distillation and plutonium oxidizing dissolution, yield an advanced Purex process. The results of these innovations are significant improvements for throughput, end-products purification performances and waste minimization. They contribute also to limit personnel exposure. The main results of the first three years of operation are described. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  15. Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

  16. An advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF6 volatilization and chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To recover U, Pu, MA (Np, Am, Cm) and some specific fission products FPs (Cs, Sr, Tc, etc.) from various spent nuclear fuels (LWR/FBR: Oxide, Metal Fuels), we are studying an advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF6 volatilization (Pyro) and chromatographic separation (Aqueous). Spent fuels are de-cladded by means of thermal and mechanical methods and then applied to the fluorination/volatilization process, which selectively recovers the most amount of U. Then, the remained fuel components are converted to oxides and dissolved by HNO3 solution. Compared to U, since Pu, MA and FPs are significantly less abundant in spent fuels, the scale of the aqueous separation process could become reasonably small and result in less waste. For the chromatographic separation processes, we have prepared different types of porous silica-based organic/inorganic adsorbents with fast diffusion kinetics, improved chemical stability and low pressure drop in a packed column. So they are advantageously applicable to efficient separation of the actinides and FP elements from the fuel dissolved solution. In this work, adsorption and separation behavior of representative actinides and FP elements was studied. Small scale separation tests using simulated and genuine fuel dissolved solutions were carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed process. (authors)

  17. Determination of particle size distribution of salt crystals in aqueous slurries. [From reprocessing of fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.G.

    1977-10-01

    A method for determining particle size distribution of water-soluble crystals in aqueous slurries is described. The salt slurries, containing sodium salts of predominantly nitrate, but also nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, aluminates, carbonate, and hydroxide, occur in radioactive, concentrated chemical waste from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel elements. The method involves separating the crystals from the aqueous phase, drying them, and then dispersing the crystals in a nonaqueous medium based on nitroethane. Ultrasonic treatment is important in dispersing the sample into its fundamental crystals. The dispersed crystals are sieved into appropriate size ranges for counting with a HIAC brand particle counter. A preponderance of very fine particles in a slurry was found to increase the difficulty of effecting complete dispersion of the crystals because of the tendency to retain traces of aqueous mother liquor. Traces of moisture produce agglomerates of crystals, the extent of agglomeration being dependent on the amount of moisture present. The procedure is applicable to particles within the 2 to 600 ..mu..m size range of the HIAC particle counter. The procedure provides an effective means for measuring particle size distribution of crystals in aqueous salt slurries even when most crystals are less than 10 ..mu..m in size. 19 figures.

  18. Fiber-optic aided spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium (III) in aqueous streams of nuclear reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fiber optic aided spectrophotometric technique has been developed for the determination of ruthenium (III) in nitric acid medium. The developed method is simple, accurate and applicable to aqueous streams of nuclear reprocessing. The system obeys Lambert-Beer's law at 468 nm in the concentration of 60-360 ppm of ruthenium (III) nitrate. The results obtained are reproducible with standard deviation 2% and relative error is less than 3%. The results obtained by the developed procedure are in good agreement with those obtained by the standard ICP-OES method. Fission products like Zr and Sr are not interfering. Uranium is interfering and needs prior separation by solvent extraction method. The developed method is adaptable for remote operation and on-line monitoring

  19. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  20. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  1. Considerations affecting deep-well disposal of tritium-bearing low-level aqueous waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present concepts of disposal of low-level aqueous wastes (LLAW) that contain much of the fission-product tritium from light water reactors involve dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams at fuel reprocessing plants. These concepts have been challenged in recent years. Deep-well injection of low-level aqueous wastes, an alternative to biospheric dispersal, is the subject of this presentation. Many factors must be considered in assessing its feasibility, including technology, costs, environmental impact, legal and regulatory constraints, and siting. Examination of these factors indicates that the technology of deep-well injection, extensively developed for other industrial wastes, would require little innovation before application to low-level aqueous wastes. Costs would be low, of the order of magnitude of 10-4 mill/kWh. The environmental impact of normal deep-well disposal would be small, compared with dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams; abnormal operation would not be expected to produce catastrophic results. Geologically suitable sites are abundant in the U.S., but a well would best be co-located with the fuel-reprocessing plant where the LLAW is produced. Legal and regulatory constraints now being developed will be the most important determinants of the feasibility of applying the method

  2. Considerations affecting deep-well disposal of tritium-bearing low-level aqueous waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevorrow, L. E.; Warner, D. L.; Steindler, M. J.

    1977-03-01

    Present concepts of disposal of low-level aqueous wastes (LLAW) that contain much of the fission-product tritium from light water reactors involve dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams at fuel reprocessing plants. These concepts have been challenged in recent years. Deep-well injection of low-level aqueous wastes, an alternative to biospheric dispersal, is the subject of this presentation. Many factors must be considered in assessing its feasibility, including technology, costs, environmental impact, legal and regulatory constraints, and siting. Examination of these factors indicates that the technology of deep-well injection, extensively developed for other industrial wastes, would require little innovation before application to low-level aqueous wastes. Costs would be low, of the order of magnitude of 10/sup -4/ mill/kWh. The environmental impact of normal deep-well disposal would be small, compared with dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams; abnormal operation would not be expected to produce catastrophic results. Geologically suitable sites are abundant in the U.S., but a well would best be co-located with the fuel-reprocessing plant where the LLAW is produced. Legal and regulatory constraints now being developed will be the most important determinants of the feasibility of applying the method.

  3. Advanced fuel cycle on the basis of pyroelectrochemical process for irradiated fuel reprocessing and vibropacking technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For advanced nuclear fuel cycle in SSC RIAR there is developed the pyroelectrochemical process to reprocess irradiated fuel and produce granulated oxide fuel UO2, PuO2 or (U,Pu)O2 from chloride melts. The basic technological stage is the extraction of oxides as a crystal product with the methods either of the electrolysis (UO2 and UO2-PuO2) or of the precipitating crystalIization (PuO2). After treating the granulated fuel is ready for direct use to manufacture vibropacking fuel pins. Electrochemical model for (U,Pu)O2 coprecipitation is described. There are new processes being developed: electroprecipitation of mixed oxides - (U,Np)O2, (U,Pu,Np)O2, (U,Am)O2 and (U,Pu,Am)O2. Pyroelectrochemical production of mixed actinide oxides is used both for reprocessing spent fuel and for producing actinide fuel. Both the efficiency of pyroelectrochemical methods application for reprocessing nuclear fuel and of vibropac technology for plutonium recovery are estimated. (author)

  4. Transmutation Scenarios Impacts on Advanced Nuclear Cycles (fabrication/reprocessing/transportation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the French Law for waste management, minor actinides transmutation scenarios have been studied for a sodium-cooled fast reactors fleet using homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes. Americium, neptunium and curium can be transmuted once included together in the standard MOX fuel, or the sole Americium can be incorporated in Am-bearing radial blanket. MAs transmutation in Accelerator Driven System has also been studied while Plutonium is recycling in SFR. Assessments and comparisons of these advanced cycles have been performed in light of technical and economic aspects criteria. The purpose of this study is to present the results in terms of impacts of the transmutation scenarios on fuel cycle plants (fabrication, reprocessing) and transportations taking into account thermal, radiation and criticality parameters. Comparison with no transmutation option is also presented. (author)

  5. An advanced safeguards approach for a model 200t/a reprocessing facility, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an advanced safeguards approach which has been developed for a model 200 t/a reprocessing plant, using near-real-time materials accountancy in the process MBA, and borrowing advanced ideas from TASTEX, the IWG-RPS, or the authors own invention for the spent fuel storage and plutonium nitrate storage MBAs. In the spent fuel storage MBA primary reliance is placed on 100% inspector observation and verification of all spent fuel receipts, and on surveillance measures to ensure that the inspector is aware of all receipts or other activities in the spent fuel cask receiving bay. The advanced safeguards approach gives more detailed consideration to the mechanical or chop-leach cell than most conventional approaches. Safeguards in the process MBA are based on n.r.t. accountancy. The n.r.t. accountancy model used assumes weekly in-process physical inventories of solution in some five buffer storage tanks. The safeguards approach suggested for the plutonium nitrate storage MBA is not significantly different from conventional approaches. The use of sequential statistical techniques for the analysis of n.r.t. accountancy data requires a significantly different philosophical approach to anomalies and anomaly resolution. This report summarizes anomaly resolution procedures, at least through the earlier stages, and describes a summary estimate of inspection effort likely to be needed to implement the advanced safeguards approach. (author)

  6. Advancement of reprocessing technology. The forefront of the actinides/fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject which is important for building the future back end process of nuclear fuel is the better compatibility of the sharp rise of economic efficiency with global environmental conditions, taking up the fuel cycle system for fast reactors as the object. Wet reprocessing PUREX process is excellent in its reliability and safety, but from the viewpoint of economic efficiency and the load on waste disposal, same pointing-out has been done. In high level waste liquid, trace minor actinides and large amount of Na salt are the problems. As the advancement of PUREX process, the research on the reduction of Na waste liquid is reported. As for the recent improvement, emphasis has been placed on the control of the behavior of Np, Tc and Pt family. As the wet type actinide separation process, transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process is the relatively new, powerful solvent extraction process. Its development is described. By using the real waste liquid generated by the PUREX test of the spent fuel from fast reactors, the multi-stage, opposite flow extraction test on bench scale has been carried out at the hot cell of Chemical Processing Facility. The separation of actinides using macrocyclic compounds is reported. (K.I.)

  7. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in...

  8. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Ken [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Martin, Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lumetta, Gregg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-02

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of used nuclear fuel is the separation of transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. This separation is essential if actinide transmutation options are to be pursued in advanced fuel cycles, as lanthanides compete with actinides for neutrons in both thermal and fast reactors, thus limiting efficiency. The separation is difficult because the chemistry of Am3+ and Cm3+ is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). The prior literature teaches that two approaches offer the greatest probability of devising a successful group separation process based on aqueous processes: 1) the application of complexing agents containing ligand donor atoms that are softer than oxygen (N, S, Cl-) or 2) changing the oxidation state of Am to the IV, V, or VI state to increase the essential differences between Am and lanthanide chemistry (an approach utilized in the PUREX process to selectively remove Pu4+ and UO22+ from fission products). The latter approach offers the additional benefit of enabling a separation of Am from Cm, as Cm(III) is resistant to oxidation and so can easily be made to follow the lanthanides. The fundamental limitations of these approaches are that 1) the soft(er) donor atoms that interact more strongly with actinide cations than lanthanides form substantially weaker bonds than oxygen atoms, thus necessitating modification of extraction conditions for adequate phase transfer efficiency, 2) soft donor reagents have been seen to suffer slow phase transfer kinetics and hydro-/radiolytic stability limitations and 3) the upper oxidation states of Am are all moderately strong oxidants, hence of only transient stability in media representative of conventional aqueous separations systems. There are examples in the literature of both approaches having been described. However, it is not clear at present that any extant process is sufficiently robust for application at the scale

  9. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  10. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear reprocessing is the chemical treatment of spent fuel involving separation of its various constituents. Principally, it is used to recover useful actinides from the spent fuel. Radioactive waste that cannot be re-used is separated into streams for consolidation into waste forms. The first known application of nuclear reprocessing was within the Manhattan Project to recover material for nuclear weapons. Currently, reprocessing has a peaceful application in the nuclear fuel cycle. A variety of chemical methods have been proposed and demonstrated for reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The two most widely investigated and implemented methods are generally referred to as aqueous reprocessing and pyroprocessing. Each of these technologies is described in detail in Section 3 with numerous references to published articles. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel as part of a fuel cycle can be used both to recover fissionable actinides and to stabilize radioactive fission products into durable waste forms. It can also be used as part of a breeder reactor fuel cycle that could result in a 14-fold or higher increase in energy utilization per unit of natural uranium. Reprocessing can also impact the need for geologic repositories for spent fuel. The volume of waste that needs to be sent to such a repository can be reduced by first subjecting the spent fuel to reprocessing. The extent to which volume reduction can occur is currently under study by the United States Department of Energy via research at various national laboratories and universities. Reprocessing can also separate fissile and non-fissile radioactive elements for transmutation.

  11. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  12. Development of advanced reprocessing system based on precipitation method using pyrrolidone derivatives as precipitants. Overall evaluation of system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced reprocessing system for spent FBR fuels based on two precipitation processes using pyrrolidone derivatives as precipitants has been proposed. In order to develop this system, we have examined precipitation behavior of U(VI), Pu(IV), Pu(VI), and other metal cations with various pyrrolidone derivatives, the heat- and radiation-resistance of precipitants, the thermal decomposition properties of precipitates. As a result, it was found that N-n-butyl-2-pyrrolidone (NBP) and N-neopentyl-2-pyrrolidone (NNpP) are the appropriate precipitants for the first and second precipitation processes, respectively, that the decontamination factors for most of simulated fission products are more than 102, that the precipitant components are recovered by vaporization with heating the precipitates, and that the recovered precipitants are used repeatedly. Furthermore, we have performed the engineering investigation, and confirmed that the precipitation and the filtration can be done efficiently using the continuous precipitation apparatus and centrifugal separation machine, and that the pellets with density of 85- 90% TD and residual carbon less than 100 ppm are prepared by the calcination of the precipitates under wet-H2 at 1750degC. On the basis of results of basic and engineering investigations, we evaluated our proposed reprocessing system from the viewpoints of technical feasibility, safety, economical matter, effective use of U and Pu, reduction of radioactive wastes, nonproliferation, and so on. As a result, it was evaluated that our proposed system is expected to be one of candidates of the future reprocessing systems for spent FBR fuels. (author)

  13. Development of advanced controlled-potential coulometry system for accountability analysis of plutonium in reprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, Takehiko; Sato, Soichi; Ikeda, Hisashi [Techinical Service Division, Tokai Reprocessing Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Holland, Micheal K.; Cordaro, Joseph V. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2000-12-01

    A controlled-potential coulometry system (CPC) has been developed to analyze the accountability of plutonium products at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). There has been demand to standardize CPC as highly accurate analysis method because, since 1995, the International organization for Standards (ISO) has been advocating ISO12183. To increase TRP's CPC system efficiency, a high performance potentiostat and a high performance coulometer (the principal measuring instruments used in the CPC system) were designed and constructed in collaboration with Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Also, the optimization of the procedure was examined. As a results of these efforts, the latest CPC system (complying with ISO12183) has demonstrated long-term measurement reliability of up to 0.1% for 20 mg of plutonium. (author)

  14. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Emory D.; Delcul, Guillermo D.; Hunt, Rodney D.; Johnson, Jared A.; Spencer, Barry B.

    2014-06-10

    A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

  15. A concept for quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As new reprocessing methods for spent nuclear fuel are developed, such as the uranium extraction (UREX) process, methods using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques must also be developed to allow for quantitative measurements of product materials. Currently developed NDA techniques cannot directly quantify materials containing U, Np, Pu, and Am. This research investigates the ability to quantify these actinides in an oxide form using neutron multiplicity measurements. This technique assumes that the isotopic composition of the sample is known, either through gamma spectroscopy or other means. This measurement technique is based on performing three different neutron measurements and analyzing their neutron multiplicity response. The first is a passive measurement of the product material to determine the effective plutonium-240 (240Pueff) content, self multiplication (M), and alpha-neutron reaction rate (α). The second is an active, AmLi (α, n) source, measurement of the product material to determine the effective 235U content. The third is an active, AmB (α, n) source, measurement of the product material to determine the effective 237Np content. The quantity of Am in the sample can be determined from α. Simulated results using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) version 2.6 will illustrate the viability of this technique and its practical limitations. (author)

  16. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

    2010-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los

  17. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  18. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  19. Management of high level radioactive aqueous effluents in advanced partitioning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, Patrick; Sans, Daniele; Lartigaud, Cathy; Bisel, Isabelle [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Marcoule, BP 17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The context of this study is the development of management strategies for the high level radioactive aqueous effluents generated by advanced minor actinides partitioning processes. In the present nuclear reprocessing plants, high level liquid wastes are concentrated via successive evaporations, with or without de-nitration, to reach the inlet specifications of the downstream processing steps. In contrast to the PUREX process, effluents from advanced actinides partitioning processes contain large amounts of organic compounds (complexing agents, buffers or reducing reagents), which could disrupt concentration operations. Thus, in parallel with new partitioning process development, the compatibility of usual concentration operations with the high level liquid waste issued from them are investigated, and, if necessary, additional treatments to eliminate remaining organic compounds are reviewed. The behaviour of each reagent and related identified by-products is studied in laboratory-scale devices representative of industrial operating conditions. Final concentrated solutions (actinide or fission solutions) and the resulting distillates (i.e. decontaminated effluents) are checked in terms of compatibility with the downstream specifications. Process implementation and safety aspects are also evaluated. Kinetic and thermodynamic constants are measured. After the collection of these data, the effectiveness of the overall continuous process of the effluent treatment (combination of elementary operations) is evaluated through semi-empirical models which are also able to optimize the conditions for implementation. First results indicate that nitric acid streams containing complexing agents (oxalic acid, HEDTA, DTPA) will be managed by usual concentration processes, while buffered solutions ( containing glycolic, citric or malonic acid) will require additional treatments to lower organic carbon concentration. Oxidation process by hydrogen peroxide at boiling temperature has

  20. Mechanical and Instrumental Experiences from the Erection, Commissioning, and Operation of a Small Pilot Plant for Development Work on Aqueous Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, K.

    1965-05-15

    A radio chemical pilot plant for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels has been built by AB Atomenergi at Kjeller in Norway. In the report a short description of the main equipment is given as well as of the procedure during the erection of the plant. Finally the results and experiences from the cold tests, tracer tests and active runs are indicated.

  1. Evaluation of N,N-dihexyl octanamide as an alternative extractant for the reprocessing of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being developed in India with the specific aim of utilizing thorium for power generation. AHWR sent fuel adds new dimensions to reprocessing by the presence of Pu along with 233U and Th in the spent fuel. This invokes the integration of PUREX and THOREX processes in some combination employing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as an extractant. However, separation scientists have identified certain problems with the use of TBP as extractant viz. third-phase formation and low separation factor (SF) values of U(VI) and Pu(VI) over Th, and poor decontamination factor (DF) values of U and Pu with respect to fission products. These problems are of particular concern in thorium fuel cycle

  2. Corrosion penetration monitoring of advanced ceramics in hot aqueous fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G. Nickel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced ceramics are considered as components in energy related systems, because they are known to be strong, wear and corrosion resistant in many environments, even at temperatures well exceeding 1000 °C. However, the presence of additives or impurities in important ceramics, for example those based on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4 or Al2O3 makes them vulnerable to the corrosion by hot aqueous fluids. The temperatures in this type of corrosion range from several tens of centigrade to hydrothermal conditions above 100 °C. The corrosion processes in such media depend on both pH and temperature and include often partial leaching of the ceramics, which cannot be monitored easily by classical gravimetric or electrochemical methods. Successful corrosion penetration depth monitoring by polarized reflected light optical microscopy (color changes, Micro Raman Spectroscopy (luminescence changes and SEM (porosity changes will be outlined. The corrosion process and its kinetics are monitored best by microanalysis of cross sections, Raman spectroscopy and eluate chemistry changes in addition to mass changes. Direct cross-calibrations between corrosion penetration and mechanical strength is only possible for severe corrosion. The methods outlined should be applicable to any ceramics corrosion process with partial leaching by fluids, melts or slags.

  3. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  4. Remote maintenance in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote maintenance techniques applied in large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are reviewed with particular attention to the three major maintenance philosophy groupings: contact, remote crane canyon, and remote/contact. Examples are given, and the relative success of each type is discussed. Probable future directions for large-scale reprocessing plant maintenance are described along with advanced manipulation systems for application in the plants. The remote maintenance development program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is also described. 19 refs., 19 figs

  5. Recent advances in photocatalytic treatment of pollutants in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Anil Kumar; Reddy, P Venkata Laxma; Kwon, Eilhann; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Akter, Tahmina; Kalagara, Sudhakar

    2016-05-01

    Photocatalysis can be an excellent solution for resolving the world's energy and environmental problems. It has a wide range of applications for the decontamination of diverse hazardous pollutants in aqueous media. Technological progress in this research field has been achieved toward the improvement of the solar sensitivity to enhance the efficiency of pollutant decontamination. As a result, various strategies have been introduced to upgrade photocatalytic performance with the modification of prototypical photocatalyst such as doping, dye sensitization, semiconductor coupling, mesoporous supports, single site, and nano-based catalysts. In this review, a brief survey is presented to describe those strategies based on the evaluation made against various pollutants (such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, heavy metals, detergents, and dyes) in aqueous media. PMID:26915711

  6. Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.A.; Meacham, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET) is a developmental activity of the US Department of Energy to demonstrate breeder fuel reprocessing technology while closing the fuel cycle for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It will be installed in the existing Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, The major objectives of BRET are: (1) close the US breeder fuel cycle; (2) develop and demonstrate reprocessing technology and systems for breeder fuel; (3) provide an integrated test of breeder reactor fuel cycle technology - rprocessing, safeguards, and waste management. BRET is a joint effort between the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 3 references, 2 figures.

  7. Chemical process developments in reprocessing from 1965--1975 in the Institute for Hot Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on the aqueous reprocessing of fuels is described. The following are discussed: LABEX (laboratory-scale extraction), MILLI facility (1 kg/day), problems of aqueous reprocessing, centrifugal extractor development, radiolytic products from Purex process, and TAMARA facility. Results of the MILLI operation are reviewed. Solutions to problems are discussed

  8. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  9. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate - and should not be equated - with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with a decrease in proliferation risks. On the other hand, at this moment, advanced technologies with reduced proliferation risks are being developed. Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEXTM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the U.S., GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R and D and robust flow-sheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will likely handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that have less proliferation risk than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will

  10. Radioactive Semivolatiles in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, B. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing, various radioactive elements enter the gas phase from the unit operations found in the reprocessing facility. In previous reports, the pathways and required removal were discussed for four radionuclides known to be volatile, 14C, 3H, 129I, and 85Kr. Other, less volatile isotopes can also report to the off-gas streams in a reprocessing facility. These were reported to be isotopes of Cs, Cd, Ru, Sb, Tc, and Te. In this report, an effort is made to determine which, if any, of 24 semivolatile radionuclides could be released from a reprocessing plant and, if so, what would be the likely quantities released. As part of this study of semivolatile elements, the amount of each generated during fission is included as part of the assessment for the need to control their emission. Also included in this study is the assessment of the cooling time (time out of reactor) before the fuel is processed. This aspect is important for the short-lived isotopes shown in the list, especially for cooling times approaching 10 y. The approach taken in this study was to determine if semivolatile radionuclides need to be included in a list of gas-phase radionuclides that might need to be removed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. A list of possible elements was developed through a literature search and through knowledge and literature on the chemical processes in typical aqueous processing of nuclear fuels. A long list of possible radionuclides present in irradiated fuel was generated and then trimmed by considering isotope half-life and calculating the dose from each to a maximum exposed individual with the US EPA airborne radiological dispersion and risk assessment code CAP88 (Rosnick 1992) to yield a short list of elements that actually need to be considered for control because they require high decontamination factors to meet a reasonable fraction of the regulated release. Each of these elements is

  11. Importance of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: world energy requirements; energy conservation and the economics of recycle environmental considerations and the timescale of reprocessing; and problems associated with reprocessing. The conclusion is reached that reprocessing is essential to the conservation of the world's energy resources and is an environmentally, and probably an economically, more acceptable option to the ''throw away'' alternative

  12. Transformative monitoring approaches for reprocessing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2011-09-01

    The future of reprocessing in the United States is strongly driven by plant economics. With increasing safeguards, security, and safety requirements, future plant monitoring systems must be able to demonstrate more efficient operations while improving the current state of the art. The goal of this work was to design and examine the incorporation of advanced plant monitoring technologies into safeguards systems with attention to the burden on the operator. The technologies examined include micro-fluidic sampling for more rapid analytical measurements and spectroscopy-based techniques for on-line process monitoring. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model was used to design the layout and test the effect of adding these technologies to reprocessing. The results here show that both technologies fill key gaps in existing materials accountability that provide detection of diversion events that may not be detected in a timely manner in existing plants. The plant architecture and results under diversion scenarios are described. As a tangent to this work, both the AMUSE and SEPHIS solvent extraction codes were examined for integration in the model to improve the reality of diversion scenarios. The AMUSE integration was found to be the most successful and provided useful results. The SEPHIS integration is still a work in progress and may provide an alternative option.

  13. Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

  14. Unexpected toxicity to aquatic organisms of some aqueous bisphenol A samples treated by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišler, Tatjana; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Şenilă, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic and catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) processes were used to examine removal efficiency of bisphenol A from aqueous samples over several titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Unexpected toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) samples treated by means of the CWAO process to some tested species was determined. In addition, the CWAO effluent was recycled five- or 10-fold in order to increase the number of interactions between the liquid phase and catalyst. Consequently, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated higher concentrations of some toxic metals like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in the recycled samples in comparison to both the single-pass sample and the photocatalytically treated solution. The highest toxicity of five- and 10-fold recycled solutions in the CWAO process was observed in water fleas, which could be correlated to high concentrations of chromium, nickel, and silver detected in tested samples. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that aqueous samples treated by means of advanced oxidation processes should always be analyzed using (i) chemical analyses to assess removal of BPA and total organic carbon from treated aqueous samples, as well as (ii) a battery of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic groups to determine possible toxicity. PMID:26114268

  15. Equipment maintenance of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant is the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan and has adopted the best technology from home and abroad. The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant is composed of approximately 150,000 devices and buildings are located separately according to process. In this paper, we introduce the outline of reprocessing process and maintenance activities for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  16. Japanese national reference reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a general description of the proposed Japanese national reprocessing plant and of the design philosophy. The plant is in most respects similar to the base case reprocessing plant, with an annual throughput of 100-1500 tU. The plant would be co-located with a fuel fabrication facility

  17. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the

  18. Nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns an improvement for corrosion resistance of the welded portion of materials which constitutes a reprocessing plant of spent nuclear fuels. That is, Mo-added austenite stainless steel is used for a plant member at the portion in contact with a nitric acid solution. Then, laser beams are irradiated to the welded portion of the plant member and the surface layer is heated to higher than 1,000degC. If such a heat treatment is applied, the degradation of corrosion resistance of the welded portion can be eliminated at the surface. Further, since laser beams are utilized, heating can be limited only to the surface. Accordingly, undesired thermal deformation of the plant members can be prevented. As a result, the plant member having high pit corrosion resistance against a dissolution solution for spent fuels containing sludges comprising insoluble residue and having resistance to nitric acid solution also in the welded portion substantially equal to that of the matrix can be attained. (I.S.)

  19. Present state of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of several reprocessing plants - industrial size and pilot plants - has made it possible to build up substantial experience in the processing of irradiated fuels. More than 28,000 tons of fuels from gas-graphite reactors were processed on an industrial basis in Britain and France. For the treatment of both metallic fuels and high burn-up UO2-fuels, a solvent extraction process is applied which is based on the Purex process with a TBP kerosene mixture as extractant. A shear-leach technique is used for the break-down of the bundle elements and dissolution of the uranium oxide in nitric acid. Mechanically agitated extractors and pulsed columns have proved to be reliable equipment. The products are uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate. Process chemicals are recycled to minimize the volume of radioactive waste and precautions are taken to prevent uncontrolled escape of radioactivity. The technical status will be described as well as experience from pilot operation. (orig.)

  20. Plasma coal reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Results of many years of investigations of plasma-chemical technologies for pyrolysis, hydrogenation, thermochemical preparation for combustion, gasification, and complex reprocessing of solid fuels and hydrocarbon gas cracking are represented. Application of these technologies for obtaining the desired products (hydrogen, industrial carbon, synthesis gas, valuable components of the mineral mass of coal) corresponds to modern ecological and economical requirements to the power engineering, metallurgy, and chemical industry. Plasma fuel utilization technologies are characterized by the short-term residence of reagents within a reactor and the high degree of the conversion of source substances into the desired products without catalyst application. The thermochemical preparation of the fuel to combustion is realized in a plasma-fuel system presenting a reaction chamber with a plasmatron; and the remaining plasma fuel utilization technologies, in a combined plasma-chemical reactor with a nominal power of 100 kW, whose zone of the heat release from an electric arc is joined with the chemical reaction zone.

  1. Combined advanced oxidation and biological treatment processes for the removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced oxidation processes were combined with biological treatment processes in this study to remove both pesticides and then the COD load from aqueous solutions. It was found that O3 and O3/UV oxidation systems were able to reach 90 and 100%, removal of the pesticide Deltamethrin, respectively, in a period of 210 min. The use of O3 combined with UV radiation enhances pesticides degradation and the residual pesticide reaches zero in the case of Deltamethrin. The combined O3/UV system can reduce COD up to 20% if the pH of the solution is above 4. Both pesticide degradation and COD removal in the combined O3/UV system follow the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the parameters of this model were evaluated. The application of the biological treatment to remove the bulk COD from different types of feed solution was investigated. More than 95% COD removal was achieved when treated wastewater by the O3/UV system was fed to the bioreactor. The parameters of the proposed Grau model were estimated

  2. Thorium utilization program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending November 30, 1975. [Fuel element crushing, solids handling, fluidized bed combustion, aqueous separations, solvent extraction, systems design and drafting, alternative head-end reprocessing, and fuel recycle systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-31

    The development program for HTGR fuel reprocessing continues to emphasize the design and construction of a prototype head-end line. Design work on the multistage crushing system, the primary and secondary fluidized bed burners, the pneumatic transfer systems, and the ancillary fixtures for semiremote assembly and disassembly is essentially complete. Fabrication and receipt of all major components is under way, and auxiliary instrumentation and support systems are being installed. Studies of flow characteristics of granular solids in pneumatic transfer systems are continuing and data are being collected for use in design of systems for solids handling. Experimental work on the 20-cm primary fluidized bed burner verified the fines recycle operating mode in runs of greater than 24 hr. Twelve leaching runs were performed during the quarter using crushed, burned-back TRISO coated ThC/sub 2/ particles and burned-back BISO coated sol gel ThO/sub 2/ particles to examine the effect of varying the Thorex-to-thoria ratio to give product solutions ranging from 0.25M to 1M in thorium. Only minor effects were observed and reference values for facility operations were specified. Two-stage leaching runs with burned-back ThC/sub 2/ indicate there are no measurable differences in total dissolution time as compared to single-stage leaching. Bench-scale tests on oxidation of HTGR fuel boron carbide at 900/sup 0/C indicates that most if not all of the carbide will be converted to boron oxide in the fluidized bed burner. Eight solvent extraction runs were completed during the quarter. These runs represented the first cycle and second uranium cycle of the acid-Thorex flowsheet. A detailed calculation of spent fuel compositions by fuel block and particle type is being performed for better definition of process streams in a fuel reprocessing facility.

  3. Corrosion aspects in reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents two examples illustrating the importance of the physicochemical conditions existing at the metal-medium interface on the corrosion behaviour of materials utilized in spent fuel reprocessing plants: corrosion of a stainless steel in the presence of nitric acid condensates, which is much more severe than in the liquid bulk; behaviour of zirconium, which has an outstanding corrosion resistance in nitric acid, but may suffer depassivation in drastic conditions (not existing in reprocessing plants), with the consequence of a loss of the protective effect of the zirconia passive layer

  4. Classic Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    This is a flowsheet as well as a series of subsheets to be used for discussion on the standard design of a reprocessing plant. This flowsheet consists of four main sections: offgas handling, separations, solvent wash, and acid recycle. As well as having the main flowsheet, subsections have been broken off into their own sheets to provide for larger font and ease of printing.

  5. Status and prospects for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the formation of United Reprocessors (U.R.G.) in 1976 by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (B.N.F.L.) in the United Kingdom, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (C.E.A.) in France and K.E.W.A. Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungs-Gesellschaft MBH (K.E.W.A.) in Germany, collaboration is now well established for the marketing of their reprocessing services for irradiated oxide fuel from thermal reactors. In addition collaboration in the continued evolution of the technology has progressed and an extensive research and development programme has been established, the results of which are exchanged between the shareholders. During 1976 the U.K. Government has given approval to B.N.F.L. to sign further contracts with foreign customers, subject to certain conditions. In France, the fuel cycle activities of the C.E.A. have been vested in a new company (Compagnie Generale Des Matieres Nucleaires (C.O.G.E.M.A.)) and their La Hague plant has commenced reprocessing operations on irradiated oxide fuel. In Germany, an agreement has been signed between K.E.W.A. and P.W.K. for the pre-project study for the proposed German plant. Against this background this paper reviews the present status of reprocessing by the shareholders of U.R.G. and the prospects for reprocessing

  6. Selective Extraction of Heavy and Light Lanthanides from Aqueous Solution by Advanced Magnetic Nanosorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijin; McDowell, Rocklan G; Martin, Leigh R; Qiang, You

    2016-04-13

    Rare earth elements (REEs) make unique and vital contributions to our current world of technology. Separating and recycling REEs is of great importance to diversify the sources of REEs and advance the efficient use of REE resources when the supply is limited. In light of separation nanotechnology, diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) functionalized magnetic nanosorbents have been synthesized and investigated for the highly selective extraction of heavy (Sm-Ho) and light (La-Nd) lanthanides (Ln) from aqueous solutions. The results demonstrated that the separation factor (SF) between heavy-Ln and light-Ln groups reached the maximal value of 11.5 at low pH value of 2.0 in 30 min. For example, the SFs of Gd/La and Dy/La pairs were up to 10 times higher than that reported by other studies. Besides the excellent selectivity, our double-coated magnetic nanoparticles coupled with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (dMNP-DTPA) nanosorbents are more advantageous in that the Ln(III) sorption was effectively and quickly (in 30 min) achieved in acid solutions with pH values as low as 2.0. Such attributes ensure a stronger adaptability to the harsh environments of REE recycling processes. Displacement phenomena were subsequently observed between the heavy-Ln and light-Ln ions that were coexisting in solution and competing for the same sorption sites, causing the increase in sorption capacity of heavy Ln on the surface of nanosorbents with time. The order of affinity of Ln(III) to DTPA-functionalized magnetic nanosorbents perfectly followed the corresponding stability constants between Ln(III) and nonimmobilized DTPA. Displacement phenomena and lanthanide contraction, as well as the surface nanostructures of DTPA-functionalized nanosorbents, significantly improved the separation factors of heavy-Ln/light-Ln pairs. The Ln(III) interaction with DTPA-functionalized magnetic nanosorbents followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient extremely high and

  7. Controlling the structure and rheology of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose in zinc chloride aqueous suspensions for fabricating advanced nanopaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Liangbing; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard; Zhong, Linxin

    Due to its abundance, low-cost, biocompatibility and renewability, cellulose has become an attractive candidate as a functional material for various advanced applications. A key to novel applications is the control of the structure and rheology of suspensions of fibrous cellulose. Among many different approaches of preparing cellulose suspensions, zinc chloride addition to aqueous suspensions is regarded an effective practice. In this study, effects of ZnCl2 concentration on TEMPO-oxidized cellulose (TOC) nanofiber suspensions have been investigated. Highly-transparent cellulose nanofiber suspension can be rapidly obtained by dissolving TOC in 65 wt.% zinc chloride aqueous solutions at room temperature, whereas a transparent zinc ion cross-linked TOC gel could be obtained with zinc chloride concentration as low as 10 wt. %. The structural and rheological characteristics of TOC/ZnCl2 suspensions have been measured to correlate to the performance of thetransparent and flexible nanocellulose paper subsequently produced via vacuum filtration or wet-casting processes.

  8. Characteristics and behavior of emulsion at nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonda, K.; Nemoto, T.; Oka, K.

    1982-05-01

    The characteristics and behavior of the emulsion formed in mixer-settlers during nuclear fuel reprocessing were studied with the dissolver solution of spent fuel burned up to 28,000 MWd/MTU and a palladium colloidal solution, respectively. The emulsion was observed to be oil in water where nonsoluble residues of spent fuel were condensed as emulsifiers. Emulsion formed at interfaces in the settler showed electric conductivity due to continuity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion and viscosity due to the creamy state of the emulsion. The higher the palladium particle concentration was, the larger the amount of emulsion formed. This result agreed well with experience obtained in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant operation that both nonsoluble residues and emulsion formation increased remarkably on fuels in which burnup exceeded 20 000 MWd/MTU.

  9. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1993-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. PMID:27120336

  11. Dry reprocessing MOX granules: DMOXG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In DMOXG (Dry reprocessing of Mixed-OXide Granule), spent fuels are to be dissolved in molten salt (NaCl-2CsCl, 650degC) and to be electrolysed to eliminate and recover noble FP metals before the main process of fuel treatment. The U and Pu, after oxidized by chlorine and oxygen gas, will be recovered as oxides to fabricate MOX fuels. Compared to Purex process which has been adopted in Japan as a first generation of reprocessing plant, DMOXG process as a next generation will be simple and compact in design with an expected lower cost of construction. This will be favorable to Japan as a seismically active country. The paper pursues (1) compact facility, (2) reduction of low level wastes, (3) the same level of safety as Purex process and compares the relevant important techniques which appear in future development with already established techniques in Purex process. (S. Ohno)

  12. Specialist MTR reprocessing at Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, A. J.; Skea, D. C. J. (UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom))

    1999-12-15

    A summary is provided of the facilities at Dounreay and goes on to describe the plans to adapt an existing facility to reprocess irradiated TRIGA fuel. These facilities will provide a treatment for the fuel, thus enabling reactor operators to pursue their programme of decommissioning. The main features of the processing route are receipt, storage, dismantling and chemical treatment by solvent extraction. Solvent extraction will be on a small scale using improved plant containment and replaceable modular equipment. An outline process flowsheet is described. Wastes produced by the process will pass through established routes, with medium active liquor being stored in the short term and ultimately cemented. The modifications to the facilities will allow the reprocessing of other 'exotic' fuel types to produce waste forms suitable for disposal. (orig.)

  13. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance

  14. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  15. Commercial Nuclear Reprocessing in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrill, Charles Leland [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    The short presentation outline: Reprocessing Overview; Events leading up to Carter’s Policy; Results of the decision; Policy since Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. Conclusions reached: Reprocessing ban has become an easy and visible fix to the public concern about proliferation, but has not completely stopped proliferation; and, Reprocessing needs to become detached from political considerations, so technical research can continue, regardless of the policy decisions we decide to take.

  16. Using fundamental advanced thermodynamics to model CO{sub 2} capture using aqueous ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darde, V. [Denmark Technical Univ., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Dong Energy Power, Fredericia (Denmark). Chemical and Materials Dept.; Thomsen, K.; Stenby, E.H. [Denmark Technical Univ., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Van Well, W.J.M. [Dong Energy Power, Fredericia (Denmark). Chemical and Materials Dept.

    2009-07-01

    The post combustion carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture process was studied using aqueous solutions of ammonia as solvent rather than amine solutions. The post combustion technique can be used in existing power plants because it does not alter the combustion at the power plant. There are 2 variants of the capture process using aqueous ammonia, whereby the first absorbs the CO{sub 2} at low temperature and the second absorbs CO{sub 2} at ambient temperature. The heat of absorption of CO{sub 2} by ammonia is much lower than for alkanolamines. Degradation problems can also be avoided by using ammonia, and a high carbon dioxide capacity can be achieved. A thermodynamic model for the system was developed to simulate and optimize the process. The properties of the NH{sub 3}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system were previously modeled using the Extended UNIQUAC electrolyte model. The speciation and the solid-liquid equilibrium were examined using the extended UNIQUAC equations, while the activity coefficients of the species in the gas phase were calculated with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. In this study, the temperature range of interest for a CO{sub 2} capture process using aqueous ammonia was from 0 to 150 degrees C. Data for the enthalpy of evaporation, speciation, heat of dilution and heat capacity of NH{sub 3}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O mixtures were also used in order to calculate the enthalpy of the different streams of the process. About 60 parameters were considered. The model results showed that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate compounds form in the absorber. The pure CO{sub 2} stream that leaves the stripper is pressurized, resulting in energy savings compared to conventional processes that require a compression of CO{sub 2} before its transport and use. The energy requirements in the absorber and in the desorber were also studied. 2 refs.

  17. Recent studies on advanced methods for the decontamination of aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Harwell Laboratory has for many years been engaged in the design and development of processes to reduce the level of radioactivity present in low and intermediate level aqueous radioactive wastes to a very low level. A number of the radionuclides included in this work are those of toxic metals such as chromium, zinc, manganese, cobalt and nickel and therefore the processes that have been developed are also applicable to some of the wastes being generated in the non-nuclear industries. Work in Chemistry Division at Harwell has shown that precipitation processes and the use of inorganic ion-exchange materials in combination with ultrafiltration can achieve very effective decontamination. This paper presents some recent results from studies on decontamination processes and describes how the computer program is being amended to take account of sorption processes

  18. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods will be presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. The fluidized-bed biological denitrification process is an environmentally acceptable and economically sound method for the disposal of nonreusable sources of nitrate effluents. A very high denitrification rate can be obtained in a FBR as the result of a high concentration of denitrification bacteria in the bioreactor and the stagewise operation resulting from plug flow in the reactor. The overall denitrification rate in an FBR ranges from 20- to 100-fold greater than that observed for an STR bioreactor. It has been shown that the system can be operated using Ca2+, Na+, or NH4+ cations at nitrate concentrations up to 1 g/liter without inhibition. Biological sorption of uranium and other radionuclides (particularly the actinides) from dilute aqueous waste streams shows considerable promise as a means of recovering these valuable resources and reducing the environmental impact, however, further development efforts are required

  19. Management of radioactive waste from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing and recycling of both fissile and fertile components back into appropriate reactor systems is an integral part of three stage nuclear energy programme of India. Different steps involved in processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are decladding, dissolution and recovery of fissile and fertile materials. Reprocessing of SNF is a complex process involving handling of large quantity of radioactive materials and processing chemicals. There are three reprocessing plants in operation in the country at Trombay, Tarapur and Kalpakkam. Out of these plants, Trombay reprocessing plant is engaged in reprocessing of SNF from research reactors and other two plants are processing of SNF from PHWRs. A facility is being built for reprocessing of thorium based spent fuel at BARC, Trombay based on the experience of pilot plant scale. Like other industrial activities of nuclear fuel cycle, fuel reprocessing facilities too generate various types of radioactive waste streams. These are generated in all the three physical forms namely solid, liquid and gas. These waste streams are primarily categorized on the basis of concentration of radionuclides, their half lives and toxicity. Management of these wastes aims at (a) recovery and recycle of useful materials, (b) concentration and confinement of radioactivity in inert and stable matrices, (c) minimization of final waste volume for disposal, (d) decontamination of effluents following ALARA principle and (e) minimization of radioactive discharge to the environment. The present paper outlines the salient features of management of different types of radioactive waste generated in reprocessing plants handling SNF from research reactors and PHWR

  20. Selective Synthesis and Advanced Characteristic of CdSe Semiconductor Quantum Dots by Aqueous Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This work mainly investigated the influences of some factors, such as, synthesis methods, pre cursor alternatives, and vacuum heat-treating process, etc, on the fluorescent characteristics of the semiconductor quantum dots synthesized by aqueous phase.The research results indicate that the fluorescent characteristic of water-solution sample prepared from Na2 SO3 precursor was sensitive to water bath heating time, and specially, its photoluminescence spectrum shows the unique phenomenon of double excitation and emission peaks.Meanwhile,the fluorescent characteristic of water- solution sample prepared from NaBH4 precursor is slightly influenced by water bath heating time, and the surface of CdSe quantum dots could be passivated by the excessive amount of NaBH4precursor, which results in the effective decrease of surface traps and great enhancement of quantum yield.Furthermore, the fluorescent emission peaks of samples could be sharpeued by vacuum heat-treating process, with its spectral full width at half of maximum (FWHM) around 30-40 nm, so the emission peaks become redshift, ofwhich the intensity greatly increases.

  1. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

  2. The Synergism Between Heat and Mass Transfer Additive and Advanced Surfaces in Aqueous LiBr Horizontal Tube Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.A.

    1999-03-24

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory to investigate the absorption of water vapor into a falling-film of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr). A mini-absorber test stand was used to test smooth tubes and a variety of advanced tube surfaces placed horizontally in a single-row bundle. The bundle had six copper tubes; each tube had an outside diameter of 15.9-mm and a length of 0.32-m. A unique feature of the stand is its ability to operate continuously and support testing of LiBr brine at mass fractions {ge} 0.62. The test stand can also support testing to study the effect of the failing film mass flow rate, the coolant mass flow rate, the coolant temperature, the absorber pressure and the tube spacing. Manufacturers of absorption chillers add small quantities of a heat and mass transfer additive to improve the performance of the absorbers. The additive causes surface stirring which enhances the transport of absorbate into the bulk of the film. Absorption may also be enhanced with advanced tube surfaces that mechanically induce secondary flows in the falling film without increasing the thickness of the film. Several tube geometry's were identified and tested with the intent of mixing the film and renewing the interface with fresh solution from the tube wall. Testing was completed on a smooth tube and several different externally enhanced tube surfaces. Experiments were conducted over the operating conditions of 6.5 mm Hg absorber pressure, coolant temperatures ranging from 20 to 35 C and LiBr mass fractions ranging from 0.60 through 0.62. Initially the effect of tube spacing was investigated for the smooth tube surface, tested with no heat and mass transfer additive. Test results showed the absorber load and the mass absorbed increased as the tube spacing increased because of the improved wetting of the tube bundle. However, tube spacing was not a critical factor if heat and mass transfer additive was active in the mini-absorber. The additive dramatically

  3. Study of the {sup 60}Co speciation in the aqueous radioactive waste of the la Hague nuclear reprocessing plant; environmental behaviour after discharges in the waters of the channel; Etude de la speciation du {sup 60}Co dans les effluents de l'usine de retraitement de combustibles irradies de la Hague; devenir apres rejet dans les eaux de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudaire, J.M

    1999-07-01

    {sup 60}Co is produced as an activation product and is present in the low-level aqueous radioactive waste released from the La Hague plant. At present, the concentration in the sea (non filtered at 0.45 {mu}m) at the Goury site are close to or even below, the detection limit: 0.2 mBq.l{sup -1}. The {sup 60}Co speciation depends on the type of effluent considered: in the effluent A ('active'), the cobalt is in the form of a stable trivalent complex; in the effluent V (to be checked), the cobalt is in majority (50% of the activity release) in the form of particles (>0.45 {mu}m), and then in the form of two soluble species: ionic divalent (Co{sup 2+}) and some stable complexes. The evolution of the reprocessing techniques used does not affect the speciation. So, since the nuclear reprocessing plant started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the chemical species discharged in the sea shows time variation related to the evolution of the type of effluent discharged. Thus, since 1994, the particles of cobalt are the main species discharged in the Channel (the V effluents represent more than 85% of the total {sup 60}Co activity released). The effect of instantaneous dilution into the marine conditions involving a variation of pH, oxido-reduction, ionic strength, a gradient of salinity, does not interfere with the evolution of the chemical species discharged. Nevertheless, during the discharge of the V effluent, the main constituents of the sea water (Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) go through a precipitation. This comes with the coprecipitation of the ion Co{sup 2+} and with the particles of cobalt (complexes are not affected), and it can be responsible for an increase in the concentration in the particles. The chemical behaviour of the cobalt in the Channel is different from those of conservative element such as antimony. The ionic cobalt and the particles have a small dispersion in the water (cobalt has a very high particle/dissolved distribution factor, it is a non

  4. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES DEGRADING P-CHLOROPHENOL IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    H. Movahedyan ، A. M. Seid Mohammadi ، A. Assadi

    2009-01-01

    In present study, degradation of p-chlorophenol using several oxidation systems involving advanced oxidation processes such as ultraviolet/H2O2, microwave/H2O2 and both in the absence of hydrogen peroxide in batch mode by photolytic pilot plant and modified domestic microwave oven was evaluated. The oxidation rate was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, irradiation time and microwave power. The optimum conditions obtained for the best degradation...

  5. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs, have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  6. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES DEGRADING P-CHLOROPHENOL IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Movahedyan ، A. M. Seid Mohammadi ، A. Assadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study, degradation of p-chlorophenol using several oxidation systems involving advanced oxidation processes such as ultraviolet/H2O2, microwave/H2O2 and both in the absence of hydrogen peroxide in batch mode by photolytic pilot plant and modified domestic microwave oven was evaluated. The oxidation rate was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, irradiation time and microwave power. The optimum conditions obtained for the best degradation rate were pH=7 and H2O2 concentration of 0.05 mol/L for ultraviolet/H2O2 system and pH=10.5, H2O2 concentration of about 0.1 mol/L and microwave irradiation power of about 600W for microwave/H2O2 system at constant p-chlorophenol concentration. The degradation of p-chlorophenol by different types of oxidation processes followed first order rate decay kinetics. The rate constants were 0.137, 0.012, 0.02 and 0.004/min1 for ultraviolet/H2O2, microwave/H2O2, ultraviolet and microwave irradiation alone. Finally a comparison of the specific energy consumption showed that ultraviolet/H2O2 process reduced the energy consumption by at least 67% compared with the microwave/H2O2 process.

  7. Kerosene fires in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic and radiological consequences of accidental kerosene fires in have been investigated and analyzed. The burning rate of kerosene fires depends mainly on the burning area and in closed containments on the available oxygen and the ventilation rate in the cells of the reprocessing plants. Maximum burning rates of 150 kg/m2xh were measured. Burning kerosene-TBP mixtures produce large amounts of airborne soot. These particles agglomerate very fast to chainlike aerosols. The soot formation rate depends on TBP concentration and can be 10% of the organic layer. The smoke production has a maximum at the end of combustion. Uranium containing TBP releases radioactive particles during fires. The release rate depends on the uranium concentration in the organic liquid and might be up to 10% at the uranium solved in the organic liquid. Special safety filters were developed and tested under accident conditions. Multilayer sandbed filters have filtration efficiencies as high as HEPA filters and proved to have high resistivity against pressure, temperature, and chemicals. (orig.)

  8. Spent fuel management: reprocessing or storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the spent fuel management concepts generally adopted in several countries is presented, including an analysis of the brazilian situation. The alternatives are the reprocessing, the interim storage and the final disposal in a repository after appropriate conditioning. The commercial operating reprocessing facilities in the Western World are located in France and in the United Kingdom. In the USA the anti-reprocessing policy from 1977 changed in 1981, when the Government supported the resumption of commercial reprocessing and designated the private sector as responsible for providing these services. Small scale facilities are operating in India, Italy, Japan and West Germany. Pilot plant for LWR fuel are being planned by Spain, Pakistan and Argentina. (Author)

  9. Simulation of nuclear fuel reprocessing for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For safeguarding the chemical process area of future reprocessing plants the near-real-time material accountancy (NRTMA) method might be applied. Experimental data are not yet available for testing the capability of the NRTMA method but can be simulated using a digital computer. This report describes the mathematical modeling of the Pu-bearing components of reprocessing plants and presents first results obtained by simulation models. (orig.)

  10. Survey of Endoscope Reprocessing in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Bae; Yang, Jae Nam; Lim, Yun Jeong; Koo, Ja Seol; Jang, Jae Young; Park, Sang Hoon; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Chun, Hoon Jai; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims There is a growing emphasis on quality management in endoscope reprocessing. Previous surveys conducted in 2002 and 2004 were not practitioner-oriented. Therefore, this survey is significant for being the first to target actual participants in endoscope reprocessing in Korea. Methods This survey comprised 33 self-filled questions, and was personally delivered to nurses and nursing auxiliaries in the endoscopy departments of eight hospitals belonging to the society. The anonymo...

  11. Corrosion studies in fuel element reprocessing environments containing nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid is universally used in aqueous fuel element reprocessing plants; however, in the processing scheme being developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, some of the equipment will be exposed to nitric acid under conditions not previously encountered in fuel element reprocessing plants. A previous report presented corrosion data obtained in hyperazeotropic nitric acid and in concentrated magnesium nitrate solutions used in its preparation. The results presented in this report are concerned with the following: (1) corrosion of titanium in nitric acid; (2) corrosion of nickel-base alloys in a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution; (3) the formation of Cr(VI), which enhances corrosion, in nitric acid solutions; and (4) corrosion of mechanical pipe connectors in nitric acid. The results show that the corrosion rate of titanium increased with the refreshment rate of boiling nitric acid, but the effect diminished rapidly as the temperature decreased. The addition of iodic acid inhibited attack. Also, up to 200 ppM of fluoride in 70% HNO3 had no major effect on the corrosion of either titanium or tantalum. In boiling 8 M HNO3-0.05 M HF, Inconel 671 was more resistant than Inconel 690, but both alloys experienced end-grain attack. In the case of Inconel 671, heat treatment was very important; annealed and quenched material was much more resistant than furnace-cooled material.The rate of oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) increased significantly as the nitric acid concentration increased, and certain forms of ruthenium in the solution seemed to accelerate the rate of formation. Mechanical connectors of T-304L stainless steel experienced end-grain attack on the exposed pipe ends, and seal rings of both stainless steel and a titanium alloy (6% Al-4% V) underwent heavy attack in boiling 8 M HNO3

  12. Possibility of reprocessing of SNF WWER and BN in compressed freon HFC-134a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) formed at the nuclear power plant is the most promising procedure to decrease the volume of radioactive waste for long-term storage. ''The strategy and main lines of the development of the nuclear power industry in Russia in the XXI century'' envisages the development of power industry using thermal (TR) and fast (FR) reactors. It is obvious that the reprocessing of SNF from these reactors within a single plan will strongly decrease both capital and current investments owing to use of the uniform (common) infrastructure. At present only the hydrometallurgical procedures are developed for combined reprocessing of SNF TR and FR, which suggest utilization of the large volumes of aqueous solutions. The environmental safety of such radiochemical plants is provided by the procedures based on concentration of the aqueous solutions with subsequent preparation of solid forms of radioactive waste suitable for prolonged storage of disposal. At present, the economical effectiveness and environmental safety are the key requirements to radiochemical technologies. These requirements focus the attention on the non-aqueous procedures. In this paper we analyze the approach based on both non-aqueous and hydrometallurgical procedures for combined reprocessing of SNF TR and BR. The combination of the conversion of oxide SNF in nitrates in the nitrogen dioxide medium and extraction of the target component using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) solutions in Freons is considered as a main procedure for SNF TR reprocessing. SNF TR is first fragmented and then voloxidized and converted in nitrates. Then, using solutions of dibutyl ether (DBE) in Freon HFC-134a nearly 90-95% of uranium can be recovered from the melt, which further treatment is not analyzed in this paper. As a result, the solid residue (∼10% to the initial SNF weight) is obtained, whose composition corresponds to SNF FR and, thus, can be reprocessed with it. SNF FR after fragmentation and

  13. Measuring process solutions in a reprocessing plant to 0. 1%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, J.M.; Ehinger, M.H.; Ellis, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    Measurement of SNM in reprocessing plant solutions involves two major problems; measurement of bulk solution quantities and analysis of highly radioactive samples. It has been shown at the BNFP that bulk measurements can be made routinely under operating conditions to less than 0.1% total uncertainty. Two specific advances in measurement technology have been largely responsible for this improved performance. The quartz bourdon tube electromanometer replaces the fluid manometer for differential pressure measurements. The vibrating tube densimeter provides accurate measurement of density in lab samples. These instruments, coupled with a rigorous measurement and quality control procedures, are the means to achieve better than 0.1% performance.

  14. Preliminary test for reprocessing technology development of tritium breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop the reprocessing technology of lithium ceramics (Li2TiO3, CaO-doped Li2TiO3, Li4SiO4 and Li2O) as tritium breeder materials for fusion reactors, the dissolution methods of lithium ceramics to recover 6Li resource and the purification method of their lithium solutions to remove irradiated impurities (60Co) were investigated. In the present work, the dissolving rates of lithium from each lithium ceramic powder using chemical aqueous reagents such as HNO3, H2O2 and citric acid (C6H8O7 . H2O) were higher than 90%. Further the decontamination rate of 60Co added into the solutions dissolving lithium ceramics was higher than 97% using the activated carbon impregnated with 8-hydroxyquinolinol as chelate agent.

  15. Economic feasibility study of regional centers for nuclear fuel reprocessing in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel cycle costs for the following three different economic alternatives were studied: (1) Reprocessing in an industrialized country (such as the U.S.); (2) Reprocessing in the individual developing country; (3) Reprocessing in a regional center. The nuclear fuel cycle cost for the ''Throw-away'' fuel cycle was evaluated. Among the six regions which were considered in this study, region one (South America including Mexico) was selected for the economic analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle for the above three alternatives. For evaluation of the cases where the fuel is reprocessed in a regional center or in an individual developing country, a unit reprocessing cost equation was developed. An economic evaluation was developed to estimate the least expensive method for transporting radioactive nuclear material by either leased or purchased shipping casks. The necessary equations were also developed for estimating plutonium transportation and the safeguard costs. On the basis of nuclear material and services requirements and unit costs for each component, the levelized nuclear fuel cycle costs for each alternative were estimated. Finally, by a comparison of cost, among these three alternatives plus the ''Throw-away'' case,it was found that it is not at all economical to build individual reprocessing plants inside the developing countries in region one. However, it also was found that the economic advantage of a regional center with respect to the first alternative is less than a 4% difference between their total fuel cycle costs. It is concluded that there is no great economic advantage in any developing countries to seek to process their fuel in one of the advanced countries. Construction of regional reprocessing centers is an economically viable concept

  16. Analytical measurements for safeguarding large reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verification analysis of samples taken at large reprocessing plants can be performed off site after shipment of the samples to a specialized laboratory of, more advantageously in terms of cost and timeliness, on site. The latter may be achieved either by using permanently installed equipment which is operated by an inspector or in fully equipped on-site laboratory. Analytical techniques suitable for determining uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions as well as the respective element concentrations, are applied. Experience with a number of these techniques has shown that effective analytical support in safeguarding large reprocessing plants can be provided to the safeguards authorities

  17. Reprocessing in India evolution and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is about 50 years since the endeavour for spent fuel reprocessing started in India. The evolution of reprocessing technology in India is unique in the sense it has been developed entirely by indigenous effort without any foreign collaboration. Thus, expertise had to be acquired in many areas like-process chemistry, plant design, equipment design, fabrication and installation, operation and safe handling of radioactive materials. It is proposed to briefly trace the evolution in these areas and discuss some aspects that need to be addressed in future plants

  18. Nondestructive assay measurements applied to reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive assay for reprocessing plants relies on passive gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium isotopic and plutonium mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; on active x-ray fluorescence and densitometry techniques for uranium and plutonium concentrations in solutions; on calorimetry for plutonium mass in product; and passive neutron techniques for plutonium mass in spent fuel, product, and waste. This paper will describe the radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform materials accounting measurements. The paper will also discuss nondestructive assay measurements used in inspections of reprocessing plants

  19. Meeting timeliness requirements in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting the Agency's timeliness requirements in a reprocessing plant presents a challenge, particularly when the plant is in operation. The verification of the spent fuel pond inventory and the Pu product storage is relatively simple, employing established safeguards procedures for static inventories. However, the flow sections of a reprocessing plant require the development and management approval of facility-specific methods. These methods employ head-end batch follow-up in conjunction with density correlations and the application of near real time accountancy (NRTA). These methods have been in use since late 1990. Results attained so far are presented, with areas for improvement highlighted

  20. Remote maintenance lessons learned'' on prototypical reprocessing equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, C.T.; Schrock, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Hardware representative of essentially every major equipment item necessary for reprocessing breeder reactor nuclear fuel has been installed and tested for remote maintainability. This testing took place in a cold mock-up of a remotely maintained hot cell operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) within the Fuel Recycle Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The reprocessing equipment tested included a Disassembly System, a Shear System, a Dissolver System, an Automated Sampler System, removable Equipment Racks on which various chemical process equipment items were mounted, and an advanced servomanipulator (ASM). These equipment items were disassembled and reassembled remotely by using the remote handling systems that are available within the cold mock-up area. This paper summarizes the lessons learned'' as a result of the numerous maintenance activities associated with each of these equipment items. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. PNC`s proposal on the Advanced Fuel Recycle concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Masayoshi; Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Ojima, Hisao [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-03-01

    MOX fuel for FBR is allowed to contain impurities within several thousand ppm, which means less than 1000 of decontamination factor (DF) in reprocessing is enough for Pu and U recycle use. The Advanced Fuel Recycle proposed by PNC is on this basis. The concept consists of innovations on both MOX fuel fabrication and aqueous reprocessing technologies based on the Purex process and it is believed that successful optimization of fuel cycle interface condition is the key issue to realize the concept. The lower DF such as 1000 can be easily obtained by the simplified Purex flowsheet which has no purification steps. However, new subject arises in MOX fuel fabrication, that is, fabrication is conducted in the shielding cell using equipment which is maintained remotely. A simplified fabrication technology becomes essential to establish the remote maintenance system and is one of the critical path for achieving the Advanced Fuel Recycle. The PNC`s proposal on the advanced fuel recycle concept consists of modified PUREX process having single extraction cycle and crystallization, Remote fuel fabrication such as gelation and vibro-packing. In the Advanced Fuel Recycle concept, as it is low DF cycle system, all processes should be installed in remote maintenance cells. Then both reprocessing and fabrication facility would be able to be integrated into a same building. Integrated fuel cycle plant has several merits. No transportation of nuclear material between reprocessing and fabrication enhances non-proriferation aspect in addition to the low-DF concept. Cost performance is also improved because of optimization and rationalization of auxiliary equipment, and so on. (author)

  2. Design and fabrication of stainless steel components for long life of spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels based on the PUREX process is the proven process with many commercial plants operating satisfactorily worldwide. The process medium being nitric acid, austenitic stainless steel is the material of construction as it is the best commercially available material for meeting the conditions in the reprocessing plants. Because of the high radiation fields, contact maintenance of equipment and systems of these plants are very time consuming and costly unlike other chemical process plants. Though the plants constructed in the early years required extensive shut downs for replacement of equipment and systems within the first fifteen years of operation itself, development in the field of stainless steel metallurgy and fabrication techniques have made it possible to design the present day plants for an operating life period of forty years. A review of the operational experience of the PUREX process based aqueous reprocessing plants has been made in this paper and reveals that life limiting failures of equipment and systems are mainly due to corrosion while a few are due to stresses. Presently there are no standards for design specification of materials and fabrication of reprocessing plants like the nuclear power plants, where well laid down ASTM and ASME codes and standards are available which are based on the large scale operational feedbacks on pressure vessels for conventional and nuclear industries. (author)

  3. Summary of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of international practices for nuclear fuel reprocessing was prepared to provide a nontechnical summary of the current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world. The sources of information are widely varied

  4. Summary of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.

    1984-11-01

    This review of international practices for nuclear fuel reprocessing was prepared to provide a nontechnical summary of the current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world. The sources of information are widely varied.

  5. International cooperation in the field of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a definition of the concept of international cooperation, this paper discusses existing and possible legal and institutional arrangements in the reprocessing field, with particular reference to the legal framework set up for the European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels (Eurochemic). (NEA)

  6. Pneumatic conveying in HTGR nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumatic conveying is used to transport material between stages in the head-end of the fuel reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company. The components selected for the conveying systems have generally performed well. Data regarding pressure drop, gas velocities, and solids flow rates have been correlated

  7. Refleksivitet og transformative læreprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter

    2005-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i et konkret undervisningsforløb, der kombinerer diplomundervisning for kommunale hjemmevejledere med et informeret fremtidsværksted for kommunens udviklingshæmmede borgere, beskriver artiklen hvordan denne kombination kan skabe mulighed for tralsnformative læreprocesser for de...

  8. Spent fuel reprocessing system availability definition by process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine nuclear fuel reprocessing plant operating parameters such as maintainability, reliability, availability, equipment redundancy, and surge storage requirements and their effect on plant throughput, a computer simulation model of integrated HTGR fuel reprocessing plant operations is being developed at General Atomic Company (GA). The simulation methodology and the status of the computer programming completed on reprocessing head end systems is reported

  9. Waste management : Benefits of the reprocessing - conditioning - recycling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the past 20 years or so, there has been a growing interest worldwide for recycling in all industrial activities, as making good environmental sense and optimal use of natural resources fully understood by the public at large, Recycling is seen as a wise strategy in general It is a fact that the nuclear industry and utilities in most advanced countries, aware of their social and long-term responsibility, have been a leader for many years in pursuing Reprocessing/Conditioning (RCR) as a resource management strategy to recover plutonium and uranium, recycle them, minimize the volume of final wastes to be disposed of, and reduce the waste toxicity, thus protecting the environment. Recycling will result in at least a 30% saving of natural uranium and of associated from-end services (conversion, enrichment), and will reduce the accompanying impact on the environment including the quantity of corresponding mining wastes. When put in a global perspective, the world's nuclear power reactors produce annually 50 tons of plutonium full-scale plutonium recycling would represent an energy equivalent to up to 1000 MTOEs per year, with an added 50 MTOEs for uranium recycling, leading to an energy production level comparable to the North Sea oil production. Move energy can even be recovered through multiple MOX reprocessing/recycling. Recycling separated plutonium in plutonium/uranium oxide fuels (MOX) and putting them in reactors results in burning plutonium, and consequently in stabilizing its quantity on earth

  10. Status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of spent fuel arising from nuclear power production is a crucial issue for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. The IAEA has issued several publications in the past that provide technical information on the global status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing and associated topics, and one reason for this present publication is to provide an update of this information which has mostly focused on the conventional technology applied in the industry. However, the scope of this publication has been significantly expanded in an attempt to make it more comprehensive and by including a section on emerging technologies applicable to future innovative nuclear systems, as are being addressed in such international initiatives as INPRO, Gen IV and MICANET. In an effort to be informative, this publication attempts to provide a state-of-the-art review of these technologies, and to identify major issues associated with reprocessing as an option for spent fuel management. It does not, however, provide any detailed information on some of the related issues such as safety or safeguards, which are addressed in other relevant publications. This report provides an overview of the status of reprocessing technology and its future prospects in terms of various criteria in Section 2. Section 3 provides a review of emerging technologies which have been attracting the interest of Member States, especially in the international initiatives for future development of innovative nuclear systems. A historical review of IAEA activities associated with spent fuel reprocessing, traceable back to the mid-1970s, is provided in Section 4, and conclusions in Section 5. A list of references is provided at the end the main text for readers interested in further information on the related topics. Annex I summarizes the current status of reprocessing facilities around the world, including the civil operational statistics of Purex-based plants, progress with decommissioning and

  11. Design, fabrication, erection, commissioning and operation of pulsed perforated plate solvent extraction columns for commercial scale reprocessing application. Contributed Paper IT-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy program of India is based on the closed fuel cycle and the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel plays a vital role in closing the fuel cycle and thus realization of our energy targets. In a reprocessing plant, the spent fuel is processed to recover and purify the valuable nuclear materials U and Pu to the acceptable level of quality for reuse in reactors. Reprocessing is viewed as a versatile technology encompassing almost all 'Unit Operations' and 'Processes' of chemical engineering. The PUREX process is primarily based on multicomponent solvent extraction using tri-Butyl Phosphate (TBP) diluted with n-dodecane as solvent. The objective of reprocessing could only be realized by the proper selection and sizing/design of mass transfer devices. Pulsed perforated plate extraction columns are used for mass transfer operations for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from thermal reactors due to the advantage of maintenance free remote operation, precise control of operating parameters and ease of cleaning and decontamination, which are the requirements of reprocessing plants. In addition, enhanced mass transfer performance is achieved in pulsed column with recovery of Pu and U higher than 99.9%, meeting the international standard. Pulsed columns have been in use for more than 40 decades and are operator friendly. A decision was taken in 1958 to reprocess the spent fuel and the first reprocessing plant was commissioned at BARC, Trombay in 1964. Subsequently, plants of higher capacity were designed, constructed and are in operation in Trombay, Kalpakkam and Tarapur. A new reprocessing plant is in advance stage of construction at Kalpakkam and another Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant using the state of the art technology is in design stage at Tarapur. This indicates the rapid expansion of reprocessing program and the Indian policy is to reprocess all spent fuel discharged from reactors

  12. The economy of reprocessing and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choosing a disposal pathway for nuclear fuel in Germany has become a topic of technical as well as economic debates. Qualitative and economic factors influence reprocessing combined with recycling. Improvements in performance in reprocessing and higher burnups are already contributing greatly to a cost reduction of the spent fuel management pathway combined with recycling. By the beginning of the next century, this will amount to a cost reduction by a factor of 2, expressed in Pf/kWh. Back-end fuel cycle costs could then be on the order of DM 2500/kg, i.e. at a level comparable to the costs of direct disposal, a technique not yet proven on an industrial scale and, hence, fraught with a corresponding level of uncertainty. (orig.)

  13. Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.; Camp, A.L.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Ellwein, L.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility.

  14. Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility

  15. Reprocessing in Sweden: History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against the background of nuclear power development and installation in Sweden an overview is presented of the parallel domestic development of the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The original selection of the natural uranium - heavy water reactor in the 1950s included spent fuel reprocessing and recycle, and process and plant studies were performed to that end. The switch to light water reactors in the 1960s did not change the planning to recycle; however, the participation in the Eurochemic undertaking, and the delay in the nuclear programme stopped further domestic development work. A number of governmental committee investigations in the 1970s on the radioactive waste issue and, above all, the decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010, after a referendum following the TMI-accident, finally resulted in a decision to plan only for direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. This policy still prevails. (42 refs.)

  16. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems

  17. Method and facility for reprocessing nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For reprocessing of nuclear fuels used in fuel elements with several metallic cladding tubes that are especially applied for light water reactors, the cladding tubes separated from the fuel element structure are individually cut in longitudinal direction so that the nuclear fuel can be removed from the metal parts. The nuclear fuel then is filled into an acid bath for further treatment, whereas the metal parts are conditioned in solid form for ultimate storage by embedding them in a binder. (orig./RW)

  18. Solvent management in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvent management in large capacity reprocessing plant is studied to limit production of organic wastes. Chemical processing increases life time of solvent. Low pressure distillation allows the recycling of TBP and diluent at a low activity level. Besides heavy degradation products are eliminated. For the safety the flash point of distillated diluent increases slightly. Tests on an industrial scale started in 1985 and since more than 500 cubic meters were treated

  19. Advances in preparation of modified activated carbon and its applications in the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. L.; Liang, M. N.; Li, H. H.; Zhu, Z. J.

    2016-08-01

    The wastewater in which Cr(VI) is not fully treated has drawn environment researchers’ attention increasingly, due to its environmental pollution and harms to human health. Thus a high efficiency of modified activated carbon (MAC) to remove Cr(VI) has become one of the hot topics among environmental material research. This paper introduces the modification methods from the physical structure features and chemical properties of the activated carbon (AC) surface. At the same time, it briefly analyses the chemical characteristics of Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions, and on the basis of the aforementioned introduces the modification methods of the surface chemical characteristics of AC, such as: oxidation modification, reduction modification, loaded metal modification, and microwave modification. Combining studies on removing Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions by MAC in recent years, this paper anticipates the new trends of preparing MAC and the points in absorption research, offering some suggestions for future studies.

  20. Legal problems of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions in this book are intended to exemplify the legal situation in connection with the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from the point of view of constitutional law, administrative law, and international law. Outline solutions are presented with regard to ensuring health, personal freedom, democratic rights and other rights, and are discussed. The author Rossnagel investigates whether the principle of essential matter can guarantee a parliamentary prerogative concerning this field of large-scale technology. The author Schmidt shows that there is no legal obligation of commitment to a reprocessing technology that would exclude research for or application of a less hazardous technology. The contribution by Baumann explains the problems presented by a technology not yet developed to maturity with regard to the outline approval of the technological concept, which is a prerequisite of any partial licence to be issued. The final contribution by Guendling investigates the duties under international law, as for instance transfrontier information, consultation, and legal protection, and how these duties can be better put into practice in order to comply the seriousness of the hazards involved in nuclear fuel reprocessing. (orig./HP)

  1. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tatenuma, K. [KAKEN Co., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  2. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring at reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-05-01

    The discovery in Iraq after the Gulf War of the existence of a large clandestine nuclear-weapon program has led to an across-the-board international effort, dubbed Programme 93+2, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. One particularly significant potential change is the introduction of environmental monitoring (EM) techniques as an adjunct to traditional safeguards methods. Monitoring of stable noble gas (Kr, Xe) isotopic abundances at reprocessing plant stacks appears to be able to yield information on the burnup and type of the fuel being processed. To estimate the size of these signals, model calculations of the production of stable Kr, Xe nuclides in reactor fuel and the subsequent dilution of these nuclides in the plant stack are carried out for two case studies: reprocessing of PWR fuel with a burnup of 35 GWd/tU, and reprocessing of CAND fuel with a burnup of 1 GWd/tU. For each case, a maximum-likelihood analysis is used to determine the fuel burnup and type from the isotopic data.

  3. Development and study on an electroreduction mixer-settler for separation of plutonium during reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of reprocessing nuclear fuels began in the United States in the mid 1940s with the production of plutonium by precipitation according to the well-known bismuth phosphate process. Following that, other extraction methods, particularly by aqueous means, were developed that finally resulted in the Purex process that is used today worldwide. The largest facility in service reprocessing light water reactor fuel is at La Hague in France. This method is based on an extraction by tributyl phosphate (TBP) from nitric solutions. By diluting the TBP with approximately 30% volume of kerosene (essential component n-dodecane), a sufficiently great density difference is reached between the organic and aqueous media to obtain good separation of the phases in the extractors. For this separation, mixer-settlers, pulsed columns or centrifugal extractors can be used. Our research treats the use of mixer-settlers. 61 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Workshop on instrumentation and analyses for a nuclear fuel reprocessing hot pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assist in the study of instrumentation and analytical needs for reprocessing plants, a workshop addressing these needs was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from May 5 to 7, 1980. The purpose of the workshop was to incorporate the knowledge of chemistry and of advanced measurement techniques held by the nuclear and radiochemical community into ideas for improved and new plant designs for both process control and inventory and safeguards measurements. The workshop was athended by experts in nuclear and radiochemistry, in fuel recycle plant design, and in instrumentation and analysis. ORNL was a particularly appropriate place to hold the workshop since the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is centered there. Requirements for safeguarding the special nuclear materials involved in reprocessing, and for their timely measurement within the process, within the reprocessing facility, and at the facility boundaries are being studied. Because these requirements are becoming more numerous and stringent, attention is also being paid to the analytical requirements for these special nuclear materials and to methods for measuring the physical parameters of the systems containing them. In order to provide a focus for the consideration of the workshop participants, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) being designed conceptually by the CFRP was used as a basis for consideration and discussions

  5. Development of Pyrochemical Reprocessing of the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Prospects of Closed Fuel Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tulackova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molten-Salt Reactor (MSR is a design of an advanced reactor system from the GEN IV family working in thermal or epithermal neutron spectrum and using thorium or transuranium fuel in the form of molten fluorides. It is based on the experience with the development of the molten-salt reactor technology in the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The MSR fuel cycle with integrated reprocessing represents one of the potential ways both for significant decrease of total amount of radioactive wastes for final deposition and for utilization of nuclear energy for electricity and heat production as effectively as possible. There are two pyrochemical reprocessing techniques studied in NRI Rez plc which are considered to be applied both for reprocessing of already existing spent fuel and for preparation and „on-line“ reprocessing of MSR fuel: (i the Fluoride Volatility Method (FVM, which performs chemical conversion of spent thermal oxide fuel components into fluorides and their consequent separation by means of their different volatility, thermal stability and chemical affinity to various sorbents; and (ii electrochemical separation of the actinides (Ans and fission products (FP, represented mainly by lanthanides (Lns, from each other by electrolytic deposition method on solid cathode in molten fluoride media.

  6. Kinetic behavior of anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen in aqueous medium during its degradation by electrochemical advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambuludi, Silvia Loaiza; Panizza, Marco; Oturan, Nihal; Özcan, Ali; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2013-04-01

    The electrochemical abatement of the drug ibuprofen (2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid) from aqueous solution has been carried out by anodic oxidation. The electrolyses have been performed at constant current using a small, undivided cell equipped with a Pt or thin-film boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-felt cathode. The results have shown that ibuprofen has been destroyed under all the conditions tested, following pseudo-first-order kinetics; however, BDD enables higher removal rates than Pt, because the former produces greater quantity of (•)OH. Using BDD anode, the pseudo-first-order rate constant increased with applied current and when NaCl replaced Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte, while it is almost unaffected by ibuprofen concentration. Mineralization of ibuprofen aqueous solutions was followed by total organic carbon (TOC) measurements. After 8 h of electrolysis, TOC removal varied from 91% to 96% applying a current in the range of 50-500 mA. The reaction by-products were quantified by chromatographic techniques, and in particular, aliphatic acids (oxalic, glyoxylic, formic, acetic, and pyruvic) have been the main intermediates formed during the electrolyses. The absolute rate constant for the oxidative degradation of ibuprofen have also been determined, by competition kinetic method, as 6.41 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). PMID:22903814

  7. Advanced Oxidation of the Endosulfan and Profenofos in Aqueous Solution Using UV/H2O22 Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of two pesticides, endosulfan and profenofos, was investigated in aqueous solution using a combination of ultraviolet (UV light and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Photochemical experiments based on the L9 (34 three-level orthogonal array of the Taguchi method with four control factors including initial pesticide concentrations (10, 15 and 20 mg/l, UV irradiation times (30, 60 and 90 min, pH (5, 6.5 and 8 and H2O2 (0.1, 0.01 and 0.05 M were conducted. The endosulfan and profenofos were analyzed using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (ECD and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Under the optimum conditions, 96.5% of the endosulfan and 98.5% of the profenofos were removed in about 90 min. The study also showed that the oxidation rate was enhanced more during the UV/H2O2 process in comparison to direct photolysis. The results of our study suggested that the concentration of 0.1 molar H2O2 and 10 ppm of pesticide in the solution at pH 8 with 90 min UV irradiation time were the optimal conditions for the photochemical degradation of two pesticides. The photochemical degradation with UV/H2O2 can be an efficient method to remove the endosulfan and profenofos from aqueous solution.

  8. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki (ed.) [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  9. Aerosols released from solvent fire accidents in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic, aerosol characterizing and radiological data of solvent fires in reprocessing plants have been established in experiments. These are the main results: Depending on the ventilation in the containment, kerosene-TBP mixtures burn at a rate up to 120 kg/m2 h. The aqueous phase of inorganic-organic mixtures might be released during the fire. The gaseous reaction products contain unburnable acidic compounds. Solvents with TBP-nitrate complex shows higher (up to 25%) burning rates than pure solvents (kerosene-TBP). The nitrate complex decomposes violently at about 1300C with a release of acid and unburnable gases. Up to 20% of the burned kerosene-TBP solvents are released during the fire in the form of soot particles, phosphoric acid and TBP decomposition products. The particles have an aerodynamic mass median diameter of about 0.5 μm and up to 1.5% of the uranium fixed in the TBP-nitrate complex is released during solvent fires. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary test for reprocessing technology development of tritium breeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Kimio [Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Directorates of Fusion Energy Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Nakamura, Mutsumi; Terunuma, Hitoshi [KAKEN Co., Ltd., 1044, Hori, Mito-city, Ibaraki 310-0903 (Japan); Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi [KAKEN Co., Ltd., 1044, Hori, Mito-city, Ibaraki 310-0903 (Japan)], E-mail: tatenuma@kakenlabo.co.jp

    2009-04-30

    In order to develop the reprocessing technology of lithium ceramics (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, CaO-doped Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 2}O) as tritium breeder materials for fusion reactors, the dissolution methods of lithium ceramics to recover {sup 6}Li resource and the purification method of their lithium solutions to remove irradiated impurities ({sup 60}Co) were investigated. In the present work, the dissolving rates of lithium from each lithium ceramic powder using chemical aqueous reagents such as HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7} . H{sub 2}O) were higher than 90%. Further the decontamination rate of {sup 60}Co added into the solutions dissolving lithium ceramics was higher than 97% using the activated carbon impregnated with 8-hydroxyquinolinol as chelate agent.

  11. Construction achievements at building in reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed simultaneously four buildings, AB building, DB building, DC building, and KA building in the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Rokkasho village in Aomori. We were able to complete the massive and complicated building in the highest quality by the method of prefabrication of site work in a short construction term. Moreover, also in the severe winter season, we practiced construction work intentionally. Consequently, we completed three buildings, AB building, DB building, and DC building without the trouble last year. (author)

  12. Reprocessing of irradiated fuel: pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceptable-safety nuclear reactors (APWR, LMFBR, MSBR, MSCR) can be provided by the enrichment industry and by plutonium reserves. But steady accumulation of spent fuel will inevitably make to return to the problems of fuel recycle. PUREX-processing increases a danger of radionuclides spreading due to the presence of large buffer tanks. Using of compact fluoride - volatility process will sharply reduce a nuclide leakage likewise permit to reprocess a fuel with a burnup as high as possible. Success of a powerful robots development give an opportunity to design a fluoride-volatility plant twice cheaper than PUREX. (author)

  13. Application of probabilistic risk assessment to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Laboratory uses probabilistic methods of risk assessment in safety analyses of reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant. This method uses both the probability of an accident and its consequence to calculate the risks from radiological, chemical, and industrial hazards. The three principal steps in such an assesment are identification of accidents, calculation of frequencies, and consequence quantification. The tools used at SRL include several databanks, logic tree methods, and computer-assisted methods for calculating both frequencies and consequences. 5 figures

  14. Use of Reprocessed Uranium: Challenges and Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of recycling and reuse of valuable fuel material is important in the context of sustainable growth of nuclear energy. Recognizing the importance of this subject, this publication reviews and summarizes the information on the management of reprocessed uranium (RepU). It covers technical and economic issues involved in storing, handling and reusing RepU for nuclear energy generation. Hence, it will be of significance to many Member States and will serve as a practical handbook for nuclear power plant operators and those corporations interested in providing services related to RepU.

  15. Reprocessing in the thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the authors personal view is presented on open questions in regard to still required research and development work for the thorium fuel cycle before its application in a technical-industrial scale may be tackled. For a better understanding, all stations of the back-end of the thorium fuel cycle are briefly illustrated and their special features discussed. They include storage and transportation measures, all steps of reprocessing, as well as the entire radioactive waste treatment. Knowledge gaps are, as far as they are obvious, identified and proposals put forward for additional worthwile investigations. (orig.)

  16. Radiological prevention in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention has received a peculiar conceptual formulation in working activities with radiation risk. In order to point out the operative aspects of this formulation the authors relates here the considerations, the criteria an the precautionary measures which have guided the choice or that have been actuated to reduce the risk for the workers of the EUREX reprocessing plant. The general aspect of this formulationa has a philosophical and doctrinarian course, peculiar in the probabilistic safety approach and in radioprotection methodology. The authors quotes here some concepts and some specific application of both but he shows above all the medical aspects of the radioprotection

  17. Chemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of nuclear fuels from atomic power stations has a twofold goal. On the one hand it is serving for fuel supply by recovering the fissile materials which have not been consumed or which have been freshly generated in the reactor. On the other hand the radioactive waste products from nuclear power generation are pretreated for long-term safe disposal. The core element of the chemical processing is the PUREX Process, a counter-current solvent extraction procedure using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the solvent for uranium and plutonium. The chemical basis and the technological performance of the process are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Legal questions concerning the termination of spent fuel element reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis on legal aspects of the terminated spent fuel reprocessing in Germany is based on the legislation, jurisdiction and literature until January 2004. The five chapters cover the following topics: description of the problem; reprocessing of spent fuel elements in foreign countries - practical and legal aspects; operators' responsibilities according to the atomic law with respect to the reprocessing of Geman spent fuel elements in foreign countries; compatibility of the prohibition of Geman spent fuel element reprocessing in foreign countries with international law, European law and German constitutional law; results of the evaluation

  19. Heterogeneous advanced photo-fenton oxidation of phenolic aqueous solutions over iron-containing SBA-15 catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailiche Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron-containing SBA15 catalysts have been prepared following different synthesisroutes, direct synthesis by adjusting pH at 3 and 6 and with post synthesis procedure. Activity and stability of these materials were assessed on the photo-Fenton degradation of phenolic aqueous solutions by H2O2 using near UV irradiation (254 nm at room temperature and initial neutral pH. Their catalytic performance was mentioned in terms of phenol and total organic carbon (TOC conversions. Several complementary techniques, including XRD, Nitrogen sorption isotherms, UV visible, were used to evaluate the final structural and textural properties of calcined Fe-SBA15 materials. These materials show a high activity and stability of iron species.

  20. Reprocessed Uranium: Commercial Resource or Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of minor uranium isotopes and their daughter products in reprocessed uranium (RepU) has logistics and cost implications for the recycle of the material. Whether or not RepU has a net asset value depends on the extent of any fuel service premiums that may apply, as well as on the evolution of prices in the various sectors of the fresh uranium fuel cycle route. Natural uranium prices today make RepU recycle look attractive but prices can and will change in the future. In addition, the economic view of recycle varies depending on whether or not the material is already recovered and stockpiled, or if it is a prospective product that could be recovered in existing or possible new reprocessing plants. This paper provides, in overview, a basis for assessing the conditions under which RepU may be considered a resource or a liability, as well as perspectives on the future evolution of front end commodity and service prices and the implications for the economic interest in recycle. (author)

  1. Data validation and security for reprocessing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolk, Keith Michael; Merkle, Peter Benedict; DurÔan, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2008-10-01

    Next generation nuclear fuel cycle facilities will face strict requirements on security and safeguards of nuclear material. These requirements can result in expensive facilities. The purpose of this project was to investigate how to incorporate safeguards and security into one plant monitoring system early in the design process to take better advantage of all plant process data, to improve confidence in the operation of the plant, and to optimize costs. An existing reprocessing plant materials accountancy model was examined for use in evaluating integration of safeguards (both domestic and international) and security. International safeguards require independent, secure, and authenticated measurements for materials accountability--it may be best to design stand-alone systems in addition to domestic safeguards instrumentation to minimize impact on operations. In some cases, joint-use equipment may be appropriate. Existing domestic materials accountancy instrumentation can be used in conjunction with other monitoring equipment for plant security as well as through the use of material assurance indicators, a new metric for material control that is under development. Future efforts will take the results of this work to demonstrate integration on the reprocessing plant model.

  2. Environmental tritium monitoring around Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental tritium monitoring in the sea near Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed since 1977, the year of having started the hot test operation of the plant. On the other hand, atmospheric tritium monitoring was started almost at the same time as a research program instead of a routine program. This paper is a review for tritium monitoring in the sea and in the air around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. The plant is located in Tokai Village, Ibaraki Prefecture, on the Pacific coast. It is based on the Purex process, and the nominal capacity is 210 tons per year. Around the TRP, there are four uranium fabrication facilities, five research reactors, two power reactors and other research facilities. About 173,000 inhabitants are within 10 km range from the plant. The authorized discharge limit of tritium is 200 Ci per day and 51,100 Ci per year in the sea. That in the atmosphere is 50 Ci per day and about 15,000 Ci per year. The tritium from the TRP was discharged mainly into the sea. The sea water samples were distilled, and the tritium concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting. During three years of the hot operation of TRP, discharged tritium was about 7,000 Ci into the sea and about 140 Ci into the atmosphere. The tritium level has been maintained, and its significant increase was not observed. (Kako, I.)

  3. Deactivating a major nuclear fuels reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes three key processes used in deactivating the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility, a large, complex nuclear reprocessing facility, 15 months ahead of schedule and $77 million under budget. The organization was reengineered to refine its business processes and more effectively organize around the deactivation work scope. Multi-disciplined work teams were formed to be self-sufficient and empowered to make decisions and perform work. A number of benefits were realized by reengineering. A comprehensive process to develop end points which clearly identified specific results and the post-project facility configuration was developed so all areas of a facility were addressed. Clear and specific end points allowed teams to focus on completing deactivation activities and helped ensure there were no unfulfilled end-of-project expectations. The RCRA regulations require closure of permitted facilities within 180 days after cessation of operations which may essentially necessitate decommissioning. A more cost effective approach was adopted which significantly reduced risk to human health and the environment by taking the facility to a passive, safe, inexpensive-to-maintain surveillance and maintenance condition (deactivation) prior to disposition. PUREX thus became the first large reprocessing facility with active TSD [treatment, storage, and disposal] units to be deactivated under the RCRA regulations

  4. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  5. Technical and Energy Performance of an Advanced, Aqueous Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture Technology for a 500 MW Coal-Fired Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Feron, Paul; Tade, Moses; Wardhaugh, Leigh

    2015-08-18

    Using a rate-based model, we assessed the technical feasibility and energy performance of an advanced aqueous-ammonia-based postcombustion capture process integrated with a coal-fired power station. The capture process consists of three identical process trains in parallel, each containing a CO2 capture unit, an NH3 recycling unit, a water separation unit, and a CO2 compressor. A sensitivity study of important parameters, such as NH3 concentration, lean CO2 loading, and stripper pressure, was performed to minimize the energy consumption involved in the CO2 capture process. Process modifications of the rich-split process and the interheating process were investigated to further reduce the solvent regeneration energy. The integrated capture system was then evaluated in terms of the mass balance and the energy consumption of each unit. The results show that our advanced ammonia process is technically feasible and energy-competitive, with a low net power-plant efficiency penalty of 7.7%.

  6. Handling and storage of high-level liquid wastes from reprocessing of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high level liquid wastes arise from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels, which are dissolved in aqueous acid solution, and the plutonium and unburned uranium removed in the chemical separation plant. The remaining solution, containing more than 99% of the dissolved fission products, together with impurities from cladding materials, corrosion products, traces of unseparated plutonium and uranium and most of the transuranic elements, constitutes the high-level waste. At present, these liquid wastes are usually concentrated by evaporation and stored as an aqueous nitric acid solution in high-integrity stainless-steel tanks. There is now world-wide agreement that, for the long term, these liquid wastes should be converted to solid form and much work is in progress to develop techniques for the solidification of these wastes. This paper considers the design requirements for such facilities and the experience gained during nearly 30 years of operation. (orig./RW)

  7. 9 CFR 114.18 - Reprocessing of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reprocessing of biological products..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.18 Reprocessing of biological products. The Administrator...

  8. Safeguards instruments for Large-Scale Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Case, R.S.; Sonnier, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Between 1987 and 1992 a multi-national forum known as LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards) met to assist the IAEA in development of effective and efficient safeguards for large-scale reprocessing plants. The US provided considerable input for safeguards approaches and instrumentation. This paper reviews and updates instrumentation of importance in measuring plutonium and uranium in these facilities.

  9. 76 FR 45268 - Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Silver Spring, MD. In the Federal Register of May 2, 2011 (76 FR 24495), FDA announced the workshop and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices AGENCY: Food and... Administration (FDA) is considering factors affecting the reprocessing of reusable medical devices,...

  10. Modeling of Pu(IV) extraction and HNO3 speciation in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PUREX process is a solvent extraction method dedicated to the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel in order to recover pure uranium and plutonium from aqueous solutions of concentrated nitric acid. The tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) is used as the extractant in the organic phase. The aim of this thesis work was to improve the modeling of liquid-liquid extraction media in nuclear fuel reprocessing. First, Raman and 14N NMR measurements, coupled with theoretical calculations based on simple solutions theory and BIMSA modeling, were performed in order to get a better understanding of nitric acid dissociation in binary and ternary solutions. Then, Pu(IV) speciation in TBP after extraction from low nitric acid concentrations was investigated by EXAFS and vis-NIR spectroscopies. We were able to show evidence of the extraction of Pu(IV) hydrolyzed species into the organic phase. A new structural study was conducted on An(VI)/TBP and An(IV)/TBP complexes by coupling EXAFS measurements with DFT calculations. Finally, extraction isotherms modeling was performed on the Pu(IV)/HNO3/H2O/TBP 30%/dodecane system (with Pu at tracer scale) by taking into account deviation from ideal behaviour in both organic and aqueous phases. The best modeling was obtained when considering three plutonium (IV) complexes in the organic phase: Pu(OH)2(NO3)2(TBP)2, Pu(NO3)4(TBP)2 and Pu(NO3)4(TBP)3. (author)

  11. 2-Chlorophenol Removal of Aqueous Solution Using Advanced Oxidation Processes Resulting from Iron/ Persulfate and Ultra Violet/ Persulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokufeh Astereki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced oxidation processes are used to remove toxic aromatic compounds with low biodegradability, such as 2-chlorophenol. This study investigated the use of sulfate (SO4- and persulfate (S2O82- radicals, as one of the advanced oxidation methods, to remove 2- chlorophenol from aquatic solutions. Methods: This experimental and pilot-scale study was carried out using two chemical batch reactors; one of the reactors equipped with UV lamps and the other was on the hot plate. In iron/ persulfate (Fe/S2O82- and ultra violet/ persulfate (UV/S2O82- processes different parameters were investigated. Results: Iron, UV, the initial pH of the solution, persulfate concentration have considerable effects on the elimination of 2-chlorophenol in both processes. In both processes, the maximum elimination occurred in acidic conditions. The elimination efficiency was increased by increasing the concentration of 2-chlorophenol and UV intensity, and also by decreasing the concentration of persulfate and iron. Accordingly, in iron/ persulfate and ultra violet/ persulfate processes 2-chlorophenol was eliminated with 99.96% and 99.58% efficiencies, respectively. Conclusion: Sulfate radicals produced from activated persulfate ions with hot-Fe ion and UV radiation have significant impact on the removal of 2-chlorophenol. Therefore, the processes of Fe/S2O82- and UV/S2O82- can be regarded as good choices for industrial wastewater treatment plants operators in the future.

  12. Reprocessing of thoria based fuel - indigenous experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the indigenous experience on the reprocessing of thoria based fuel since its inception in late sixties of the last century. Basic studies were followed by establishing the THOREX flow-sheet conditions using laboratory scale mixer-settlers for the recovery of 233U alone or both 233U and Th depending upon the requirement. Since in the initial phase recovery of 233U alone was envisaged, 5% TBP-n-paraffin based solvent extraction process was established in the laboratory. The process was validated by setting up a pilot plant in the early 1970s. Thoria/thorium irradiated in the reflector region of research reactor CIRUS was dissolved in concentrated nitric acid containing fluoride and aluminium nitrate. Co-extracted thorium and fission products were scrubbed using nitric acid and the 233U was stripped with dilute nitric acid. Tail end purification of 233U was carried out by anion exchanger in 8.0M HCl medium. The recovered 233U was used in many physics experiments and also in the core of KAMINI, a unique reactor, running on 233U fuel, for neutron radiography of irradiated fuel. The recovered 233U from irradiated thoria was also used in process developments to overcome some of the shortcomings encountered in the pilot plant. Incorporating some of the developments, in the year 2002, an engineering facility viz. Uranium Thorium Separation Facility, was designed, commissioned and operated successfully at Trombay for the recovery of 233U from CIRUS irradiated thoria rods. The process for thorium recovery from THOREX raffinate was also demonstrated using 38% TBP in n-dodecane at engineering scale. Another facility viz. Power Reactor Thoria Reprocessing Facility is being constructed and is expected to be commissioned soon at Trombay for processing the irradiated zircaloy clad thoria bundles, from the initial flux flattening of PHWRs. This facility would provide rich experience as several new technologies are being adopted in the facility. A solvent extraction

  13. Method of reprocessing radioactive asphalt solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain heat-stable solidification products and decrease the total volume thereof by modifying the solidified form by the reprocessing of existent radioactive asphalt solidification products. Method: Radioactive asphalt solidification products are heated into a fluidized state. Then, incombustible solvents such as perchloroethylene or trichloroethylene are added to a dissolving tank to gradually dissolve the radioactive asphalt solidification products. Thus, organic materials such as asphalts are transferred into the solvent layer, while inorganic materials containing radioactive materials remain as they are in the separation tank. Then, the inorganic materials containing the radioactive materials are taken out and then solidified, for example, by converting them into a rock or glass form. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Enhancements in the thorp reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakem, M.J.; Brownridge, M. [Thorp Technical Dept. and Research and Technology, BNFL plc, Sellafield, seascale, Cumbria, CA (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    A number of successful enhancements have been made to the process at the Thorp reprocessing plant at Sellafield. After a long and detailed Research and Development programme followed by an intensive design/construction project, Thorp was inactively commissioned with first active shear in March 1994. The plant has now reached a mature stage in its development, following successful active commissioning demonstrating flowsheet or better performance in the solvent extraction cycles. Enhancements are now sought to achieve a range of objectives. Against a background of ever tighter regulatory control both in terms of safety and environmental discharge, BNFL are continuing to invest in further improvements with short, medium and longer term objectives to improve plant throughput; expand the range of feed fuels; reduce environmental discharges and reduce running costs. This paper describes a few of these enhancements. (authors)

  15. Fuel salt reprocessing influence on the MSFR behavior and on its associated reprocessing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to face with the growing of the energy demand, the nuclear industry has to reach the fourth generation technology. Among those concept, molten salt reactor, and especially the fast neutron spectrum configuration, seems very promising: indeed breeding is achievable while the feedback coefficient are still negative. However, the reprocessing salt scheme is not totally set down yet. A lot of uncertainties remain on chemical properties of the salt. Thanks to numerical simulation we studied the behavior of the molten Salt Fast Reactor coupled to a nominal reprocessing unit. We are now able to determine heat transfer and radiation in each elementary step of the unit and, by this way determine those that need special study for radioprotection. We also studied which elements are fundamental to extract for the reactor operation. Finally, we present a sensibility analysis of the chemical uncertainties to few relevant properties of the reactor behavior. (author)

  16. Brief description of the Wackersdorf Reprocessing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DWK is now planning the construction and operation of a facility for the reprocessing of spent fuel elements and the fabrication of mixed-oxide fuel elements which will initially have an average daily throughput of 2 tons (t) of nuclear fuel. The application required by the Atomic Law was submitted to the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Matters on October 28, 1982. According to Par. 3, Section 1, No. 1 of the Atomic Law Procedural Ordinance such an application for permission in accordance with par. 7 AtL must explicitly be accompanied by a safety report which shall make it possible for third parties to make a judgment whether the impacts associated with the facility and its operation could damage their rights. The safety report is intended to present and explain the concept of the facility, the safety-technological design bases, and the operation of the plant, including its operation and safety systems and the impacts and proposed preventive measures. In addition to the detailed presentations in the safety report, Par. 3 of the Atomic Law Procedural Ordinance also requires a brief description of the plant designed for general public understanding, suitable for the design, which will also explain the expected impacts on the general environment and the surrounding area. Hence the brief description presents and explains the following matters: the site; the technology and state of the art for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel; the structure and function of the proposed facility; safety provisions of the proposed facility and the management of perturbations in operation; the impacts of the facility and its operation on the environment; measures to be taken for dealing with the radioactive wastes; and provisions for ultimate shut-down of the facility

  17. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  18. International and institutional aspects of reprocessing and plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various institutional alternatives applicable to reprocessing, plutonium management and recycle are considered, not as a definitive analysis but rather as a basis for identifying the institutional approaches and measures which the Working Group might wish to examine more thoroughly. Seven alternatives arrangements for reprocessing are presented. These range from suspending the operation of existing reprocessing plants through placing national facilities under safeguards to limiting reprocessing to a few large facilities subject to plutonium management, multinational or international control. Finally, the comprehensive alternative of an International Nuclear Fuel Authority with worldwide responsibility for reprocessing and plutonium management is considered. Plutonium management alternatives to complement the reprocessing options, are then outlined. These include national discretion on the separation and disposition of plutonium under safeguards, an agreed Code of Practice for plutonium management at national facilities and the international storage of plutonium. The advantages and disadvantages of the alternative are discussed tentatively. It is recognised that the alternatives are presented in a simplified form and that their elements can be combined or separated in many ways. Although strengthening the institutions relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is imperative and can contribute to non-proliferation, such arrangements might open other proliferation risks through the spread of sensitive materials, facilities and technology. While there are risks with any fuel cycle, where plutonium in quantity is separated these risks are of a high order. Although these can be mitigated, they will have to be set against the energy and economic case for reprocessing and alternatives other than plutonium considered

  19. Reprocessing of research reactor fuel the Dounreay option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, P.

    1997-08-01

    Reprocessing is a proven process for the treatment of spent U/Al Research Reactor fuel. At Dounreay 12679 elements have been reprocessed during the past 30 years. For reactors converting to LEU fuel the uranium recovered in reprocessing can be blended down to less than 20% U{sub 235}, enrichment and be fabricated into new elements. For reactors already converted to LEU it is technically possible to reprocess spent silicide fuel to reduce the U{sub 235} burden and present to a repository only stable conditioned waste. The main waste stream from reprocessing which contains the Fission products is collected in underground storage tanks where it is kept for a period of at least five years before being converted to a stable solid form for return to the country of origin for subsequent storage/disposal. Discharges to the environment from reprocessing are low and are limited to the radioactive gases contained in the spent fuel and a low level liquid waste steam. Both of these discharges are independently monitored, and controlled within strict discharge limits set by the UK Government`s Scottish Office. Transportation of spent fuel to Dounreay has been undertaken using many routes from mainland Europe and has utilised over the past few years both chartered and scheduled vessel services. Several different transport containers have been handled and are currently licensed in the UK. This paper provides a short history of MTR reprocessing at Dounreay, and provides information to show reprocessing can satisfy the needs of MTR operators, showing that reprocessing is a valuable asset in non-proliferation terms, offers a complete solution and is environmentally acceptable.

  20. A Soviet view of the pros and cons of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the very outset of nuclear technology, two different paths for the production of fissile materials have been developed. One of them, enrichment, involves concentration of the fissile isotope uranium-235 (U-235) by physical processes. The second requires the production of plutonium-239 (Pu-239) in a reactor core, followed by reprocessing to chemically separate the plutonium from the residual uranium. Both these processes are in use at the present time. However, individual countries have nuclear policies which may differ in the relative importance given to each. Since the mid-1950s the emphasis has been on developing commercial reactors fuelled with enriched uranium, and the overwhelming majority of the more than 400 nuclear power units now operating in 25 countries use this type of fuel. Efforts to develop more efficient enrichment techniques have continued, with the USSR and the Urenco countries improving centrifuge technology. The nature of the fuel cycle needed in the future will depend on which new type of reactor is introduced. The possibilities for Russia are considered, taking the radiological and environmental implications into consideration. It is concluded that the uranium enrichment industry and the supplies of plutonium already available would be able to supply the long-term fuel supply for nuclear power for any type of advanced reactors foreseen. (author)

  1. Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing: Mechanical Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klima, B. B.

    1959-07-01

    The major events in the mechanical phase of the Power Reactor fuels reprocessing program during June were: 1. Feasibility of shearing of fuel elements without disassembly has been demonstrated in tests using porcelain-loaded prototype fuel elements. 2. Further work with the Manco shear was not deemed tb be advisable since permission has been granted to use another shear for cutting UO{sub 2}-loaded fuel elements. 3. Necessity to strip the windows in Building 3048, to sandblast, and repaint them has seriously disrupted occupancy of the cell by July 1. Start of installation probably will not be before August 1. 4. A cold SRE element should be received during July which will permit a direct look a t the problems associated with processing of these irradiated fuel elements. 5. Concurrence with AEC, Atomics International, and ORNL people on the fabrication of a poisoned carrier was obtained and all criteria for the carrier were released and the design was completed. 6. A decision was made to install and use a 24-inch Ty-Sa-Man saw which is on hand and was originally purchased for use in the Segmenting Facility for the SRE reprocessing. This will be used instead of the multipurpose saw to allow more time to refine the design of that saw. The multipurpose saw will be installed for use in subsequent reprocessing programs. This report will chronicle the changes in status which occurred during the calendar month of June. A complete description of each item is not included and may be found in the parent report. The dates indicated on the schedule have slipped since the last report primarily due to increase in scope of the work and postponement on all phases of the work except for the SRE preparations. Twenty-four new items have been added to the schedule. The status of procurement is shown. A total of 93 purchase requests have been turned in to t% Purchasing Department. A total of $199,261.83 has been committed by purchase orders, and a total of 56 purchase orders have been

  2. The influence of size of plant upon reprocessing costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent published estimates for capital and operating costs of reprocessing plants in an attempt to establish a relative variation of unit reprocessing costs with plant design capacity and load factor. It is concluded that capital costs follow the well established ''rule of thumb'' for chemical plants in being proportional to (design capacity)sup(2/3). Operating costs vary significantly with variation in labour costs. Unit reprocessing costs are presented as a function of plant design capacity, load factor and method of financing

  3. Use of risk information to safety regulation. Reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for a reprocessing facility has been under the development aiming to utilize risk information for safety regulations in this project. Activities in the fiscal year 2012 are summarized in the paper. A major activity is a fundamental study on a concept of serious accidents, requirements of serious accident management, and a policy of utilizing risk information for fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Other than the activity a study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials at a serious accident in a reprocessing facility has been conducted. The outline and results are provided in the chapter 1 and 2 respectively. (author)

  4. Economic assessment factors relating to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is in two parts. Part I discusses the factors to be applied in an economic assessment of reprocessing. It sets forth three basic cost components, namely capital costs, operating costs and the cost of capital utilization. It lists the various components of each cost area. Part II proposes a relationship between these respective cost areas, tabulates a range of costs and then develops unit costs for reprocessing operations. Finally, an addendum to the paper gives a more detailed breakdown of the capital costs of a reprocessing plant

  5. Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL; Johnson, Shirley [Tucker Creek Consulting

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

  6. The decolorization and mineralization of Acid Orange 6 azo dye in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsing, H.-J. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiang, P.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw; Chang, E.-E. [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 25 Wu-Shin Street, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2007-03-06

    The comparison of different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), i.e. ultraviolet (UV)/TiO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, O{sub 3}/UV, O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2}, Fenton and electrocoagulation (EC), is of interest to determine the best removal performance for the destruction of the target compound in an Acid Orange 6 (AO6) solution, exploring the most efficient experimental conditions as well; on the other hand, the results may provide baseline information of the combination of different AOPs in treating industrial wastewater. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) in the effects of individual and combined ozonation and photocatalytic UV irradiation, both O{sub 3}/UV and O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2} processes exhibit remarkable TOC removal capability that can achieve a 65% removal efficiency at pH 7 and O{sub 3} dose = 45 mg/L; (2) the optimum pH and ratio of [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]/[Fe{sup 2+}] found for the Fenton process, are pH 4 and [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]/[Fe{sup 2+}] = 6.58. The optimum [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [Fe{sup 2+}] under the same HF value are 58.82 and 8.93 mM, respectively; (3) the optimum applied voltage found in the EC experiment is 80 V, and the initial pH will affect the AO6 and TOC removal rates in that acidic conditions may be favorable for a higher removal rate; (4) the AO6 decolorization rate ranking was obtained in the order of O{sub 3} < O{sub 3}/UV = O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2} < EC < Fenton; (5) the ranking of TOC removal efficiency of selected AOPs was in the order of O{sub 3} = Fenton < EC < O{sub 3}/UV < O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2} for 30 min of reaction time.

  7. Environmental Impacts on Nuclear Reprocessing Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillens, A. R.; Fessenden, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear tests have been employed ever since the first nuclear explosion in Alamogordo, NM during the mid-1940s. Nuclear weapons pose a threat to civil society and result in extensive biological (medical) damages. For this reason, treaties banning nuclear tests and weapons have been employed since the 1960s to cease proliferation of weapons. However, as nuclear tests continue in secrecy and actinides, such as plutonium and uranium, are eligible for theft, nuclear forensics is needed to prevent weapons proliferation. In this study, solvents [tributyl phosphate (TBP), dodecane, decanol] used in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel are analyzed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer, which provides indisputable evidence in identifying the operation in which solvents were used. Solvent samples are observed under variable conditions in the laboratory for different time periods. It is assumed that their carbon isotope values (δ13C) will become more positive (shift heavy) with time. It is found that the solvents are hygroscopic. TBP leaves the most robust signature compared to the other solvents studied and the isotope values for all solvents under all conditions become more positive with time. This study serves as primary research in understanding how solvents behave under variable conditions in the laboratory and how this could be translated to the environment in fate and transport studies.

  8. Separation of radioisotopes from fuel reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology development of radioisotope production from fuel reprocessing high level wastes in Radioisotope Production Division is described. To develop the separation method for partitioning as the waste management and production of useful radioisotopes, the separation of 90Sr, 137Cs and rare earth elements by solvent extraction and ion-exchange has been mainly studied. Ion-exchange resin and HDEHP as the extracting agents were irradiated with a 60Co radiation source to examine their radiation resistances; Both are satisfactory in this respect. Strontium-90 and 137Cs could be separated in 99% purity from a 10l waste solution (about 2 Ci) by ion-exchange using nitric acid as the only eluant. A system of solvent extraction and ion-exchange to treat large volume of the waste was constructed in trial, and its cold test was carried out. The results were satisfactory, with a few points for further improvement. The scheme as it is can be scaled up for an experiment with about 1 KCi of the waste. (auth.)

  9. Cost and availability of gadolinium for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium is currently planned for use as a soluble neutron poison in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to prevent criticality of solutions of spent fuel. Gadolinium is relatively rare and expensive. The present study was undertaken therefore to estimate whether this material is likely to be available in quantities sufficient for fuel reprocessing and at reasonable prices. It was found that gadolinium, one of 16 rare earth elements, appears in the marketplace as a by-product and that its present supply is a function of the production rate of other more prevalent rare earths. The potential demand for gadolinium in a fuel reprocessing facility serving a future fast reactor industry amounts to only a small fraction of the supply. At the present rate of consumption, domestic supplies of rare earths containing gadolinium are adequate to meet national needs (including fuel reprocessing) for over 100 years. With access to foreign sources, US demands can be met well beyond the 21st century. It is concluded therefore that the supply of gadolinium will quite likely be more than adequate for reprocessing spent fuel for the early generation of fast reactors. The current price of 99.99% pure gadolinium oxide lies in the range $50/lb to $65/lb (1984 dollars). By the year 2020, in time for reprocessing spent fuel from an early generation of large fast reactors, the corresponding values are expected to lie in the $60/lb to $75/lb (1984 dollars) price range. This increase is modest and its economic impact on nuclear fuel reprocessing would be minor. The economic potential for recovering gadolinium from the wastes of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (which use gadolinium neutron poison) was also investigated. The cost of recycled gadolinium was estimated at over twelve times the cost of fresh gadolinium, and thus recycle using current recovery technology is not economical. 15 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Strategic research of advanced fuel cycle technologies in JNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, T.; Fukushima, M.; Nomura, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Key technologies for the future nuclear fuel cycle have been proposed and are being reviewed in JNC as a part of the Feasibility Study for an Advanced Fuel Cycle, which is to achieve a more flexible energy choice to satisfy a sustainable energy security and global environmental protection. The candidate reprocessing technologies are: 1) aqueous simplified PUREX process, 2) oxide or metallic electrowinning, and 3) fluoride volatilization for oxide, metal, or nitride fuels. The fuel fabrication methods being investigated are: 1) simplified pellet process, 2) sphere/vibro-packed process for MOX/MN fuel, and 3) casting for metal fuel. These candidate technologies are currently being compared based on past experiences, technical issues to be solved, industrial applicability for future plants, feasible options for MA/LLFP separation, and nonproliferation aspects. Alter two years of the present reviewing process, selected key technologies will be developed over the next five years to evaluate industrial applicability of reprocessing and fuel manufacturing processes for the advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

  11. Strategic research of advanced fuel cycle technologies in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key technologies for the future nuclear fuel cycle have been proposed and are being reviewed in JNC as a part of the Feasibility Study for an Advanced Fuel Cycle, which is to achieve a more flexible energy choice to satisfy a sustainable energy security and global environmental protection. The candidate reprocessing technologies are: 1) aqueous simplified PUREX process, 2) oxide or metallic electrowinning, and 3) fluoride volatilization for oxide, metal, or nitride fuels. The fuel fabrication methods being investigated are: 1) simplified pellet process, 2) sphere/vibro-packed process for MOX/MN fuel, and 3) casting for metal fuel. These candidate technologies are currently being compared based on past experiences, technical issues to be solved, industrial applicability for future plants, feasible options for MA/LLFP separation, and nonproliferation aspects. Alter two years of the present reviewing process, selected key technologies will be developed over the next five years to evaluate industrial applicability of reprocessing and fuel manufacturing processes for the advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

  12. Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands Operational Calibration Reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Blonski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric calibration coefficients for the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands have been reprocessed from the beginning of the Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership mission until present. An automated calibration procedure, implemented in the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System operational data production system, was applied to reprocess onboard solar calibration data and solar diffuser degradation measurements. The latest processing parameters from the operational system were used to include corrected solar vectors, optimized directional dependence of attenuation screens transmittance and solar diffuser reflectance, updated prelaunch calibration coefficients without an offset term, and optimized Robust Holt-Winters filter parameters. The parameters were consistently used to generate a complete set of the radiometric calibration coefficients for the entire duration of the Suomi NPP mission. The reprocessing has demonstrated that the automated calibration procedure can be successfully applied to all solar measurements acquired from the beginning of the mission until the full deployment of the automated procedure in the operational processing system. The reprocessed calibration coefficients can be further used to reprocess VIIRS SDR (Sensor Data Record and other data products. The reprocessing has also demonstrated how the automated calibration procedure can be used during activation of the VIIRS instruments on the future JPSS satellites.

  13. Development of a computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system for a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system (CNMCAS) for a fuel reprocessing plant is being developed by Allied-General Nuclear Services at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Development work includes on-line demonstration of near real-time measurement, measurement control, accounting, and processing monitoring/process surveillance activities during test process runs using natural uranium. A technique for estimating in-process inventory is also being developed. This paper describes development work performed and planned, plus significant design features required to integrate CNMCAS into an advanced safeguards system

  14. Risk assessment approach for Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is desirable that the operation and maintenance of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) be established and conducted with maximum effectiveness and efficiency, making the best use of risk information to help the plant achieve further enhanced safety. Risk assessment is applied for RRP, and upgraded risk information is established. In the basic design phase, the potential incidents and accidents that might occur in the plant were identified systematically and exhaustively adopting the HAZOP method. After screening the potential for occurrence, the design basis accidents (DBAs) were identified and it was confirmed that the plant would not put the general public at risk of significant radiation exposure in the case of such accidents, even when assuming the single failure of dynamic apparatus in the prevention and mitigation systems. To support the deterministic safety assessment mentioned above, the risk assessment was conducted during the basic design phase. Of the DBAs and out-of-design basis accidents excluded from DBAs because of extremely rare occurrence possibilities, the risk assessment was conducted for such accidents which might cause relatively high consequence for the general public. The risk assessment was conducted using the PSA method generally used for nuclear power plants. After that, a review of the occurrence frequency assessment for some of the accidents was made, taking into account information relating to detailed design and operation procedures. Typical examples are a loss of the hydrogen scavenging function in the plutonium solution tank and a loss of cooling capability in the high-active liquid waste storage tank. The occurrence frequency for a loss of the hydrogen scavenging function was less than 10-5 /year. The occurrence frequency for a loss of cooling capability was less than 10-7/year. In addition, an importance assessment (FV index, Risk Achievement Worth) was conducted, such as a contribution to the occurrence frequency for

  15. Nuclear fuel reprocessing and high level waste disposal: informational hearings. Volume I. General overview, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentations were made on the role of the NRC in reprocessing and waste management, management of commercial radioactive waste and reprocessing, statement by EPA on radioactive waste disposal and nuclear fuel reprocessing, description and history of West Valley reprocessing facility, the work of the Government Accounting Office on issues of nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste disposal; and perspective of the Western Interstate Nuclear Board. The supplemental testimony and materials submitted for the record are included

  16. Closure concept for the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents an assessment of 50 years of Western safety technology, devoting - in view of currently still unresolved questions regarding the Federal Government's nuclear waste disposal concept - the greater part of his remarks to the closure of nuclear plants, with particular consideration of the Karlsruhe closure projects. The closure concept for the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (KRP) comprises the complete removal of the plant, followed by recultivation of the site to form a 'green meadow'. To achieve this aim, the highly radioactive, liquid waste resulting from 20 years of operation (High Activity Waste Concentrate - HAWC) must first of all be disposed of. The complete project is therefore divided into the partprojects 'HAWC Disposal' and 'KRP-Regreening'. For this purpose, the Karlsruhe Vitrification Facility (KVF) will be built on the site of the KRP. In late 1998, first partial construction approval for building the KVF was granted, effective immediately, and was realised directly. A prototype vitrification facility (PVF) was built to scale 1:1 and, in May 1998, was put into 'radioactive cold' operation. The first three test phases have gone off according to plan, without any problems. The process of on-site vitrification should be completed in 2005. The author concludes his article with a plea for training nuclear technicians in Germany in the further, too, and for further promoting research and development in the field of nuclear technology, since even in the event of nuclear energy being abandoned, relevant expertise will still be required for several decades afterwards - we need only think of the ultimate-storage for radioactive waste. (orig.)

  17. The DUPIC fuel cycle - Recycle without reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Generation IV International Forum, the IAEA's INPRO project and other international programs are pursuing enhanced proliferation resistance, in addition to enhancing economics, safety and radioactive waste management. Recent IAEA meetings have explored both technical and institutional aspects of this issue. Since 1991, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) and the USA (Department of State, Los Alamos National Laboratories), with the participation of IAEA, have been engaged in a practical exercise in developing a spent fuel recycle process to extend resources and reduce wastes, while enhancing proliferation resistance over typical recycle options. The concept of the DUPIC fuel cycle, DUPIC stands for Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU reactors, is to reuse spent pressurized water reactor fuel as a fuel for CANDU reactors without the reprocessing operations typical of recycling fuel cycles. The basic rationale of the DUPIC fuel cycle is that the typical fissile content of PWR spent fuel is approximately twice that of the natural uranium used in a CANDU reactor, and thus it can be used for fuel, even though it contains fission products and transuranic elements. This paper describes the basic requirements for the DUPIC fuel cycle development, the fuel fabrication process, the development and implementation of IAEA safeguards, the positive impact achieved on resource utilization and waste reduction and the factors resulting in enhanced proliferation resistance. DUPIC pellets and elements have been successfully manufactured at KAERI and AECL for irradiation tests at HANARO and NRU research reactors, respectively. The performance of DUPIC fuel is similar to that of conventional CANDU fuel, and more extensive work is under way to demonstrate DUPIC fuel performance under the power reactor condition. The technology and approach for safeguarding the DUPIC process has been developed and confirmed by the IAEA

  18. Denitrification of reprocessing concentrates of middle activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the releases from the Marcoule reprocessing plant, the treatment of liquid waste of low and medium level activity by chemical precipitation has been replaced by evaporation. Due to the high nitrate content of liquid waste, encapsulation in bitumen of the concentrate leads to considerable volumes of waste to be stored in geological formation. For safety reasons and so as to reduce the volume of waste, the elimination of the nitrates is essential: there exist various means: electrodialysis, biological denitration, chemical denitration and incineration. In view of the very high sodium nitrate content of the concentrate, electrodialysis and biological denitration were discarded. Preliminary experiments carried out at Cadarache led us to choose calcination in a fluidized bed rather than chemical denitration using a mixture of formic and phosphoric acids. Tests on a low temperature mock-up have determined the choice of an injection system that operates with liquid under pressure with the nozzle situated inside the fluidized layer. So as to avoid the vaporization of the liquid within, the injection piping also requires a cooling system using air, with a double casing. Under these conditions, liquid can be injected into the reactor without encountering any special difficulty: no plugging of the nozzle, a regular flow and liquid, stable temperature and pressure levels from top to bottom of the reactor. Differential thermogravimetric and heat analyses have led to the following conclusions: - at temperatures below 500 deg C, the nitric acid, then the aluminium nitrate decompose and produce alumina. -between approximately 570 deg C and 630 deg C, the sodium nitrate in turn decomposes and reacts with the alumina to produce a sodium aluminate. -finally, these tests enabled a reaction kinetics low of sodium nitrate decomposition in the temperature range of 500 deg C to 1000 deg C to be established. (author)

  19. Fuel reprocessing and waste treatment at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid development of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany has caused fuel reprocessing, waste solidification and final disposal to assume key functions in the country's atomic energy programme. An important basis for planning and construction of a large 1400t U/a reprocessing plant, scheduled for start-up around 1986, is the R and D work of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre and the experience gained from operating the pilot reprocessing plant WAK at the same site, reported in this paper. During the first five years of operation, since September 1971, the WAK plant, with a nominal capacity of 35 tU/a, has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the Purex technology for reprocessing high-burnup LWR fuels. Substantial improvements have been achieved in fuel-handling techniques, head-end treatment, performance of high-activity extraction equipment, waste decrease by internal recycle, and iodine retention. Operating and maintenance experience has allowed continuing reduction of radiation doses to plant personnel to a level as low as 13% of the maximum permissible limits. Future work will include retention of 85Kr from dissolver off-gases and reprocessing of mixed-oxide fuels from the FRG's plutonium-recycle programme. The object of development work on fuel reprocessing technology is to minimize radioactive wastes and environment releases, and to increase operational safety and reliability. Based on experience gained by reprocessing campaigns with LWR fuels up to 37,000MWd/t and FBR fuel up to 61,000MWd/t in the MILLI facility, and by ''cold'' runs on the pilot-plant scale, progress is reported on (1) improved procedures for off-gas treatment and purification; (2) dissolution and solvent extraction of high-burnup fuels; and (3) application of ''salt-free'' procedures in U/Pu separation, Pu reoxidation and purification, absorbing construction material for criticality control. Based on this experience, the chemical flowsheet for a 5t/d LWR fuel

  20. A spectrophotometric study of cerium IV and chromium VI species in nuclear fuel reprocessing process streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, I. D.; Boxall, C.; Jackson, A.; Whillock, G. O. H.

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes such as PUREX and UREX utilise HNO3 media. An understanding of the corrosion of process engineering materials such as stainless steel in such media is a major concern for the nuclear industry. Two key species are cerium and chromium which, as Ce(IV), Cr(VI), may act as corrosion accelerants. An on-line analytical technique for these quantities would be useful for determining the relationship between corrosion rate and [Ce(IV)] and [Cr(VI)]. Consequently, a strategy for simultaneous quantification of Ce(IV), Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in the presence of other ions found in average burn-up Magnox / PWR fuel reprocessing stream (Fe, Mg, Nd, Al) is being developed. This involves simultaneous UV-vis absorbance measurement at 620, 540, 450 nm, wavelengths where Ce and Cr absorb but other ions do not. Mixed solutions of Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) are found to present higher absorbance values at 540 nm than those predicted from absorbances recorded from single component solutions of those ions. This is attributed to the formation of a 3:1 Cr(VI)-Ce(IV) complex and we report on the complexation and UV-visible spectrophotometric characteristics of this species. To the best of our knowledge this is the first experimental study of this complex in aqueous nitric acid solution systems.

  1. The French commercial plant for reprocessing and vitrification of spent reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of the system for the reprocess ing of spent reactor fuel on a commercial basis at the plant at Marcoule in France are described. After four months cooling the canning is stripped mechanically and the fuel dissolved in boiling nitric acid. Using T B P the uranium and plutonium are separated from the fission products. The plutonium is then separated by valency change and aqueous extraction. The uranium is transferred to a refinery and stored as hexahydrate. The plutonium is concentrated and precipitated as oxalate, dried and converted via oxide to fluoride, thence to metal. The fission products are concentrated and converted to glass form in a process dependent on the reactor type, the burnup and their chemical processing. The two processes developed, the'pot' process and the continuous process, are described in some detail. The final disposal of the radioactive wastes is not yet decided, and temporary storage facilities have therefore been built, with a capacity for 30 years of reprocessing. (JIW)

  2. Chemical analysis used in nuclear fuels reprocessing of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall review of the analytical chemistry in nuclear fuel reprocessing is done. In Purex and Thorex process flowsheets, the analyses required to the control of the process, balance and accountability of fissile and fertile materials, and final product specification are pointed out. Some analytical methods applied to the determination of uranium, plutonium, thorium, nitric acid, tributylphosphate and fission products are described. Specific features of the analytical laboratories are presented. The radioactivity level of the samples requires facilities as shielded cells and glove boxes, and handling by remote control. Finally it is reported an application of one analytical method to evaluate thorium content in organic and aqueous solutions, in cold tests of Thorex process. These tests were performed at CDTN/NUCLEBRAS. (author)

  3. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    Most of the aqueous processes developed, or under consideration worldwide for the recycling of used nuclear fuel (UNF) utilize the oxido-reduction properties of actinides to separate them from other radionuclides. Generally, after acid dissolution of the UNF, (essentially in nitric acid solution), actinides are separated from the raffinate by liquid-liquid extraction using specific solvents, associated along the process, with a particular reductant that will allow the separation to occur. For example, the industrial PUREX process utilizes hydroxylamine as a plutonium reductant. Hydroxylamine has numerous advantages: not only does it have the proper attributes to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), but it is also a non-metallic chemical that is readily decomposed to innocuous products by heating. However, it has been observed that the presence of high nitric acid concentrations or impurities (such as metal ions) in hydroxylamine solutions increase the likelihood of the initiation of an autocatalytic reaction. Recently there has been some interest in the application of simple hydrophilic hydroxamic ligands such as acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) for the stripping of tetravalent actinides in the UREX process flowsheet. This approach is based on the high coordinating ability of hydroxamic acids with tetravalent actinides (Np and Pu) compared with hexavalent uranium. Thus, the use of AHA offers a route for controlling neptunium and plutonium in the UREX process by complexant based stripping of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the TBP solvent phase, while U(VI) ions are not affected by AHA and remain solvated in the TBP phase. In the European GANEX process, AHA is also used to form hydrophilic complexes with actinides and strip them from the organic phase into nitric acid. However, AHA does not decompose completely when treated with nitric acid and hampers nitric acid recycling. In lieu of using AHA in the UREX + process, formohydroxamic acid (FHA), although not commercially available, hold

  4. Regulation of ageing reprocessing facilities in the UK - 59353

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK's strategy for spent Magnox reactor fuel demands continued operation of the Magnox Reprocessing facility at Sellafield (located in the North West of England) to reprocess the remaining spent fuel in the shutdown Magnox reactor stations and from the two remaining operational Magnox reactor stations, Wylfa and Oldbury. Safety, security, environmental, transport, energy and economic issues provide the initiative to continue reprocessing in ageing facilities that are prone to chronic operational and nuclear safety challenges. One of the responsibilities of the UK's Office for Nuclear Regulation is to regulate the safety of continuing Magnox Reprocessing Operations against relevant health and safety legislation; this largely non-prescriptive framework requires duty-holders to demonstrably reduce risk so far as is reasonably practicable. This paper articulates the often complex balances that have to be made to demonstrate compliance with safety law to sustain continued operation of ageing reprocessing facilities. This paper details how the UK's regulatory framework facilitates a flexible, proportionate and goal-setting approach to regulating operational facilities where it is difficult to satisfy relevant good practice or standards that would be expected of a modern facility. The challenges presented by regulation of ageing, operational facilities is analogous to those from legacy waste retrieval and decommissioning; this paper reflects the versatility of the UK's regulatory approach to these two different areas of the fuel cycle. (authors)

  5. Solid state and aqueous behavior of uranyl peroxide cage clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Kristi Lynn

    Uranyl peroxide cage clusters include a large family of more than 50 published clusters of a variety of sizes, which can incorporate various ligands including pyrophosphate and oxalate. Previous studies have reported that uranyl clusters can be used as a method to separate uranium from a solid matrix, with potential applications in reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Because of the potential applications of these novel structures in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle and their likely presence in areas of contamination, it is important to understand their behavior in both solid state and aqueous systems, including complex environments where other ions are present. In this thesis, I examine the aqueous behavior of U24Pp 12, as well as aqueous cluster systems with added mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The resulting solutions were analyzed using dynamic light scattering and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the species in solution. Precipitates of these systems were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of cation size, charge, and concentration of added cations on the aqueous behavior of uranium macroions. Specifically, aggregates of various sizes and shapes form rapidly upon addition of cations, and in some cases these aggregates appear to precipitate into an X-ray amorphous material that still contains U24Pp12 clusters. In addition, I probe aggregation of U24Pp12 and U60, another uranyl peroxide cage cluster, in mixed solvent water-alcohol systems. The aggregation of uranyl clusters in water-alcohol systems is a result of hydrogen bonding with polar organic molecules and the reduction of the dielectric constant of the system. Studies of aggregation of uranyl clusters also allow for comparison between the newer uranyl polyoxometalate family and century-old transition metal polyoxometalates. To complement the solution studies of uranyl

  6. Environmental assessment for Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET): Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is for the proposed installation and operation of an integrated breeder fuel reprocessing test system in the shielded cells of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford and the associated modifications to the FMEF to accommodate BRET. These modifications would begin in FY-1986 subject to Congressional authorization. Hot operations would be scheduled to start in the early 1990's. The system, called the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET), is being designed to provide a test capability for developing the demonstrating fuel reprocessing, remote maintenance, and safeguards technologies for breeder reactor fuels. This EA describes (1) the action being proposed, (2) the existing environment which would be affected, (3) the potential environmental impacts from normal operations and severe accidents from the proposed action, (4) potential conflicts with federal, state, regional, and/or local plans for the area, and (5) environmental implications of alternatives considered to the proposed action. 41 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs

  7. Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

  8. Status of the decommissioning program of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing operations at the Eurochemic demonstration plant stopped in December 1974, after 8 years of operation. Immediately thereafter, cleaning and decontamination were begun as the first phase of the decommissioning program. The facility and reprocessing program are described to indicate the magnitude of the problem, and the requirements of the local authorities are reviewed. The technical decommissioning program consists of several phases: (1) plant cleaning and rinsing, (2) establishment of the final fissile-material balance, (3) plant decontamination for access to process equipment, (4) equipment dismantling, and (5) conditioning and storage of newly generated wastes. The two first phases have been completed, and the third one is nearing completion. Some dismantling has been performed, including the plutonium dioxide production unit. Waste-conditioning and surface-storage facilities have been built to meet the dismantling requirements. Since reprocessing may be resumed in the future, decontamination has been performed with ''smooth'' reagents to limit corrosion and dismantling has been limited to subfacilities

  9. Head-end reprocessing equipment remote maintenance demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype equipment for reprocessing breeder reactor nuclear fuel was installed in the Remote Operation and Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) area of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order to evaluate the design of this equipment in a cold mock-up of a remotely maintained hot cell. This equipment included the Remote Disassembly System (RDS) and the Remote Shear System (RSS). These systems were disassembled and reassembled remotely by using the extensive remote handling systems that are installed in this simulated hot-cell environment. 5 refs., 5 figs

  10. Report of the LASCAR forum: Large scale reprocessing plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared to provide information on the studies which were carried out from 1988 to 1992 under the auspices of the multinational forum known as Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards (LASCAR) on safeguards for four large scale reprocessing plants operated or planned to be operated in the 1990s. The report summarizes all of the essential results of these studies. The participants in LASCAR were from France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the Commission of the European Communities - Euratom, and the International Atomic Energy Agency

  11. Development of On-Line Spectroscopic pH Monitoring for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants: Weak Acid Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Amanda J.; Hylden, Laura R.; Campbell, Emily L.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Smith, Frances N.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2015-05-19

    Knowledge of real-time solution properties and composition is a necessity for any spent nuclear fuel reprocessing method. Metal-ligand speciation in aqueous solutions derived from the dissolved commercial spent fuel is highly dependent upon the acid concentration/pH, which influences extraction efficiency and the resulting speciation in the organic phase. Spectroscopic process monitoring capabilities, incorporated in a counter current centrifugal contactor bank, provide a pathway for on-line real-time measurement of solution pH. The spectroscopic techniques are process-friendly and can be easily configured for on-line applications, while classic potentiometric pH measurements require frequent calibration/maintenance and have poor long-term stability in aggressive chemical and radiation environments. Our research is focused on developing a general method for on-line determination of pH of aqueous solutions through chemometric analysis of Raman spectra. Interpretive quantitative models have been developed and validated under the range of chemical composition and pH using a lactic acid/lactate buffer system. The developed model was applied to spectra obtained on-line during solvent extractions performed in a centrifugal contactor bank. The model predicted the pH within 11% for pH > 2, thus demonstrating that this technique could provide the capability of monitoring pH on-line in applications such as nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  12. Can reprocessed uranium become the most natural substitute to uranium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper performs a value-in-use assessment of reprocessed uranium (RepU) by applying the ‘Customer Value Management’ methodology. This represents a progressive and practical approach which formalizes in a stepwise manner the customer’s requirements and preferences, and what values are relevant to him in the supplier’s offering. (author)

  13. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Terry McVannel

    Since Shapiro's introduction of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in 1989, it has been a highly controversial therapeutic technique. Critical reviews of Shapiro's initial study have highlighted many methodological shortcomings in her work. And early empirical research that followed Shapiro's original study has been criticized…

  14. 76 FR 24495 - Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  15. Do the Kepler AGN Light Curves Need Re-processing?

    CERN Document Server

    Kasliwal, Vishal P; Richards, Gordon T; Williams, Joshua; Carini, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    We gauge the impact of spacecraft-induced effects on the inferred variability properties of the light curve of the Seyfert 1 AGN Zw 229-15 observed by \\Kepler. We compare the light curve of Zw 229-15 obtained from the Kepler MAST database with a re-processed light curve constructed from raw pixel data (Williams & Carini, 2015). We use the first-order structure function, $SF(\\delta t)$, to fit both light curves to the damped power-law PSD of Kasliwal, Vogeley & Richards, 2015. On short timescales, we find a steeper log-PSD slope ($\\gamma = 2.90$ to within $10$ percent) for the re-processed light curve as compared to the light curve found on MAST ($\\gamma = 2.65$ to within $10$ percent)---both inconsistent with a damped random walk which requires $\\gamma = 2$. The log-PSD slope inferred for the re-processed light curve is consistent with previous results (Carini & Ryle, 2012, Williams & Carini, 2015) that study the same re-processed light curve. The turnover timescale is almost identical for bot...

  16. Technical specifications on the welding in fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karino, Motonobu; Uryu, Mitsuru; Matsui, N.; Nakazawa, Fumio; Imanishi, Makoto; Koizumi; Kazuhiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Tanaka, Hideo

    1999-04-01

    The past specifications SGN of the welding in JNC was reexamined for the reprocessing plants in order to further promote the quality control. The specification first concerns the quality of raw materials, items of the quality tests, material management, and qualification standards of the welders. It extends over details of the welding techniques, welding design, welding testings, inspection and the judgment standards. (H. Baba)

  17. Improvement of shacking helical elevators used in spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For reprocessing cut spent fuel elements are introduced in a tank and raised gradually with an helical ramp by a back and forth motion around a vertical axis. Spent fuel is dissolved and hulls are recovered at the top of the ramp

  18. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.)

  19. Radiation exposures in reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two large reprocessing facilities have been operating at the Savannah River Plant since 1955. The plant, which is near Aiken, South Carolina, is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Du Pont Company. The reprocessing facilities have a work force of approximately 1,800. The major processes in the facilities are chemical separations of irradiated material, plutonium finishing, and waste management. This paper presents the annual radiation exposure for the reprocessing work force, particularly during the period 1965 through 1978. It also presents the collective and average individual annual exposures for various occupations including operators, mechanics, electricians, control laboratory technicians, and health physicists. Periodic and repetitive work activities that result in the highest radiation exposures are also described. The assimilation of radionuclides, particularly plutonium, by the work force is reviewed. Methods that have been developed to minimize the exposure of reprocessing personnel are described. The success of these methods is illustrated by experience - there has been no individual worker exposure of greater than 3.1 rems per year and only one plutonium assimilation greater than the maximum permissible body burden during the 24 years of operation of the facilities

  20. Summary of the status of the NFS reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modification program at the West Valley, New York, reprocessing plant is described. The program involves expansion, improving the plant's on-stream factor and reducing the occupational exposures, installing natural phenomena protection, and improving effluent control and waste management. Licencing requirements and their effects on scheduling are discussed. (E.C.B.)

  1. Optimal sizes and siting of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expansion of a nuclear economy entails the development of fuel process and reprocessing plant programmes. The model proposed makes it possible to select the size, the site and the start-up schedule of the plants in such a way as to minimize the total freight and reprocessing costs. As an illustration, we have approached the problem of burnt natural uranium processing plants related to natural uranium-graphite as nuclear power stations. The sites and annual output of the reactors, the possible plant sites and cost functions (freight and reprocessing) are supposed to be known. The method consists in first approaching the process plant problem as a Dynamic Programming problem, increasing programme slices (total reactor output) being explored sequentially. When the quantities of burnt natural uranium to be reprocessed are fixed, the minimization of the transport cost is then also carried out as a dynamic programming problem. The neighbourhood of the optimum process cost is explored in order to find the minimum summation of a suboptimal processing cost and corresponding optimal transport cost. As the reprocessing problem can be represented on a sequential graph, in order to compute the sub-optima, we developed and used a 'reflexion algorithm'. The method can be interpreted as a general mechanism for determining the optimum when to a sequential dynamic problem (for example an equipment programme) is added a complementary problem (transport, for instance). It also makes it possible to estimate the economic losses which result from the choice of a non optimal policy for other than economic reasons. (author)

  2. Industrial development: A reprocessing plant in a single extraction cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretault, P.; Houdin, P. [SGN, 1 rue des Herons, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, 78 182 Saint Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Emin, JL. [AREVA, 2 rue Paul Dautier, BP 4, 78141 Velizy-Villacoublay, Cedex (France); Baron, P. [CEA Marcoule, BP 171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2006-07-01

    In France, COGEMA/AREVA has been reprocessing spent nuclear fuel on an industrial scale for over 40 years, and has consistently worked to optimize facility design and operations. In COGEMA-La Hague's UP3 reprocessing plant, to achieve the necessary decontamination needed to produce purified uranium and plutonium, five extraction cycles were implemented and used at start-up: first cycle for separation of fission products, uranium and plutonium, two uranium purification cycles and two plutonium purification cycle. By modifying processes at the design stage and making adjustments during operations, we saw that further decontamination of uranium could be achieved with only one cycle. Radiological specification of plutonium was also obtained at the end of the first plutonium purification cycle. These good performance levels were taken into account for the design of the UP2-800 plant where uranium is purified using a single cycle, and for the recent R4 facility which features only one plutonium purification cycle. Relevant information on extraction cycles in first-generation French reprocessing plants (UP1 and UP2-400) as well as design characteristics for the extraction cycles of reprocessing facilities currently operating at the COGEMA-La Hague plant is given. Experience shows that we can obtain adequate performance levels using only three cycles. We will also present potential evolutions for extraction cycles, e.g., neptunium decontamination, and demonstrate that one cycle can be sufficient for reprocessing the spent nuclear currently available. The benefits associated with a single extraction cycle will be detailed in the presentation. (authors)

  3. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Progress report, January 1 to March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, W.E. (comp.)

    1979-06-01

    On Oct. 1, 1978, a transition phase was begun to concentrate all US fuel reprocessing research in one major program, the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The CFRP is organized into the following: process R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, technical support, HTGR fuel reprocessing, and pyrochemical and dry processing methods. Progress is reported in each area. (DLC)

  4. PYROlYSIS RUBBER WASTE REPROCESSING FACILITY WITH MINIMAL ENVIRONMENT IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikin E. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of reprocessing and use of rubber waste in Russia it is necessary to develop and adopt a set of measures regulating the procedure for their accounting, collection, storage and delivery for processing, as well as preparation and promotion of legislative acts at federal and regional levels, stimulating an increase in complete renovation and recycling of used tires. Russia has seen a steady increase in quantity of waste; fundamental changes to this trend in the nearest future are not expected. This is obviously due to the growth of industrial production and the level of final consumption. In this case, wastes of consumption will grow faster than production waste due to advanced growth of products of final consumption - primarily household, computer and electronic equipment, household items, clothes, cars, etc. [2]. There are several methods of used tires and rubber waste reprocessing in general, but we focus only on the pyrolysis process, as one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly. Pyrolysis is thermal decomposition of many organic and inorganic compounds. In a narrow sense, the natural decomposition of organic compounds with air deficiency. In a wider sense - decomposition of molecular entities constituting less heavy molecules or elements under the action of raising the temperature

  5. Study of non aqueous reprocessing methods. Final progress report. [Container materials for pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitel, R. J.; Luderer, J. E.; Henderson, T. M.

    1978-11-17

    The problems associated with container materials for selected pyrochemical processes and process containment conditions are reviewed. A rationale for container materials selection is developed. Candidate process container materials are presented, and areas warranting further development are identified. 14 tables.

  6. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Advances in technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the authorized maximum limits for radioactive discharges into the environment have been reduced considerably, and this, together with the requirement to minimize the volume of waste for storage or disposal and to declassify some wastes from intermediate to low level or to non-radioactive wastes, has initiated studies of ways in which improvements can be made to existing decontamination processes and also to the development of new processes. This work has led to the use of more specific precipitants and to the establishment of ion exchange treatment and evaporation techniques. Additionally, the use of combinations of some existing processes or of an existing process with a new technique such as membrane filtration is becoming current practice. New biotechnological, solvent extraction and electrochemical methods are being examined and have been proven at laboratory scale to be useful for radioactive liquid waste treatment. In this report an attempt has been made to review the current research and development of mature and advanced technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Non-aqueous radioactive liquid wastes or organic liquid wastes typically consist of oils, reprocessing solvents, scintillation liquids and organic cleaning products. A brief state of the art of existing processes and their application is followed by the review of advances in technologies, covering chemical, physical and biological processes. 213 refs, 33 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Advanced Characterization of Molecular Interactions in TALSPEAK-like Separations Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Guelis, Artem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Combining unit operations in advanced aqueous reprocessing schemes brings obvious process compactness advantages, but at the same time greater complexity in process design and operation. Unraveling these interactions requires increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and unique approaches for adequate analysis and characterization that probe molecular scale interactions. Conventional slope analysis methods of solvent extraction are too indirect to provide much insight into such interactions. This project proposed the development and verification of several analytical tools based on studies of TALSPEAK-like aqueous processes. As such, the chemistry of trivalent fission product lanthanides, americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium and uranium figure prominently in these studies. As the project was executed, the primary focus fell upon the chemistry or trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The intent of the investigation was to compare and contrast the results from these various complementary techniques/studies to provide a stronger basis for predicting the performance of extractant/diluent mixtures as media for metal ion separations. As many/most of these techniques require the presence of metal ions at elevated concentrations, it was expected that these studies would take this investigation into the realm of patterns of supramolecular organization of metal complexes and extractants in concentrated aqueous/organic media. We expected to advance knowledge of the processes that enable and limit solvent extraction reactions as a result of the application of fundamental chemical principles to explaining interactions in complex media.

  9. Reprocessing seismic data: better results below diabase sills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makler, Marisa [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pellizzon, Marcela

    2008-07-01

    The effect of the diabase sills in the seismic data processing has been studied in the last twenty years. These rocks strongly influence the exploratory activities in a basin, because the diabase disturbs the sign and generates multiple and spherical divergence, increasing the exploratory risk in these areas. In the present work a method of 2D seismic reprocessing will be presented using Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration in an older seismic data of Solimoes basin. The objective of this paper is to show the high results on the reprocessing seismic data below the diabase sills. The 2D lines processed give relevant improvement of the quality of signal, showing better the faults zones and preserving the geological structures than the older data. (author)

  10. Continuous chemical cold traps for reprocessing off-gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of nitrogen oxides and iodine from simulated reprocessing plant off-gas streams has been studied using nitric acid and nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixtures at low temperatures. The experiments were carried out at the laboratory and on the engineering scale. The pilot plant scale column has 0.8 m diameter and 16 absorption plates at 0.2 m spacing. Cooling coils on the plates allow operating temperatures down to -600C. The NO concentration in the feed gas usually has been 1% by volume and the flow rate 4-32 m3 (STP) per hour. The iodine behavior has been studied using I-123 tracer. Results of the study are presented. The chemistry of the processes and the advantages and disadvantages in correlation to the various applications for an off-gas purification in a reprocessing plant are compared and discussed. The processes are compatible with the PUREX process and do not produce additional waste

  11. Echo Tomography of Reprocessing Sites in X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph; Haswell, Carole

    1998-01-01

    We discovered correlated rapid variability between the optical/UV and X-ray emission for the first time in a soft X-ray transient, GRO J1655-40. Hubble Space Telescope light curves show features similar to those seen by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, but with a mean delay of up to 10 - 20 s. We interpret the correlation as the result of reprocessing of X-rays into optical and UV emission, with a delay owing to finite light travel time; this assumption enables us to perform echo mapping of the system. The time-delay distribution has a mean of 14.6 +/-1.4 s and a dispersion of 10.5+/-1.9 s at binary phase 0.4. This establishes that the reprocessing region is the accretion disk around the compact star, rather than the mass-donating secondary. These results have been published.

  12. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide review manuals and technical database for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. A research programs have been conducted based on a contract with well-equipped organization since F.Y.2006. Four experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant, which have experienced many corrosion problems. TOKAI plant is the pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec. 1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr. 2006. Corrosion of stainless steel made components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions. Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions. Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloy made components in highly radioactive nitric acid solutions. Creep and fatigue of nickel-base alloy made furnaces which is operated in the conditions of daily cyclic heating. (author)

  13. Experience of iodine removal in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Tokai reprocessing plant about 170 ton of irradiated fuels have been processed since the beginning of hot operations in 1977. There was no effective equipment for iodine removal from the off-gas except for alkaline scrubbers when the plant construction was completed. In order to reduce the iodine discharge to the atmosphere, silver-exchanged zeolite (AgX) filters were installed additionally in 1979 and 1980, and they have been effective. However, those decontamination factors (DFs) were not as high as expected, and increasing the reprocessing amount of spent fuels it became necessary to lower the iodine discharge to the atmosphere. Therefore, other iodine removal equipment is planned to be installed in the plant. Concerning these investigations and development of iodine removal techniques, the iodine concentration of actual off-gases was measured and useful data were obtained

  14. Evaluation of subcritical hybrid systems loaded with reprocessed fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Accelerator driven systems (ADS) and fusion–fission systems are investigated for transmutation and fuel regeneration. • The calculations were performed using Monteburns code. • The results indicate the most suitable system for achieve transmutation. - Abstract: Two subcritical hybrid systems containing spent fuel reprocessed by Ganex technique and spiked with thorium were submitted to neutron irradiation of two different sources: ADS (Accelerator-driven subcritical) and Fusion. The aim is to investigate the nuclear fuel evolution using reprocessed fuel and the neutronic parameters under neutron irradiation. The source multiplication factor and fuel depletion for both systems were analysed during 10 years. The simulations were performed using MONTEBURNS code (MCNP/ORIGEN). The results indicate the main differences when irradiating the fuel with different neutron sources as well as the most suitable system for achieving transmutation

  15. Atmospheric dispersal of 129iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    129I/127I ratios measured in meteoric water and epiphytes from the continental United States are higher than those measured in coastal seawater or surface freshwater and suggest long-range atmospheric transport of 129I from the main source for the earth's surface inventory, viz., nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The median ratio for 14 meteoric water samples is 2100 x 10-12, corresponding to a 129I concentration of 2.5 x 107 atoms/L, whereas 9 epiphyte samples have a median ratio of 1800 x 10-12. Calculated deposition rates of 129I in the continental United States reveal that a small but significant fraction of the atmospheric releases from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield, England, and Cap de La Hague, France, is deposited after distribution by long-range transport. The inferred dominant mode of transport is easterly, within the troposphere, mainly in the form of the organic gas methyl iodide

  16. Waste management in France: Operations at COGEMA'S UP3 reprocessing plant and other key events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste management in France has been integrated into a comprehensive nuclear fuel cycle strategy that seeks the best available technology while leaving room for future technological advances. The strategy associates the R and D establishment, the nuclear industry and the public, through the legislative process, in meeting waste management program goals. Three recent events are the cornerstones of this strategy: the commercial start-up of COGEMA's UP3 reprocessing plant UP3 at La Hague; the enactment of legislation on high-level and long-lived waste management and disposal by the French Parliament; and the start-up of a second low-level waste disposal facility by ANDRA at the Centre de l'Aube. This paper will review these major achievements which, together with the continuing excellent safety record of EDF's reactors, have made it possible to pursue the nuclear power program under good safety, economic, environmental and public acceptance conditions. (author)

  17. Coordinated safeguards for materials management in a fuel reprocessing plant. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A materials management system is described for safeguarding special nuclear materials in a fuel-reprocessing plant. Recently developed nondestructive-analysis techniques and process-monitoring devices are combined with conventional chemical analyses and process-control instrumentation for improved materials accounting data. Unit-process accounting based on dynamic material balances permits localization of diversion in time and space, and the application of advanced statistical methods supported by decision-analysis theory ensures optimum use of accounting information for detecting diversion. This coordinated safeguards system provides maximum effectiveness consistent with modest cost and minimum process interference. Modeling and simulation techniques are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the system to single and multiple thefts and to compare various safeguards options. The study identifies design criteria that would improve the safeguardability of future plants

  18. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Adolescent Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-01-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-re...

  19. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Menon Sukanya; Jayan C

    2010-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a method which was initially used for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. But it is now being used in different therapeutic situations. EMDR is an eight-phase treatment method. History taking, client preparation, assessment, desensitization, installation, body scan, closure and reevaluation of treatment effect are the eight phases of this treatment which are briefly described. A case report is also depicted which indicates t...

  20. Safety assessment of UP3-A reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes how the safety assessment was made of UP3-A plant of the La Hague establishment for the building permit and operating license within the context of French nuclear regulations and the national debate on the need for reprocessing. Other factors discussed are how the public was involved, how the regulations were improved in the process and what the different stages of commissioning consisted of. (author)

  1. Sexual Violence: Psychiatric Healing With Eye Movement Reprocessing and Desensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; LIPMAN, KENNETH

    2010-01-01

    Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this a...

  2. Assembly of laboratory line for nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dismantling of a laboratory line for spent fuel reprocessing after the termination of the research programme and the procedures for hot and semi-hot cell decontamination are described. The equipment was mostly disassembled in smaller parts which were then decontaminated by wiping them with cotton wool soaked in detergent and citric acid, varnished with two-component epoxi varnish, wrapped into multiple polyethylene foils, sealed in PVC bags and thus ready for transport. (B.S.)

  3. Air monitoring requirements and alarm response procedures in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive air monitoring programme will need to consider the requirement to sample for alpha and/or beta particulate activity, volatile species activity (eg iodine) and radioactive gas (eg tritium or krypton). This paper reviews the philosophy and requirements of the air monitoring programme for the reprocessing plant at BNFL's Sellafield site (formerly known as Windscale and Calder Works), with particular emphasis on particulate activity sampling systems

  4. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program: National Program Plan, FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This FY 1983 National Program Plan for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) provides specific guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1983 CFRP activities and a baseline for future year activities. This initial issue of the Plan, which will be updated annually, summarizes program objectives, summary plans and schedules, budget allocations, contractor involvement, and interfaces with other research programs. The National Program Plan is a controlling document for the Technical Program Plan, which is prepared annually by the CFRP at ORNL and is one of a hierarchical group of planning documents. The CFRP is a part of the DOE's program of research and development (R and D) on nuclear fission systems and is directed by the LMFBR Fuel Cycle Projects Division, Office of Spent Fuel Management and Reprocessing Systems at DOE-Headquarters through the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO). The strategy of the program is to maintain the capability to commit to a breeder option through a strong R and D program on breeder reprocessing and alternate fuels and fuel cycles to achieve operating and economic advantages

  5. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. National Program Plan FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This FY 1984 National Program Plan for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) provides specific guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1984 CFRP activities and a baseline for activities in future years. This is the second issue of the Plan, which is updated anually and summarizes program objectives, summary plans and schedules, budget allocations, contractor involvement, and interfaces with other research programs. The National Program Plan is a controlling document for the Technical Program Plan, which is prepared annually by the CFRP at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is one of the hierarchical group of planning documents. The CFRP is a part of the DOE's program of research and development (R and D) on nuclear fission systems and is directed by the LMFBR Fuel Cycle Projects Division, Office of Spent Fuel Management and Reprocessing Systems at DOE-Headquarters through the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO). The strategy of the program is to maintain the capability to commit to a breeder option through a strong R and D program on breeder reprocessing and alternate fuels and fuel cycles in order to achieve operating and economic advantages

  6. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, William S

    1999-09-01

    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels.

  7. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels

  8. Features in the aspect of materials in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of the reprocessing plant installed in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, by Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co., Ltd. is the Purex wet process experienced in Japan and abroad, and which can obtain the uranium and plutonium products of high purity at high recovery rate. This process is to melt spent fuel with nitric acid, and extract and separate uranium, plutonium and fission products from the obtained solution by utilizing the difference in chemical properties. The yearly amount of treatment of the reprocessing plant of this company is 800 t uranium. In order to ensure the safety in the reprocessing plant that handles the solution with high radioactivity, the function of confining radioactive substances in definite areas is demanded. For the purpose, the machinery, equipment and piping containing radioactive substances are made of the materials having the corrosion resistance against nitric acid, and welded structure is adopted to prevent leakage. Negative pressure is maintained in waste gas treatment facilities in relation to cells, and in the cells in relation to the building. The outline of the facilities, the materials of the main machinery and equipment, and the applied technologies are reported. (K.I.)

  9. Study of an ADS Loaded with Thorium and Reprocessed Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graiciany de Paula Barros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator-driven systems (ADSs are investigated for long-lived fission product transmutation and fuel regeneration. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nuclear fuel evolution and the neutronic parameters of a lead-cooled accelerator-driven system used for fuel breeding. The fuel used in some fuel rods was T232hO2 for U233 production. In the other fuel rods was used a mixture based upon Pu-MA, removed from PWR-spent fuel, reprocessed by GANEX, and finally spiked with thorium or depleted uranium. The use of reprocessed fuel ensured the use of T232hO2 without the initial requirement of U233 enrichment. In this paper was used the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.6.0 that presents the depletion/burnup capability, combining an ADS source and kcode-mode (for criticality calculations. The multiplication factor (keff evolution, the neutron energy spectra in the core at BOL, and the nuclear fuel evolution during the burnup were evaluated. The results indicated that the combined use of T232hO2 and reprocessed fuel allowed U233 production without the initial requirement of U233 enrichment.

  10. Methodology for estimating reprocessing costs for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technological and economic evaluation of reprocessing requirements for alternate fuel cycles requires a common assessment method and a common basis to which various cycles can be related. A methodology is described for the assessment of alternate fuel cycles utilizing a side-by-side comparison of functional flow diagrams of major areas of the reprocessing plant with corresponding diagrams of the well-developed Purex process as installed in the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). The BNFP treats 1500 metric tons of uranium per year (MTU/yr). Complexity and capacity factors are determined for adjusting the estimated facility and equipment costs of BNFP to determine the corresponding costs for the alternate fuel cycle. Costs of capacities other than the reference 1500 MT of heavy metal per year are estimated by the use of scaling factors. Unit costs of reprocessed fuel are calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis for three economic bases to show the effect of low-risk, typical, and high-risk financing methods

  11. Development of separation techniques of americium from reprocessing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium(Am) and neptunium(Np) finally transfer to the waste stream in the current PUREX reprocessing process. As an option, some methods have been developed to recover Am and Np from the waste stream to decrease long-term toxicity of the high level waste. The most stable valence state of Am is III, but TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) which is an extractant used in the PUREX reprocessing does not extract Am(III). Therefore, some special extractants have been developed to recover Am(III). However, they also extract rare-earth elements(REs), which necessitates the separation process for Am from REs. We have been developing a separation process which consists of valence control of Am to the VI state and its extraction with TBP. This process allows Am recovery from reprocessing solution and Am separation from REs simultaneously. Americium(III) is oxidized to Am(VI) by electrochemical oxidation and chemical oxidation using peroxodisulfate ammonium and silver nitrate. The latter was adopted here because the chemical oxidation reaction proceeds faster than the electrochemical method. Reaction mechanisms of oxidation and extraction were investigated. Based on the mechanisms, we found that extraction efficiency could be improved and waste generation could be minimized. (author)

  12. Process evaluation of semi-commercial pyrometallurgical reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A code to simulate dynamic behavior of material balance and nuclear material management in the pyrometallurgical reprocessing facility was developed. The quasi-equilibrium models to simulate main processes were employed, and interconnected each other. By integrating these models applicable to the facility operation, semi-commercial pyrometallurgical reprocessing facility which handle 10 tons of heavy metals every year was constructed on the computer. It showed more than 99.9% of TRU can be recovered without giving crucial contamination of rare earth fission products to the recycled fuel. Material movement in the facility was simulated, and graphically figured in the CRT. Random measurement values and sampling errors were calculated from the quantities obtained by the process simulation. The statistical deviation of inventory difference, σMUF, and that of cumulative inventory difference, σCUMUF, at appropriate material balance period were calculated. They suggested that the error arising from the measurements at key measuring points of pyrometallurgical reprocessing was less than the significant quantity

  13. Summary of active test at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan, has adopted Purex Process like the Tokai plant in Japan, the La Hague plant in France and the Sellafield plant in England. Its annual reprocessing capacity is 800 tU, while the daily reprocessing capacity is 4.8 tU. Spent fuels contained in casks are transported to RRP from nuclear power plants in Japan. Spent fuels are cooled down and stored in spent fuels storage pools. When the radioactivity is weakened to predetermined level, spent fuels are sheared in pieces of 3 to 4 centimeters long. After fuels are dissolved with nitric acid, uranium, plutonium and fission products are separated from each other. Both uranium solution and plutonium solution are purified and de-nitrated. They turn into two types of powder products: uranium oxide and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide, and are then stored. Liquid waste generated in the reprocessing processes contains most of fission products and TRU and has a high radioactivity. It is mixed and solidified together with special glass, is poured into a stainless container (canister), and is cooled down. Outline of Active Test: The test operation at RRP has been carried out step by step with 'Water Test', 'Chemical Test', 'Uranium Test' and 'Active Test', toward the planned start of the commercial operation. Active Test started since 31 March 2006 has been performed with spent fuels for the verification of safety functions and performance of equipment and facilities. Active Test is divided into 5 steps, and Step 1, Step 2, Step 3 and Step 4 were already completed. Results: It has been confirmed that the safety functions and the target performance of equipment and facilities of shearing, dissolution, separation, purification and de-nitration process had been obtained. It has been confirmed that the total release activities to atmosphere and sea were well below the control target value and effective dose by external exposure and internal

  14. Characterization of Ag/Ag2SO4 system as reference electrode for in-situ electrochemical studies of advanced aqueous supercapacitors'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DENYS G GROMADSKYI

    2016-06-01

    Silver metal covered by Ag2SO4 was investigated as a reference electrode for flat three-electrodecells. The potential stability of the Ag/Ag2SO4 electrode in neutral aqueous solutions utilized as electrolytesfor asymmetric high-voltage supercapacitors is reported. It was found that the potential drift and temperature coefficient of this reference electrode are insignificant. Its use as an alternative to the Ag/AgCl electrode enablesone to avoid the contamination of the supporting electrolyte solution by Cl- anions, which are oxidized earlierthan water molecules and other oxygen-containing anions SO2-4 or NO-3. Using the data obtained from threeelectrodeelectrochemical measurements with the electrode in question, a graphene–carbon nanotube/ MnO2 supercapacitor cell accumulating 9.8 Wh kg-1 of specific energy at 1.75 V was built.

  15. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  16. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  17. Extraction behavior of radionuclides in the first separation cycle in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical flowsheet experiment by using three mixer-settlers was conducted to study the extraction behavior of radionuclides such as technetium, neptunium, iodine, zirconium and ruthenium in the uranium-TBP-nitric acid solution system in the simulated first separation cycle in current reprocessing plants. The following results were obtained: More than 99.999% of the total uranium fed to the co-decontamination step in the simulated dissolver solution was extracted by TBP solvent. About 90% of the total uranium was recovered in the uranium back-extraction step. About 30% of the total neptunium fed to the co-decontamination step was in the raffinate solution in the co-decontamination step, 12% of the total neptunium was in the Tc solution in the Tc separation step and about 58% of the total neptunium was in the Pu solution in the U/Pu partitioning step. As for technetium, about 99% of the total technetium was extracted by TBP in the co-decontamination step, 86% of the total technetium was scrubbed with high acid nitric acid solution in the Tc separation step and 13% of the total technetium was in the Pu solution in the U/Pu partitioning step. As for the other radionuclides, 99% of the total ruthenium and 93% of the total zirconium were distributed into the raffinate in the co-decontamination step. In the Tc separation step, ruthenium was scrubbed more effectively than ruthenium with high acid solution. About 45% of the total iodine fed to the co-decontamination step was vaporized during the experiment. Iodine in aqueous solutions in the flowsheet was mainly in volatile I2 form. Iodine was rarely distributed into the aqueous solution and was distributed with TBP solvent in the flowsheet. Significant amounts of iodine was contained in the washed solvent. (author)

  18. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  19. Review of recent ORNL studies in solvent cleanup and diluent degradation. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1982-01-01

    Testing of solvent cleanup methods to replace the use of sodium carbonate in the Purex process has been ongoing for several years in order to reduce the quantity of waste sodium nitrate generated and to improve phase separation. Alternate solvent cleanup methods include the use of packed columns of base-treated silica gel or solvent scrubbing with hydrazine oxalate. Degradation of the diluent was shown to generate long-chain organic acids which appear to be the major culprits in the phase separation problems encountered in sodium carbonate scrubbers. Solvent scrubbing with hydrazine oxalate gives improved phase separations. Solvent cleanup in columns packed with base-treated silica gel avoids the phase separation problem since a dispersable aqueous phase is not present. Removals of TBP degradation products and metal-ion complexes by sodium carbonate, hydrazine salts, or by packed beds of base-treated silica gel are all satisfactory. Solvent scrubbing by hydrazine oxalate solutions is the prime candidate for solvent cleanup in fuel reprocessing plants.

  20. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  1. The periodic safety review report of Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The periodic safety review of Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is the assessment of the validity of TRP safety activities and activity in order to obtain assurance for continuous operation in safety condition by adding effective items to extract and to execute for TRP safety and higher reliability. We performed 4 items as follows; (1) Evaluation of safety activity at TRP (Comprehensive evaluation of operation experiences), (2) Evaluation of status of safety activities reflecting the latest knowledge against TRP, (3) Technical evaluation of aging of TRP process, and (4) Establishment of a 10-years-plan that operator should perform in order to keep the TRP condition in viewpoint of technical evaluation of aging. This report is summarized the result of research and assessment of about 4 items from TRP operation start till March 2004. About (3) and (4), we re-assessed the plan against aging based on NISA's 'the concept for aging of fuel fabrication plants and reprocessing plants', and 'the guide for assessment of aging on fuel fabrication plants and reprocessing plants'. About (1), we researched the 8 items (QA, etc.) of safety activities in view point of study and reflection of troubles, QA and safety. As a result, we confirmed the necessary organization and scheme had been ordered and managed, and establishment of mechanism to reflect from experience of troubles. About (2), we confirmed that improvement of safety and reliability had been continued to renew adequately reflecting from researching safety research results and technology development results. About (3), we evaluated the guaranty of safety mechanism of installation under assumption of till the next aging valuation continuous operation and maintenance could keep the safety. About (4) we found no additional safety activities into maintenance strategies, however, we established a plan for safety reliability of installations. (author)

  2. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents

  3. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  4. Analysis of the Reuse of Uranium Recovered from the Reprocessing of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [ORNL; Trowbridge, Lee D [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Williams, Kent Alan [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    This report provides an analysis of the factors involved in the reuse of uranium recovered from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels (1) by reenrichment and recycling as fuel to LWRs and/or (2) by recycling directly as fuel to heavy-water-reactors (HWRs), such as the CANDU (registered trade name for the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor). Reuse is an attractive alternative to the current Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) baseline plan, which stores the reprocessed uranium (RU) for an uncertain future or attempts to dispose of it as 'greater-than-Class C' waste. Considering that the open fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States already creates a huge excess quantity of depleted uranium, the closed fuel cycle should enable the recycle of the major components of spent fuel, such as the uranium and the hazardous, long-lived transuranic (TRU) actinides, as well as the managed disposal of fission product wastes. Compared with the GNEP baseline scenario, the reuse of RU in the uranium fuel cycle has a number of potential advantages: (1) avoidance of purchase costs of 11-20% of the natural uranium feed; (2) avoidance of disposal costs for a large majority of the volume of spent fuel that is reprocessed; (3) avoidance of disposal costs for a portion of the depleted uranium from the enrichment step; (4) depending on the {sup 235}U assay of the RU, possible avoidance of separative work costs; and (5) a significant increase in the production of {sup 238}Pu due to the presence of {sup 236}U, which benefits somewhat the transmutation value of the plutonium and also provides some proliferation resistance.

  5. Maintenance experiences at analytical laboratory at the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is developing the technology to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. There is an analytical laboratory which was built in 1977, as one of the most important facilities for process and material control analyses at the TRP. Samples taken from each process are analyzed by various analytical methods using hot cells, glove boxes and hume-hoods. A large number of maintenance work have been so far carried out and different types of experience have been accumulated. This paper describes our achievements in the maintenance activities at the analytical laboratory at the TRP. (author)

  6. Calibration of burnup monitor installed in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeda, Kaoru; Naito, Hirofumi; Hirota, Masanari [Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Natsume, Koichiro [Isogo Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Kumanomido, Hironori [Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant uses burnup credit for criticality control at the Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF) and the Dissolution Facility. A burnup monitor measures nondestructively burnup value of a spent fuel assembly and guarantees the credit for burnup. For practical reasons, a standard radiation source is not used in calibration of the burnup monitor, but the burnup values of many spent fuel assemblies are measured based on operator-declared burnup values. This paper describes the concept of burnup credit, the burnup monitor, and the calibration method. It is concluded, from the results of calibration tests, that the calibration method is valid. (author)

  7. Recovery of actinoids from waste solutions of fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part II of the literature survey, characteristics of the principal separation methods, i.e., solvent extraction and ion exchange, for plutonium(IV), americium(III) and lanthanoids(III) are first described to help understand essentials in the actual examples of applications of the methods. Then, some examples of recoverying actinoids from liquid wastes, especially on a large scale, are presented. Finally, flowsheets being developed in the world for partitioning high-level liquid wastes in fuel reprocessing are given with discussion on their respective problems. (author)

  8. The JASON reactor: from core removal to fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeley, P.; Williams, A.; Lockwood, R. [Defence College of Electromechanical Engineering, Nuclear Dept., HMS SULTAN (United Kingdom); Raymond, B.; Spyrou, N. [Surrey Univ., Dept. of Physical and Electronic Sciences (United Kingdom); Auziere, P. [AREVA NC, Treatment Business Unit, 78 - Velizy (France)

    2007-07-01

    The 10 kW JASON Argonaut reactor was operated at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, London, between 1962 and 1996. After initial cooling in the core, the MTR type fuel (80% enriched U{sup 235}) was dry stored on site before transport in 1998 to BNFL, Sellafield for interim wet storage. Arrangements for reprocessing of the fuel at AREVA NC, La Hague are now in progress and this paper will describe various aspects of the storage, transfer, monitoring, and the treatment at La Hague plant. The radioactive waste resulting from the processing of these used fuels will be conditioned into a suitable package for return to UK.

  9. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Sukanya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is a method which was initially used for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. But it is now being used in different therapeutic situations. EMDR is an eight-phase treatment method. History taking, client preparation, assessment, desensitization, installation, body scan, closure and reevaluation of treatment effect are the eight phases of this treatment which are briefly described. A case report is also depicted which indicates the efficacy of EMDR. The areas where EMDR is used and the possible ways through which it is working are also described.

  10. Seasonal signals in the reprocessed GPS coordinate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyeres, A.; van Dam, T.; Figurski, M.; Szafranek, K.

    2008-12-01

    The global (IGS) and regional (EPN) CGPS time series have already been studied in detail by several authors to analyze the periodic signals and noise present in the long term displacement series. The comparisons indicated that the amplitude and phase of the CGPS derived seasonal signals mostly disagree with the surface mass redistribution models. The CGPS results are highly overestimating the seasonal term, only about 40% of the observed annual amplitude can be explained with the joint contribution of the geophysical models (Dong et al. 2002). Additionally the estimated amplitudes or phases are poorly coherent with the models, especially at sites close to coastal areas (van Dam et al, 2007). The conclusion of the studies was that the GPS results are distorted by analysis artifacts (e.g. ocean tide loading, aliasing of unmodeled short periodic tidal signals, antenna PCV models), monument thermal effects and multipath. Additionally, the GPS series available so far are inhomogeneous in terms of processing strategy, applied models and reference frames. The introduction of the absolute phase center variation (PCV) models for the satellite and ground antennae in 2006 and the related reprocessing of the GPS precise orbits made a perfect ground and strong argument for the complete re-analysis of the GPS observations from global to local level of networks. This enormous work is in progress within the IGS and a pilot analysis was already done for the complete EPN observations from 1996 to 2007 by the MUT group (Military University of Warsaw). The quick analysis of the results proved the expectations and the superiority of the reprocessed data. The noise level (weekly coordinate repeatability) was highly reduced making ground for the later analysis on the daily solution level. We also observed the significant decrease of the seasonal term in the residual coordinate time series, which called our attention to perform a repeated comparison of the GPS derived annual periodicity

  11. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress and activities are reported on process development, laboratory R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility operations, and HTGR fuel reprocessing

  12. Mechanism of azo dye degradation in Advanced Oxidation Processes: Degradation of Sulfanilic Acid Azochromotrop and its parent compounds in aqueous solution by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálfi, Tamás; Wojnárovits, László; Takács, Erzsébet

    2011-03-01

    Mechanistic studies were made on hydroxyl radical and hydrated electron reaction with Sulfanilic Acid Azochromotrop (SPADNS) as model azo dye in dilute aqueous solution. SPADNS contains 4,5-dihydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid part and 4-sulfophenylazo group. To establish the details of the reaction mechanism the reactions of two simpler molecules without 4-sulfophenylazo part were also studied: one of them contained one (in position 4, II), the other two (in positions 4 and 5, III) -OH groups. Hydroxyl radicals react with these molecules with radical addition to the naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid part. The adduct hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical decays in radical-radical reactions, or undergoes a (pH dependent) water elimination to yield naphthoxy radical. The radical decay takes place on the ms timescale. Degradation efficiencies are 0.6-0.8. Hydrated electron in the case of the two simpler molecules reacts with the rings, while in the case of dye with the azo bond. Electron scavenging is followed by protonation, this reaction in the case of II and III yields cyclohexadienyl, while with the dye hydrazo radical. The efficiency of degradation with II and III is 0.2-0.6, while for SPADNS it is close to 1.

  13. Mechanism of azo dye degradation in Advanced Oxidation Processes: Degradation of Sulfanilic Acid Azochromotrop and its parent compounds in aqueous solution by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palfi, Tamas; Wojnarovits, Laszlo [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.B. 77 (Hungary); Takacs, Erzsebet, E-mail: takacs@iki.kfki.h [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.B. 77 (Hungary)

    2011-03-15

    Mechanistic studies were made on hydroxyl radical and hydrated electron reaction with Sulfanilic Acid Azochromotrop (SPADNS) as model azo dye in dilute aqueous solution. SPADNS contains 4,5-dihydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid part and 4-sulfophenylazo group. To establish the details of the reaction mechanism the reactions of two simpler molecules without 4-sulfophenylazo part were also studied: one of them contained one (in position 4, II), the other two (in positions 4 and 5, III) -OH groups. Hydroxyl radicals react with these molecules with radical addition to the naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid part. The adduct hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical decays in radical-radical reactions, or undergoes a (pH dependent) water elimination to yield naphthoxy radical. The radical decay takes place on the ms timescale. Degradation efficiencies are 0.6-0.8. Hydrated electron in the case of the two simpler molecules reacts with the rings, while in the case of dye with the azo bond. Electron scavenging is followed by protonation, this reaction in the case of II and III yields cyclohexadienyl, while with the dye hydrazo radical. The efficiency of degradation with II and III is 0.2-0.6, while for SPADNS it is close to 1.

  14. Development of engineering technology basis for industrialization of pyrometallurgical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the engineering technology basis of pyrometallurgical reprocessing is a key issue for industrialization. For development of the transport technologies of molten salt and liquid cadmium at around 500 deg. C, a salt transport test rig and a metal transport test rig were installed in Ar glove box. Function of centrifugal pump and 1/2'' declined tubing were confirmed with LiCl- KCl molten salt. The transport behavior of molten salt was found to follow that of water. Function of centrifugal pump, vacuum sucking and 1/2'' declined tubing were confirmed with liquid Cd. With employing the transport technologies, industrialization applicable electro-refiner was newly designed and engineering-scale model was fabricated in Ar glove box. The electro-refiner has semi-continuous liquid Cd cathode instead of conventional one used in small-scale tests. With using actinide-simulating elements, demonstration of industrial-scale throughput will be carried out in this electro-refiner for more precise evaluation of industrialization potential of pyrometallurgical reprocessing. (authors)

  15. Fluoride volatility technology for reprocessing of irradiated oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the scientific research works in the VNIIKhT on the spent oxide fuel reprocessing by the fluoride volatility technology is presented. Refining feasibilities of the basic stages of the fluoride volatility technology were investigated. Possibility of the release of the basic part of fission products with cinders on the fluorination stage was supported by the experimental results. Application of the fluorine sorbents (NaF, BaF2) means for the summary coefficient of the UF6 purification from fission products at a level of 107. Possibility of the deep plutonium recovery from the oxide fuel was shown. Results of the investigations into pyrohydrolysis of UF6 and mixture of UF6 and PuF6 with the oxide granulates production of the needed density with the content of fluorine 0.005 mass. % and oxygen coefficient 2 - 2.1 are performed. Recommendations on the fluoride volatility process application for the spent oxide fuel reprocessing of fast and light water reactors and prediction on the closed fuel cycle using fluoride volatility process were given with regard to new demands on fission products nonproliferation

  16. Recent achievements and remaining challenges on pyrochemical reprocessing in CRIEPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has proposed an integrated fuel cycle concept for light water reactor and metal fuel fast breeder reactor for closing actinide cycle with Partitioning and Transmutation scenario. This paper reviews a state of the art pyrochemical reprocessing (electrorefining, electroreduction and pyro-partitioning) and metal fuels containing minor actinides (MAs) which are the key challenges to establish the proposed fuel cycle. CRIEPI continues to develop pyrochemical reprocessing of which reliability is high enough to evaluate its industrial applicability. Recently, engineering-scale electrodes for electrorefining process were developed; the anode and solid cathode pair so called high-throughput electro-refiner, and the novel liquid Cd cathode equipped with a system to transport liquid Cd to the following cathode process. The feasibility of these electrodes was demonstrated. The novel oxide fuel reduction process was proposed to increase the reduction rate, where porous oxide fuel pellets were served to the electroreduction process. ∼100 g UO2 pellet was successfully reduced to metallic state within 10 hours. Almost all of MAs was recovered from genuine high-level liquid waste (HLLW) through the pyro-partitioning process (denitration, chlorination, and reductive-extraction). This demonstrated that MAs contained in HLLW from PUREX were introduced into the metal fuel cycle. Postirradiation tests of fast reactor metal fuels containing MAs and rare earths are being carried out. (authors)

  17. Current status of active tests at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan, the test operation has been carried out step by step with 'water and steam', 'chemical products', 'depleted uranium' and 'spent fuels' toward the planned start of the commercial operation. Water Test was performed as the final stage of plant construction work and functioning of each equipment was tested with water and steam. In Chemical Test the performance of each equipment and unit was verified with chemical products such as nitric acid. In Uranium Test with depleted uranium, function and performance of equipment such as the sharing machine and the dissolver was verified. All its tests were completed by 22 January 2006. Active Test has been performed with spent fuels for the verification of safety functions and performances of equipment and facilities related to the processing of fission products and of plutonium, which had not been tested previously. Active Test which has been in progress since 31 March 2006 is divided into 5 steps, and Step 1, Step 2 and Step 3 are already completed. (authors)

  18. Æstetiske læreprocesser som performative handlinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Helene

    2009-01-01

      Med afsæt i en analyse af et samtidskunstværk undersøger artiklen nogle af de konsekvenser, forskellen mellem en repræsentativ og en performativ tilgang til begrebet form kan tænkes at have for begrebet 'æstetiske læreprocesser'. Teoretisk bygger artiklen på den amerikanske kønsforsker Judith...... Butlers teori om subjektet som performativt konstitueret, hvor 'identitet' ikke er noget på forhånd givet, men noget, der bliver til gennem performativitet, dvs. reproduktion af handlemønstre, relateret til eksisterende kulturelt og socialt bestemte 'identitetsmatricer'. Som en modsætning hertil bruger...... Butler betegnelsen performance om bevidst konstruerede og iscenesatte handlinger, der tager afsæt i identitetsmatricerne med henblik på at udforske, udfordre og evt. forandre dem. Butlers teori anvendes til problematisere gængse teorier om æstetiske læreprocesser,  som, ifølge forfatteren, har en ikke...

  19. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide the review manual and the relevant technical data for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. We have been conducted the research program based on a contract with well-equipped organization since FY2006. We selected four experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant experienced in much corrosion problems, which is pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec.1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr.2006. Corrosion of stainless steel made components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions. Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions. Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloy made components in highly radioactive nitric acid solutions. Creep and fatigue of nickel-base alloy made furnaces which is operated in the conditions of daily cyclic heating. This annual report presents the summary of research activities in FY2010. (author)

  20. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. National Program Plan, FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This FY 1985 National Program Plan for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) provides specific guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1985 CFRP activities and a baseline for activities in future years. This is the third issue of the Plan, which is updated annually and summarizes program objectives, plans, and schedules, budget allocations, contractor involvements, and interfaces with other research programs. The National Program Plan is a controlling document for the Technical Program Plan, which is prepared annually by the CFRP at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is one of a hierarchical group of planning documents. The CFRP is a part of the DOE's program of research and development (R and D) on nuclear fission systems and is directed by the LMFBR Fuel Cycle Projects Division, Office of Spent Fuel Management and Reprocessing Systems at DOE-Headquarters through the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO). The strategy of the program is to maintain the capability to commit to a breeder option through a strong fuel cycle R and D program and international technical exchanges

  1. Intergovernmental action of neighbours against the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BV Art. 11, para. 2; BBauG section 12 (Federal Building Law). Art.11, para. 2 BV does not require that local development planning for a reprocessing plant should take into consideration the effects on neighbouring municipalities as a result of post-construction activities, in this case the transport of radioactive material via certain routes. Such supra-regional aspects go beyond the planning basis of a local government. These are the headnotes of a decision by the Bavarian Higher Administrative Court (BayVerfGH, 29.4.1987 - Vf. 5 - VII - 86). The issue of the proceedings commenced by a collective action is the question whether an area development plan for the purpose of erecting the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant infringes the constitutional rights of the town of Nuernberg due to the fact that after commissioning of the plant, radioactive material will be transported to and from the plant, and the envisaged route for the transports leads through the urban area. (orig./HP)

  2. Improved fluoride volatility reprocessing for MOX fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Fukasawa, T.; Sawa, T.; Yamashita, J.; Kamoshida, M.; Sasahira, A.; Kawamura, F. [Nuclear Systems Div., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Several countries had stopped developing fluoride volatility reprocessing method in the 1970's due to difficulties in recovering pure Pu. Although, nuclear societies recently favor dirty Pu (MOX). which has high proliferation resistance and needs remote fuel fabrication technologies. This situation reminded the authors to re-evaluate the fluoride volatility process. Preliminary investigation clarified that conventional fluoride volatility process could be simplified to recover dirty MOX and pure U from spent LWR fuels. Pure U is suitable to transfer it to re-enrichment (LWR cycle again), to storage certain period for future FBRs, and to dispose with relatively simple barrier. The improved process also enables to prepare directly the dirty MOX particles which are suitable for remote fuel fabrication (vibration packing). This paper describes the system of improved fluoride volatility reprocessing, and compatibility of each elemental process such as thermal decladding, two stage fluorination of U and U+Pu, U purification, direct conversion. of mixed fluoride into oxide particles and vibration packing fuel fabrication. (authors)

  3. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google Plus Email Print this page Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms ... aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out freely (follow blue arrow). Aqueous humor flows ...

  4. Hybrid reprocessing technology of fluoride volatility and solvent extraction. New reprocessing technology, FLUOREX, for LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Fumio [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Hybrid Process of Fluoride Volatility and Solvent Extraction (FLUOREX) has been objected to develop a low cost reprocessing technology for collection of U and MOX (mixture U and Pu) in LWR fuel cycle. Outline, characteristics, technologies, problems and material balance of FLUOREX are explained. LWR spent fuel consists of about 96% U, 1% Pu and about 3% fission products (FP) and minor actinides (MA). FLUOREX method is hybrid system, which isolates about 90% U at high speed and refines by fluoride volatility process and residue about 10% U, Pu, MA and FP are processed by PUREX method after dissolution in acid. The special features are low cost by small type and lightweight, stable without gas Pu and stop of fluorine gas, reducing load of environment, resistance of nuclear proliferation, application of technologies demonstrated and flexible method for fast reactor. Three problems for development are selective fluoridation of U, transportation of oxides in the fluoride residue and dissolution of transported oxides. The preliminary examination of plan showed 800GWD/t processing volume, 200 day/year operation day, about 51 ten-thousand cubic meter volume of plant, about 1/3 Rokkasho reprocessing plant. (S.Y.)

  5. Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify…

  6. 76 FR 13605 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Vitrification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and certain treatment material) at the West Valley... a solid glass waste form. DOE used the vitrification melter as part of this process, specifically to melt glass frit (material used in making glass) together with reprocessing waste sludge and...

  7. Surface evaluation of cardiac angiographic catheters after simulated use and reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing of single-use intravascular catheters is a common practice in public health services and hospitals. The determination of safe number of reprocessing cycles before the catheter integrity becomes compromised has been a priority issue. The present paper addresses the evaluating molecular and micro-structural integrity of reprocessed cardiac angiographic catheters. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were carried out to elucidate morphological changes. The tensile test was performed on catheters to examine changes in bulk characteristics. In this work, samples of catheters were reprocessed until nine times and sterilized by hydrogen peroxide plasma. It was observed that the number of hydrogen-bonded carbonyls groups increased in 0.05 u.a. (p < 0.001) after each reprocessing cycle. The spectra indicated degradation products included acids, esters, alcohols, and small amounts of other products containing a carbonyl functional group. The micrographs revealed that only after the fourth reprocessing cycle the effect increased in the surface roughness was more pronounced. On the other hand, after each reprocessing cycle and as consequence of extensive aging of polyamide/polyurethane blends of the catheters surface, it was observed that the micro-fissures, micro-scratches and micro-pores increased in quantity and length. The mechanical test proved that the Young modulus increased in average 3.26 MPa (p = 0.0003) at increasing number of reprocessing cycles, also suggestive of crosslinking in this material.

  8. Bavarian Constitutional Court, decision of April 29, 1987 (Reprocessing plant near Nuremberg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its decision of April 29, 1987, the Bavarian Constitutional Court dismisses the action against the development plan of the reprocessing plant at Wackersdorf. The town of Nuernberg is not encroached in its constitutional rights according to art. 11 para. 2 Bavarian Constitution by the transport of radioactive waste within its municipal area after the commissioning of the reprocessing plant. (CW)

  9. ERBE Wide-Field-of-View Nonscanner Data Reprocessing and revisiting its Radiation dataset from 1985 to 199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, A. K.; Kato, S.; Wong, T.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Rose, F. G.; Miller, W. F.; Bush, K.; Rutan, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's radiation budget is a fundamental component of the climate system and should reflect the variation in climate. As such, it is critical to know how it has varied over past decades to ensure that climate models are properly representing climate. Broadband shortwave and longwave irradiances were measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) wide-field-of-view (WFOV) nonscanner instrument from 1985 to 1998. These WFOV nonscanner instruments were onboard NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and two NOAA's satellites (NOAA-9 and NOAA-10). However, earlier studies showed that the transmissivity of the dome for the WFOV shortwave (SW) nonscanner instrument degraded over time. To account for the degradation, WFOV instruments were calibrated assuming constant spectral degradation (gray assumption). Recent developments from analysis of data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System project (CERES), which has been measuring the radiation budget since 2000, suggest that transmissivity of shorter wavelength degrades faster. Therefore, a spectrally dependent degradation correction is needed for a better calibration. In addition, accounting for the spectrally dependent degradation may eliminate an additional correction applied to irradiances using a time series of daytime and nighttime longwave irradiance differences. Therefore, we have reprocessed WFOV nonscanner data by characterizing the spectrally dependent degradation of the SW dome transmissivity. Time and spectral dependent degradation of the shortwave filter function is estimated using solar data observed by these instruments during calibration days. Because the spectrum of reflected irradiance depends on scene type, we use Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVHRR-derived cloud properties and surface type over the WFOV footprints in addition to time dependent filter function for the unfiltering process. This poster explains the reprocessing approach and discusses the

  10. Recommendations to resolve inconsistent guidelines for the reprocessing of sheathed and unsheathed rigid laryngoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Lawrence F

    2007-04-01

    Neither a consensus statement nor a formal set of step-by-step guidelines for reprocessing rigid laryngoscopes have been published or endorsed by professional organizations. Several published guidelines, standards, and clinical reports were reviewed to evaluate the risk of nosocomial infection associated with the use of rigid laryngoscopes, to determine their minimum reprocessing requirements. This review found that the recommendations of some guidelines and standards for reprocessing rigid laryngoscopes are incomplete, inadequate, and inconsistent with one another, and that current practices for reprocessing rigid laryngoscopes are reported to be inadequate and lack standardization. It is recommended that a consensus statement be developed that standardizes the reprocessing of rigid laryngoscopes and requires cleaning followed by high-level disinfection (or sterilization) and drying of the rigid laryngoscope's blade and handle to prevent nosocomial infection, regardless of whether a protective barrier or sheath is used during the procedure. PMID:17385163

  11. Reprocessed height time series of GPS stations at tide gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rudenko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Precise weekly positions of 403 Global Positioning System (GPS stations located worldwide are obtained by reprocessing GPS data of these stations at the time span from 4 January 1998 until 29 December 2007. The used processing algorithm and models as well as the solution and results obtained are presented. Vertical velocities of GPS stations having tracking history longer than 2.5 yr are computed and compared with the estimates from the colocated tide gauges and other GPS solutions. Examples of typical behavior of station height changes are given and interpreted. The derived time series and vertical motions of continuous GPS at tide gauges stations can be used for correcting tide gauge estimates of regional and global sea level changes.

  12. Fluidic Analysis in an Annular Centrifugal Contactor for Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annular centrifugal contactor (ACC) is a promising device for fuel reprocessing process, because it offers several advantages—a smaller size, a smaller holdup volume, and a higher separation performance—over conventional contactors such as a mixer-settler and a pulse column. Fluid dynamics and dispersion in an ACC, which has a combined mixer/centrifuge structure, are closely related to its separation performance and capacity, and this information is useful in improving equipment design. In this paper, experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies were conducted to analyze fluidic and dispersion behavior in ACCs. Multiphase mixing (water/TBP-dodecane/air) in the annular zone was observed by Particle Imaging Velocimetry, and the change in the fluidic and dispersion behavior was ascertained under several operational conditions. The results of the CFD studies, which considered multiphase turbulent flow in the annular and rotor interior zones, were in a good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  13. The use of spectrophotometry in FBR reprocessing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrophotometric methods of analysis currently in use at DNPDE are described. It considers the ways in which the problems of containment and physical handling of active solutions have been overcome, and summarises performance of the methods during several PFR fuel reprocessing campaigns. The introduction of a new micro-computer controlled fibre-optic spectrophotometer is considered in terms of its advantages over the existing systems, both in safe sample handling and computational abilities. Its performance is compared with existing methods. Finally, a novel system for measurement of plutonium valency, and americium in plutonium using a ''spectral stripping'' technique, is discussed. The results of this method are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques. (author)

  14. Microbial transformations of radionuclides released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed. (author)

  15. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  16. Volume determination of accountability vessels in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the Nuclear Material content in the spent fuels dissolution product is of a great importance both for the Safeguards Authorities and the Plant Management. This measurement is carried out in special vessels, currently called Input Accountability Vessels. In the present report the procedures applied and the instrumentation used both during the calibration and in the operational stages are described; moreover, the method and the statistical techniques currently used for the calibration data treatment and evaluation are reported and discussed. A critical analysis of all the possible sources of error in the Volume determination is also included. The goal of the present work, taking into account the Ritex experience results, was to demonstrate the needs of selecting the methodologies, the procedures and the instrumentation able to guarantee, besides a better precision, highly reliable Volume measurements for Accountability and Safeguards controls in the input section of a Reprocessing Plant

  17. Nondestructive assay instrumentation for Savannah River Plant reprocessing accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed, developed, and calibrated three different types of nondestructive assay systems for the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These systems will be delivered to SRP in 1986 and become part of the nuclear material accounting instrumentation at one of SRP's reprocessing facilities. Among the various types of nondestructive assay systems to be implemented are a neutron counter (Los Alamos National Laboratory - LANL), a four-station calorimeter (Mound Laboratories), a waste solution assay system (LANL), two gamma-ray solution concentration assay systems (LLNL), two x-ray fluorescence analysis concentration assay systems (LLNL), and one 2-detector plutonium solids isotopics system (LLNL). Los Alamos also has the responsibility of combining the individual measurement systems into an integrated accountability capability. Each NDA instrument will report results to a central Instrument Control Computer (ICC). Figure 1 illustrates schematically the integrated system with each Laboratory's contribution shown by dotted lines

  18. Management of radioactive waste from reprocessing including disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a hypothetical scenario including a reactor park of 20 GWe consisting of Pressurised-Water-Reactors with a resulting annual production of 600 tonnes of heavy metal of spent fuel, all aspects of management of resulting wastes are studied. Waste streams from reprocessing include gaseous and liquid effluents, and a number of solid conditioned waste types. Disposal of waste is supposed to be performed either in a near-surface engineered repository, as long as the content of alpha-emitting radionuclides is low enough, and in a deep geological granite formation. After having estimated quantities, cost and radiological consequences, the sensitivity of results to modification in reactor park size, burn-up and the introduction of mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) is evaluated

  19. Evaluation of Efficacy of Advanced Oxidation Processes Fenton, Fenton-like and Photo-Fenton for Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of water, soil and groundwater caused by aromatic compounds induces great concern in most world areas. Among organic pollutants, phenol is mostly considered dangerous due to its high toxicity for human and animal. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is considered as a most efficient method also the best one for purifying organic compounds which are resistant to conventional physical and chemical processes. This experimental study was carried out in laboratory scale. First, a synthetic solution was made of phenol. Then, Fenton, Fenton-like and photo-Fenton processes were applied removing phenol from aquatic solution. The effects of Hydrogen Peroxide concentration, catalyst, pH and time were studied to phenol removal efficiency. Results showed that Photo-Fenton process with removal efficiency (97.5 percentage) is more efficient than Fenton and Fenton-like processes with removal efficiency (78.7 percentage and 82.5 percentage respectively), in pH=3, (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/)= 3mM, (Fe2+)= 0.1 mM, phenol concentration 100 mg L-1 and time reaction 60 min, the phenol removal was 97.5 percentage. (author)

  20. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: PFR fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of PFR fuel reprocessing at Dounreay is given, including brief details of fuel assembly transport, dismantling, chemical separation processes and reprocessing experience. The origin of radioactive wastes from PFR reprocessing, and the types of radioactive waste are outlined. The management of radioactive waste, including storage, treatment and disposal is described. (U.K.)

  1. TASTEX: Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1978 to 1981 the Governments of France, Japan and the United States of America cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the TASTEX (Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise) programme. The aim of this programme was to improve the technology for the application of international safeguards at reprocessing facilities, and the results are presented in the present report

  2. Assimilation of reprocessed ERS scatterometer data into ECMWF weather analysis on the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Crapolicchio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991 and ERS-2 in 1995, carrying a C-band Scatterometer, a data set of more than thirteen years of backscattered signal from the Earth surface is available for exploitation. With its global coverage, day or night and all-weather operation, ERS Scatterometer data offer unique opportunity for long-term studies and research. To fulfill the needs of the scientific community, the European Space Agency (ESA has developed the project: Advanced Scatterometer Processing System (ASPS. Main scope of the project is to provide with state-of-the-art algorithm, high quality and homogenous Scatterometer measurements (sigma nought of the Earth surface and high quality wind field over the Oceans by re-processing the entire ERS mission. Additional scope is to provide on experimental basis scientific products in high resolution tailored for the emerging Scatterometer application on Ice and Land. The ASPS project is now in a pre-operational phase and the scope of the paper is to give to the scientific community an overview of the ASPS data and show the assimilation of the data into the ECMWF weather analysis system. ASPS data hopefully will help the scientific community to better understand and monitor the Earth's climate changes and to protect our environment.

  3. Signal transmission techniques for large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RCE is currently developing a prototypic microwave-based signal transmission system for reprocessing cell applications. This system, being developed for use in the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS), will operate in the 10-GHz frequency range. Provisions are being made for five real-time video channels, three bidirectional data channels at one megabaud data rate each, and two audio channels. The basic utility of the concept has been proven in a laboratory demonstration using gallium arsenide gunn diode transmitter/receivers with horn antennas. Unidirectional transmission of one real-time video channel over a distance of 200 ft was demonstrated. No evidence of multipath interference was detected even when the transmission path was surrounded by metallic reflectors. The microwave signal transmission system for the AIMS application is in final design. Fabrication in the ORNL instrument shops will begin in October 1985, and the system should be operational in the Maintenance Systems Test Area (MSTA) at ORNL in the latter half of 1986

  4. Management of low level wastes at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), after start-up of the commercial operation, radioactive wastes will be generated. Wastes generated from a reprocessing plant generally consist of many kinds of characteristics in view of ''activity level'', ''nuclide composition'', ''chemical properties'', ''physical properties'', and so on. For stable operation of a reprocessing plant, we should treat, ''condition'' and ''dispose'' these wastes considering these wastes characteristics. To contribute to the nuclear fuel cycle project, it is important to evaluate technologies such as, ''Treatment'', ''Conditioning'' and ''Final Disposal'', not only for technical but also for economical aspects. Considering the final disposal in the future, the basic policy in ''Treatment'' and ''Conditioning'' at RRP is shown below: Recover and reuse chemicals (such as nitric acid and TBP, etc.) in plant; Radioactive waste shall be divided, classified and managed according to activity level, nuclide composition, the radiation level, its physical properties, chemical properties, etc.; Treat them based on ''classification'' management with proper combination; Condition them as intermediate forms in order to keep flexibility in the future disposal method; Original volume of annually generated wastes at RRP is estimated as 5600m3 except highly radioactive vitrified waste, and these wastes shall be treated in the following units, which are now under commisioning, in order to reduce and stabilize wastes. Low-level concentrated liquid waste to be treated with a ''Drying and peptization'' unit; Spent solvent to be treated with a ''Pyrolysis and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; Relatively low-level non-alfa flammable wastes to be treated with a ''Incineration and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; CB/BP (Channel Box and Burnable Poison) to be processed with a ''Cutting'' unit; Other wastes to be kept as their generated state with a ''Intermediate storage''. As a result of these treatments

  5. Guide to the selection, training, and licensing or certification of reprocessing plant operators. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 55, establishes procedures and criteria for the licensing of operators, including senior operators, in ''Production and Utilization Facilities'', which includes plants for reprocessing irradiated fuel. A training guide is presented which will facilitate the licensing of operators for nuclear reprocessing plants by offering generalized descriptions of the basic principles (theory) and the unit operations (mechanics) employed in reprocessing spent fuels. In the present volume, details about the portions of a training program that are of major interest to management are presented

  6. Guide to the selection, training, and licensing or certification of reprocessing plant operators. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-06-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 55, establishes procedures and criteria for the licensing of operators, including senior operators, in ''Production and Utilization Facilities'', which includes plants for reprocessing irradiated fuel. A training guide is presented which will facilitate the licensing of operators for nuclear reprocessing plants by offering generalized descriptions of the basic principles (theory) and the unit operations (mechanics) employed in reprocessing spent fuels. In the present volume, details about the portions of a training program that are of major interest to management are presented. (JSR)

  7. Process development for fabrication of zircaloy- 4 of dissolver assembly for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel reprocessing for fast breeder reactor (FBR) requires a dissolver made of a material which has resistance to corrosion as the process involves Nitric Acid as the process medium. Various materials to achieve minimum corrosion rates have been tried for this operation. Particularly the focus was on the use of advanced materials with high performance (corrosion rate and product life) for high concentrations greater than 8 N and temperatures (boiling and vapour) of Nitric Acid employed in the dissolver unit. The different commercially available materials like SS316L , Pure Titanium, Ti - 5% Ta and Ti - 5% Ta - 1.8% Nb were tried and the corrosion behavior of these materials was studied in detail. As this is continuous process of evolution of new materials, it was decided to try out zircaloy - 4 as the material of construction for construction due to its excellent corrosion resistance properties in Nitric Acid environment. The specifications were stringent and the geometrical configurations of the assembly were very intricate in shape. On accepting the challenge of fabrication of dissolver, NFC has made different fixtures for Electron Beam Welding and TIG Welding. Various trials were carried out for optimization of various operating parameter like beam current, Acceleration voltage, welding speed to get adequate weld penetration. Both EB welding and TIG welding process were standardized and qualified by carrying out a number of trials and testing these welds by various weld qualification procedures like radiography, Liquid dye penetrant testing etc. for different intricate weld geometries. All the welds were simulated with samples to optimize the weld parameters. Tests such as include metallographic (for microstructure and HAZ), mechanical (for weld strength) and chemical (material analysis for gases) were conducted and all the weld samples met the acceptable criteria. Finally the dissolver was made meeting stringent specifications. All the welds were checked

  8. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR as a Neurorehabilitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  9. Calibration of burnup monitor in the Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oheda, K.; Naito, H.; Hirota, M. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan); Natsume, K. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Kumanomido, H. [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has adopted a credit for burnup in criticality control in the Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF) and the Dissolution Facility. The burnup monitor system, prepared for BWR and PWR type fuel assemblies, nondestructively measures the burnup value and determines the residual U-235 enrichment in a spent fuel assembly, and criticality is controlled by the value of residual U-235 enrichment in SFSF and by the value of top 50 cm average burnup in the Dissolution Facility. The burnup monitor consists of three measurement systems; a Boss gamma-ray profile measurement system, a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry system, and a passive neutron measurement system. The monitor sensitivity is calibrated against operator-declared burnup values through repetitive measurements of 100 spent fuel assemblies: BWR 8 X 8, PWR 14 X 14. and 17 X 17. The outline of the measurement methods, objectives of the calibration, actual calibration method, and an example of calibration performed in a demonstration experiment are presented. (author)

  10. Reprocessed uranium handling at Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the experience of treating reprocessed uranium (RepU) at the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGChE). SGChE is a nuclear fuel cycle production center. It has been working with nuclear technologies for more than 10 years. The SGChE's production is shipped both into the Russian Federation’s market and the international market. SGChE has been active on the international enrichment services market since 1993. The experience of processing RepU at SGChE includes the following activities: the purification at the radiochemical plant of spent slightly irradiated fuel from two commercial reactors operated by SGChE operated reactors and also RepU from power reactors, the conversion of uranium with up to 1% U235 into hexafluoride at the conversion plant, and the enrichment of uranium hexafluoride with up to 5% U235 using the gas centrifuge equipment of the enrichment plant. In 1992, the SGChE started the commercial-scale conversion and enrichment of RepU derived from spent power reactor fuel imported from France. Over seven years, SGChE processed a total of about 1700 tonnes RepU. The SGChE has capacities to process up to 1500 tonnes of RepU per year with further rendering enrichment services totalling about 1 million SWU. (author)

  11. Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes

  12. Radiation protection aspects in decommissioning of a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination of a fuel reprocessing plant which underwent partial decommissioning is described. The following radiation protection aspects of the work are discussed: dismantling and removal of process vessels, columns and process off-gas filters; decontamination of various process areas; and management of liquid and solid wastes. The work was completed safely by using personnel protective equipment such as plastic suits and respirators (gas, particulate and fresh air). Total dose commitment for this work was around 3000 man-rems, including dose received by staff for certain jobs related to the operation of a section of the plant. The external dose was kept below the annual limit of 5000 mrems for any individual. No internal contamination incident occurred which caused a dose commitment in excess of 10% of the annual limit. The fact that all the work was completed by the staff normally associated with the operation of the plant contributed significantly to the management and control of personnel exposures. (H.K.)

  13. Reprocessability of molybdenum and magnesia based inert matrix fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert Elena L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the reprocessability of metallic 92Mo and ceramic MgO, which is under investigation for (Pu,MA-oxide (MA = minor actinide fuel within a metallic 92Mo matrix (CERMET and a ceramic MgO matrix (CERCER. Magnesium oxide and molybdenum reference samples have been fabricated by powder metallurgy. The dissolution of the matrices was studied as a function of HNO3 concentration (1-7 mol/L and temperature (25-90°C. The rate of dissolution of magnesium oxide and metallic molybdenum increased with temperature. While the MgO rate was independent of the acid concentration (1-7 mol/L, the rate of dissolution of Mo increased with acid concentration. However, the dissolution of Mo at high temperatures and nitric acid concentrations was accompanied by precipitation of MoO3. The extraction of uranium, americium, and europium in the presence of macro amounts of Mo and Mg was studied by three different extraction agents: tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP, N,Nʹ-dimethyl-N,Nʹ-dioctylhexylethoxymalonamide (DMDOHEMA, and N,N,N’,N’- -tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA. With TBP no extraction of Mo and Mg occurred. Both matrix materials are partly extracted by DMDOHEMA. Magnesium is not extracted by TODGA (D < 0.1, but a weak extraction of Mo is observed at low Mo concentration.

  14. Seismic analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Service Reprocessing Plant at West Valley, New York: documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Davito, A.M.

    1977-04-26

    This material was generated as part of a seismic case review of the NFS Reprocessing Plant. This study is documented in UCRL-52266. The material is divided into two parts: mathematical model information, and ultimate load calculations and comparisons. (DLC)

  15. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  16. Catalogue and classification of technical safety rules for light-water reactors and reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the cataloguing and classification of technical rules for land-based light-water reactors and reprocessing plants contains a list of classified rules. The reasons for the classification system used are given and discussed

  17. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Reprocessed DOQQ Aerial Imagery (NODC Accession 0086051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Coastal Services Center purchased services to reprocess existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  18. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical progress is reported in overview fashion in the following areas: process development, laboratory R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, integrated equipment test facility (IET) operations, and HTGR fuel reprocessing

  19. Research and development on air cleaning system of reprocessing plant in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present status in Japan of R and D on air cleaning systems, especially of the fuel reprocessing plant is summarized. The description is centered on the R and D and experience of Tokai-reprocessing plant, which covers the plant air cleaning system, effort carried out for decreasing I2 effluence in the actual vented off-gas, and R and D for recovery of Kr and 3H. Some experimental results for the evaluation of HEPA filter are also described

  20. The R.U.S.Z.-case: an independent, non-profit reprocessing and repair company

    OpenAIRE

    Gernot Lechner; Marc Reimann

    2015-01-01

    Reprocessing of used products is a growing field, with respect to both scientific and practical approaches. In this context, we present an in-depth case study dealing with the reverse logistics processes at Repair- and Service Center R.U.S.Z, an Austrian Work Integration Social Enterprise (WISE) located in Vienna, Austria. The main business segments of R.U.S.Z are reprocessing, repairing, and servicing of (used) products and repair services. The reverse logistics activities include relevant p...

  1. ATP measurement as method to monitor the quality of reprocessing flexible endoscopes

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, D.; Benner, D; Hilgenhöner, M; Leisebein, T; Brauksiepe, A; W. Popp

    2004-01-01

    Insufficient performance of cleaning and disinfection of flexible endoscopes can pose an infection risk to patients. Actually quality of reprocessing is checked by performing microbiological cultures. Unfortunately, their results are not available on the same day so that more rapid methods are desirable. We compared the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) bioluminescence for hygiene checking of the reprocessing procedures of 108 flexible endoscopes with routine microbiological culture technics. Sen...

  2. Novel reprocessing methods with nuclide separation for volume reduction of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposing system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the MA separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In our proposing processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. We expect that our proposing will contribute to that volume reduction of high level radioactive waste by combining the transmutation techniques, usage of valuable elements, and so on. (author)

  3. Improved iodine and tritium control in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During spent fuel processing, iodine and tritium are distributed in many aqueous, organic and gaseous process streams, which complicates their control. Small modifications of conventional purex flow sheets, compatible with processing in the headend and the first extraction cycle are necessary to confine the iodine and the tritium to smaller plant areas. The plant area connected to the dissolver off-gas (DOG) system is suited to confine the iodine and the plant area connected to the first aqueous cycle is suited to confine the tritium. A more clear and convenient iodine and tritium control will be achieved. Relevant process steps have been studied on a lab or a pilot plant scale using I-123 and H-3 tracer

  4. Composition of high fission product wastes resulting from future reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, J.L

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies, aimed at defining appropriate glass compositions for future disposal of high-level wastes, have developed composition ranges for the waste that will likely result during reprocessing of Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuels. The purpose of these studies was to provide baseline waste characterizations for possible future commercial high-level waste so that waste immobilization technologies (e.g., vitrification) can be studied. Ranges in waste composition are emphasized because the waste will vary with time as different fuels are reprocesses, because choice of process chemicals is nuclear, and because fuel burnups will vary. Consequently, composition ranges are based on trends in fuel reprocessing procedures and on achievable burnups in operating reactors. In addition to the fission product and actinide elements, which are the primary hazardous materials in the waste, likely composition ranges are given for inert elements that may be present in the waste. These other elements may be present because of being present in the fuel, because of being added as process chemical during reprocessing, because of being added during equipment decontamination, or because of corrosion of plant equipment and/or fuel element cladding. This report includes a discussion of the chemicals added in variation of the PUREX process, which is likely to remain the favored reprocessing technique for commercial nuclear fuels. Consideration is also given to a pyrochemical process proposed for the reprocessing of some LMR fuels.

  5. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  6. Uranium Recovery in LWR Reprocessing and Plutonium/Residual Uranium Conditioning in FBR Reprocessing for the Transition from LWR to FBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsuo Fukasawa; Junichi Yamashita; Kuniyoshi Hoshino [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Akira Sasahira [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Tadashi Inoue [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Kazuo Minato [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Seichi Sato [Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    In order to flexibly manage the transition period from LWR (light water reactor) to FBR (fast breeder reactor), the authors investigated the transition scenario and proposed the Flexible Fuel Cycle Initiative (FFCI). In FFCI, LWR spent fuel reprocessing only carries out the removal of about 90% uranium that will be purified and utilized in LWR after re-enrichment. The residual material ({approx}40% U, {approx}15% Pu and {approx}45% other nuclides) is transferred to temporary storage and/or FBR spent fuel reprocessing to recover Pu/U followed by FBR fresh fuel fabrication depending on the FBR introduction status. The FFCI has some merits compared with ordinary system that consists of full reprocessing facilities for both LWR and FBR spent fuels, that is smaller LWR reprocessing facility, spent LWR fuel reduction, storage and supply of high proliferation resistant and high Pu density material that can flexibly respond to FBR introduction rate changes. The Pu balance was calculated under several cases, which revealed that the FFCI could supply enough Pu to FBR in any cases. (authors)

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Brinkman, K.

    2011-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is developing crystalline ceramic waste forms to incorporate CS/LN/TM high Mo waste streams consisting of perovskite, hollandite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, and powellite phase assemblages. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics. Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) activities included (i) expanding the compositional range by varying waste loading and fabrication of compositions rich in TiO{sub 2}, (ii) exploring the processing parameters of ceramics produced by the melt and crystallize process, (iii) synthesis and characterization of select individual phases of powellite and hollandite that are the target hosts for radionuclides of Mo, Cs, and Rb, and (iv) evaluating the durability and radiation stability of single and multi-phase ceramic waste forms. Two fabrication methods, including melting and crystallizing, and pressing and sintering, were used with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. An analysis of the XRD and SEM/EDS results indicates that the targeted crystalline phases of the FY11 compositions consisting of pyrochlore, perovskite, hollandite, zirconolite, and powellite were formed by both press and sinter and melt and crystallize processing methods. An evaluation of crystalline phase formation versus melt processing conditions revealed that hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite, and residual TiO{sub 2} phases formed regardless of cooling rate, demonstrating the robust nature of this process for crystalline phase development. The multiphase ceramic composition CSLNTM-06 demonstrated good resistance to proton beam irradiation. Electron irradiation studies on the single phase CaMoO{sub 4} (a component of the multiphase waste form) suggested that this material exhibits stability to 1000 years at anticipated self-irradiation doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy), but that its stability may be rate dependent, therefore limiting the activity of the waste for which it can be employed. Overall, these preliminary results indicate good radiation damage tolerance for the crystalline ceramic materials. The PCT results showed that, for all of the waste forms tested, the normalized release values for most of the elements measured, including all of the lanthanides and noble metals, were either very small or below the instrument detection limits. Elevated normalized release values were measured only for Cs, Mo, and Rb. It is difficult to draw further conclusions from these data until a benchmark material is developed for the PCT with this type of waste form. Calcined, simulated CS/LN/TM High Mo waste without additives had relatively low normalized release values for Cs, Mo, and Rb. A review of the chemical composition data for this sample showed that these elements were well retained after the calcination. Therefore, it will be useful to further characterize the calcined material to determine what form these elements are in after calcining. This, along with single phase studies on Cs containing crystal structures such as hollandite, should provide insight into the most ideal phases to incorporate these elements to produce a durable waste form.

  8. Transmutation Scenarios Impacts on Advanced Nuclear Cycles. Fabrication, Reprocessing and Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: First detailed assessment of plants and transportation in various transmutation scenarios. In case of curium transmutation: large difficulties and uncertainties requiring whole new technology development (more pronounced for ADS option). For Am transmutation: more feasible, still to be demonstrated on specific points for industrial extrapolation

  9. French reprocessing and waste management R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R and D facilities, briefly described here, are very large in France, covering α, β and γ research on the laboratory, prototype and pilot plant scales. Thanks to these resources, many innovations have been designed for UP3, concerning the overall process: shearing, dissolution, clarification, offgas treatment, extraction cycles, acid recovery, aqueous and organic effluent treatment, in-line conditioning of process wastes and fission products, process control and analysis. The effort has not stopped with the startup of UP3. A new R and D unit, Atalante, at Marcoule, will start operating in late 1991. Innovative R and D programs have been set up to prepare for the future

  10. Spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of uranium with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol at a nuclear reprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, S.D. (Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-01-15

    A simple method for the determination of uranium in process- and waste-stream samples at a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility that can be applied entirely in a remote environment is described. The method is both sensitive and selective enough to be applicable for almost any uranium determination. Uranium in aqueous samples is extracted as a nitrate complex into 4-methylpentan-2-one (hexone) from an acid-deficient aluminium nitrate salting solution. An aliquot of the hexone extract is then mixed with a solution containing methanol, pyridine and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Br-PADAP). The absorbance of the U(VI)-Br-PADAP complex is measured at 580 nm. The detection limit for uranium is 0.8 {mu}g with the linear rang extending to 80 {mu}g. Interference studies, modifications for organic samples and solid-containing samples and process laboratory data are presented. (author). 31 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs.

  11. Spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of uranium with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol at a nuclear reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for the determination of uranium in process- and waste-stream samples at a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility that can be applied entirely in a remote environment is described. The method is both sensitive and selective enough to be applicable for almost any uranium determination. Uranium in aqueous samples is extracted as a nitrate complex into 4-methylpentan-2-one (hexone) from an acid-deficient aluminium nitrate salting solution. An aliquot of the hexone extract is then mixed with a solution containing methanol, pyridine and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Br-PADAP). The absorbance of the U(VI)-Br-PADAP complex is measured at 580 nm. The detection limit for uranium is 0.8 μg with the linear rang extending to 80 μg. Interference studies, modifications for organic samples and solid-containing samples and process laboratory data are presented. (author). 31 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  12. Studies on understanding the mechanism of the enhanced conductivity of the third phase in PUREX process during reprocessing of fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards development of electrical conductivity based sensors for online detection of formation of third phase during reprocessing of Pu rich spent nuclear fuels, laboratory studies were carried out using U4+ solutions in various experimental conditions. Third phases were generated by extracting U4+ from nitric acid medium by 1.09 M TBP at different A/O (A: aqueous, O: organic) ratios. The results of this study indicate that the third phase is nearly 100-300 times more conducting than lean organic phase and saturated phase. The higher conductivity of third phase as compared to that of other two phases is explained based on the principle of reverse micelle formation and charge movement between the micro emulsion globules by percolation phenomenon. (author)

  13. Radiation effects in glass and glass-ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of CANDU UO2 fuel reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has investigated three waste forms for the immobilization of high-level liquid wastes that would arise if used CANDU fuels were reprocessed at some time in the future to remove fissile materials for the fabrication of new power reactor fuel. These waste forms are borosilicate glasses, aluminosilicate glasses and titanosilicate glass-ceramics. This report discusses the potential effects of alpha, beta and gamma radiation on the releases of radionuclides from these waste forms as a result of aqueous corrosion by groundwaters that would be present in an underground waste disposal vault. The report discusses solid-state damage caused by radiation-induced atomic displacements in the waste forms as well as irradiation of groundwater solutions (radiolysis), and their potential effects on waste-form corrosion and radionuclide release. The current literature on radiation effects on borosilicate glasses and in ceramics is briefly reviewed, as are potential radiation effects on specialized waste forms for the immobilization of 129I, 85Kr and 14C. (author). 104 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  14. A review of the separation and immobilisation of krypton arising from nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques for the separation and immobilisation of 85Kr are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to processes currently available or undergoing development on the technical to industrial scale. Of the separation processes, cryogenic distillation has reached the most advanced stage of development, with a pilot facility already undergoing radioactive demonstration. The PNC Kr-recovery pilot plant, which has a off-gas flow capacity of 110 m3 hr-1 (approximately 1/4 the scale of THORP), is currently undergoing tests at Tokai Mura. Low-temperature absorption and adsorption processes have also reached the pilot plant stage but have yet to undergo radiological tests. The separated krypton has been conventionally stored as the compressed gas in cylinders, but progress made in encapsulation techniques suggest that more secure immobilisation can be achieved by encapsulation within a metal or zeolite matrix. Processes based on the implantation of krypton in a metal or metal alloy have been demonstrated on the technical scale with the radioactive gas. It is concluded that the technology for the separation, isolation and immobilisation of radioactive krypton is available only on a reduced scale compared with THORP. The investment cost of a 85Kr management facility for THORP, based on cryogenic distillation followed by immobilisation by implantation in metal and assuming a 20 year plant life, is estimated at 51-57M pounds. The cost of prepurification of the off-gas stream is included in this figure. Accompanying operating costs, including those incurred by disposal of the encapsulate in geological formations, are estimated at 2.2-3.3 M pounds per annum. Further development work under radioactive conditions is still required prior to the application of existing technology to full-scale fuel reprocessing plant. (author)

  15. Integrated experiments to demonstrate innovative reprocessing of metal and oxide fuel by means of electrometallurgical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry (i.e., non-aqueous) processing technologies are currently being focused in many countries for closing actinide fuel cycle because of their favorable economic potential and an intrinsic proliferation-resistant features due to inherent difficulty of extracting weapons-usable plutonium. Electrometallurgical technology (pyro-process) is one of the most attractive dry processing technologies, since it has an inseparability properties of Pu from other actinides in any step of the process. This property enables us to enhance intrinsic proliferation resistance in addition to recovery of long-lived transuranium elements for transmutation without addition of further treatment. Since the recovery of transuranics has been examined only for each step or U based fuel, it is necessary to test whole process in one continuous operation with using Pu-containing fuel. Hence, CRIEPI and JNC have started joint study to implement integrated experiments of electrometallurgical reprocessing of metal and oxide Pu-containing fuel at chemical processing facility (CPF) of JNC-Tokai. The electrometallurgical process selected for the integrated experiments consist of (1) reduction of oxide fuel into metal form by means of Li reductant, (2) molten salt electrorefining to recover U and U-Pu, (3) cathode process to remove salt and Cd from actinides, (4) injection casting of actinide to form metal fuel, and (5) oxidation of actinide to form oxide fuel. The experiments proceeds in the order of (2),(3),(4) for metal fuel and (1),(2),(3),(5) for oxide fuel, respectively. In the experiments, unirradiated U and Pu will be used with F.P. simulants. The experimental apparatus has been developed in the joint study based on the process studies of CRIEPI, and installed at CPF. It consists of one process glove box with an Ar purification unit and two air glove boxes. The radiation-shielded heating wells are placed on the bottom of the process box to install process equipment such as electrorefiner. Up to

  16. A study of pulse columns for thorium fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 5 m pulse columns with the same cartridge geometries are installed to investigate the performance. The characteristic differences of the aqueous continous and the organic continuous columns were investigated experimentally. A ternary system of 30% TBP in dodecane-acetic acid-water was adopted for the mass-transfer study. It was concluded that the overall mass-transfer coefficient was independent of whether the mass-transfer is from the dispersed to the continuous phase or from the continuous to the dispersed phase. Thorium nitrate was extracted and reextracted using both modes of operation. Both HETS and HTU were obtained. The aqueous continuous column gave much shorter HTU than the organic continuous column. In reextraction the organic continuous column gave shorter HTU. The Thorex-processes for uranium and thorium co-extraction, co-stripping, and partitioning were studied. Both acid feed solution and acid deficiend feed solution were investigated. The concentration profiles along the column height were obtained. The data were analysed with McCABE-THIELE diagrams to evaluate HETS. (orig./HP)

  17. Legal questions concerning the termination of spent fuel element reprocessing; Rechtsfragen der Beendigung der Wiederaufarbeitung abgebrannter Brennelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Michele

    2005-07-01

    The thesis on legal aspects of the terminated spent fuel reprocessing in Germany is based on the legislation, jurisdiction and literature until January 2004. The five chapters cover the following topics: description of the problem; reprocessing of spent fuel elements in foreign countries - practical and legal aspects; operators' responsibilities according to the atomic law with respect to the reprocessing of Geman spent fuel elements in foreign countries; compatibility of the prohibition of Geman spent fuel element reprocessing in foreign countries with international law, European law and German constitutional law; results of the evaluation.

  18. Sulfur hexafluoride reprocessing system design for a large pulsed power accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-II (PBFA-II) is a large, high power accelerator being constructed at Sandia National Labs to conduct research in inertial confinement fusion. One key to the success of this machine is the ability to produce an electrical pulse at the target with a well defined shape (power versus time). In the past at Sandia National Labs, a commercial SF6 reclaimer unit has been used to reprocess vapor. These reclaimers are well designed for their primary purpose-the reprocessing of substation transformer and circuit breaker vapor for the electrical generation industry. They are not designed to meet the more exacting needs of a research accelerator such as PBFA-II. An SF6 reprocessing system was designed for use in PBFA-II to overcome the deficiencies found in commercial reclaimers. This paper describes the requirements placed on an SF6 reprocessing system when operating in a fusion research accelerator, resulting in criteria used to design the reprocessing system, and the subsequent design implemented to meet these criteria

  19. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  20. Sustained nuclear energy without weapons or reprocessing using accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator-driven thermal-spectrum molten-salt nuclear technology can greatly simplify nuclear energy technology by eliminating reprocessing and greatly enhancing once-through burn-up. In effect the accelerator may be employed as a substitute for frequent reprocessing and recycle. The accelerator makes possible reduction in plutonium and minor actinides from current LWRs by a factor of more than ten without reprocessing while converting the plutonium remnant to a non-weapons-useful isotopic composition. The accelerator also enhances the once-through energy production from fertile material by a factor of ten without reprocessing compared to once-through LWR technology. This technology would eliminate the need to deploy plutonium production indefinitely, and reprocessing and recycle for at least several hundred years. The energy production technology proposed here operates primarily on the Th-U cycle with a minor contribution from the U-Pu cycle to eliminate the weapons-usefulness of 233U. There are two key innovations in addition to the accelerator. One is the use of liquid fuel flowing once through a pool of material undergoing fission thereby allowing high burn-up concurrently with continuous removal of fission product without reprocessing. The second is the unanticipated low capture cross section of fission product nuclides which substantially enhances the neutron economy in this type of system. The supplement of neutrons from the accelerator, the reduced fission product neutron capture, and the continuously flowing fuel are the enablers for the performance described here. This technology allows an essentially complete decoupling of nuclear energy from nuclear weapons (orig.)

  1. Status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel management has always been an important part of the nuclear fuel cycle and is still one of the most important activities in all countries exploiting the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Continuous attention is being given by the IAEA to the collection, analysis and exchange of information on spent fuel management. Its role in this area is to provide a forum for exchanging information and to coordinate and encourage closer co-operation among Member States in certain research and developing activities that are of common interest. As part of spent fuel management, reprocessing activities have been reviewed from time to time on a low profile level under the terminology 'spent fuel treatment'. However, spent fuel treatment covers, in broad terms, spent fuel storage (short, interim and long term), fuel rod consolidation, reprocessing and, in case the once-through cycle is selected, conditioning of the spent fuel for disposal. Hence the reprocessing activities under the heading 'spent fuel treatment' were somewhat misleading. Several meetings on spent fuel treatment have been organized during the fast decade: an Advisory Group meeting (AGM) in 1992, a Technical Committee meeting in 1995 and recently an Advisory Group meeting from 7 to 10 September 1998. The objectives of the meetings were to review the status and trends of spent fuel reprocessing, to discuss the environmental impact and safety aspects of reprocessing facilities and to define the most important issues in this field. Notwithstanding the fact that the Summary of the report does not include aspects of military reprocessing, some of the national presentations do refer to some relevant aspects (e.g. experience, fissile stockpiles)

  2. The technology of liquid-liquid extraction with special regard to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quite a number of unsettled questions still exist in the optimization of contactors to be used in a large-scale reprocessing plant (1,400 te/yr). This bibliography, which does not claim to be complete, is to provide a literature survey for designers, engineers and operators of extraction facilities and to facilitate the search for special problem descriptions. Three types of contactors are being discussed for use in large-scale reprocessing plants: pulsed columns, mixer-settlers, and fast contactors. So, when screening the abundant publications of the preceding 20 years, special attention was paid to references dealing with the three types of apparatuses mentioned above. (orig.)

  3. International safeguards for a light-water reactor fuels reprocessing plant: containment and surveillance concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts for containment/surveillance for reprocessing plants are described, conceptual designs are developed, and their effectiveness is evaluated. A technical approach to design of containment/surveillance systems is presented, and design considerations are discussed. This is the second in a series of reports. The first described the basis for the study of international safeguards for reprocessing plants. In this second report, only containment/surveillance is discussed. The third report will discuss the integration of concepts for containment/surveillance and material accountancy

  4. Papers presented at the 7th status report of the Reprocessing and Waste Treatment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains all lectures on the present state of the R+D work which were delivered on the occasion of the 7th seminar on the present state of the Reprocessing and Waste Treatment Project in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre on 15/16 March 1988. The project is aimed at improving methods for nuclear waste disposal with regard to the German reprocessing plant for light-water reactor fuels currently under construction in Wackersdorf. The individual contributions were separately adapted for the INIS and EDB data banks. (RB)

  5. General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for both thorium containing BISO and uranium containinng WAR fissile fuels are included. A continuous vertical centrifuge is used to clarify the resultant dissolver product solution. Process instrumentation and controls for the system reflect design philosophy suitable for remote operation

  6. Methods of Gas Phase Capture of Iodine from Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas: A Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl Haefner

    2007-02-01

    A literature survey was conducted to collect information and summarize the methods available to capture iodine from fuel reprocessing off-gases. Techniques were categorized as either wet scrubbing or solid adsorbent methods, and each method was generally described as it might be used under reprocessing conditions. Decontamination factors are quoted only to give a rough indication of the effectiveness of the method. No attempt is made to identify a preferred capture method at this time, although activities are proposed that would provide a consistent baseline that would aid in evaluating technologies.

  7. Methods of Gas Phase Capture of Iodine from Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas: A Literature Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature survey was conducted to collect information and summarize the methods available to capture iodine from fuel reprocessing off-gases. Techniques were categorized as either wet scrubbing or solid adsorbent methods, and each method was generally described as it might be used under reprocessing conditions. Decontamination factors are quoted only to give a rough indication of the effectiveness of the method. No attempt is made to identify a preferred capture method at this time, although activities are proposed that would provide a consistent baseline that would aid in evaluating technologies

  8. How to simplify the analytics for input-output accountability measurements in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical approach to high-performance uranium and plutonium accountancy measurements in reprocessing input and output solutions is presented, which provides larger operational simplicity than the conventionally applied chemical methods. The proposed alternative is based on energy-dispersive absorption edge and fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, using the proven and reliable K-edge densitometry technique as reference method. Two X-ray densitometers developed for accurate and reliable uranium and plutonium analysis in both the feed and product solutions are described. Practical experiences and results from their performance evaluation on actual process solutions from a reprocessing plant are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  9. Krypton separation from waste gas of a reprocessing plant by low temperature rectification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    6 lectures at this seminar describe and evaluate the results of the research and development work on low temperature krypton separation from the waste gas of the reprocessing of nuclear fuels. They are used for making decisions for the process to be used in the future on a large scale at the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant. 2 further lectures deal with alternatives to this process, which were also developed: the freon washing and low temperature adsorption of krypton. All the lectures were included separately in the INIS and ENERGY databases. (RB)

  10. 非水相酶催化技术在食品添加剂生产中的应用%Advances in Application of Non-aqueous Phase Enzymatic Catalysis in Food Additive Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余泗莲; 余琳; 余彬; 孙文敬; 刘长峰; 杨梦依; 崔凤杰

    2013-01-01

    非水相催化技术已在食品添加剂生产中得到广泛应用.综述了非水相酶催化反应介质的种类,主要介绍了该技术在(异)抗坏血酸酯、短链酸酯、糖酯、维生素A酯和维生素E酯等食品添加剂合成中的应用.最后对非水相酶催化技术的前景进行了展望.%Non-aqueous phase enzymatic catalysis technology has been widely applied in the area of food additives production.This paper reviewed the types of reaction medium of non-aqueous phase enzymatic catalysis reaction,introduced the application of non-aqueous phase enzymatic catalysis technology in catalysis of L-ascorbic (isoascorbic) acid esters,short-chain acid esters,sugar esters,vitamin A esters,vitamin E esters,and other food additives,and finally predicted the prospects of non-aqueous phase enzymatic catalysis technology.

  11. Economics and resources analysis of the potential use of reprocessing options by the current Spanish nuclear reactor park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Merino Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.

    2014-07-01

    Reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel serves multiple purposes, from Pu separation and recovery for MOX fuel fabrication to reduction of high level waste volume, and is nowadays being implemented in several countries like France, Japan, Russia or United Kingdom. This work is aimed at exploring the possibility (in resources and economic terms) of implementing reprocessing for MOX fabrication in Spain. (Author)

  12. An updated interpretation of the Hanö Bay Basin, Baltic Sea, based on recently re-processed vintage 2D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas; Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The Hanö Bay Basin is a relatively small, tectonically controlled, Mesozoic basin in the SW Baltic Sea, Northern Europe. In this study a new seismic interpretation has been made of the basin based on re-processed vintage 2D marine seismic data. A large dataset acquired between 1970 and 1984 by Oljeprospektering AB (OPAB) containing seismic lines across the Hanö Bay Basin has recently been made available by the Swedish Geological Survey (SGU). Seismic interpretation studies within the Hanö Bay Basin were last conducted in the mid-1990's. Since this time, computer power and seismic processing methods have advanced. Re-processing of a grid of lines across the Hanö Bay Basin has allowed updated interpretations to be made which more accurately reflect the geological history of the area. Multi channel seismic data from four surveys within the OPAB dataset: NA79, D72, W70 and EA73, along with two wells H1 and H4, were used in this study. An updated interpretation of the pre-Cambrian basement, which exhibits a distinctive, sharply undulating morphology, was undertaken. The basement horizon across parts of the Hanö Bay appears to be very rugose, containing a number of distinctive troughs and peaks that are over 50m in amplitude. Within these basement troughs a set of distinct packages of sediment is observed. These packages are discontinuous and are most prevalent in a small circular area in the central section of the study area. The age of these sediment packages is uncertain, being either early Mesozoic or the erosional remnants of older Paleozoic sediments. Interpretations of the re-processed seismic data indicate, in some areas, that basin fill has occurred in a significantly different way to previous interpretations during the Mesozoic. The model proposed in this study takes into account normal movement on the Christiansø Fault prior to Cretaceous inversion.

  13. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  14. The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Procedure Prevents Defensive Processing in Health Persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a

  15. A Review of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): Research Findings and Implications for Counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCluskie, Kathryn C.

    1998-01-01

    States that within the last six years a new therapeutic technique for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), has emerged. Examines the strengths and weaknesses of published studies concerning EMDR, describes the nature of the debate about the efficacy of EMDR, and reviews implications…

  16. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Treatment for Psychologically Traumatized Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies the effects of 3 90-minute Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment sessions on traumatic memories of 80 participants. Participants receiving EMDR showed decreases in complaints and anxiety, and increases in positive cognition. Participants in the delayed-treatment condition showed no improvement in any measures in…

  17. 77 FR 38789 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Concentrator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... vitrifying waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and certain treatment material at the West Valley... canisters where the mixture hardened into a solid glass waste form. DOE operated the vitrification system... of Chapter IV of DOE Manual 435.1-1, provided the waste will be incorporated in a solid physical...

  18. Effects of reprocessing on chemical and morphological properties of guide wires used in angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Valentim Gelamo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the reprocessing technique of enzymatic bath with ultrasonic cleaning and ethylene oxide sterilization on the chemical properties and morphological structure of polymeric coatings of guide wire for regular guiding catheter. METHODS: These techniques simulated the routine of guide wire reprocessing in many hemodynamic services in Brazil and other countries. Samples from three different manufacturers were verified by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. RESULTS: A single or double sterilization of the catheters with ethylene oxide was not associated with morphological or chemical changes. However, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the washing method was associated with rough morphological changes, including superficial holes and bubbles, in addition to chemical changes of external atomic layers of polymeric coating surfaces, as detected by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method, which is compatible with extended chemical changes on catheter surfaces. CONCLUSION: The reprocessing of the catheters with ethylene oxide was not associated with morphological or chemical changes, and it seemed appropriate to maintain guide wire coating integrity. However, the method combining chemical cleaning with mechanical vibration resulted in rough anatomical and chemical surface deterioration, suggesting that this reprocessing method should be discouraged.

  19. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Status and trends; Upparbetning av anvaent kaernbraensle. Laege och trender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultgren, Aa.

    1993-01-01

    The report gives a short review of the status for industrial reprocessing and recycling of Uranium/Plutonium. The following countries are covered: Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Japan, Russia, USA. Different fuel cycle strategies are accounted for, and new developments outlined. 116 refs, 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  20. 78 FR 33995 - Nuclear Proliferation Assessment in Licensing Process for Enrichment or Reprocessing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... the material for making a nuclear bomb. NRC Response to Comment Category 2 The NRC acknowledges that...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 Nuclear Proliferation Assessment in Licensing Process for Enrichment or Reprocessing Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Petition for...

  1. Reprocessing of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300) spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300) based on experience gained in development and operations of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in JAERI. The basic fuel cycle concept in Japan is such that all spent fuel shall be reprocessed. Feasibility of the GTHTR300 spent fuel reprocessing was investigated so that the GTHTR300 can comply with the Japanese recycling policy. The Purex process was found to be essentially adaptable except for the head-end treatment. In the head-end process, it was shown that carbon layers and graphite matrix around coated fuel particles are removed from a fuel compact by a burning method, and uranium can be taken out by destruction of the SiC layer with a hard disk crusher, followed by re-burning. Next, the Purex process can be supplied diluted by depleted uranium. To evaluate cost, a preliminary design of the head-end processing plant was studied and reprocessing unit price was evaluated. If the unit cost of waste disposal is assumed nearly equivalent to LWR's, the total fuel cycle cost of GTHTR300 was estimated to be about 1.58 Yen/kWh, which includes the reprocessing cost estimated at about 0.52 Yen/kWh. The economical feasibility of GTHTR300 is thus confirmed. The present study is entrusted from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  2. Simulation study for the purification of depleted uranium product in FBTR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is developed for the purification of depleted uranium product obtained after partitioning of uranium and plutonium in the third cycle of FBTR fuel reprocessing. Uranium and plutonium were partitioned and recovered by AUC method. It is observed from the study that plutonium recovery is quantitative (100%) if Pu concentration is 0.6 g/L. (author)

  3. System for establishment of reprocessing enterprise in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation of nuclear energy in Germany is characterized by the increasing importance of nuclear power stations for energy supply, the closing of nuclear fuel cycle by reprocessing and recycling fissile materials, and two geological projects with respect to the final disposal of radioactive wastes. In 1984, 19 nuclear power stations produced 23 % of the electricity consumption in Germany, and the commercial power stations attained the average availability of 85 %. The interim storage for used fuel at Gorleben is ready to accept up to 1500 tons, and another interim storage of the same capacity is under construction. According to the German nuclear regulatory system, utilities are responsible for waste management including spent fuel reprocessing, and created in 1977 the main agent for establishing a system of nuclear Entsorgung. This agent, DWK, decided to build a plant for reprocessing used fuel elements by 350 tons per year. This plant is based on the proven reprocessing technology of the WAK plant. This WA-350 project is discussed. (Kako, I.)

  4. Mechanical, Thermomechanical and Reprocessing Behavior of Green Composites from Biodegradable Polymer and Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morreale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising concerns in terms of environmental protection and the search for more versatile polymer-based materials have led to an increasing interest in the use of polymer composites filled with natural organic fillers (biodegradable and/or coming from renewable resources as a replacement for traditional mineral inorganic fillers. At the same time, the recycling of polymers is still of fundamental importance in order to optimize the utilization of available resources, reducing the environmental impact related to the life cycle of polymer-based items. Green composites from biopolymer matrix and wood flour were prepared and the investigation focused on several issues, such as the effect of reprocessing on the matrix properties, wood flour loading effects on virgin and reprocessed biopolymer, and wood flour effects on material reprocessability. Tensile, Dynamic-mechanical thermal (DMTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and creep tests were performed, pointing out that wood flour leads to an improvement of rigidity and creep resistance in comparison to the pristine polymer, without compromising other properties such as the tensile strength. The biopolymer also showed a good resistance to multiple reprocessing; the latter even allowed for improving some properties of the obtained green composites.

  5. A Comparison of "at-launch" V03 GPM Data Products and V04 Reprocessed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kwiatkowksi, John; Ji, Yimin; Kelley, Owen; Stout, John; Woltz, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    The first major reprocessing of GPM mission data is scheduled for 1 March 2016. This is an important first-step in the creation of a consistent mission data suite.It will be the first set of data in which the GPM constellation radiometers are intercalibrated using GPM GMI. In addition, the GPROF profile database will be substantially observational and based on the GPM combined data product. The GPM V03 "at-launch" 1C algorithms intercalibrated the constellation radiometers using TRMM TMI as the satellite reference standard. The GPROF profile database used for retrievals was based on TRMM, AMSRE, RadarSat and NMQ quality-controlled ground radar data in addition to model input. The V04 GPROF reprocessing will depend upon a profile database that is constructed using V04 GPM combined (DPR/GMI) observational data. This paper will provide comparison analysis of at launch V03 vs reprocessed V04. It will present global means comparing the V03 and V04 retrievals for both GPROF and the DPR radar. It will also look at the difference of the means separately for Land and Ocean. In addition it will look at specific instances of differences using the GPM gridded text products. In conclusion it will present the plans for a V05 reprocessing which is scheduled to take place in March of 2017.

  6. Considerations to the chemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel with thermodynamical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the state diagrams of the systems U-F-O-H, Pu-F-O-H, Zr-F-O-H, Nb-F-O-H new ways are shown to unit dry processes of the chemical fuel reprocessing with the proved Purex-Process. Conclusions are drawn for the conversion of nuclear fuel. (author)

  7. Review on the treatment of radioactive wastes from fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author gives a comparative survey of the radioactive waste occuring in a 1,500 tons per year reprocessing plant and on the distribution of the radioactivity on the waste flows. Details on the state of treatment and storage of highly, medium and weakly active liquid wastes, as well as of the α-waste follow. Diagrams supplement the text. (HR)

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of manual and automated dialyzers reprocessing after multiple reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Alexandra do Rosário; Ribeiro, Maíra Marques; Ishii, Marina; da Silva, Cely Barreto; Jenné Mimica, Lycia Mara; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of manual and automated dialyzer reprocessing. Dialyzers were filled with fluid thioglycollate medium from blood and dialysate chambers after being reprocessed and chemically sterilized with 0.2% peracetic acid. They were incubated for 14 days at 35°C ± 2°C, and microbiologic analysis was performed. Microorganisms were identified in 3 of the 11 samples (27.3%) from the blood chambers: Sphingomonas paucimobilis (2/3) and Penicillium spp (1/3) and in 11 of the 11 samples (100%) from the dialysate chambers: S paucimobilis (7/11), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4/11), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3/11), Candida spp (1/11), and Acinetobacter baumannii (1/11). Of the 4 manually reprocessed dialyzers, gram-positive bacillus were identified in 1 sample (25%) from the blood chamber, and Bacillus spp and Burkholderia spp were identified in 1 sample (25%) from the dialysate chamber. The dialyzers reprocessing can pose risks safety because of exposure patient to microorganisms. PMID:26897699

  9. AREVA’s experience and future project for reprocessed uranium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA has significant experience in managing reprocessed uranium (RepU) from reprocessing to the; fabrication of enriched reprocessed uranium (ERU) fuel assemblies. In France, reprocessing facilities are located; on two sites: at Marcoule (UP1 plant, South of France) and at La Hague (UP2 and UP3 plants, Normandy).; Production in the UP1 plant was terminated at the end of 1997 after 40 years of operation. Since 1998, the plant; has started its decommissioning program. The remaining 2800 tonnes of RepU stored at Marcoule should be; processed before the end of 2009. As of today, the two operating plants located at La Hague (UP2-800 started in; 1994 and UP3 started in 1990), can be considered as a single industrial platform that has a licensed capacity of; 1700 t HM/year. The former UP2-400 plant which started in 1966 is now under decommissioning. In total,; AREVA has separated more than 22 000 tonnes of RepU from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel at La Hague; (plus about 4600 tonnes of RepU from of spent gas-cooled reactor (GCR) fuel) and sent them to Pierrelatte in the; uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) form for conversion into U3O8 or UF6, according to the recycling routes; chosen by RepU owners. The two de-nitrification facilities in Pierrelatte convert UNH into U3O8 to be stored; prior to its future recycling. The conversion facility of Comurhex has converted reprocessed uranium from; various customers since 1972. Two of those three facilities are scheduled to be shut down at the end of 2008; TU5 being the sole unit remaining in activity. The fabrication plant of FBFC at Romans has been manufacturing; enriched reprocessed uranium (ERU) fuel assemblies since 1993. Based on its large experience of managing; RepU, taking into account the technical constraints and the evolution of the characteristics of the recovered; RepU, AREVA has a project to invest in various new units offering the totality of services necessary for the; recycling of RepU: a new conversion

  10. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision

  11. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Marignac, Y.; Rouy, E. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France); Thompson, G. [IRSS, Cambridge (United States); Fairlie, I.; Lowry, D.; Sumner, D

    2001-11-15

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  12. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  13. Toward mechanistic understanding of nuclear reprocessing chemistries by quantifying lanthanide solvent extraction kinetics via microfluidics with constant interfacial area and rapid mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kevin P; Pompano, Rebecca R; Li, Liang; Gelis, Artem V; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2011-10-01

    The closing of the nuclear fuel cycle is an unsolved problem of great importance. Separating radionuclides produced in a nuclear reactor is useful both for the storage of nuclear waste and for recycling of nuclear fuel. These separations can be performed by designing appropriate chelation chemistries and liquid-liquid extraction schemes, such as in the TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes). However, there are no approved methods for the industrial scale reprocessing of civilian nuclear fuel in the United States. One bottleneck in the design of next-generation solvent extraction-based nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes is a lack of interfacial mass transfer rate constants obtained under well-controlled conditions for lanthanide and actinide ligand complexes; such rate constants are a prerequisite for mechanistic understanding of the extraction chemistries involved and are of great assistance in the design of new chemistries. In addition, rate constants obtained under conditions of known interfacial area have immediate, practical utility in models required for the scaling-up of laboratory-scale demonstrations to industrial-scale solutions. Existing experimental techniques for determining these rate constants suffer from two key drawbacks: either slow mixing or unknown interfacial area. The volume of waste produced by traditional methods is an additional, practical concern in experiments involving radioactive elements, both from disposal cost and experimenter safety standpoints. In this paper, we test a plug-based microfluidic system that uses flowing plugs (droplets) in microfluidic channels to determine absolute interfacial mass transfer rate constants under conditions of both rapid mixing and controlled interfacial area. We utilize this system to determine, for the first time, the rate constants for interfacial transfer of all lanthanides, minus promethium, plus yttrium, under TALSPEAK

  14. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts.

  15. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts

  16. Current status of development in dry pyro-electrochemical technology of SNF reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V

    2004-07-01

    The technology of SNF management in molten salts currently developed by a group of institutes headed by RIAR has had several stages of development: - basic research of uranium, plutonium and main FP properties (investigation and reprocessing of different kinds of SNF in 1960 - 1970); - development of the equipment and implementation of the pyro-electrochemical technology of granulated UPu fuel production. Development of the vibro-packing method and in-pile testing of vibro-packed fuel pins with granulated fuel as the most 'logical' continuation of reprocessing: implementation of the technology for BOR-60 and BN-600 (1980 - 1990); - development of closed fuel cycle elements. Checking of the technology using batches of SNF. In-pile tests. Feasibility study of the closed fuel cycle (CFC). Study of application of the technology to other objects (transmutation; nitride, cermet and other fuels) (1980 - 1990). The current status of the research is the following: - Basic research. Properties of uranium, plutonium, thorium, and neptunium in chloride melts have been studied in much detail. The data on physical chemistry and electrochemistry of the main FP is enough for understanding the processes. Detailed studies of americium, curium, and technetium chemistry are the essential investigation directions; - Engineering development. The technology and equipment bases have been developed for the processes of oxide fuel reprocessing and fabrication. The technology was checked using 5500 kg of pure fuel from different reactors and 20 kg of irradiated BN-350 and BOR-60 fuel. The bases of the technology have been provided and the feasibility study has been carried out for a full-scale plant of BN-800 CFC; - Industrial application: Since the technology is highly prepared, the activities on industrial application of U-Pu fuel are now underway. The BOR-60 reactor uses fuel obtained by the dry method, the design of the facility for implementation of CFC reactors is being

  17. Demonstration and development of safeguards techniques in the PNC reprocessing plant. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of installed instrumentation in fuel reprocessing facilities for safeguards purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hull-monitoring system in the Head-End facility and systems for surveillance and containment in the spent fuel receiving and storage facility at Tokai Reprocessing Plant are described. Operating experience on them is analyzed

  18. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant. Assessment of titanium alloy heating component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide review manuals and technical database for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. Research programs have been conducted based on a contract with well-equipped organization since F. Y. 2006. One experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed below in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant, which have experienced many corrosion problems. TOKAI plant is the pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec. 1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr. 2006. - Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions -. (author)

  19. Plutonium determination by spectrophotometry of plutonium (VI): control of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium (VI) spectrophotometric determination, after AgO oxidation in 3 M nitric acid medium, is used for the running-control of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. Analytical device used in glove-box or shielded-cell is briefly described. This method is fast, sensitive, unfailing and gives simple effluents. It is applied by day and night shifts, during Light Water Reactor fuel reprocessing campaign, for 0.5 mg/l up to 20 g/l plutonium solutions. Reference solution measurements have a 0.8 to 1.4 % relative standard deviation; duplicate plutonium determinations give a 0.3% relative standard deviation for sample analysis. There is a discrepancy (- 0.3% to - 0.9%) between the spectrophotometric method results and the isotopic dilution analysis

  20. Effect of Reprocessing and Accelerated Weathering on Impact-Modified Recycled Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V.; Mohanty, Smita; Biswal, Manoranjan; Nayak, Sanjay K.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of recycled polycarbonate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, high-impact polystyrene, and its blends from waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics products properties were enhanced by the addition of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier. The optimized blend formulation was processed through five cycles, at processing temperature, 220-240 °C and accelerated weathering up to 700 h. Moreover, the effect of reprocessing and accelerated weathering in the physical properties of the modified blends was investigated by mechanical, thermal, rheological, and morphological studies. The results show that in each reprocessing cycle, the tensile strength and impact strength decreased significantly and the similar behavior has been observed from accelerated weathering. Subsequently, the viscosity decreases and this decrease becomes the effect of thermal and photo-oxidative degradation. This can be correlated with FTIR analysis.

  1. Reprocessing of Ices in Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks: Carbon and Nitrogen Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Furuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of the turbulent transport on ice chemistry in protoplanetary disks, focusing on carbon and nitrogen bearing molecules. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking the turbulent mixing in the vertical direction. Turbulence can bring ice-coated dust grains from the midplane to the warm irradiated disk surface, and the ice mantles are reprocessed by photoreactions, thermal desorption, and surface reactions. The upward transport decreases the abundance of methanol and ammonia ices at r < 30 AU, because warm dust temperature prohibits their reformation on grain surfaces. This reprocessing could explain the smaller abundances of carbon and nitrogen bearing molecules in cometary coma than those in low-mass protostellar envelopes. We also show the effect of mixing on the synthesis of complex organic molecules (COMs) are two ways: (1) transport of ices from the midplane to the disk surface and (2) transport of atomic hydrogen from the surface to the midplane. The fo...

  2. Evaluation and development plan of NRTA measurement methods for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Hakkila, E.A.; Flosterbuer, S.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) has been proposed as a safeguards method at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), a large-scale commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors spent-fuel reprocessing facility. NRTA for RRP requires material balance closures every month. To develop a more effective and practical NRTA system for RRP, we have evaluated NRTA measurement techniques and systems that might be implemented in both the main process and the co-denitration process areas at RRP to analyze the concentrations of plutonium in solutions and mixed oxide powder. Based on the comparative evaluation, including performance, reliability, design criteria, operation methods, maintenance requirements, and estimated costs for each possible measurement method, recommendations for development were formulated. This paper discusses the evaluations and reports on the recommendation of the NRTA development plan for potential implementation at RRP.

  3. Cyclone furnace for intensive reprocessing or burning of dispersed mineral raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, E.; Jankowski, S.; Kurdowski, W.; Parda, A.; Zamojdo, R.

    1982-10-30

    In order to reduce emission of solid (or liquid) microparticles of reprocessed or burned dispersed mineral raw material, a separation furnace is proposed which has the appearance of a horizontally lying drum of a steam boiler. The raw material to be reprocessed is fed into the furnace chamber through two cylindrical pipelines arranged in its upper part in the opposite ends, and in the middle between them in the upper part there is a gas line for removal of exhaust gases arranged at a 55/sup 0/ angle to the horizontal. In the lower part there is a device for discharging the accumulated solid microparticles or fluid arranged at a 30/sup 0/ angle to the base plane.

  4. Initial performance evaluation of major components in the head-end reprocessing solids handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Atomic cold head-end reprocessing pilot plant has been built to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed commercial reprocessing flowsheet, in particular its integrated operation. This integration is accomplished in part by the solids handling system, which is designed to provide transfer of material at required rates between different steps in the process and to provide the required surge capacity. The major components of the solids handling system have been tested in order to verify or upgrade the design. The components described here are: inlet filters, conveying lines, bunkers, in-bunker filters, blowers, level sensors, feeders, and weigh cells. By and large, the equipment has performed as expected. Feeding of the various materials in the system has received considerable attention, and several improvements were necessary. The system is now equipped to perform its function of serving the needs of the other unit operations in the pilot plant

  5. Operating experience and development of fluidized-bed denitrators for UNH at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluidized bed denitrator for uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) at Tokai reprocessing plant has been operated since 1976. About 170 tons of spent fuel have been reprocessed, and the denitrator has encountered numerous operational problems during the period. This report deals with these technical problems and the associated countermeasures taken, including the dismantling and reconstruction of equipment and the improvement of operating method. The major problems encountered were as follows: (1) the crystallization of UNH on the UNH feeding line, (2) spray nozzle clogging and candle filter clogging, (3) particle growth, (4) plugging of the drawing-out line by nozzle caking, and (5) slugging in fluidized-bed denitration. The total quantity and quality of UO3 products obtained so far at the plant are also briefly described together with some future R and D programs such as the improvement of UO3 reactivity and the automation of denitrators. (Aoki, K.)

  6. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant. Assessment of stainless steel heating component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide review manuals and technical database for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. Research programs have been conducted based on a contract with well-equipped organization since F.Y. 2006. One experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed below in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant, which have experienced many corrosion problems. TOKAI plant is the pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec. 1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr. 2006. - Corrosion of stainless steel components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions -. (author)

  7. Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

    2010-08-07

    This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of ‘safeguards by design’. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how ‘safeguardability’ was introduced into RRP.

  8. Available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozser, Sandor; Marshall, Frances M.; Adelfang, Pablo; Bradley, Edward [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Budu, Madalina Elena [SOSNY Research and Development Company, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chiguer, Mustapha [AREVA, Paris La Defense (France)

    2016-03-15

    International activities in the back end of the research reactor (RR) fuel cycle have so far been dominated by the programmes of acceptance of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by the country where it was originally enriched. In the future inventories of LEU SNF will continue to be created and the back end solution of RR SNF remains a critical issue. The IAEA, based on the experience gained during the decade of international cooperation in supporting the objectives of the HEU take-back programmes, drew up a report presenting available reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF. This paper gives an overview of the report, which will address all aspects of reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF.

  9. Available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International activities in the back end of the research reactor (RR) fuel cycle have so far been dominated by the programmes of acceptance of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by the country where it was originally enriched. In the future inventories of LEU SNF will continue to be created and the back end solution of RR SNF remains a critical issue. The IAEA, based on the experience gained during the decade of international cooperation in supporting the objectives of the HEU take-back programmes, drew up a report presenting available reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF. This paper gives an overview of the report, which will address all aspects of reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF.

  10. Desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing for pathological gambling: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwallip; Han, Changwoo; Kim, Daeho

    2015-03-01

    This case series introduces the desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing (DeTUR), as a promising adjunctive therapy in addition to comprehensive treatment package for pathological gambling. This addiction protocol of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing was delivered to four male inpatients admitted to a 10-week inpatient program for pathological gambling. The therapist gave three 60-min weekly sessions of the DeTUR using bilateral stimulation (horizontal eye movements or alternative tactile stimuli) focusing on the hierarchy of triggering situations and the urge to initiate gambling behaviors. After treatment, self-reported gambling symptoms, depression, anxiety, and impulsiveness were all improved, and all the participants reported satisfaction with the therapy. They were followed up for 6 months and all maintained their abstinence from gambling and their symptomatic improvements. Given the efficiency (i.e., brevity and efficacy) of the treatment, a controlled study to confirm the effects of the DeTUR on pathological gambling would be justified.

  11. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  12. The use of curium neutrons to verify plutonium in spent fuel and reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For safeguards verification of spent fuel, leached hulls, and reprocessing wastes, it is necessary to determine the plutonium content in these items. We have evaluated the use of passive neutron multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium content directly and also to measure the 240Pu/244Cm ratio for the indirect verification of the plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting of the singles, doubles, and triples neutrons has been evaluated for measuring 240Pu, 244Cm, and 252Cf. We have proposed a method to establish the plutonium to curium ratio using the hybrid k-edge densitometer x-ray fluorescence instrument plus a neutron coincidence counter for the reprocessing dissolver solution. This report presents the concepts, experimental results, and error estimates for typical spent fuel applications

  13. Evaluation and development plan of NRTA measurement methods for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) has been proposed as a safeguards method at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), a large-scale commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors spent-fuel reprocessing facility. NRTA for RRP requires material balance closures every month. To develop a more effective and practical NRTA system for RRP, we have evaluated NRTA measurement techniques and systems that might be implemented in both the main process and the co-denitration process areas at RRP to analyze the concentrations of plutonium in solutions and mixed oxide powder. Based on the comparative evaluation, including performance, reliability, design criteria, operation methods, maintenance requirements, and estimated costs for each possible measurement method, recommendations for development were formulated. This paper discusses the evaluations and reports on the recommendation of the NRTA development plan for potential implementation at RRP

  14. Site selection considerations for a reprocessing plant of spent fuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With conversion from moderately to actively for nuclear development strategy in China, the future nuclear power scale and the amount of the waste from spent nuclear fuels will be enormous, the construction of spent nuclear waste disposal plant will be necessary for meet the sustainable development requirement. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is very important for the closed cycle of nuclear fuel and sustainable development of nuclear power. Because of the huge investment, long construction period and high environmental sensitivity, the site selection of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is more complicated and sensitive than nuclear power plant. It supposed to take environment characteristic, transport condition of' nuclear spent fuel and solidified body of high-level radioactive wastes, as well as the social environmental characteristics into account. This article summarizes the site selection considerations from the technical feasibility, safety reliability, environmental compatibility and economic rationality for further discussion. (authors)

  15. Methodological Aspects of Cognitive Rehabilitation with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Zarghi, Afsaneh; Zali, Alireza; Tehranidost, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in rel...

  16. An Integrative Model for the Neural Mechanism of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

    OpenAIRE

    Coubard, Olivier A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the seminal report by Shapiro that bilateral stimulation induces cognitive and emotional changes, 26 years of basic and clinical research have examined the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in anxiety disorders, particularly in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article aims at better understanding EMDR neural mechanism. I first review procedural aspects of EMDR protocol and theoretical hypothesis about EMDR effects, and develop the reasons ...

  17. Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) for trauma: A qualitative analysis of clients’ experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherton, Natalie Louise

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to explore clients‟ experiences of receiving eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) as an intervention for trauma-related symptomatology, consistent with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seven outpatients who had experienced EMDR as an intervention for trauma-related symptomatology were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule, from which the verbatim transcripts provided the raw data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The...

  18. Mindfulness Meditation Training Combined with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Psychotherapy of an Elderly Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Tzan-Fu Sun; Ching-Kuan Wu; Nien-Mu Chiu

    2004-01-01

    We present our experiences with an elderly patient with depression that was attributedto a surge of physical ailments who also had trauma-derived fear of having to undergo a tracheotomy.He refused pharmacotherapy and was offered intensive training in MindfulnessMeditation (MM) plus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapyduring the 2 weeks of hospitalization. This treatment combination had not been used previously.We suggest that EMDR eliminated his fear of surgery, wherea...

  19. Treatment of dysfunctionally stored experiences with the method Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing – EMDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cvetek

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new therapeutic method called EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is described. The method was formed mainly for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, but there are also some reports about success with other mental disorders. The theoretical base of EMDR and especially the accelerated information processing model, the concept of memory networks and the explanations of effects of eye movements are presented. The process of EMDR is also described.

  20. Treatment of dysfunctionally stored experiences with the method Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing – EMDR

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cvetek

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a new therapeutic method called EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) is described. The method was formed mainly for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, but there are also some reports about success with other mental disorders. The theoretical base of EMDR and especially the accelerated information processing model, the concept of memory networks and the explanations of effects of eye movements are presented. The process of EMDR is also described.

  1. Synergism Between Mindfulness Meditation Training, and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Psychotherapy of Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Nien-Mu Chiu; Tzan-Fu Sun

    2006-01-01

    We report on the successful treatment of a psychiatric outpatient with long-term SocialPhobia (SP), at best only marginally responsive to pharmacotherapy. He was treated by EyeMovement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) because we suspected that his phobiaderived from emotional trauma. He also received brief training in Mindfulness Meditation(MM), which enhanced his initially poor response to EMDR. The patient practiced meditationintensively during the treatment period and thereafter, an...

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder: neurobiology and effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg, Göran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new psychotherapy method, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to study the biological reactions in PTSD during a script-driven symptom provocation. PTSD is a disorder that may occur after a major psychological trauma. It is characterised by the phenomenon of reliving, bringing the person back to the sensations and reactions that prevailed during the traumat...

  3. THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bunn; Steve Fetter; John P. Holdren; Bob van der Zwaan

    2003-07-01

    This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

  4. Development and testing of a near-real-time accounting system for the Barnwell Reprocessing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allied-General Nuclear Services has developed and demonstrated under cold testing conditions a computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system for a large reprocessing plant. The system provides computerized data acquisition, calculation, and retention for conventional accounting measurements as well as for near-real-time estimation of in-process inventories and material balances. Application of this system as a tool for meeting projected safeguards requirements appears likely

  5. Survey on product properties of bituminized waste concentrates from reprocessing, nuclear installations and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey on the product properties after solidification with bitumen of waste concentrates from reprocessing plants, nuclear research installations and nuclear power plants. The leach behaviour of bitumen products in water and saturated salt solutions is described as well as the radiolytic and thermal stability of the products. The reports also contain some data on sedimentation of salts fixed in bitumen. (orig.)

  6. Basis for criteria for exemption of decommissioning waste: reprocessing of dust from recycling of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a part of a larger study with the purpose to provide the authority concerned, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), with technical background material needed for future decisions concerning exemption levels for recycling and disposal of material originating from decommissioned nuclear power reactors. The dismantling of nuclear power reactors will give rise to large amounts of steel scrap with a very low activity concentration. It is of interest to exempt this material from regulatory control in order to make recycling possible. During the melting of steel scrap dust will be formed which is collected in the off-gas cleaning system of the furnace. Radionuclides may be enriched in this dust, and thereby obtain a higher activity concentration than the melted scrap. Presently, there is a strong interest to reprocess these dusts with the objectives to recover valuable metals and to reduce the amounts of waste harmful to the environment. During the reprocessing of dusts collected from the melting process a further redistribution and reconcentration of radionuclides may occur. In this report the treatment of dust from steel melting is described, the potential reconcentration of radionuclides is analyzed, and the potential radiological consequences are estimated. The study has focussed on the reprocessing of dust with the plasma method used at ScanDust in Sweden, and with the Waelz process used in, for example Spain and Germany. Various factors as economical, political and future developments of dust treatment and steel processes will determine the amounts of dusts produced and also to what degree dust will be reprocessed in the future. (au)

  7. Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks involved in the routine release of 85Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of 85Kr. Instead of releasing the 85Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing 85Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from 85Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of 85Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for 85Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated 3H and 14C also encourage delaying implementation of the 85Kr recovery in the early plants

  8. Selection and testing of on-line samplers for head-end reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Atomic cold reprocessing head-end pilot plant contains a number of processing steps. Samplers are required to obtain on-line information on the performance of each step. A number of samplers have been selected and tested. The different types of samplers are described and potential sites in the pilot plant are discussed. Initial tests results with simulated process materials are presented. Ideas for other samplers are discussed

  9. PYROlYSIS RUBBER WASTE REPROCESSING FACILITY WITH MINIMAL ENVIRONMENT IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Anikin E. V.

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of reprocessing and use of rubber waste in Russia it is necessary to develop and adopt a set of measures regulating the procedure for their accounting, collection, storage and delivery for processing, as well as preparation and promotion of legislative acts at federal and regional levels, stimulating an increase in complete renovation and recycling of used tires. Russia has seen a steady increase in quantity of waste; fundamental changes to this trend in the nearest futur...

  10. Application of active neutronic interrogation method to the line analysis in reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a reprocessing plant of irradiated spent fuels, the knowledge in real time (line analysis) of uranium and plutonium quantities present in solutions is an extremely important parameter to control the proceeding and for the apparatus safety. The active neutronic analysis give a nondestructive non intrusive and quick measure to know the concentrations. This method consists in inducing fissions in nuclides with a neutron source and then to detect the particles which come from

  11. Savannah River Laboratory data banks for risk assessment of fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Laboratory maintains a series of computerized data banks primarily as an aid in probabilistic risk assessment studies in the fuel reprocessing facilities. These include component failure rates, generic incidents, and reports of specific deviations from normal operating conditions. In addition to providing data for probability studies, these banks, have served as a valuable aid in trend analysis, equipment histories, process hazards analysis, consequence assessments, incident audit, process problem solving, and training

  12. A welcoming approach to winning support [public relations policy at the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public relations policy of British Nuclear Fuels with respect to the Sellafield reprocessing centre is described. Key factors in reassuring the public on the safety of the plant have been the opening of an exhibition centre and a widely advertised open invitation to visit Sellafield together with a commitment to an open information policy and the promotion of understanding through the use of less technical language. An improvement in public confidence in Sellafield is reported. (U.K.)

  13. New reprocessing projects in foreign countries - continuation of the report GRS-A-982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a former synopsis (GRS-A-982) eight industrial scale reprocessing plants in foreign countries have been described. The present report is a continuation of the former work and compiles data and information on the facilities currently being constructed or planned at La Hague, Sellafield and Rokkashomura. It contains evaluation results of the available literature and comprises information on site characteristics and the various process steps. (orig.)

  14. Decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, L F; Nemec, J F; Koochi, A K

    1978-06-01

    The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage, waste tank farm, and auxiliary facilities were assessed: (1) layaway, (2) protective storage, (3) preparation for alternate nuclear use, and (4) dismantlement. The estimated costs are 5.7, 11, 19, and 31 million dollars, respectively. (DLC)

  15. Legal problems connected with irradiated fuel reprocessing and its waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of its nature, an irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing operation -and the contracts implementing it between the reprocessor and the customer- raises certain difficult legal problems. This paper analyses this question from the legal viewpoint, in particular as regards nuclear fuel and material ownership and products or waste arising therefrom, as well as in the context of rules of international trade and non-proliferation standards. (NEA)

  16. Decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage, waste tank farm, and auxiliary facilities were assessed: (1) layaway, (2) protective storage, (3) preparation for alternate nuclear use, and (4) dismantlement. The estimated costs are 5.7, 11, 19, and 31 million dollars, respectively

  17. Følelser i bevægelse. Om læreprocesser i musikterapeutens uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen sætter fokus på forholdet mellem musik og følelser, som dette indgår i musikterapistuderendes personlige og professionelle læreprocesser. Der tages teoretisk afsæt i Antonio Damasios og Daniel Sterns kropsorienterede teorier om emotioner og følelser, med særligt fokus på baggrundsfølelser...

  18. Preliminary concepts: coordinated safeguards for materials management in a thorium--uranium fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This report addresses preliminary concepts for coordinated safeguards materials management in a typical generic thorium--uranium-fueled light-water reactor (LWR) fuels reprocessing plant. The reference facility is designed to recover thorium and uranium from first-generation (denatured /sup 235/U) startup fuels, first-recycle and equilibrium (denatured /sup 233/U) thorium--uranium LWR fuels, and to recover the plutonium generated in the /sup 238/U denaturant as well. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Thorium utilization program progress report for January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975. [Reprocessing; refabrication; recycle fuel irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Kasten, P.R.

    1976-05-01

    Work was carried out on the following: HTGR reprocessing development and pilot plant, refabrication development and pilot plant, recycle fuel irradiations, engineering and economic studies, and conceptual design of a commercial recycle plant. (DLC)

  20. Estimation of heavy metal concentration in FBR reprocessing solvent streams by density measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.L.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-04-15

    The application of density measurement to heavy metal monitoring in the solvent phase is described, including practical experience gained during three fast reactor fuel reprocessing campaigns. An experimental algorithm relating heavy metal concentration and sample density was generated from laboratory-measured density data, for uranyl nitrate dissolved in nitric acid loaded tri-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene. Differences in odorless kerosene batch densities are mathematically interpolated, and the algorithm can be used to estimate heavy metal concentrations from the density to within +1.5 g/l. An Anton Paar calculating digital densimeter with remote cell operation was used for all density measurements, but the algorithm will give similar accuracy with any density measuring device capable of a precision of better than 0.0005 g/cm/sup 3/. For plant control purposes, the algorithm was simplified using a density referencing system, whereby the density of solvent not yet loaded with heavy metal is subtracted from the sample density. This simplified algorithm compares very favorably with empirical algorithms, derived from numerical analysis of density data and chemically measured uranium and plutonium data obtained during fuel reprocessing campaigns, particularly when differences in the acidity of the solvent are considered before and after loading with heavy metal. This simplified algorithm has been successfully used for plant control of heavy metal loaded solvent during four fast reactor fuel reprocessing campaigns.

  1. Prolixe-prototype reprocessing unit for irradiating wastes contamined with alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of hot cells are employed for research on nuclear fuel reprocessing and the production of isotope of transuranium elements. These activities generate solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters. The Prolixe hot cell was built in order to: 1/ reprocess the solid wastes contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters produced in the Radiochemistry building: 2/ produce package wastes storable in shallow-ground disposal sites: 3/ develop a process sufficiently flexible to make it applicable to waste produced in other installations. The process is based on waste leaching after grinding. Depending on the type of wastes the leaching reactant will have a different composition 1/ nitric acid solution for cellulose waste: 2/ nitric solutions containing Ag(II) for other material. The complete process should achieve: 1/ a high waste volume reduction factor: 2/ the production of immobilized waste packages storage in shallow-ground disposal sites: 3/ the recycling of transuranium elements: 4/ the generation of a minimal volume of effluents. This process can be considered as an alternative process to incineration for the reprocessing of solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters

  2. Proliferation risk assessment for large reprocessing facilities with simulation and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation risk assessment has been investigated to develop a performance-based approach in which the likelihood of diversion incidence, as well as the uncertainty of nuclear material accounting, is simultaneously considered to install intrinsic and extrinsic countermeasures in a conceptual design of a future reprocessing facility. A simulation and modeling approach has been applied to evaluate safeguards performance in a facility-level and diversion pathway analysis, which is demonstrated to detect more efficiently a small and protracted diversion that is usually investigated by trend analysis. Although an incidence probability of diversion is difficult to estimate because of its intentional act, the Markov model methodology originally developed by the proliferation resistance and physical protection working group in the generation IV international forum is incorporated into two-dimensional probability distribution. In a comparative study, a hypothetical reprocessing process for light water reactors and fast breeder reactors are modeled and investigated using the distribution that is derived from an inherent nature in the deterministic International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards criteria. By comparison with conventional diversion scenarios, which are abrupt and protracted loss, and verification measures to conform to the criteria, the diversion path analysis with a simulation and modeling tool is valuable to pursue a risk-oriented performance in safeguards. This simulation and modeling approach has already been carried out in the United States to investigate safeguards performance in future reprocessing processes, and we have been collaborating on the development of safeguards simulation tool to enhance the safeguards by design approach. (author)

  3. Effect of compatibilization and reprocessing on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieny Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on polymer mixtures aimed at the potential applications of these materials. This work analyzed the effect of polymer reprocessing and the type and concentration of compatibilizer on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites. The composites, which were polypropylene grafted with acrylic acid (PP-g-AA and maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA, were processed in a twin screw extruder with and without compatibilizer. Reprocessed polypropylene reached complete crystallization in less time than the composites with virgin polypropylene. The addition of wood flour to the composites did not change the kinetics significantly compared to that of the pure polymers, but the compatibilizers did, particularly PP-g-AA. The nucleation exponent (n and crystallization rate (K were calculated from Avrami plots. The values of n ranged from 2 to 3, indicating instantaneous to sporadic nucleation. The crystallization half-time of reprocessed polypropylene was shorter than that of virgin polypropylene and of the compositions containing PP-g-AA compatibilizer. The activation energy of crystallization and the equilibrium melting temperature were calculated, respectively, from Arrhenius and Hoffman-Weeks plots. Both of these parameters showed lower values in the composites, particularly in the ones containing compatibilizers.

  4. The Coastal Current of the Andaman Sea Revealed by Reprocessed Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakharin Suwannathatsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The surface currents in the Andaman Sea are observed and quantified by many studies in opposite of the local coastal current that is unclear. Knowing the contributor to this local current improves the simulation work in the most accurate way. This study reviews reprocessed observations from satellites and creates an oceanic model by taking data of 1995 to generally explain the character of local coastal currents. Approach: The reprocessed data from satellite altimeter and Acoustic Doppler Currents Profilers (ADCP ship are reviewed. The oceanic models based on the data of calm weather in 1995 are created to explain the character of coastal currents and associated intra-seasonal cycles in the no storm condition of other years. Results: Reprocessed satellite data and ADCP after comparing with models reveal the effects of the local wind along the coast and Rossby waves (triggered by Elman pumping or radiated by Equatorial Kelvin waves. That causes the intra-seasonal coastal current instead of regional monsoonal winds. Conclusion/Recommendations: The effects of regional monsoon winds are less than local winds and meso-scale eddies in the coastal current in the Andaman Sea. The simulation based on regional winds can not explain the coastal current in the no storm condition. Local winds and meso-scale eddies need to take into account in the model in order to capture these coastal currents.

  5. Basic research on separation control of long life nuclides in fuel reprocessing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Usami, Go [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Hotoku, Shinobu

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of technetium (Tc) in nuclear fuel reprocessing processes has become the subject to be elucidated in the transition to distribution process by coextraction and the catalytic action in distribution process. In order to forecast or control the behavior of Tc in reprocessing processes, it is necessary to understand that at which valence Tc exists stably in respective processes. Tc is stable at 7 valence in nitric acid solution expected in reprocessing. In this research, the reaction speed of the oxidation and reduction reactions of rhenium (Re) which simulates Tc was measured by laser Raman spectroscopy which can do high speed analysis of valence. The experimental method is explained. The Raman spectra of Re in the experimental system of this research were measured in perchloric acid solution and nitric acid solution, and compared with the values in literatures. As the result, the validity of this research was assured. It was confirmed that Re(7) was not reduced by sulfamic acid and ascorbic acid. Re(7) was reduced by thiocyanic acid once, but was oxidized again by the reaction of thiocyanic acid and nitric acid. (K.I.)

  6. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on Public Speaking Anxiety of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Aslani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public speaking anxiety is a prominent problem in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on public speaking anxiety of college students. Materials and Methods: The design of research was quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. The sample consistent of 30 students with speech anxiety that selected base on available sampling and assigned randomly in experimental (N=15 and control (N=15 groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 7 sessions. In order to collect the data, Paul’s personal report of confidence as a speaker, S-R inventory of anxiousness was used. To analyze the data, SPSS-19 software and covariance analysis were used. Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing reducing public speaking anxiety. The one-way analysis of covariance for each variable shows there are significant differences in confidence of speaker (p=0.001 and physiological symptoms of speech anxiety (p=0.001 at the two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective on reducing physiological symptoms of speech anxiety and increasing the speaker’s confidence.

  7. Development of integrated parameter database for risk assessment at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to develop a parameter database for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the application of risk information on plant operation and maintenance activity is important because the transparency, consistency, and traceability of parameters are needed to explanation adequacy of the evaluation to third parties. Application of risk information for the plant operation and maintenance activity, equipment reliability data, human error rate, and 5 factors of 'five-factor formula' for estimation of the amount of radioactive material discharge (source term) are key inputs. As a part of the infrastructure development for the risk information application, we developed the integrated parameter database, 'R-POD' (Rokkasho reprocessing Plant Omnibus parameter Database) on the trial basis for the PSA of the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. This database consists primarily of the following 3 parts, 1) an equipment reliability database, 2) a five-factor formula database, and 3) a human reliability database. The underpinning for explaining the validity of the risk assessment can be improved by developing this database. Furthermore, this database is an important tool for the application of risk information, because it provides updated data by incorporating the accumulated operation experiences of the Rokkasho reprocessing plant. (author)

  8. Technological study of electrochemical uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath; Estudo tecnologico do reprocessamento eletroquimico de combustiveis de uranio em meio de cloretos fundidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Damaris

    2002-07-01

    This study is applied to metallic fuels recycling, concerning advanced reactor concept, which was proposed and tested in LMR type reactors. Conditions for electrochemical non-irradiated uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath in laboratory scale were established. Experimental procedures and parameters for dehydration treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture and for electrochemical study of U{sup 3+}/U system in LiCl-KCl were developed and optimized. In the voltammetric studies many working electrodes were tested. As auxiliary electrodes, graphite and stainless steels crucibles were verified, with no significant impurities inclusions in the system. Ag/AgCl in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 1 w% in AgCl were used as reference electrode. The experimental set up developed for electrolyte treatment as well as for the study of the system U{sup 3+}/U in LiCl-KCl showed to be adequate and efficient. Thermogravimetric Techniques, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and cyclic voltametry showed an efficient dehydration method by using HCl gas and than argon flux for 12 h. Scanning Electron Microscopy, with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry detected the presence of uranium in the cadmium phase. X-ray Diffraction and also Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry were used for uranium detection in the salt phase. The obtained results for the system U{sup 3+}/U in LiCl-KCl showed the viability of the electrochemical reprocessing process based on the IFR advanced fuel cycle. (author)

  9. Effect of reprocessing cycles on the degradation of polypropylene copolymer filled with talc or montmorillonite during injection molding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S., E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 (Brazil); Ashton, E.; Weschenfelder, V. F.; Cândido, L. H. A.; Kindlein, W. [Laboratory of Design LDSM, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Mechanical recycling of polymeric materials is a favorable technique resulting in economic and environmental benefits, especially in the case of polymers with a high production volume as the polypropylene copolymer (PP). However, recycling by reprocessing techniques can lead to thermal, mechanical or thermo-oxidative degradation that can affect the structure of the polymer and subsequently the material properties. PP filled with montmorillonite (MMT) or talc are widely produced and studied, however, its degradation reactions by reprocessing cycles are poorly studied so far. In this study, the effects of reprocessing cycles in the structure and in the properties of the PP/MMT and PP/Talc were evaluated. The samples were mixed with 5% talc or MMT Cloisite C15A in a twin-screw extrusion. After extrusion, this filled material was submitted to five reprocessing cycles through an injection molding process. In order to evaluate the changes induced by reprocessing techniques, the samples were characterized by DSC, FT-IR, Izod impact and tensile strength tests. The study showed that Young modulus, elongation at brake and Izod impact were not affected by reprocessing cycles, except when using talc. In this case, the elongation at brake reduced until the fourth cycle, showing rigidity increase. The DSC results showed that melting and crystallization temperature were not affected. A comparison of FT-IR spectra of the reprocessed indicated that in both samples, between the first and the fifth cycle, no noticeable change has occurred. Thus, there is no evidence of thermo oxidative degradation. In general, these results suggest that PP reprocessing cycles using MMT or talc does not change the material properties until the fifth cycle.

  10. Calibration of X-ray densitometers for the determination of uranium and plutonium concentrations in reprocessing input and product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1985 a calibration exercise has been carried out, which included the calibration of the KfK K-Edge Densitometer for uranium assay in the uranium product solutions from reprocessing, and the calibration of the Hybrid K-Edge/K-XRF Instrument for the determination of total uranium and plutonium in reprocessing input solutions. The calibration measuremnts performed with the two X-ray densitometers are described and analyzed, and calibration constants are evaluated from the obtained results. (orig.)

  11. CEA contribution to advanced robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to development of nuclear energy in France, CEA has a long experience in nuclear robotics. It started from remote handling in hot cells and extended to inspections in nuclear reactors, intervention with vehicles, decommissioning of experimental plants, maintenance and intervention in reactors and reprocessing plants. Existing equipments, which are briefly described, show present status of performances for these applications. Research activities are going-on to develop this potential. Main aspects of recent advances in nuclear robotics are detailed to show that each application has some relevance with fusion remote handling needs. In this panel of activities, fusion would profit more directly from reprocessing and reactor maintenance studies, Computer Aided Teleoperation and advanced manipulators developments. But all the projects in nuclear and servicing robotics may have spin-offs for fusion and mention to Eureka projects will underline the necessity for European cooperation in this field. Finally, honor will be rendered to Jean Vertut who had from the first moment a real passion for fusion. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1H-PEO and 13C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  13. Treatment of Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the recovery or removal of one or more crystallizable compounds from an aqueous solution containing, apart from the said crystallizable compounds, one or more organic or inorganic scale- forming or scale-inducing materials having a lower solubility in water

  14. Design of process cell equipment layout and its associated piping in typical nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plant processes spent nuclear fuel discharged from the nuclear reactor to separate chemically the uranium and plutonium. Spent nuclear fuel emits radiation due to the presence of fission products, actinides and activation products. The major operation steps in reprocessing plant are dismantling of spent fuel subassemblies, chopping of fuel pins and dissolution in concentrated nitric acid. Subsequently, this solution containing uranium and plutonium, fission products and actinides is subjected to solvent extraction with tributyl phosphate in diluent as solvent for separating uranium and plutonium from fission products and other actinides. In the design of a fuel reprocessing plant, apart from problems associated with conventional chemical process industries such as corrosion, materials handling, industrial and fire safety and economy, specific considerations such as health hazards from radioactivity (radiological safety) and damage to material by radiation are considered. This necessitates the processing of spent fuel inside the shielded process cells (concrete and lead cells) with remote operation and maintenance philosophy to prevent the contamination as well as radiation exposure to the operators and prevention of criticality in process tanks and equipments. Reprocessing plant consists of number of shielded process cells depending on the processing capacity and type of spent fuel handled. Concrete cells and lead cells houses various type of storage tanks, equipments, liquid transfer devices, etc with interconnecting small bore pipe lines for liquid transfer and supply of services, which runs in multiple layers, forming a high density piping inside the cells. In addition to this, cells have remote handling systems and gadgets for remote operation and maintenance wherever required. This paper highlights the design of process cells, its equipment layout and piping in typical reprocessing plant; the suitable material of construction

  15. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: COGEMA expertise devoted to UP1 reprocessing plant dismantling programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last past decades, the French nuclear industry has acquired a great experience and know-how in the field of dismantling. Today this experience amounts to more than 200,000 hours. The fundamental aims within dismantling strategy are the same as for all nuclear facilities: minimising doses received by workers, minimising waste volume and adapting waste management to radioactivity levels, minimising costs. French experience is based on technologies which are currently used in nuclear maintenance facilities. Dismantling is a dynamic process especially in the field of decontamination (chemical and mechanical), cleaning, robotics and remote control operations. The strategy for the dismantling of former UP1 reprocessing plant is based on the feedback of experience gained through the dismantling of other facilities such as the AT1 workshop at La Hague. This workshop, a pilot plant for reprocessing of fast-breeder reactor fuels (Rapsodie and Phenix) has to be dismantled to IAEA level 3 (unrestricted site use), excluding civil works structures. Currently conducted by trained shifts, this dismantling project should end in 1999. The experience already acquired proves that chemical rinsings with the use of specific reagents is sufficient to decontaminate the hot cells and that the use of remote operations or robotics is not as important as previously envisaged. The UP1 reprocessing plant of Marcoule operated from 1958 to 1997. End of the operation was pronounced on the 31st of December 1997. 20,000 tons of spent fuels were reprocessed at UP1. The cleaning and dismantling operations at the Marcoule site depend upon the CEA, EDF and COGEMA. The Defence and Industry Ministries asked for a specific structure to be set up. An economic interest group called CODEM was created in May 1996. CODEM decides, finances and supervises dismantling operations, while respecting the constraints of nuclear safety, environmental protection and cost-effectiveness. The cleaning operations of

  16. Method of denitrification and stabilization of radioactive aqueous solutions of radioisotope nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method is solved of denitrification and of the stabilization of aqueous solutions of radioactive isotopes produced during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The aqueous solution is first mixed with the vitreous component, most frequently phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate or boric acid and if needed with the addition of alkalis, possibly with clarifying or anti-foam components, e.g., arsenic trioxide, antimony or cerium oxide. The mixture is further adjusted with ammonia to pH 5 - 9. The liquid mixture is then thermally and pyrolytically processed, e.g., by calcinator or fluid-bed reactor or by pot melting at temperatures of 3O0 to 900 degC while of a powder product or glass melt is formed in the presence of gaseous emissions composed of nitrous oxide - nitrogen. The resulting product is further processed by containerization or is sealed in a metal matrix. (B.S.)

  17. Oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in aqueous alkaline solutions - An alternative to the Purex process?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runde, Wolfgang; Peper, Shane; Brodnax, Lia; Crooks, William; Zehnder, Ralph; Jarvinen, Gordon

    2004-07-01

    As an alternative to acidic reprocessing of spent nuclear, oxidative dissolution of UO{sub 2} into aqueous alkaline solutions and subsequent separation of fission products is considered. The efficacy of such a method is limited by the kinetics of the UO{sub 2} dissolution and the capacity of alkaline solutions for dissolved U(VI) species. We performed a series of dissolution studies on UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in aqueous alkaline solutions applying various oxidants. Among the oxidative agents commonly used to transform low-valence actinides into their higher oxidation states, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has proven to be the most effective in basic media. Consequently, we investigated the dissolution of UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in NaOH-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions and determined the dissolution kinetics as a function of peroxide and hydroxide (carbonate) concentrations. Methods to remove fission products, e.g., Cs, Sr, Ba and Zr, from alkaline solutions will be evaluated based upon their decontamination factors. We will discuss the feasibility of using chemically oxidizing alkaline solutions as an alternative spent nuclear fuel reprocessing method based on results from experimental quantitative investigations. (authors)

  18. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H3BO3 at temperatures up to 1500C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO3- + 2I- + 3H+, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >104 has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and international law. Germany's obligations under international law in matters of spent fuel reprocessing and the relevant contracts concluded with France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review presented is an excerpt from an expert opinion written by the author in December last year, in response to changes in nuclear energy policy announced by the new German government. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels from German power reactors in the reprocessing facilities of France (La Hague) and the UK (Sellafield) is not only based on contracts concluded by the German electric utilities and the French COGEMA or the British BNFL, but has been agreed as well by an exchange of diplomatic notes between the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the German ambassador in Paris, the German Foreign Ministry and the French ambassador as well as the British ambassador in Bonn. The article therefore first examines from the angle of international law the legal obligations binding the states involved, and Germany in particular, in matters of spent fuel reprocessing contracts. The next question arising in this context and discussed by the article is that of whether and how much indemnification can be demanded by the reprocessing companies, or their governments, resp., if Germany should discontinue spent fuel reprocessing and thus might be made liable for breach of the bilateral agreements. (orig/CB)

  20. SALT observation of X-ray pulse reprocessing in 4U 1626-67★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gayathri; Paul, Biswajit; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Mohan, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    We investigate optical reprocessing of X-rays in the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) pulsar 4U 1626-67 in its current spin-up phase using observations with Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), near-simultaneous observations with Swift-X-ray Telescope and non-simultaneous RXTE-Proportional Counter Array (PCA) observations and present the results of timing analysis. Using SALT observations carried out on 2014 March 5 and 6, we detect some interesting reprocessing signatures. We detect a weak optical quasiperiodic oscillation (QPO) in the power density spectrum on March 5 at 48 mHz with a fractional rms of 3.3 per cent in spite of the fact that source shows no corresponding X-ray QPO in the spin-up phase. In the light curve obtained on March 5, we detect a coherent pulsation at the spin period of ˜7.677 s. A previously known, slightly down-shifted side-band is also detected at 129.92 mHz. The frequency spacing between main pulse and this side-band is different from earlier observations, though the statistical significance of the difference is limited. The light curve of March 6 displays short time-scale variability in the form of flares on time-scales of a few minutes. Folded pulse profiles resulting from data of this night show an interesting trend of pulse peak drifting. This drift could be due to (i) rapid changes in the reprocessing agent, like orbital motion of an accretion disc warp around the neutron star, or (ii) intrinsic pulse phase changes in X-rays. We also examine some X-ray light curves obtained with RXTE-PCA during 2008-2010 for pulse shape changes in short time-scales during X-ray flares.

  1. SALT observation of X-ray pulse reprocessing in 4U 1626-67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gayathri; Paul, Biswajit; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Mohan, Vijay

    2016-07-01

    We investigate optical reprocessing of X-rays in the LMXB pulsar 4U 1626-67 in its current spin-up phase using observations with Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), near-simultaneous observations with Swift-XRT and non-simultaneous RXTE-PCA observations and present the results of timing analysis. Using SALT observations carried out on 5th and 6th March, 2014, we detect some interesting reprocessing signatures. We detect a weak optical Quasi Periodic Oscillation (QPO) in the power density spectrum on March 5th at 48 mHz with a fractional rms of 3.3% in spite of the fact that source shows no corresponding X-ray QPO in the spin-up phase. In the light curve obtained on March 5th, we detect a coherent pulsation at the spin period of ~7.677 s. A previously known, slightly down-shifted side-band is also detected at 129.92 mHz. The frequency spacing between main pulse and this side-band is different from earlier observations, though the statistical significance of the difference is limited. The light curve of 6th March displays short time-scale variability in the form of flares on time-scales of a few minutes. Folded pulse profiles resulting from data of this night show an interesting trend of pulse peak drifting. This drift could be due to i) rapid changes in the reprocessing agent, like orbital motion of an accretion disk warp around the neutron star or ii) intrinsic pulse phase changes in X-rays. We also examine some X-ray light curves obtained with RXTE-PCA during 2008-2010 for pulse shape changes in short time scales during X-ray flares.

  2. Impacts of reprocessed altimetry on the surface circulation and variability of the Western Alboran Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juza, Mélanie; Escudier, Romain; Pascual, Ananda; Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Taburet, Guillaume; Troupin, Charles; Mourre, Baptiste; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2016-08-01

    New altimetry products in semi-enclosed seas are of major interest given the importance of the coastal-open ocean interactions. This study shows how reprocessed altimetry products in the Mediterranean Sea from Archiving, Validation and Interpolation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO) have improved the representation of the surface circulation over the 1993-2012 period. We focus on the Alboran Sea, which is the highest mesoscale activity area of the western Mediterranean. The respective impacts of the new mean dynamic topography (MDT) and mapped sea level anomaly (MSLA) on the description of the Western Alboran Gyre (WAG) are quantitatively evaluated. The temporal mean and variability of the total kinetic energy have been significantly increased in the WAG considering both the new MDT and MSLA (by more than 50%). The new MDT has added 39% to the mean kinetic energy, while the new MSLA has increased the eddy kinetic energy mean (standard deviation) by 53% (30%). The new MSLA has yielded higher variability of total (eddy) kinetic energy, especially in the annual frequency band by a factor of 2 (3). The MDT reprocessing has particularly increased the low-frequency variability of the total kinetic energy by a factor of 2. Geostrophic velocities derived from the altimetry products have also been compared with drifter data. Both reprocessed MDT and MSLA products intensify the velocities of the WAG making them closer to the in situ estimations, reducing the root mean square differences and increasing the correlation for the zonal and meridional components. The results obtained using refined coastal processing of altimetry products and new observational data are very encouraging to better understand the ocean circulation variability and coastal-open ocean interactions, and for potential improvements in other sub-basins, marginal seas and coastal global ocean.

  3. Behavior of silicon in nitric media. Application to uranium silicides fuels reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium silicides are used in some research reactors. Reprocessing them is a solution for their cycle end. A list of reprocessing scenarios has been set the most realistic being a nitric dissolution close to the classic spent fuel reprocessing. This uranium silicide fuel contains a lot of silicon and few things are known about polymerization of silicic acid in concentrated nitric acid. The study of this polymerization allows to point out the main parameters: acidity, temperature, silicon concentration. The presence of aluminum seems to speed up heavily the polymerization. It has been impossible to find an analytical technique smart and fast enough to characterize the first steps of silicic acid polymerization. However the action of silicic species on emulsions stabilization formed by mixing them with an organic phase containing TBP has been studied, Silicon slows down the phase separation by means of oligomeric species forming complex with TBP. The existence of these intermediate species is short and heating can avoid any stabilization. When non irradiated uranium silicide fuel is attacked by a nitric solution, aluminum and uranium are quickly dissolved whereas silicon mainly stands in solid state. That builds a gangue of hydrated silica around the uranium silicide particulates without preventing uranium dissolution. A small part of silicon passes into the solution and polymerize towards the highly poly-condensed forms, just 2% of initial silicon is still in molecular form at the end of the dissolution. A thermal treatment of the fuel element, by forming inter-metallic phases U-Al-Si, allows the whole silicon to pass into the solution and next to precipitate. The behavior of silicon in spent fuels should be between these two situations. (author)

  4. Applicability of membranes with different configurations in nuclear reprocessing and waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability of nuclear power under the closed end fuel policy is greatly dependent on the efficient operation of fuel reprocessing and an effective management of the highly toxic waste generated by it. The discharge of liquid waste of reprocessing origin to environment has to meet stringent parameters laid down by regulatory bodies. Increasing quantum of nuclear power production obligates to look for efficiently viable separation techniques to supplement existing waste management operations. Membrane based separations are gaining lot of interest, also in nuclear field due to their unique advantage of significantly less secondary waste generation. Permeability based transport of metal ions through membranes is mainly achieved through (1) pressure driven and (2) concentration gradient processes. The techniques involved in first category are reverse osmosis (RO), nano-filtration, ultra filtration (UF), micro filtration, etc. whereas liquid membranes(LMs) of different configurations falls under second category. In the large scale separations, including in nuclear industries, RO has proved its excellent applications in the end of pipe operations. UF of modified feed solutions such as micellar enhanced UF(MEUF) or polymer enhanced UF(PEUF) can selectively separate out metallic contaminants from their dilute solutions while working under very low pressure as compared to RO. Techniques in the LM procedures are getting upgraded to mitigate its problems of low throughput and stability. Non dispersive solvent extraction (NDSX) and renewable liquid membrane (HFRLM) connected with polymeric hollow fibre substrate have resolved the problem of LM stability and also throughput to great extent. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is best suited technique of LM to treat large volume solutions. In this presentation an applicability of membranes more specifically MEUF, NDSX, HFRLM and ELM will be discussed from the point of view of waste management of nuclear fuel reprocessing

  5. Vad händer efter olyckan? En studie av EMDR Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Britt-Mari

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att beskriva en behandlingsmetod, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), som används vid posttraumatiskt stressyndrom. Detta för att öka förståelsen för denna metod och granska nyttan av denna. Tanken var också att väcka intresse hos sjukskötare att vilja vidareutbilda sig till EMDR-terapeuter. Studien är kvalitativ och respondenten använde sig av kvalitativa temaintervjuer samt tidigare forskning som datainsamlingsmetod. Intervjumaterialet ana...

  6. Dynamic considerations in the development of centrifugal separators used for reprocessing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of centrifugal separators has been a key ingredient in improving the process used for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The separators are used to segregate uranium and plutonium from the fission products produced by a controlled nuclear reaction. The separators are small variable speed centrifuges, designed to operate in a harsh environment. Dynamic problems were detected by vibration analysis and resolved using modal analysis and trending. Problems with critical speeds, resonances in the base, balancing, weak components, precision manufacturing, and short life have been solved

  7. Development of a simulation program to study error propagation in the reprocessing input accountancy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physical model and a computer program have been developed to simulate all the measurement operations involved with the Isotopic Dilution Analysis technique currently applied in the Volume - Concentration method for the Reprocessing Input Accountancy, together with their errors or uncertainties. The simulator is apt to easily solve a number of problems related to the measurement sctivities of the plant operator and the inspector. The program, written in Fortran 77, is based on a particular Montecarlo technique named ''Random Sampling''; a full description of the code is reported

  8. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization

  9. Explosion risks linked to red oils in the spent fuels reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the risk of explosion associated with reactions between tributyl phosphate (TBP) and its degradation products and nitrates from nitric acid or associated with heavy metals (uranium and plutonium); These reactions may lead to the formation of unstable compounds known as 'red oils'. The feedback explosions linked to the formation of such compounds occurring in spent fuel reprocessing plants round the world, is briefly discussed. The main measures to control these risks, implemented in French factories concerned are also presented. (N.C.)

  10. Selection of construction materials for equipment in an experimental reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of the most significant corrosion problems that may be present in different stages of the process in a spent fuel reprocessing plant. The influence of different variables is analyzed: concentration of nitric acid and other oxidizing species, temperature, etc., in corrosion of materials of most frequent use in pipings and equipment. The materials are austenitic stainless steels and refractory metals, especially zirconium and its alloys. Both general and localized corrosion phenomena are analyzed for these materials. Selection criteria for the use of adequate material in different components of the plant are also discussed. (author). 32 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  11. HTGR fuel reprocessing pilot plant: results of the sequential equipment operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second sequential operation of the HTGR fuel reprocessing cold-dry head-end pilot plant equipment has been successfully completed. Twenty standard LHGTR fuel elements were crushed to a size suitable for combustion in a fluid bed burner. The graphite was combusted leaving a product of fissile and fertile fuel particles. These particles were separated in a pneumatic classifier. The fissile particles were fractured and reburned in a fluid bed to remove the inner carbon coatings. The remaining products are ready for dissolution and solvent extraction fuel recovery

  12. Operation experience and anti-foam study on the HALW evaporator at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume reduction of highly active liquid waste is a key issue for processing and management of nuclear waste. In this paper we will introduce our twenty-years operation experience of a highly active waste evaporator at Tokai Reprocessing Plant. The evaporator has been working very well generally. However, operation of the evaporator has been sometimes affected by foaming. To suppress the foaming, evaporation rate is limited. We studied behavior of foaming and effect of antifoam chemicals by using a 1/11 scale model evaporator. We could reproduce foaming in the model apparatus and concluded that some antifoam chemicals will be effective for the actual evaporator. (author)

  13. Apparatus and method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Parrish, W.H. Sr.

    1982-01-19

    Spent nuclear fuels, including actinide fuels, volatile and non-volatile fission products, are reprocessed and separated in a molten metal solvent housed in the reaction region of a separation vessel which includes a reflux region positioned above the molten tin solvent. The reflux region minimizes loss of evaporated solvent during the separation of the actinide fuels from the volatile fission products. Additionally, inclusion of the reflux region permits the separation of the more volatile fission products (noncondensable) from the less volatile ones (condensable).

  14. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs.

  15. Seismic analysis of the nuclear fuel service reprocessing plant at West Valley, N. Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Davito, A.M.

    1977-05-24

    This report was prepared at the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a part of a license review of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., at West Valley, N.Y. The report discusses the approach used by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in performing an independent seismic analysis of the facility. It includes a description of the facility, our modeling and analysis techniques, failure criteria, results, and conclusions. Two modes of failure are identified and their consequences discussed.

  16. Zirconium-made equipment for the new La Hague reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of zirconium was developed to solve some problems of severe corrosion in boiling nitric medium, and to guarantee the service life of the equipment concerned. The paper presents the experience gained since the early 1970s, when the first units made of zirconium were used in French reprocessing plants. For the new La Hague UP3 and UP2 800 plants, it was decided to extend the use of zirconium to make large-scale equipment and, to do so, a major R and D program was implemented, of which the main results are presented

  17. A solvent extraction flowsheet for a large-scale LWR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1974 a 'Mark I' solvent extraction flowsheet for a German large-scale LWR fuel reprocessing plant has been designed under the guidance of Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung (GfK). Since then, several improved procedures have been developed, and have step by step been adopted into the original flow-sheet. In preparing the GfK flowsheet, specific attention has been paid to safety and reliability of operation, to the minimization of liquid medium-level wastes, and to the minimization of environmental releases. This paper discuss several of the specific features of the present version of the GfK flowsheet. (orig.) 891 RSH/orig. 892 AMO

  18. The System for Controlling Source and Special Nuclear Material at the Eurochemic Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurochemic is constructing a reprocessing plant near Mol (Belgium). The main characteristics of the plant and the different process steps are summarized. To maintain proper control of source and special nuclear material, the facilities of the company are divided into material balance areas. All transfers into and out of these areas are determined. Depending on their significance for the overall material balance, different precision requirements have been established according to a scale of significance which is briefly discussed. To adjust the book balance, physical inventories are periodically performed. The corresponding inventory procedures are outlined. The books used for nuclear materials accounting and the principles of the accounting system are summarized. (author)

  19. Conceptual design study and evaluation of an advanced treatment process applying a submerged combustion technique for spent solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced treatment process based on a submerged combustion technique was proposed for spent solvents and the distillation residues containing transuranium (TRU) nuclides. A conceptual design study and the preliminary cost estimation of the treatment facility applying the process were conducted. Based on the results of the study, the process evaluation on the technical features, such as safety, volume reduction of TRU waste and economics was carried out. The key requirements for practical use were also summarized. It was shown that the process had the features as follows: the simplified treatment and solidification steps will not generate secondary aqueous wastes, the volume of TRU solid waste will be reduced less than one tenth of that of a reference technique (pyrolysis process), and the facility construction cost is less than 1 % of the total construction cost of a future large scale reprocessing plant. As for the low level wastes of calcium phosphate, it was shown that the further removal of β · γ nuclides with TRU nuclides from the wastes would be required for the safety in interim storage and transportation and for the load of shielding. (author)

  20. Options for treatment of legacy and advanced nuclear fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Christopher John

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of advanced nuclear fuels is relevant to the stabilisation of legacy spent fuels or nuclear materials and fuels from future nuclear reactors. Historically, spent fuel reprocessing has been driven to recover uranium and plutonium for reuse. Future fuel cycles may also recover the minor actinides neptunium, americium and perhaps curium. These actinides would be fabricated into new reactor fuel to produce energy and for transmutation of the minor actinides. This has the potential t...

  1. SALT observation of X-ray pulse reprocessing in 4U 1626-67

    CERN Document Server

    Raman, Gayathri; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Mohan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    We investigate optical reprocessing of X-rays in the LMXB pulsar 4U 1626-67 in its current spin-up phase using observations with Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), near-simultaneous observations with Swift-XRT and non-simultaneous RXTE-PCA observations and present the results of timing analysis. Using SALT observations carried out on 5th and 6th March, 2014, we detect some interesting reprocessing signatures. We detect a weak optical Quasi Periodic Oscillation (QPO) in the power density spectrum on March 5th at 48 mHz with a fractional rms of 3.3% in spite of the fact that source shows no corresponding X-ray QPO in the spin-up phase. In the light curve obtained on March 5th, we detect a coherent pulsation at the spin period of ~7.677 s. A previously known, slightly down-shifted side-band is also detected at 129.92 mHz. The frequency spacing between main pulse and this side-band is different from earlier observations, though the statistical significance of the difference is limited. The light curve of 6t...

  2. Reprocessing-conditioning-recycling: A competitive industry at the service of the utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to answer to the future energy needs, the countries who have chosen nuclear power as a main energy source, have also opted for an optimisation of their policy through the Reprocessing-Conditioning-Recycling (RCR) strategy. The RCR industry is today totally mature and comprehensive thanks to proven industrial means for reprocessing through the UP3 and UP2-800 plants of the la Hague site and for Mixed Oxide fuel (Mox) supply. The optimisation of the RCR industry following the chromological logic of the fuel cycle development, has now focused on two main items: The fabrication of the Mox fuel and the management of the residues with a notably drastic reduction of the total volume of residues. From 1990 to 1994, several studies of the total fuel cycle cost have been carried out; German studies generally concluded to a potential advantage of the Direct Disposal option compared to the RCR strategy. But a 1996 Cogema-study, integrating the most recent data and based on a cost model of the complete fuel cycle, has shown (like the 1994 OECD study) very similar costs between the two options. Thanks to the industry optimisation, the RCR strategy has allowed to decrease the fuel cycle cost to a very low level of 1,5 Pf/kWh. The RCR strategy is economically competitive and less sensitive to price variations. Furthermore, it is immediately available for the utilities who consequently take advantage of a global service with firm prices. (orig.)

  3. Industrial view on reprocessing and recycling as essential elements towards sustainable nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Nuclear energy's role in a sustainable energy future is increasingly embraced by various countries around the world. As a technologically mature, economic and safe energy conversion technology, nuclear energy provides also an important solution towards abating the unsustainable pressure on environment by our fossil-fuel driven economy. Today, there is significant deployment of nuclear power reactors especially in Asian countries, i.e. China and India, with a variety of newcomer countries already launched or planning in the construction of new nuclear power plants. While nuclear on itself may already contribute significantly to the sustainability of energy provision to the world, i.e. being a 'zero-greenhouse gas emission' energy conversion technology, the sustainability of the nuclear option is essentially defined by the intranuclear options aimed at reducing the use of non-renewable natural resources, by reducing further the waste arising and to assure economic and non-proliferating as well as safe operation of nuclear energy systems. Sustainability of the nuclear option is therefore primarily defined by the nuclear fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling playing an essential role to achieve such sustainability and this based on industrially proven practices. The paper addresses specifically, in more detail, the role of reprocessing and recycling in providing sustainable avenues from a resource and a waste management perspective. (authors)

  4. Reprocessed uranium influence on clearance application in uranium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearance levels for uranium isotopes have been recently authorized in Japan. The measurement of those elements can be disregarded when the nominal of the element (D/C), expressed as (D/C)*, is less than 10-3, where D is the specific radioactivity concentration of nuclides, C is the clearance level of nuclides, and (D/C)* is defined as (D/C) divided by the highest value of (D/C)'s in the element constitutions of uranium waste. In this study, the concentration of nuclides in reprocessed uranium was evaluated using ORIGEN2 burnup analyses and the most appropriate decontamination factors for determining the (D/C)* values and their influence on clearance application in the uranium fuel fabrication plant. It was concluded that nuclides other than five isotopes, 232U, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U, can be disregarded with regards to clearance application in the uranium fabrication plant, regardless of operation conditions, whether the fuel is fabricated by receiving reprocessed uranium or not. (author)

  5. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

  6. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  7. Sulfur hexafluoride reprocessing system design for a large pulsed power accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-II (PBFA-II) is a large, high power accelerator being constructed at Sandia National Labs to conduct research in inertial confinement fusion. One key to the success of this machine is the ability to produce an electrical pulse at the target with a well defined shape (power versus time). This requires that the 36 electrical drivers be initiated with good simultaneity. Simultaneity (or jitter) of the 36 module shot outputs is controlled by a sequence of pulse outputs starting at the control/monitor input to the trigger amplifier and then to the Marx trigger generators, the Marx generators, and finally the rimfire switches. A homogeneous insulating vapor in these switches is thought to reduce the jitter; however, actual data are not available to establish this concept. PBFA-II uses sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) for this insulating vapor. This paper describes the requirements placed on an SF6 reprocessing system when operating in a fusion research accelerator, resulting in criteria used to design the reprocessing system, and the subsequent design implemented to meet these criteria

  8. Available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International activities in the back-end of the research reactor (RR) fuel cycle have so far been dominated by the programmes of acceptance of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by the country where it was originally enriched. These programmes will soon have achieved their goals and the SNF take-back programmes will cease. However, the needs of the nuclear community dictate that the majority of the research reactors continue to operate using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in order to meet the varied mission objectives. As a result, inventories of LEU SNF will continue to be created and the back-end solution of RR SNF remains a critical issue. In view of this fact, the IAEA, based on the experience gained during the decade of international cooperation in supporting the objectives of the HEU take-back programmes, will draw up a report presenting available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel. This paper gives an overview of the guiding document which will address all aspects of Reprocessing and Recycling Services for RR SNF, including an overview of solutions, decision making support, service suppliers, conditions (prerequisites, options, etc.), services offered by the managerial and logistics support providers with a focus on available transport packages and applicable transport modes.

  9. Results of GPS reprocessing campaign (1996-2011 provided by Geodetic observatory Pecný

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Douša

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the GOP first reprocessing results, which officially contributed to the EPN-repro1 project. It also describes the 15-year GOP cumulative solution providing station coordinates, velocities and their discontinuities over the period of 1996-2011. Repeatabilities estimated from cleaned long-term coordinate time-series reached 1-2 mm and 4-6 mm in horizontal and vertical component, respectively. We then showed the exploitation of GOP reprocessing results in the assessment of the EUREF ITRF2005 densification and the latest ITRS realization, ITRF2008. We identified and confirmed the North-South tilt (≈ 2mas in the currently available European reference frame based on the EPN cumulative solution updated in GPS week 1600. The study showed a historical development of the tilt and its close relation to a weak velocity datum definition of this realization, which is very important for a long-term datum prediction. Selected EPN station coordinates, velocities and discontinuities of the latest ITRS realization (ITRF2008 were also assessed. Specific problems for some EPN stations were identified in the global reference frame. This emphasized further necessity to check all the stations before their use for datum definition for regional densifications.

  10. An evaluation of retention and disposal options for tritium in fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, R.W. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.; Hampson, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1987-12-31

    This report assesses the possible options for retention of tritium and its ultimate disposal during future reprocessing of irradiated oxide fuels discharged from light water reactors (LWRs) and liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The assessment includes an appraisal of the state of the retention and disposal options, an estimate of the dose commitments to the general public, an estimation of the incremental costs of the several retention and disposal options, and the potential reduction of the dose commitments resulting from retention and disposal of the tritium. The assessment is based upon an extensive study of tritium retention in reprocessing completed in 1982 by Grimes et al. Two plants were assumed, one to process LWR oxide fuel and the other to process LMFBR fuel. In each base case plant the tritium was vaporized to the atmosphere. Each of the hypothetical plants was assumed to be constructed during the 1990`s and to operate for a 20-year lifetime beginning in the year 2000 at a rate of 1,500 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) per 300-d year. In addition to the base case (Case 1), six other cases which included tritium retention options were examined. Although many of the features of the base-case plants remain unchanged in the tritium retention options, each case requires some additions, deletions, and modifications of portions of the plants. The retained tritium must also be managed and disposed of in a manner that is environmentally acceptable.

  11. Safeguarding reprocessing plants: Principles, past experience, current practice and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Article 6(c) of all comprehensive International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards agreements, verification procedures are to concentrate on those stages in the nuclear fuel cycle involving the production, processing, use or storage of nuclear material from which nuclear weapons could readily be made. In that context, the most intensive IAEA safeguards are applied at chemical processing plants and other facilities at which separated plutonium is stored, processed or used. The principles underlying the design, implementation and evaluation of IAEA safeguards at chemical reprocessing plant are explored in this paper. The interrelation between the elements of the safeguards approach for such plants is examined, including design verification, extensive use of containment and surveillance, including operations monitoring in certain of the process areas, near-real-time accountancy and conventional accountancy measures. Reference is made to IAEA experience, and current practice is examined at length. New reprocessing plants of large throughput and/or having novel design features are under construction, and the measures currently in use will require extensive effort to provide effective and efficient safeguards implementation

  12. State-of-the-art report on accident analysis and risk analysis of reprocessing plants in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes informations obtained from America, England, France and FRG concerning methodology, computer code, fundamental data and calculational model on accident/risk analyses of spent fuel reprocessing plants. As a result, the followings are revealed. (1) The system analysis codes developed for reactor plants can be used for reprocessing plants with some code modification. (2) Calculational models and programs have been developed for accidental phenomenological analyses in FRG, but with insufficient data to prove them. (3) The release tree analysis codes developed in FRG are available to estimate radioactivity release amount/probability via off-gas/exhaustair lines in the case of accidents. (4) The computer codes developed in America for reactor-plant environmental transport/safety analyses of released radioactivity can be applied to reprocessing facilities. (author)

  13. Sigma Team for Advanced Actinide Recycle FY2015 Accomplishments and Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Recycle (STAAR) has made notable progress in FY 2015 toward the overarching goal to develop more efficient separation methods for actinides in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) objective of sustainable fuel cycles. Research in STAAR has been emphasizing the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MAs) to enable closed nuclear fuel recycle options, mainly within the paradigm of aqueous reprocessing of used oxide nuclear fuel dissolved in nitric acid. Its major scientific challenge concerns achieving selectivity for trivalent actinides vs lanthanides. Not only is this challenge yielding to research advances, but technology concepts such as ALSEP (Actinide Lanthanide Separation) are maturing toward demonstration readiness. Efforts are organized in five task areas: 1) combining bifunctional neutral extractants with an acidic extractant to form a single process solvent, developing a process flowsheet, and demonstrating it at bench scale; 2) oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI) and subsequent separation with other multivalent actinides; 3) developing an effective soft-donor solvent system for An(III) selective extraction using mixed N,O-donor or all-N donor extractants such as triazinyl pyridine compounds; 4) testing of inorganic and hybrid-type ion exchange materials for MA separations; and 5) computer-aided molecular design to identify altogether new extractants and complexants and theory-based experimental data interpretation. Within these tasks, two strategies are employed, one involving oxidation of americium to its pentavalent or hexavalent state and one that seeks to selectively complex trivalent americium either in the aqueous phase or the solvent phase. Solvent extraction represents the primary separation method employed, though ion exchange and crystallization play an important role. Highlights of accomplishments include: Confirmation of the first-ever electrolytic oxidation of Am(III) in a

  14. Sigma Team for Advanced Actinide Recycle FY2015 Accomplishments and Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Recycle (STAAR) has made notable progress in FY 2015 toward the overarching goal to develop more efficient separation methods for actinides in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) objective of sustainable fuel cycles. Research in STAAR has been emphasizing the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MAs) to enable closed nuclear fuel recycle options mainly within the paradigm of aqueous reprocessing of used oxide nuclear fuel dissolved in nitric acid. Its major scientific challenge concerns achieving selectivity for trivalent actinides vs lanthanides. Not only is this challenge yielding to research advances, but technology concepts such as ALSEP (Actinide Lanthanide Separation) are maturing toward demonstration readiness. Efforts are organized in five task areas: 1) combining bifunctional neutral extractants with an acidic extractant to form a single process solvent, developing a process flowsheet, and demonstrating it at bench scale; 2) oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI) and subsequent separation with other multivalent actinides; 3) developing an effective soft-donor solvent system for An(III) selective extraction using mixed N,O-donor or all-N donor extractants such as triazinyl pyridine compounds; 4) testing of inorganic and hybrid-type ion exchange materials for MA separations; and 5) computer-aided molecular design to identify altogether new extractants and complexants and theory-based experimental data interpretation. Within these tasks, two strategies are employed, one involving oxidation of americium to its pentavalent or hexavalent state and one that seeks to selectively complex trivalent americium either in the aqueous phase or the solvent phase. Solvent extraction represents the primary separation method employed, though ion exchange and crystallization play an important role. Highlights of accomplishments include: Confirmation of the first-ever electrolytic oxidation of Am(III) in a

  15. World-wide redistribution of 129Iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities: Results from meteoric, river, and seawater tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, 129I, from commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities in England and France have surpassed natural, and even bomb test inventories. 129I/127I ratios measured in a variety of environmental matrices from Europe, North America and the southern hemisphere show the influence of fuel reprocessing-derived 129I, which is transported globally via the atmosphere. Transport and cycling of I and 129I in the hydrosphere and in soils are described based on a spatial survey of 129I in freshwater. (author)

  16. Assessment of sensitivity of neutron-physical parameters of fast neutron reactor to purification of reprocessed fuel from minor actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, V. A.; Kochetkov, L. A.; Nevinitsa, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    The work is devoted to computational investigation of the dependence of basic physical parameters of fast neutron reactors on the degree of purification of plutonium from minor actinides obtained as a result of pyroelectrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and used for manufacturing MOX fuel to be reloaded into the reactors mentioned. The investigations have shown that, in order to preserve such important parameters of a BN-800 type reactor as the criticality, the sodium void reactivity effect, the Doppler effect, and the efficiency of safety rods, it is possible to use the reprocessed fuel without separation of minor actinides for refueling (recharging) the core.

  17. Reprocessing input tank calibration exercise (RITCEX). V.1 : final report. V.2 : detailed statistical evaluation of the measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reprocessing Input Tank Calibration Exercise (RITCEX) was intended to evaluate current instrumentation and study possible improvements for the input volume measurement in a reprocessing plant. For that purpose, a recalibration of the input tank of Eurochemic has been performed. The data have been analyzed by all the participants and the results are reproduced in the document. The experience obtained allowed to propose some basic principles, recommendations and guidelines for the design and calibration of an accountancy input tank, from the safeguards point of view. (Author)

  18. On the possibility of reprocessing of fuel elements of dispersion type with copper matrix by pyrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consideration is given to pyrochemical processes suitable for separation of uranium dioxide from structural materials when reprocessing cermet type fuel elements. The estimation of the possibility to apply liquid antimony and bismuth, potassium and copper chlorides melts is made. The specimens compacted of copper and uranium dioxide powders in a stainless steel can are used as simulators of fuel element sections. It is concluded that the dissolution of structural materials in molten salts at the stage of uranium dioxide concentration is the process of choice for reprocessing of dispersion type fuel elements

  19. Contribution to the study of the degradation of the solvent used in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of a mixed solvent (tributylphosphate - hydrocarbons) in a fuel reprocessing plant (UP2 at La Hague, France) is studied in this thesis. Laboratory studies on degradation mechanisms, decomposition products and regeneration processes are reviewed in a bibliographic synthesis. Solvent degradation is investigated on a real solvent from a reprocessing plant. Influence of degradation on solvent performance is shown and regeneration processes should be improved. Many regeneration processes are tested on solvent from the plant and results are discussed. Separation and analysis of degradation products show the polyfunctional structure of compounds formed

  20. Improved methods for reprocessing of GNSS data for climate monitoring over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Katarzyna; Bock, Olivier; Wielgosz, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the most accurate and homogeneous processing strategy to reprocess ground-based GNSS data for climate monitoring applications (analysis of trends and variability of Zenith Total Delay, ZTD, and Integrated Water Vapor, IWV). Namely, we investigate the impact of network design strategy and tropospheric modeling approach on the quality and homogeneity of both relative (double difference) and absolute (PPP) solutions. A network of 138 GNSS stations (including 33 stations from the EUREF Permanent Network, EPN, and 105 stations from ASG-EUPOS in Poland) is reprocessed for year 2014 using Bernese 5.2 GNSS software with the final IGS (International GNSS Service) orbits and clocks. First a standard (the shortest) "star" baseline design strategy is used in which the EPN stations are connected together defining a reference network and every ASG-EUPOS station is connected to the nearest EPN station. The initial network is modified automatically by the Bernese software every day depending on the availability of observations at the EPN stations. We show that in case of sub-daily gaps in the measurements of the reference stations, small clusters of stations can be disconnected from the main reference network. As a result, offsets of a few centimeters in ZTD estimates and spikes in formal errors can appear. These offsets and spikes cannot always be detected. This phenomenon is quite frequent in a large network such as considered in this study. It is also responsible for significant discontinuities in the estimated ZTD series which are detrimental to climate monitoring applications. We developed a new baseline design strategy algorithm to circumvent this event and assure that all the stations remain connected to the main reference network. It is shown that using this strategy, the reprocessed ZTD series are much more continuous and homogeneous in comparison to the standard strategy. The results are further validated against a Precise Point

  1. Advances in applications of burnup credit to enhance spent fuel transportation, storage, reprocessing and disposition. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given a trend towards higher burnup power reactor fuel, the IAEA began an active programme in burnup credit (BUC) with major meetings in 1997 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013), 2000 (IAEA-TECDOC-1241) and 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC-1378) exploring worldwide interest in using BUC in spent fuel management systems. This publication contains the proceedings of the IAEA's 4th major BUC meeting, held in London. Sixty participants from 18 countries addressed calculation methodology, validation and criticality, safety criteria, procedural compliance with safety criteria, benefits of BUC applications, and regulatory aspects in BUC. This meeting encouraged the IAEA to continue its activities on burnup credit including dissemination of related information, given the number of Member States having to deal with increased spent fuel quantities and extended durations. A 5th major meeting on burnup credit is planned 2008. Burnup credit is a concept that takes credit for the reduced reactivity of fuel discharged from the reactor to improve loading density of irradiated fuel assemblies in storage, transportation, and disposal applications, relative to the assumption of fresh fuel nuclide inventories in loading calculations. This report has described a general four phase approach to be considered in burnup credit implementation. Much if not all of the background research and data acquisition necessary for successful burnup credit development in preparation for licensing has been completed. Many fuel types, facilities, and analysis methods are encompassed in the public knowledge base, such that in many cases this guidance will provide a means for rapid development of a burnup credit program. For newer assembly designs, higher enrichment fuels, and more extensive nuclide credit, additional research and development may be necessary, but even this work can build on the foundation that has been established to date. Those, it is hoped that this report will serve as a starting point with sufficient reference to existing knowledge and experience to be able to expedite future burnup credit program development

  2. Problem statement: international safeguards for a light-water reactor fuels reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, J.P.; Hakkila, E.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Darby, J.L.

    1979-03-01

    This report considers the problem of developing international safeguards for a light-water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing/conversion facility that combines the Purex process with conversion of plutonium nitrate to the oxide by means of plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation and calcination. Current international safeguards systems are based on the complementary concepts of materials accounting and containment and surveillance, which are designed to detect covert, national diversion of nuclear material. This report discusses the possible diversion threats and some types of countermeasures, and it represents the first stage in providing integrated international safeguards system concepts that make optimum use of available resources. The development of design methodology to address this problem will constitute a significant portion of the subsequent effort. Additionally, future technology development requirements are identified. 8 figures, 1 table.

  3. Calibration of burnup monitor of spent nuclear fuel installed at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeda, Kaoru; Matoba, Masaru; Wakabayashi, Genichiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Naito, Hirofumi; Hirota, Masanari [Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Morizaki, Hidetoshi; Kumanomido, Hironori; Natsume, Koichiro [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    The spent nuclear fuel storage pool of Rokkasho reprocessing plant adopts the burnup credit' conception. Spent fuel assemblies are measured every one by one, by burnup monitors, and stored to a storage rack which is designed with specified residual enrichment. For nuclear criticality control, it is necessary for the burnup monitor that the measured value includes a kind of margin, which consists of errors of the monitor. In this paper, we describe the error of the burnup monitors, and the way of taking of the margin. From the result of calibration of the burnup monitor carried out from July through November, 1999, we describe that the way of taking of the margin is validated. And comments about possibility of error reduction are remarked. (author)

  4. Operational review of the fast reactor reprocessing plant 1979-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'modus operandi' of the Fast Reactor Reprocessing Plant (FRRP) is briefly discussed together with how it has developed against a programme of varying objectives and standards. Attention is given to the original design principles and how performance has been affected by these; developments over the 15 years are identified (in fuel disassembly, fuel dissolution and clarification, on-line instrumentation, ultrasonics, scrubber liquor flowmeter, high activity level and concentration monitor, heavy metal monitor, plutonium breakthrough monitors, inactive feed control system, etc.). Particular attention is given to nuclear materials safeguards, both system and performance. The licensing (1990) risk assessment is discussed, in particular in comparison to the original 1972-1978 hazard assessments. Later more recent events are also discussed

  5. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Victor Levon

    2002-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

  6. Purex process improvements for the UP3 spent fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UP3 reprocessing plant commissioned for active operation in November 1989 features numerous innovations both for the process flowsheet and the associated equipment. These innovations yielded positive results following initial active testing and are of considerable interest for solvent extraction specialists. This paper describes the main improvements introduced for the extraction cycles used to separate and purify uranium and plutonium. Specifically, these improvements include: adaptation of the first extraction cycle flowsheet for technetium decontamination and tritium confinement; solvent purification process based on distillation, a key element in the solvent system; flowsheets adapted for maximum recycling of liquid organic and mineral streams (solvent or nitric acid); use of annular or cylindrical pulsed columns with high-efficiency packing

  7. Conception and development of a computer-aided design for a spent fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spent fuel reprocessing plant is composed of connected equipments. The aim of this study is the creation of schemes representing the different workshops of the plant and the calculation of linkage characteristics (flux) from a graphic description of functional structures. The program, written in FORTRAN 77, based on mass, flow rate and energy conservation, uses a module library each corresponding to an elementary operation of chemical engineering. Verification is necessary for result quality and accuracy. The important number of parameters and variables used in the program, requires a diagnosis accelerating research of errors for correction. Knowledges used in these last operations are qualitative (knowledge of experts) and quantitative (results of calculations) for the development of an expert system written in D-PROLOG

  8. Removal of iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing plant off-gases by Corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona discharge has been investigated for the treatment of off-gases arising from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations, in particular Dissolver off-Gases (DOG). Results are presented of studies carried out on single tube, wire-in-tube experimental rigs to examine the behaviour of molecular iodine, organic iodine and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The effect of corona current, gas residence time, electrode configuration, oxygen concentration and moisture content are discussed. Decontamination Factors (DF's) of greater than 104 (> 99.99% removal) have been achieved for both molecular and organic iodine. Efficient NOx removal has also been demonstrated. Moisture and NOx both interfere with iodine removal above certain concentrations. To overcome this a two stage corona system has been developed consisting of a primary continuously irrigated corona unit followed by a dehumidifier prior to a secondary dry corona unit

  9. Development of adsorption process for NOx recycling in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of NOx, which is used in a reprocessing plant mainly as an oxidizing agent of Pu3+, eventually results in the formation of low-level radioactive sodium nitrate waste. Since NOx is generated by the reaction of sodium nitrite and nitric acid, non-radioactive sodium nitrate is also formed as a by-product. In order to reduce the amounts of radioactive and non-radioactive sodium nitrate wastes, a new method was examined to recover NOx for recycling from the off-gas of the denitrator of uranyl nitrate solution. Fundamental and consequent bench scale experiments showed that the vacuum pressure swing adsorption method, using combined silica-gel and clinoptilolite for water vapor removal and pentasil zeolite for NOx recovery, is applicable for this purpose. (author)

  10. Development of corrosion resistant high silicon duplex stainless steel DP9 for reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new high silicon duplex stainless steel, DP 9, has been developed as a construction material for reprocessing plants dealing with used nuclear fuels. This alloy contain 23 % chrominum, 11 % nickel, 3.3 % silicon and 0.1 % nitrogen. It shows corrosion resistance to concentrated nitric acid at high temperatures superior to commercially available stainless steels. The mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, weldability, and physical properties of plates, pipe and joints made from this material were evaluated. Both base metal and welded joints showed excellent corrosion resistance to nitric acid with or without oxidizing Cr6+ ions at high concentrations and temperatures. Weldability, as evaluated by Varestraint test, restraint weld cracking test and weld joining test, was also good. In addition, proper welding conditions for good mechanical and corrosion properties are reported on. It was confirmed by trial manufacturing that plates, pipe, pipe joints, and welding material made of DP 9 are commercially applicable. (author)

  11. Tier-1 reprocessing and other key grid computing activities within the ATLAS-Gridka cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computing in ATLAS is organized in so-called Tier-1 clouds. The Tier-1 provides crucial services for DDM and production, which had been developed and extensively tested in the last years. A further key activity of a Tier-1 is data reprocessing which requires bulk reading of RAW data from tape. It is an I/O intensive activity. Thus an efficient performance of the tape system I/O is very important. Tape reading tests have been done with an aim of optimizing the system. The talk presents the result of the progress made and the current status in line with the expected performance. Also an overview of the current status and progress in the other areas is given

  12. Evaluation of retention and disposal options for tritium in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five options were evaluated as means of retaining tritium released from light-water reactor or fast breeder reactor fuel during the head-end steps of a typical Purex reprocessing scheme. Cost estimates for these options were compared with a base case in which no retention of tritium within the facility was obtained. Costs were also estimated for a variety of disposal methods of the retained tritium. The disposal costs were combined with the retention costs to yield total costs (capital plus operating) for retention and disposal of tritium under the conditions envisioned. The above costs were converted to an annual basis and to a dollars per curie retained basis. This then was used to estimate the cost in dollars per man-rem saved by retaining the tritium. Only the options that used the least expensive disposal costs could approach the $1000/man-rem cost used as a guide by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  13. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  14. Symposium on the reprocessing of irradiated fuels. Book 3, Session V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-12-31

    Book three of this conference has a single-focused session V entitled Engineering and Economics, with 16 papers. The session is concerned with several phases of chemical reprocessing of fuels which are of a general nature. Hot labs, radiochemical analytical facilities, and high level development cells are described. Dissolution equipment, contactors, flow generation, measurement, and control equipment, samplers, connectors, carriers, valves, filters, and hydroclones are described and discussed. Papers are included on: radiation safety, chemical safety, radiochemical plant operating experience in the U.S., and heavy element isotopic buildup. The general economics of solvent extraction processing is discussed, and capital and operating costs for several U. S. plants given. The Atomic Energy Commission's chemical processing programs and administration are evaluated and the services offered and charges therefore are listed.

  15. Development of NOx recycle process for practical use at reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realize the NOx recycle process using the vacuum pressure swing adsorption method reported previously, development experiments were carried out. Among such experiments were the removal of volatile ruthenium tetroxide from the off-gas, 23-month operation of a bench-scale apparatus and 100-day operation of a pilot plant 1/5 the size of actual scale. After evaluation of the results for operability and durability of components under acidic conditions, this process was concluded applicable to an actual plant. Compared to the conventional NOx production method using chemical reaction, it has the great advantage of-reducing largely low-level radioactive and non-radioactive sodium nitrate waste. With this conclusion, the procedure to install the process at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been commenced. (author)

  16. Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Molecular Clouds Regulated by Reprocessed Radiation Feedback from Nascent Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, M Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Radiation feedback from young star clusters embedded in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) is believed to be important to the control of star formation. For the most massive and dense clouds, including those in which super star clusters (SSCs) are born, pressure from reprocessed radiation exerted on dust grains may disperse a significant portion of the cloud mass back into the interstellar medium (ISM). Using our radiaton hydrodynamics (RHD) code, Hyperion, we conduct a series of numerical simulations to test this idea. Our models follow the evolution of self-gravitating, strongly turbulent clouds in which collapsing regions are replaced by radiating sink particles representing stellar clusters. We evaluate the dependence of the star formation efficiency (SFE) on the size and mass of the cloud and $\\kappa$, the opacity of the gas to infrared (IR) radiation. We find that the single most important parameter determining the evolutionary outcome is $\\kappa$, with $\\kappa \\gtrsim 15 \\text{ cm}^2 \\text{ g}^{-1}$ needed ...

  17. Safety analysis of solvent fire accidents in a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For analyzing the safety evaluation of solvent fire as DBA in an extraction process of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, computer code named FACE was developed in JAERI under the auspices of the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. The code FACE can provide not only for calculations of temperature, pressure, flow rate and pressure drop in cells and ducts of the network in air-ventilation system by one- and two-dimensional analyses and smoke containing radioactive materials by burning solvent in the network but also for solvent fire behavior in the cell, transport of radioactive materials and its deposition in the network, integrity of HEPA filters, and release of radioactive materials to the environment. Calculations by FACE were compared with data obtained by large-scale demonstration tests in JAERI simulating solvent fire in the extraction process to verify mathematical modeling of the fire accident in the code. (author)

  18. [The reprocessing of medical products: from regulatory polices to operational practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliana Auxiliadora Magalhães; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2011-12-01

    The number of technological resources used in health care interventions is growing and continually expanding with the introduction of new products and articles. Problems associated with the reutilization of medical products, both reusable and of single use, affect policies and related technical-operational, economic, political, ethical, legal, and environmental matters. This study aims to contextualize the regulatory systems of medical products, and analyze the subsequent operational implications for Brazilian hospital practices. The article consists of a bibliographic review, carried out without time and language restriction, utilizing the Web of Science, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs databases, with the support of specific descriptors. This study uses the contextualization of regulatory plans for medical products across the world and in Brazil and the existing condition of standardization of the reprocessing of these products as the assessment sources with which to analyze the operational implications for these practices in Brazilian hospitals.

  19. The management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes arising from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in the generation of radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, gases and solids. This paper outlines the principles and major elements of the waste management systems currently in use or under development for the category of waste known as intermediate-level wastes. To enable implementation of an optimized waste management system, engineering process evaluations, development and design in the following areas are required: The definition of cost effective options taking account of constraints which may arise from other operations in the overall system, e.g. from transport requirements or from criteria derived from environmental impact assessments of alternative disposal routes; Plant and equipment development to enable acceptable system and active plant operations on an industrial scale; Safety and reliability studies to ensure adequate protection of both the general public and plant operators during all stages of the waste management system including disposal

  20. Review Of Decommissioning Experience In Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities at Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final shutdown and decontamination, dismantling, and legacy waste retrieval programs are currently in progress at the Marcoule nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in southern France. They began in 1998 and will continue until about 2040. CODEM is the funding, decision-making and inspection organization for these decommissioning operations, COGEMA is the nuclear operator and the industrial contractor. After an overview of the facilities, the project and the participants, most significant operations are discussed in greater detail. High activity levels and the presence of large quantities of α-emitters complicate operating and waste treatment conditions. The major issues impacting cost-effectiveness-scenario, waste removal and project organization will be highlighted in the conclusion

  1. Chemical reprocessing of NPP fuels and high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main stages of closed fuel cycle for NPP wast fuel reprocessing accepted in the USSR are given. Main operation of cycle, that is, fuel shipment is realized by means of rail-road transport in special containers. Container total mass is 90-120 t at 2.9-3.8 t fuel loading. Effective process of TBP extraction realized in continuous multistage extrctors represents basis for U and Pu separation technique. Process provides for purification of uranium and plutonium from fission products by 107-108 times. Glass and mineral type materials which analogs proved to be reliable at prolouged storage in geological formations are selected for high-radioactive waste disposal. Investigation into seach of formations with favorable hydrogeological conditions for solid waste disposal is conducted

  2. Immobilization of fission products arising from pyrometallurgical reprocessing in chloride media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leturcq, G.; Grandjean, A.; Rigaud, D.; Perouty, P.; Charlot, M.

    2005-12-01

    Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing to recover energy-producing elements such as uranium or plutonium can be performed by a pyrochemical process. In such method, the actinides and fission products are extracted by electrodeposition in a molten chloride medium. These processes generate chlorinated alkali salt flows contaminated by fission products, mainly Cs, Ba, Sr and rare earth elements constituting high-level waste. Two possible alternatives are investigated for managing this wasteform; a protocol is described for dechlorinating the fission products to allow vitrification, and mineral phases capable of immobilizing chlorides are listed to allow specification of a dedicated ceramic matrix suitable for containment of these chlorinated waste streams. The results of tests to synthesize chlorosilicate phases are also discussed.

  3. Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO{sub 2} fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO[sub 2] fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

  5. 75 FR 45167 - Notice of Public Workshop on a Potential Rulemaking for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... civilian nuclear power globally and close the nuclear fuel cycle through reprocessing spent fuel and... Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level Radioactive Waste, and Reactor... regulations in 10 CFR Part 171, ``Annual Fees for Reactor Licenses and Fuel Cycle Licenses and......

  6. The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Technique in the Treatment of Test Anxiety of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Matthew; Baldo, Tracy D.; Wykes, Scott D.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of test anxiety. Thirty-five college students with test anxiety were assigned to either a treatment or delayed treatment control group. EMDR was shown to be effective in reducing overall test anxiety as well as "emotionality" and "worry" components of…

  7. Method for continuous GD-determination in the HNO3-process streams of the nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method for continuous Gd-concentration-surveillance in the wash-extraction step of the nuclear fuel reprocessing cycle was developped and its applicability demonstrated under relevant conditions. As detection method fluorimetry was chosen due to its advantage in relation to originally used ICP-OES of its feasibility for continous flow analysis. (orig./BBR)

  8. Collection of lectures presented at first status report of the project on Reprocessing and Waste Treatment, 17 November 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-01-01

    This is the first GfK status report on the reprocessing of irradiated fuel elements and on the treatment and storage of radioactive wastes. An address by Minister of Federal Research Hans Matthoefer is included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the nine lectures. (DLC)

  9. Case-control study of leukaemia among young people near La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant: the environmental hypothesis revisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and established risk factors or other factors related to La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant. There is some convincing evidence in childhood leukaemia of a causal role for environmental radiation exposure from recreational activities on beaches. New methods for identifying the environmental pathways, focusing on marine ecosystems, are warranted. (author)

  10. Cationic gold staining of glomerular anionic sites in archived tissue, reprocessed from paraffin wax into LR gold resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, N P; Shires, M; Aparicio, S R; Davison, A M

    1993-05-01

    Glomerular capillary wall anionic sites have been demonstrated by cationic gold staining of archived renal biopsy tissue (up to 10 years old), obtained from six patients, originally embedded in paraffin wax, and subsequently reprocessed into LR gold resin. The staining patterns at pH 2.5 and pH 7.0, demonstrating different glomerular basement membrane (GBM) anionic constituents, were compared in three patients from whom tissue directly processed into LR gold and reprocessed tissue was available. Ultrastructural preservation was poorer and shrinkage artefact greater in paraformaldehyde-lysine periodate (PLP) as opposed to formol saline-fixed reprocessed tissue. However, GBM anionic site expression was well preserved, or even enhanced (lamina rara externa, pH 7.0) in reprocessed tissue, using either fixative. Although it may not be possible to compare subtle changes in anionic site distribution in variously fixed and processed tissues, due to these artefacts, the technique enables retrospective study of charge status in archived material from disease groups in which there are distinct anionic site aberrations.

  11. Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Nijdam; B.P.R. Gersons; J.B. Reitsma; A. de Jongh; M. Ollf

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) are efficacious treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have directly compared them using well-powered designs and few have investigated respon

  12. Separation of radiostrontium from alkaline reprocessing waste solution using a fixed-bed column of chelating iminodiacetic acid resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fixed-bed ion exchange column filled with a chelating resin containing iminodiacetic acid functional groups has been tested for removal of strontium from simulated alkaline reprocessing waste solution. The breakthrough curve has been established. Column loading performance is correlated with batch equilibration results. The loaded strontium is eluted in a small volume of 0.5 M HNO3. (author)

  13. Principles of qualification of the PAMELA process for the vitrification of HLLW of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having reprocessed about 211 t of Uranium, the WAK Karlsruhe Pilot Reprocessing Plant was shut down in 1991. While all the other radioactive waste arising from reprocessing were conditioned parallel to the plant operation, some 60 m3 of High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) having a specific β, γ-activity of about 2 E13 Bq/l is not yet processed. The waste is stored in two tanks, having a different activity level and chemical composition. In order to obtain a uniform product both solutions will be blended in a suitable way. It is intended to ship this waste to the PAMELA Vitrification Plant located on the Belgoprocess (BP) site in Dessel, Belgium. The vitrified product shall be returned to Germany. As from October 1986 until September 1991, the facility was operated by a mixed Belgian-German crew under the responsibility of BP for the vitrification of 800 m3 of HEWC (concentrated high-level waste from the reprocessing of high-enriched uranium fuels). Between October 1, 1985 and September 1, 1991, the total amount of 907 m3 of EUROCHEMIC HLLW has been successfully vitrified and conditioned in about 2,200 canisters. The typical composition of the different types of glass products are compared with the design data of the WAK glass product

  14. Reprocessing of ices in turbulent protoplanetary disks: Carbon and nitrogen chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri, E-mail: furuya@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We study the influence of the turbulent transport on ice chemistry in protoplanetary disks, focusing on carbon- and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking the turbulent mixing in the vertical direction. Turbulence can bring ice-coated dust grains from the midplane to the warm irradiated disk surface, and the ice mantles are reprocessed by photoreactions, thermal desorption, and surface reactions. The upward transport decreases the abundance of methanol and ammonia ices at r ≲ 30 AU because warm dust temperature prohibits their reformation on grain surfaces. This reprocessing could explain the smaller abundances of carbon and nitrogen bearing molecules in cometary coma than those in low-mass protostellar envelopes. We also show the effect of mixing on the synthesis of complex organic molecules (COMs) in two ways: (1) transport of ices from the midplane to the disk surface and (2) transport of atomic hydrogen from the surface to the midplane. The former enhances the COMs formation in the disk surface, while the latter suppresses it in the midplane. Then, when mixing is strong, COMs are predominantly formed in the disk surface, while their parent molecules are (re)formed in the midplane. This cycle expands the COMs distribution both vertically and radially outward compared with that in the non-turbulent model. We derive the timescale of the sink mechanism by which CO and N{sub 2} are converted to less volatile molecules to be depleted from the gas phase and find that the vertical mixing suppresses this mechanism in the inner disks.

  15. Iran to sign additional protocol and suspend uranium enrichment and reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Iran's representative to the IAEA, Ambassador Ali Akbar Salehi, today delivered a letter to IAEA Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei conveying his Government's acceptance of the Additional Protocol. Mr. Salehi also informed the Director General that Iran had decided, as of today, to suspend all uranium enrichment-related and reprocessing activities in Iran - specifically, to suspend all activities on the site of Natanz, not to produce feed material for enrichment processes and not to import enrichment-related items. 'This is a welcome and positive development,' IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said. The IAEA intends to verify, in the context of the Safeguards Agreement and the Additional Protocol, the implementation by Iran of these decisions. At its meeting on 12 September, the IAEA Board of Governors adopted a resolution calling on Iran to sign, ratify and fully implement the Additional Protocol promptly and unconditionally, and as a confidence building measure to act henceforth in accordance with the Additional Protocol. The Board also called on Iran to suspend all further uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities, pending provision by the Director General of the assurances required by Member States and pending satisfactory application of the provisions of the Additional Protocol. Also today, Mr. ElBaradei has released his report to IAEA Member States on the 'Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran' for consideration at the 20 November Board of Governors' meeting. Unless the IAEA Board decides otherwise, the document's circulation is restricted and it cannot be released to the press. (IAEA)

  16. NOISE CHARACTERISTIC AND SEASONAL SIGNALS IN THE RE-PROCESSED EUREF PERMANENT NETWORK COORDINATE TIME SERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyeres, A.; Williams, S. D.; Figurski, M.; van Dam, T. M.; Szafranek, K.

    2009-12-01

    Previous analyses of periodic signals present in continuous GPS time series showed that the amplitude and phase of the derived seasonal term mostly disagree with surface mass loading models. The CGPS results appeared to over-estimate the amplitude of the seasonal term and the estimated amplitudes and/or phases were poorly coherent with the loading models, especially at sites close to coastal areas. The studies concluded that the GPS results are distorted by analysis artifacts (such as ocean tide loading, aliasing, and antenna phase centre variation models), monument thermal effects, and multipath. In addition, the actual CGPS time series were inhomogeneous in terms of processing strategy, applied models and reference frame alignment. With the introduction of absolute antenna phase centre variation models an effort, within the EUREF Permanent Network, was initiated to produce a complete GPS re-analysis from global to local levels. A test re-processing of all EPN observations from 1996 to 2007 has already been completed by the Military University of Technology (MUT), Warsaw, Poland and cumulative EPN solutions, from the daily SINEX files, have been created using the CATREF software. We used a combination of Weighted Least Squares, Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF’s) and Wavelets to analyze the data for their spatial and temporal noise characteristics and investigate the periodic signals. We find that the noise levels in the re-processed daily solutions is reduced compared to past solutions, but the noise spectra is still represented by a combination of flicker noise and white noise. The amplitudes of the seasonal term have generally decreased and the spatial distribution of the phase lag appears to be more uniform. Comparisons of the estimated annual variations with combined loading models (NCEP + LaD - World - Fraser + ECCO) and the vertical displacement model of the GRACE R4 gravity fields show an improved agreement

  17. Aerial deposition of plutonium in mixed forest stands from nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 238Pu and 239,240Pu were determined in bark, organic matter, and soil samples collected in the summer of 1975 from pine (Pinus taeda) and hardwood (Quercus falcata; Carya tormentosa) stands near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the U.S. Energy Res. and Dev. Admin.'s Savannah River Plant near Aiken, S.C. The results indicated that tree crowns intercepted fallout Pu (Pu-bearing particles) and produced higher Pu concentrations in the organic matter and soil under tree crowns. Higher 239,240Pu concentrations were found under pines than under hardwoods. Plutonium concentrations in the O1 (litter, A00) and O2 (organic matter, A0) layers were higher than those in mineral soil, but most of the Pu was contained in the mineral soil. Higher contents of 239,240Pu were observed near the tree stems than in locations outside of the tree crowns. In pines these values were 163 and 80 nCi 239,240Pu/m2, and in hardwoods, 122 and 80 nCi 239,240Pu/m2, for the respective locations, from the litter to the 15-cm depth. The proportion of 238Pu contained in foliage, litter, and organic matter was greater than for 239,240Pu. However, the latter radionuclides had a greater proportion contained in the mineral soil. This observation is consistent with the more recent releases containing a higher percentage of 238Pu from reprocessing operation. Plutonium concentrations in the 5 to 15 cm depth indicated limited Pu mobility in soil, but 238,240Pu concentrations at this depth were higher near tree stems, suggesting greater mobility perhaps as a result of stem flow

  18. Authentication and sample chemistry: A new approach at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant on-site laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The On-Site Laboratory (OSL) has the commitment to provide IAEA safeguards with reliable, accurate and timely results of the inspection samples taken at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). The Laboratory is an important part of the effort to safeguard adequately this large reprocessing plant and is located on the premises of the RRP which facilitates solving the timeliness dilemma. The OSL is operated jointly by the analysts of IAEA and NMCC (Nuclear Material Control Center)/JSGO (Japan Safeguards Office). This joint task requires solving new challenges in destructive analysis (DA), sharing instruments, space and procedures in order to reach the best analytical results possible. While great efforts are made by the inspector analysts (IA) to achieve excellence in the sample chemistry no minor effort is made by the IAEA to ensure that the results are adequately authenticated. Due to the fact that the instruments are jointly used, new approaches for the implementation of measures for authentication and continuity of knowledge (CoK) have been designed and put into practice. The authentication measures include securing the instruments and the data produced. Additionally, maintaining CoK of the samples that undergo different chemical analysis, securing the procedures and considering measures of deterrence have been given special attention. All which build a relative solid frame for independent DA. It must be understood from the beginning that a 100% assurance for a tamper free operation is a great challenge, and that the best achievable authentication under the given situation is the target for the IAEA. The implementation of authentication in the routine sample chemistry requires additional efforts on part of the IA and has an impact on the time needed to do the work if compared to the activities of a normal nuclear Laboratory. This paper describes the authentication policy in the OSL, the specific measures that are implemented and the range of confidence

  19. Authentication and sample chemistry: A new approach at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant on-site laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The On-Site Laboratory (OSL) is committed to providing the IAEA with reliable, accurate and timely results of the inspection samples taken at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). The OSL is an important part of the efforts to safeguard adequately this large reprocessing plant. It is located on the premises of the RRP, which helps to resolve the timeliness dilemma. The OSL is operated jointly by the IAEA, the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO). This joint task requires addressing new challenges in destructive analysis (DA) and the sharing of instruments, space and procedures in order to reach the best analytical results possible. The inspector-analysts make great efforts to achieve excellence in the sample chemistry and to ensure that the procedures and results are adequately authenticated. Because the instruments are jointly used, new approaches for the implementation of measures for authentication and continuity of knowledge have been designed and put into practice. The authentication measures include securing the instruments and the data produced. Additionally, special attention is given to maintaining continuity of knowledge of the samples that undergo chemical analyses, securing the procedures and considering measures of deterrence. All these measures build a relatively solid framework for independent DA. It must be understood that a 100% assurance for a tamper-free operation is a great challenge, and the IAEA aims to achieve the best authentication under the given situation. The implementation of authentication in the routine sample chemistry requires additional efforts on the part of the IAEA and has an impact on the time needed to perform the work, compared to the activities of a normal nuclear laboratory. This paper describes the authentication policy in the OSL, the specific measures implemented and the range of confidence expected in different procedures. (author)

  20. Reprocessing of {sup 10}B-contaminated {sup 10}Be AMS targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, K.J., E-mail: ksz@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee NSW 2232 (Australia); Pedro, J.B. [Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies, Private Bag 129, Hobart TAS 7001 (Australia); Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Private Bag 80, Hobart TAS 7001 (Australia); Smith, A.M.; Child, D.P.; Fink, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 10}Be accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an increasingly important tool in studies ranging from exposure age dating and palaeo-geomagnetism to the impact of solar variability on the Earth's climate. High levels of boron in BeO AMS targets can adversely impact the quality of {sup 10}Be measurements through interference from the isobar {sup 10}B. Numerous methods in chemical sample preparation and AMS measurement have been employed in order to reduce the impact of excessive boron rates. We present details of a method developed to chemically reprocess a set of forty boron-contaminated BeO targets derived from modern Antarctic ice. Previously, the excessive boron levels in these samples, as measured in an argon-filled absorber cell preceding the ionisation detector, had precluded routine AMS measurement. The procedure involved removing the BeO + Nb mixture from the target holders and dissolving the BeO in hot concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The solution was then heated with HF to remove the boron as volatile BF{sub 3} before re-precipitating as Be(OH){sub 2} and calcining to BeO. This was again mixed with niobium and pressed into fresh target holders. Following reprocessing, the samples gave boron rates reduced by 10-100 Multiplication-Sign , which were sufficiently low and similar to previous successful batches of ice core, snow and associated blank samples, thus allowing a successful {sup 10}Be measurement in the absence of any boron correction. Overall recovery of the BeO for this process averaged 40%. Extensive testing of relevant processing equipment and reagents failed to determine the source of the boron. As a precautionary measure, a similar H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + HF step has been subsequently added to the standard ice processing method.