WorldWideScience

Sample records for adults part ii

  1. Hearing in young adults, part II: the effects of recreational noise exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Keppler; Ingeborg Dhooge; Bart Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Great concern arises from recreational noise exposure, which might lead to noise-induced hearing loss in young adults. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of recreational noise exposure on hearing function in young adults. A questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposures and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). Based on the duration of exposure and self-estimated loudness of various leisure-time activities, the weekl...

  2. Workshop 96. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.)

  3. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  4. Examination of the teaching styles of nursing professional development specialists, part II: correlational study on teaching styles and use of adult learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary K

    2014-08-01

    This article, the second in a two-part series, details a correlational study that examined the effects of four variables (graduate degrees in nursing education, professional development training in adult learning theory, nursing professional development [NPD] certification, and NPD specialist experience) on the use of adult learning theory to guide curriculum development. Using the Principles of Adult Learning Scale, 114 NPD specialists tested the hypothesis that NPD specialists with graduate degrees in nursing education, professional development training in adult learning theory, NPD certification, and NPD experience would use higher levels of adult learning theory in their teaching practices to guide curriculum development than those without these attributes. This hypothesis was rejected as regression analysis revealed only one statistically significant predictor variable, NPD certification, influenced the use of adult learning theory. In addition, analysis revealed NPD specialists tended to support a teacher-centered rather than a learner-centered teaching style, indicating NPD educators are not using adult learning theory to guide teaching practices and curriculum development.

  5. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  6. Immunizations Part II: Shingles Vaccine

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-24

    This podcast discusses older adults and shingles, as well as the importance of getting the shingles vaccine. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 9/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/24/2008.

  7. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  8. Revenue cycle management, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The proper management of your revenue cycle requires the application of "best practices" and the continual monitoring and measuring of the entire cycle. The correct technology will enable you to gain the insight and efficiencies needed in the ever-changing healthcare economy. The revenue cycle is a process that begins when you negotiate payor contracts, set fees, and schedule appointments and continues until claims are paid in full. Every single step in the cycle carries equal importance. Monitoring all phases and a commitment to continually communicating the results will allow you to achieve unparalleled success. In part I of this article, we explored the importance of contracting, scheduling, and case management as well as coding and clinical documentation. We will now take a closer look at the benefits charge capture, claim submission, payment posting, accounts receivable follow-up, and reporting can mean to your practice.

  9. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishant; Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-07-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  10. Personality Subtypes in Adolescent and Adult Children of Alcoholics: A two part study

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs, Jonathan; DeFife, Jared; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to identify and validate potential personality subtypes in adolescent and adult children of alcoholics. As part of a broader NIMH-funded study, randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists provided personality data on adolescent (n = 229) or adult (n = 359) children of alcoholics using a Q-sort procedure (SWAP-II-A for adolescents and SWAP-II for adults), which were subjected to a cluster-analytic procedure, Q-factor analysis. Q-factor analysis yielded f...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 86 - Temperature Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature Schedules II Appendix II... Appendix II to Part 86—Temperature Schedules (a) Ambient temperature cycle for the diurnal emission portion of the evaporative emission test (see § 86.133). Table I—Temperature Versus Time Sequence Use...

  12. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  13. Reclaiming Kindergarten: Part II--Questions about Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…

  14. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  15. Reproduce and die! Why aging? Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    2005-01-01

    Whilst in part I of this diptych on aging the question why aging exists at all is discussed; this part deals with the question which mechanisms underly aging and, ultimately, dying. It appears that aging is not just an active process as such - although all kinds of internal (e.g., oxigen-free radica

  16. The Search for Another Earth - Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-01

    In the first part, we discussed the various methods for thedetection of planets outside the solar system known as theexoplanets. In this part, we will describe various kinds ofexoplanets. The habitable planets discovered so far and thepresent status of our search for a habitable planet similar tothe Earth will also be discussed.

  17. Hypertension in Women—Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Pemu, Priscilla Igho; Ofili, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In Part I, we reviewed the pathophysiology of hypertension in women This section focuses on the treatment of hypertension in special circumstances and special populations: pregnancy, preeclampsia, and lactation; hypertension in black women; and hypertension in the elderly.

  18. Searching LEXIS and WESTLAW: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Carl

    1986-01-01

    This second of a three-part series compares search features (i.e., truncation symbols, boolean operators, proximity operators, phrase searching, save searches) of two databases providing legal information. Search tips concerning charges and effective searching and tables listing functions of commands and proximity operators for both databases are…

  19. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  20. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  1. Simulation in Wood Industry. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Mihály Varga; Etele Csanády; Zalán Koppány Kovács; Zoltán Kocsis

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this simulation is to introduce and realize a part of material flow of an international furniture manufacturing company. This simulation was made with a special process-simulation software, called SIMUL8. With SIMUL8 we could simulate the whole process under real circumstances, and obtain the actual values of specific parameters relevant for the company. This opportunity helped the company to develop its strategy - to maximize the production efficiency and to find out the possibbl...

  2. Simulation in Wood Industry. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Varga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this simulation is to introduce and realize a part of material flow of an international furniture manufacturing company. This simulation was made with a special process-simulation software, called SIMUL8. With SIMUL8 we could simulate the whole process under real circumstances, and obtain the actual values of specific parameters relevant for the company. This opportunity helped the company to develop its strategy - to maximize the production efficiency and to find out the possibble bottle-necks without making any investment, and to rearrange the workcenters effectively.

  3. New particle searches in ALEPH (part II)

    CERN Document Server

    Roussarie, A

    1991-01-01

    This report is the second part of the ALEPH search report . I t covers the search for super - symmetric particles (Higgs , chargino s an d neutralinos ) withi n th e framewor k o f th e Minima l Supersymmmetri c Standar d Mode l an d th e searc h fo r composi t charge d lepton s an d neutrinos . Lowe r limit s o f masse s o f suc h ne w particle s ar e given . Mos t o f the m ar e ver y clos e t o th e LE P I kenematica l limit .

  4. Anomalous transport from holography: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Yanyan; Sharon, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This is a second study of chiral anomaly induced transport within a holographic model consisting of anomalous $U(1)_V\\times U(1)_A$ Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-$AdS_5$ spacetime. In the first part, chiral magnetic/separation effects (CME/CSE) are considered in presence of a static spatially-inhomogeneous external magnetic field. Gradient corrections to CME/CSE are analytically evaluated up to third order in the derivative expansion. Some of the third order gradient corrections lead to an anomaly-induced negative $B^2$-correction to the diffusion constant. We also find non-linear modifications to the chiral magnetic wave (CMW). In the second part, we focus on the experimentally interesting case of the axial chemical potential being induced dynamically by a constant magnetic and time-dependent electric fields. Constitutive relations for the vector/axial currents are computed employing two different approximations: (a) derivative expansion (up to third order) but fully nonlinear in the external fields, and (...

  5. Biosimilars in Dermatology: Current Situation (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, L; Carretero, G; Daudén, E; Ferrándiz, C; Marrón, S E; Martorell, A; Pérez-Suárez, B; Rodriguez-Cerdeira, C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Velasco, M

    2015-09-01

    The first biosimilar version of a biologic agent used to treat psoriasis (infliximab) entered the Spanish market on February 16 of this year, and more biosimilars can be expected to follow in the coming months and years. Logically, this new situation will have economic repercussions and alter prescribing patterns among dermatologists. In this second part of the review, we will look at several somewhat contentious issues, such as the extrapolation of indications, interchangeability, and automatic substitution. We will also review the biosimilars with indications for psoriasis currently in the clinical development pipeline and assess their potential to offer comparable efficacy and safety to the reference product while contributing to the sustainability of the public health care system. PMID:26049964

  6. [Main issues of psychoneuroimmunology: Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausch, K

    2000-01-01

    In psychoneuroimmunology links between psyche and the body are examined in the context of neurotransmitter, hormone and immuno-transmitter interaction. This allows for construction of models which show empirically verifiable links between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. The earlier concepts of stress by Cannon and Selye focused on the physical and mental strain influence on the action of the nervous and endocrine systems. Ursin, Olff and Schedlowski introduced the concept of stress extended by an immune system reaction, which is an integral part of the alarm phase. A change in the amount of NK cells and their stress-influenced activity is an important defense mechanism of the body. It constitutes a component of the preparation for defense against potential pathogen penetration.

  7. Submodeling Simulations in Fusion Welds: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    In part I, three-dimensional transient non-linear sub modeling heat transfer simulations were performed to study the thermal histories and thermal cycles that occur during the welding process at the macro, meso and micro scales. In the present work, the corresponding non-uniform temperature changes were imposed as load conditions on structural calculations to study the evolution of localized plastic strains and residual stresses at these sub-level scales. To reach the goal, a three-dimensional finite element elastic-plastic model (ABAQUS code) was developed. The sub-modeling technique proposed to be used in coupling phase-field (and/or digital microstructures) codes with finite element codes, was used to mesh a local part of the model with a refined mesh based on interpolation of the solution from an initial, relatively coarse, macro global model. The meso-sub-model is the global model for the subsequent micro sub-model. The strategy used to calculate temperatures, strains and residual stresses at the macro, meso and micro scale level, is very flexible to be used to any number of levels. The objective of this research was to initiate the development of microstructural models to identify fusion welding process parameters for preserving the single crystal nature of gas turbine blades during repair procedures. The multi-scale submodeling approach can be used to capture weld pool features at the macro-meso scale level, and micro residual stress and secondary dendrite arm spacing features at the micro scale level.

  8. Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect the cutwater area with the discharge diffuser. Experiments were performed to simulate both the cutwater conditions used in the predictions. Surface pressures along the outer wall and near the inlet of the volute were surveyed for comparisons with the predictions. Good agreements between the predicted results and the measurements validate the calculations. Total pressure distributions and flow stream traces from the prediction results support the loss distribution through the volute. A modified volute configuration is examined numerically for further loss comparison.

  9. TEXTILE STRUCTURES FOR AERONAUTICS (PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLER Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D textile structures with better delamination resistance and damage impact tolerance to be applied in composites for structural components is one of the main goals of the aeronautical industry. Textile Research Centre in Canet de Mar has been working since 2008 in this field. Our staff has been designing, developing and producing different textile structures using different production methods and machinery to improve three-dimensional textile structures as fiber reinforcement for composites. This paper describes different tests done in our textile labs from unidirectional structures to woven, knitted or braided 3 D textile structures. Advantages and disadvantages of each textile structure are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with our know-how in the manufacturing and assessing of three-dimensional textile structures during this last five years in the field of textile structures for composites but also in the development of structures for other applications. In the field of composites for aeronautic sector we have developed textile structures using the main methods of textile production, that is to say, weaving, warp knitting, weft knitting and braiding. Comparing the advantages and disadvantages it could be said that braided fabrics, with a structure in the three space axes are the most suitable for fittings and frames.

  10. A Physicist for All Seasons: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The second part of this interview covers Frank Oppenheimer's move to the University of California at Berkeley and wartime work at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the electromagnetic-separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and at Los Alamos, New Mexico (1941-1945); his postwar research at Berkeley (1945-1947); his appointment at the University of Minnesota in 1947 and firing two years later after being required to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee; his decade as a rancher in Colorado (1949-1959) and high-school science teacher toward the end of this period; his research at the University of Colorado in Boulder after 1959; his year as a Guggenheim Fellow at University College London in 1965; and his founding of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. California, in 1969. He also discusses his wartime relations with his older brother Robert and postwar events in Robert's life, including his Hearings before the Personnel Security Board of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1954.

  11. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  12. Visual Odometry: Part II - Matching, Robustness, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fraundorfer, Friedrich; Scaramuzza, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Part II of the tutorial has summarized the remaining building blocks of the VO pipeline: specifically, how to detect and match salient and repeatable features across frames and robust estimation in the presence of outliers and bundle adjustment. In addition, error propagation, applications, and links to publicly available code are included. VO is a well understood and established part of robotics. VO has reached a maturity that has allowed us to successfully use it for certain classes of appl...

  13. The Nature of Reinforcement: Part I. (Volume I), Part II. (Volume II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Robert, Ed.

    Part One of this report describes the first half of a conference, designed to examine the nature of reinforcement, which was held at the University of Pittsburgh in June 1969. The topics discussed include: "Reward in Human Learning: Theoretical Issues and Strategic Choice Points"; "Are Reinforcement Concepts Able to Provide Reinforcement for…

  14. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad GHOFRANI

    2013-11-01

    , adolescents and young adult. Seizure 1997;6:461-565.39.Berg AT, Shinnar S, Levy SR, Testa FM, et al. Early development of intractable epilepsy in children: A prospective study. Neurology 2001;56:1445-1452.40.Berg At, Shinnar S. The risk of seizure recurrence following a first unprovoked seizure: A quantitative review. Neurology 1991;41:955-972.41.Camfield PR, Camfield CS, Dooley JM, et al. Epilepsy after a first unprovoked seizure in childhood, Neurology 1985;35:1657-1660.42.Commission on epidemiology and prognosis. International League Against Epilepsy. Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy. Epilepsia 1993;37:592-596.43.Annegers JF, Shirts SB, Hauser WA, et al. Risk of recurrence after an initial unprovoked seizure. Epilepsia 1986;27:43-50.44.Shinnar S, Berg AT, Moshe SL, Shinnar R. How long do new –onset seizures in children last? Ann Neurol 2001;49:659-664.45.Camfield P, Camfield C, Dooley J, et al. A randomized study of carbamazepine versus no medication after a first unprovoked seizure in childhood. Neurology 1989;39:851-852.46.Chandra B. First Seizure in adult: to treat or not to treat. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1992;94:861-863.47.Musico M, Beghi E, Solari A, Viani F. Treatment of first Tonic-Clonic Seizure does not improve the prognosis of epilepsy. Neurology 1997;49:991-998.48.American Academy of Pediatrics. Behavioral and cognitive effects of anticonvulsant therapy (RE9537. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure-PART II. Pediatrics 1995;96:538-540.49.Yerby MS. Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs: what do we advise patients? Epilepsia 1997;38-957-958.50.Vinig EP, Melits ED. Dorsen MM, et al. Psychologic and behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs in children: A double-blind comparison between Phenobarbital and valproic acid. Pediatrics 1987;80: 165-174.51.Berg I, Butler A, Ellis M, Foster J. Psychiatric aspects of epilepsy in childhood treated with carbamazepine, phenytoin, or sodium valporate: a random trial. Dev Med Child Nerol 1993

  15. Pharmacokinetic interactions with calcium channel antagonists (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanz, K D; Myre, S A; Bottorff, M B

    1991-12-01

    Since calcium channel antagonists are a diverse class of drugs frequently administered in combination with other agents, the potential for clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions exists. These interactions occur most frequently via altered hepatic blood flow and impaired hepatic enzyme activity. Part I of the article, which appeared in the previous issue of the Journal, dealt with interactions between calcium antagonists and marker compounds, theophylline, midazolam, lithium, doxorubicin, oral hypoglycaemics and cardiac drugs. Part II examines interactions with cyclosporin, anaesthetics, carbamazepine and cardiovascular agents. PMID:1782739

  16. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  17. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509

  18. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  19. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1048 - Large Spark-ignition (SI) Composite Transient Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Large Spark-ignition (SI) Composite Transient Cycle II Appendix II to Part 1048 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 1048, App. II Appendix II to Part 1048—Large Spark-ignition (SI) Composite Transient Cycle...

  1. Generalized Interference Alignment—Part II: Application to Wireless Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Liangzhong; Lau, Vincent K. N.; Win, Moe Z.

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to its wired counterpart, wireless communication is highly susceptible to eavesdropping due to the broadcast nature of the wireless propagation medium. Recent works have proposed the use of interference to reduce eavesdropping capabilities in wireless wiretap networks. However, the concurrent effect of interference on both eavesdropping receivers (ERs) and legitimate receivers (LRs) has not been thoroughly investigated, and carefully engineering the network interference is required to harness the full potential of interference for wireless secrecy. This two part paper addresses this issue by proposing a generalized interference alignment (GIA) technique, which jointly designs the transceivers at the legitimate partners to impede the ERs without interfering with LRs. In Part I, we have established a theoretical framework for the GIA technique. In Part II, we will first propose an efficient GIA algorithm that is applicable to large-scale networks and then evaluate the performance of this algorithm in stochastic wireless wiretap network via both analysis and simulation. These results reveal insights into when and how GIA contributes to wireless secrecy.

  2. Bedside ultrasonography-Applications in critical care: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Chacko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Point of care ultrasonography, performed by acute care physicians, has developed into an invaluable bedside tool providing important clinical information with a major impact on patient care. In Part II of this narrative review, we describe ultrasound guided central venous cannulation, which has become standard of care with internal jugular vein cannulation. Besides improving success rates, real-time guidance also significantly reduces the incidence of complications. We also discuss compression ultrasonography - a quick and effective bedside screening tool for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Abdominal ultrasound offers vital clues in the emergency setting; in the unstable trauma victim, a focused examination may provide immediate answers and has largely superseded diagnostic peritoneal lavage in diagnosing intraperitoneal bleed. From estimation of intracranial pressure to transcranial Doppler studies, ultrasound is becoming increasingly relevant to neurocritical care. Ultrasound may also help with airway management in several situations, including percutaneous tracheostomy. Clearly, bedside ultrasonography has become an indispensable part of intensive care practice - in the rapid assessment of critically ill-patients as well as in enhancing the safety of invasive procedures.

  3. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  4. A Bayesian two part model applied to analyze risk factors of adult mortality with application to data from Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N Kazembe

    Full Text Available Despite remarkable gains in life expectancy and declining mortality in the 21st century, in many places mostly in developing countries, adult mortality has increased in part due to HIV/AIDS or continued abject poverty levels. Moreover many factors including behavioural, socio-economic and demographic variables work simultaneously to impact on risk of mortality. Understanding risk factors of adult mortality is crucial towards designing appropriate public health interventions. In this paper we proposed a structured additive two-part random effects regression model for adult mortality data. Our proposal assumed two processes: (i whether death occurred in the household (prevalence part, and (ii number of reported deaths, if death did occur (severity part. The proposed model specification therefore consisted of two generalized linear mixed models (GLMM with correlated random effects that permitted structured and unstructured spatial components at regional level. Specifically, the first part assumed a GLMM with a logistic link and the second part explored a count model following either a Poisson or negative binomial distribution. The model was used to analyse adult mortality data of 25,793 individuals from the 2006/2007 Namibian DHS data. Inference is based on the Bayesian framework with appropriate priors discussed.

  5. Discovery of Quantum structure and A Theory of Everything Part I and Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meggie

    2012-10-01

    (Part I) During my research I discovered logical errors in the logic of science and in mathematics. These errors caused scientists missed out important information when interpreting data. This led me to revisit the method of science and the existing results and able to find new information, which lead to the discovery of photon's structure. A ``particle collision illumination'' experiment then provided direct evidence supported the structure. Analysis of the properties of the structure suggested an organized but not-continuous multi-dimension (n-D) space within. Therefore I formed a hypothesis of a not-continuous n-D space structure. In search for evidence, I turned into crystal technology, and found direct evidence supported the hypotesis, then further particle collision found more evidence support this finding. (Part II) Analysis of single electron buildup revealed star and galaxy formation is from a single particle following a predictable pattern. This pattern is also common in matter formation. Analysis of the quantum structure suggested the formation of a larger structure through the space expansion within the structure. Further experiment results support the finding and result revealed the expansion is through space folding. Result also suggested a violation of energy conservation law that energy is created during the formation of matter, and matter itself is moving from a lower energy state to a higher energy state. When putting all information together, I arrived to a theory of everything which gives explanations to all existing phenomenon in the universe including black hole, dark energy, star formation, consciousness.

  6. Refocusing Adult Education on Career and Postsecondary Success: An Analysis of Adult Education (Title II) Provisions in WIA Reauthorization Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    Two proposals to reauthorize the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) are in the House of Representatives: the "Workforce Investment and Improvement Act of 2012" ("H.R. 4297") and the "Workforce Investment Act of 2012" ("H.R. 4227"). Both proposals reflect a priority of greater alignment among adult education (Title II), workforce development (Title I),…

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications II Appendix II to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App. II Appendix...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  9. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 2: Examples from the Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M. E.; Collier, R.; Cowles, S.

    2004-12-01

    We will share experiences and specific examples from an ongoing Ocean Science and Math Collaborative Project between OSU faculty and Community College instructors from the Oregon system of adult education and workforce development. The participants represent such diverse instructional programs as workforce training, workplace education (cannery workers), adult basic education, adult secondary education (GED preparation), English to Speakers of Other Languages, Family Literacy, and Tribal Education (Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Indians). This collaborative project is designed to integrate ocean sciences into the science, math, and critical thinking curriculum through the professional development activities of adult educators. Our strategy is to tailor new and existing ocean science resources to the needs of adult education instructors. This project provides a wide range of opportunities in time and effort for scientist involvement. Some scientists have chosen to participate in short interviews or conversations with adult educators, which give added value through real-world connections in the context of the larger project. Other participating scientists have made larger time investments, which include presentations at workshops, hosting teacher-at-sea opportunities and leading project planning and implementation efforts. This project serves as an efficient model for scientists to address the broader impact goals of their research. It takes advantage of a variety of established educational outreach resources funded through NSF (e.g. the national COSEE network and GeoEducation grants), NOAA (e.g. SeaGrant education and Ocean Explorer) as well as State and Federal adult education programs (e.g. The National Institute for Literacy Science and Numeracy Special Collection). We recognize the value and creativity inherent in these resources, and we are developing a model to "tune" their presentation, as well as their connection to new oceanographic research, in a manner

  10. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan;

    2007-01-01

    . Our results do not support previous claims of enhanced reproduction in Marisa cornuarietis in response to exposure to BPA. Statistical power analysis indicated high levels of inter-snail variability in the measured endpoints and highlighted the need for sufficient replication when testing treatment......This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output...

  11. Comparative effects of contraction and angiotensin II on growth of adult feline cardiocytes in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, H.; Zile, M. R.; Ivester, C. T.; Cooper, G. 4th; McDermott, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether angiotensin II causes growth of adult feline cardiocytes in long-term culture, 2) to compare the growth effects of angiotensin II with those resulting from electrically stimulated contraction, and 3) to determine whether the anabolic effects of contraction are exerted via the angiotensin type 1 receptor. Adult feline cardiocytes were cultured on laminin-coated trays in a serum-free medium. Cardiocytes were either electrically stimulated to contract (1 Hz, 5-ms pulse duration, alternating polarity) or were nonstimulated and quiescent. Quiescent cells were studied as controls and after treatment with angiotensin II (10(-8) M), losartan (10(-6) M; an angiotensin type 1-receptor antagonist), or angiotensin II plus losartan. Contracting cells were studied in the presence and absence of angiotensin II or losartan. In quiescent cardiocytes, angiotensin II treatment on day 7 significantly increased protein synthesis rates by 22% and protein content per cell by 17%. The effects of angiotensin II were completely blocked by losartan. Electrically stimulated contraction on days 4 and 7 in culture significantly increased protein synthesis rate by 18 and 38% and protein content per cell by 19 and 46%, respectively. Angiotensin II treatment did not further increase protein synthesis rate or protein content in contracting cardiocytes. Furthermore, losartan did not block the anabolic effects of contraction on protein synthesis rates or protein content. In conclusion, angiotensin II can exert a modest anabolic effect on adult feline cardiocytes in culture. In contracting feline cardiocytes, angiotensin II has no effect on growth. Growth caused by electrically stimulated contraction occurs more rapidly and is greater in magnitude than that caused by angiotensin II. Growth of contracting adult feline cardiocytes is not dependent on activation of the angiotensin receptor.

  12. Estimating Welfare Effects Consistent with Forward-Looking Behavior. Part I: Lessons from a Simulation Exercise. Part II: Empirical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael P.; Wolpin, Kenneth I.

    2002-01-01

    Part I uses simulations of a model of welfare participation and women's fertility decisions, showing that increases in per-child payments have substantial impact on fertility. Part II uses estimations of decision rules of forward-looking women regarding welfare participation, fertility, marriage, work, and schooling. (SK)

  13. Conscious Intelligent Systems - Part II - Mind, Thought, Language and Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathree, U.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second part of a paper on Conscious Intelligent Systems. We use the understanding gained in the first part (Conscious Intelligent Systems Part 1: IXI (arxiv id cs.AI/0612056)) to look at understanding. We see how the presence of mind affects understanding and intelligent systems; we see that the presence of mind necessitates language. The rise of language in turn has important effects on understanding. We discuss the humanoid question and how the question of self-consciousness (an...

  14. Mesenchymal tumours of the mediastinum—part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. den Bakker (Michael); A. Marx (Alexander); K. Mukai (Kiyoshi); P. Ströbel (Philipp)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the second part of a two-part review on soft tissue tumours which may be encountered in the mediastinum. This review is based on the 2013 WHO classification of soft tissue tumours and the 2015 WHO classification of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart and provides an upd

  15. Philosophy of climate science part II: modelling climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Frigg, Roman; Thompson, Erica; Werndl, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of three parts of an introduction to the philosophy of climate science. In this second part about modelling climate change, the topics of climate modelling, confirmation of climate models, the limits of climate projections, uncertainty and finally model ensembles will be discussed.

  16. Designing SoTL Studies--Part II: Practicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter suggests solutions to common practical problems in designing SoTL studies. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different types of designs are discussed. [Part I available at EJ1029363.

  17. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  18. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  19. Bi-capacities -- Part II: the Choquet integral

    OpenAIRE

    GRABISCH, Michel; Labreuche, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    International audience Bi-capacities arise as a natural generalization of capacities (or fuzzy measures) in a context of decision making where underlying scales are bipolar. They are able to capture a wide variety of decision behaviours, encompassing models such as Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT). The aim of this paper in two parts is to present the machinery behind bi-capacities, and thus remains on a rather theoretical level, although some parts are firmly rooted in decision theory, not...

  20. Re-expression of IGF-II is important for beta cell regeneration in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxian Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The key factors which support re-expansion of beta cell numbers after injury are largely unknown. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II plays a critical role in supporting cell division and differentiation during ontogeny but its role in the adult is not known. In this study we investigated the effect of IGF-II on beta cell regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed an in vivo model of 'switchable' c-Myc-induced beta cell ablation, pIns-c-MycER(TAM, in which 90% of beta cells are lost following 11 days of c-Myc (Myc activation in vivo. Importantly, such ablation is normally followed by beta cell regeneration once Myc is deactivated, enabling functional studies of beta cell regeneration in vivo. IGF-II was shown to be re-expressed in the adult pancreas of pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/+ (MIG mice, following beta cell injury. As expected in the presence of IGF-II beta cell mass and numbers recover rapidly after ablation. In contrast, in pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/- (MIGKO mice, which express no IGF-II, recovery of beta cell mass and numbers were delayed and impaired. Despite failure of beta cell number increase, MIGKO mice recovered from hyperglycaemia, although this was delayed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that beta cell regeneration in adult mice depends on re-expression of IGF-II, and supports the utility of using such ablation-recovery models for identifying other potential factors critical for underpinning successful beta cell regeneration in vivo. The potential therapeutic benefits of manipulating the IGF-II signaling systems merit further exploration.

  1. Phase II trial of irinotecan and thalidomide in adults with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Puduvalli, Vinay K.; Giglio, Pierre; Groves, Morris D.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Mahankali, Srikanth; Jackson, Edward F.; Levin, Victor A.; Conrad, Charles A.; Hsu, Sigmund H.; Colman, Howard; de Groot, John F.; Ritterhouse, MeLesa G.; Ictech, Sandra E.; Alfred Yung, W. K.

    2008-01-01

    This phase II study aimed at determining the efficacy and safety of irinotecan combined with thalidomide in adults with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) not taking enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants (EIACs). Adult patients (⩾18 years) with recurrent GBM with up to three relapses following surgery and radiation therapy were eligible for this trial. The primary end point was rate of progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6); secondary end points were response rate, overall survival, and...

  2. Isolation of alveolar epithelial type II progenitor cells from adult human lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Naoya; Kubo, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takaya; Ota, Chiharu; Hegab, Ahmed E.; He, Mei; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Takashi; Kato, Hidemasa; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2010-01-01

    Resident stem/progenitor cells in the lung are important for tissue homeostasis and repair. However, a progenitor population for alveolar type II (ATII) cells in adult human lungs has not been identified. The aim of this study is to isolate progenitor cells from adult human lungs with the ability to differentiate into ATII cells. We isolated colony-forming cells that had the capability for self-renewal and the potential to generate ATII cells in vitro. These undifferentiated progenitor cells ...

  3. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Grant S.; DeBello, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII e...

  4. EL español andino. II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Arboleda Toro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 13 de esta revista (nov. del 2000 se publicó una primera parte del estudio sobre el español andino. Presentamos ahora una segunda parte que comprende aspectos histórico-geográficos de Nariño y Putumayo andinos, región de Colombia donde se habla esa variedad, y una descripción general de su realidad lingüística. Esperamos que sean objeto de otra publicación la descripción de los rasgos dialectales del español andino, parte nuclear del trabajo, y la presentación de la metodología y el corpus. En esto nos encontramos trabajando. Incluimos no obstante un inventario de rasgos más amplio que el presentado en la primera parte. Pero por ahora se trata de eso, de un inventario ilustrativo, no del análisis en el que estamos empeñados, en el marco del contacto de lenguas, el cambio lingüístico y la relación entre la norma y las posibilidades del sistema. Para contextualizar esta segunda parte, incluimos, a manera de introducción, un resumen de la primera.

  5. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Although several biological agents have been recognized as presenting a significant threat to public health if used in a bioterrorist attack, those that are of greatest importance are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); ribonucleic acid viruses (hemorrhagic fevers); and Clostridium botulinum (botulism toxin). In the previous issue, Part I of this review focused on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. In this second part of this 2-part review of these agents, the focus is on the clinical presentation and treatment of smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and botulism toxin. The utilization of mass prophylaxis to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with all these agents is also discussed along with the role emergency care personnel play in its implementation.

  6. Optimization Model for Refinery Hydrogen Networks Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Tarifa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, a model of optimization was presented that minimizes the consumption of the hydrogen of a refinery. In this second part, the model will be augmented to take into account the length of the pipelines, the addition of purification units and the installation of new compressors, all features of industrial real networks. The model developed was implemented in the LINGO software environment. For data input and results output, an Excel spreadsheet was developed that interfaces with LINGO. The model is currently being used in YPFLuján de Cuyo refinery (Mendoza, Argentina

  7. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  8. Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Gutierrez, Francisco; Audra, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    In January 2015, the first part of the special issue on karst, entitled "Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions" was published (Geomorphology, Vol. 229). This second part of the special issue comprises seven research papers covering a broad geographical canvas including Japan, Slovenia, France, Spain, Croatia, and Poland-Ukraine. Both issues mainly emanate from the contributions presented in the Karst session of the 8th International Conference of Geomorphology (International Association of Geomorphologists), held in Paris in August 2013, enriched with some invited papers.

  9. Kids in Mental Institutions. Part II. Program 131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    The second of a two-part radio program on children in mental institutions presents transcripts of interviews with psychiatrists and emotionally disturbed adolescents. Subjects addressed include use of drugs, behavior modification, music, and theatre therapy in institutions. The transcript concludes with a narrated tour of Sheppard-Pratt, an…

  10. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  11. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  12. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  13. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explanation of Figure 1 II Appendix II to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... future expansion are groups 23 through 29 and those past 43. Reactive Groups contain products which...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix II to Part 805 - Employees Required To Submit Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees Required To Submit Statements II Appendix II to Part 805 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL...—Employees Required To Submit Statements Statements of employment and financial interests are required of...

  15. Design of multiphysics actuators using topology optimization - Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-paper description of the topology optimization method applied to the design of multiphysics actuators and electrothermomechanical systems in particular. The first paper is focussed on one-material structures, the second on two-material structures. The extensions...... of the topology optimization method in this part include design descriptions for two-material structures, constitutive modelling of elements with mixtures of two materials, formulation of optimization problems with multiple constraints and multiple materials and a mesh-independency scheme for two......-material structures. The application in mind is the design of thermally and electro thermally driven micro actuators for use in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). MEMS are microscopic mechanical systems coupled with electrical circuits. MEMS are fabricated using techniques known from the semi-conductor industry...

  16. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie B Glick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined.

  17. DOBD Algorithm for Training Neural Network:Part II. Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建昱; 何小荣

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of the article, a new algorithm for pruning network?Dynamic Optimal Brain Damage(DOBD) is introduced. In this part, two cases and an industrial application are worked out to test the new algorithm. It is verified that the algorithm can obtain good generalization through deleting weight parameters with low sensitivities dynamically and get better result than the Marquardt algorithm or the cross-validation method. Although the initial construction of network may be different, the finial number of free weights pruned by the DOBD algorithm is similar and the number is just close to the optimal number of free weights. The algorithm is also helpful to design the optimal structure of network.

  18. Common ECG Lead Placement Errors. Part II: Precordial Misplacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison V. Rosen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrocardiography is a very useful diagnostic tool. However, errors in placement of ECG leads can create artifacts, mimic pathologies, and hinder proper ECG interpretation. This is the second of a two-part series discussing how to recognize and avoid these errors. Methods: 12-lead ECGs were recorded in a single male healthy subject in his mid 20s. Various precordial lead misplacements were compared to ECG recordings from correct lead placement. Results: Precordial misplacements caused classical changes in ECG patterns. Techniques of differentiating these ECG patterns from true pathological findings were described. Conclusion: As in Part I of this series, recognition and interpretation of common ECG placement errors is critical in providing optimal patient care.

  19. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  20. Nuestra Familia: Primaria para Adultos. Segunda Parte. Edicion Experimental (Our Family: Primer for Adults. Part Two. Experimental Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This textbook is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. It is designed to orient people with little education or developing literacy skills to a sense of responsibility toward their families.…

  1. Nuestro Trabajo: Primaria para Adultos. Segunda Parte. Edicion Experimental (Our Work: Primer for Adults. Part Two. Experimental Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This workbook is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. This workbook is designed to orient people who are only recently literate to the world of work and business. Topics covered include worker…

  2. Nuestra Comunidad: Primaria para Adultos. Segunda Parte. Edicion Experimental (Our Community: Primer for Adults. Part Two. Experimental Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This textbook is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. It is designed to teach people with developing literacy skills to participate in a meaningful way in the life of their community. Topics…

  3. Global thermohaline circulation. Part II: Sensitivity with interactive atmospheric transports

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Stone, P.; Marotzke, J.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the stability of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to an increase in the surface freshwater forcing in the presence of interactive meridional transports in the atmosphere. The ocean component is the idealized global general circulation model used in Part I. The atmospheric model assumes fixed latitudinal structure of the heat and moisture transports, and the amplitudes are calculated separately for each hemisphere from the large-...

  4. Escapes in Hamiltonian systems with multiple exit channels: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the escape dynamics in open Hamiltonian systems with multiple channels of escape continuing the work initiated in Part I. A thorough numerical investigation is conducted distinguishing between trapped (ordered and chaotic) and escaping orbits. The determination of the location of the basins of escape towards the different escape channels and their correlations with the corresponding escape periods of the orbits is undoubtedly an issue of paramount importance. We consider four diffe...

  5. ABOUT ABRASION RESISTANCE OF FABRICS WITH STRATEGIC DESTINATION PART II

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Bucevschi; Alexandru Popa; Monica Pustianu; Erzsebet Airinei; Ionel Barbu

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of a research agreement between "Aurel Vlaicu" University and The National Research - Development Institute for Textile and Leather, Bucharest, about the relationship of interdependence between the yarns' characteristics and fabric's characteristics for the installation of ventilation and heating pipesof the military helicopter[5]. Fabrics for strategic areas must have certain characteristics such resistance at high temperatures, breaking and tearing strength, shock resista...

  6. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: part II

    OpenAIRE

    Biglands John D; Radjenovic Aleksandra; Ridgway John P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This is the second of two reviews that is intended to cover the essential aspects of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. Starting with the basic pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms described in part I, it briefly discusses further approaches to accelerate image acquisition. It then continues by showing in detail how the contrast behaviour of black blood fast spin echo and bri...

  7. Neutron detection with imaging plates Part II. Detector characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Thoms, M

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the physical processes described in Neutron detection with imaging plates - part I: image storage and readout [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 424 (1999) 26-33] detector characteristics, such as quantum efficiency, detective quantum efficiency, sensitivity to neutron- and gamma-radiation, readout time and dynamic range are predicted. It is estimated that quantum efficiencies and detective quantum efficiencies close to 100% can be reached making these kind of detectors interesting for a wide range of applications.

  8. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, P S; Brabrand, K; Cantisani, V; Correas, J M; Cui, X W; D'Onofrio, M; Essig, M; Freeman, S; Gilja, O H; Gritzmann, N; Havre, R F; Ignee, A; Jenssen, C; Kabaalioğlu, A; Lorentzen, T; Mohaupt, M; Nicolau, C; Nolsøe, C P; Nürnberg, D; Radzina, M; Saftoiu, A; Serra, C; Spârchez, Z; Sporea, I; Dietrich, C F

    2015-12-01

    This is the second part of the series on interventional ultrasound guidelines of the Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). It deals with the diagnostic interventional procedure. General points are discussed which are pertinent to all patients, followed by organ-specific imaging that will allow the correct pathway and planning for the interventional procedure. This will allow for the appropriate imaging workup for each individual interventional procedure (Long version). PMID:26669871

  9. Common ECG Lead Placement Errors. Part II: Precordial Misplacements

    OpenAIRE

    Allison V. Rosen; Sahil Koppikar; Catherine Shaw; Adrian Baranchuk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Electrocardiography is a very useful diagnostic tool. However, errors in placement of ECG leads can create artifacts, mimic pathologies, and hinder proper ECG interpretation. This is the second of a two-part series discussing how to recognize and avoid these errors. Methods: 12-lead ECGs were recorded in a single male healthy subject in his mid 20s. Various precordial lead misplacements were compared to ECG recordings from correct lead placement. Results: Precordial mispla...

  10. Variance analysis. Part II, The use of computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, S A

    1991-09-01

    This is the second in a two-part series on variance analysis. In the first article (JONA, July/August 1991), the author discussed flexible budgeting, including the calculation of price, quantity, volume, and acuity variances. In this second article, the author focuses on the use of computers by nurse managers to aid in the process of calculating, understanding, and justifying variances. PMID:1919788

  11. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Napachat Tareelap; Kaysinee Sriraksasin; Nakorn Srisukhumbowornchai; Swieng Thuanboon; Choochat Nitipanyawong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB) propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium...

  12. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  13. Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-world background of the Special Theory of Relativity started in part one of this article is continued in this second part. Four-dimensional inversion is shown to be a special Lorentz transformation that transforms the positive spacetime coordinates of a frame of reference in the positive universe into the negative spacetime coordinates of the symmetry-partner frame of reference in the negative universe in the two-world picture, contrary to the conclusion that four-dimensional inversion is impossible as actual trans- formation of the coordinates of a frame of reference in the existing one-world picture. By starting with the negative spacetime dimensions in the negative universe derived in part one, the signs of mass and other physical parameters and physical constants in the negative universe are derived by application of the symmetry of laws between the pos- itive and negative universes. The invariance of natural laws in the negative universe is demonstrated. The derived negative sign of mass in the negative universe is a conclu- sion of over a century-old effort towards the development of the concept of negative mass in physics.

  14. A tutorial survey of topics in wireless networking: Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anurag Kumar; D Manjunath

    2007-12-01

    This is the second part of the survey of recent and emerging topics in wireless networking. We provide an overview of the area of wireless networking as that of dealing with problems of resource allocation so that the various connections that utilise the network achieve their desired performance objectives. In Part I we provided a taxonomy of wireless networks as they have been deployed. We then provided a quick survey of the main issues in the wireless 'physical' layer. We then discussed some resource allocation formulations in CDMA (code division multiple access) cellular networks and OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access) networks. In this part we begin with a discussion of random access wireless networks. We first provide an overview of the evolution of random access networks from Aloha to the currently popular 802·11 (Wi-Fi) networks. We then analyse the performance of the 802·11 random access protocol. We briefly discuss the problem of optimal association of nodes to Wi-Fi access points. Next, we consider topics in ad hoc multihop wireless networks. We first discuss topology and cross layer control. For the latter, we describe the important maximum weight link scheduling algorithm. The connectivity and capacity of randomly deployed networks are then analysed. Finally, we provide an overview of the technical issues in the emerging area of wireless sensor networks.

  15. The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part II: Reparative Adaptational Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Kronenberg, Sefi; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of the Holocaust on children of survivors have been widely investigated. However, consensus is limited, and no validated measures have been tailored with or to them. We aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures these specific impacts (Part II of the Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma). We studied 484 adult children of survivors who participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey in English or Hebrew; of these, 191 participated in a clinical interview. Exploratory factor analyses of 58 items to reduce and refine the measure yielded a 36-item scale, Reparative Adaptational Impacts, that had excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and congruence between English and Hebrew versions (φ ≥ .95). Associations between impacts and SCID-based diagnoses of major depressive episode, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were moderate to strong (ds = 0.48-0.89). Strong associations also emerged between severity of offspring's reparative adaptational impacts and intensity of their parents' posttrauma adaptational styles (Multiple R = .72), with intensity of victim style, especially the mother's, having the strongest effect (β = .31-.33). Having both research and clinical relevance for assessing Holocaust survivors' offspring, future studies might investigate the scale's generalizability to other populations affected by mass trauma. PMID:25985110

  16. The Symmetric Group Defies Strong Fourier Sampling: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Part I of this paper showed that the hidden subgroup problem over the symmetric group--including the special case relevant to Graph Isomorphism--cannot be efficiently solved by strong Fourier sampling, even if one may perform an arbitrary POVM on the coset state. In this paper, we extend these results to entangled measurements. Specifically, we show that the hidden subgroup problem on the symmetric group cannot be solved by any POVM applied to pairs of cosets states. In particular, these hidden subgroups cannot be determined by any polynomial number of one- or two-register experiments on coset states.

  17. The museum maze in oral pathology demystifed: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, Bs

    2013-09-01

    Museum technology is perpetually changing due to current requirements and added inventions for our comfort and furbished display of specimens. Hence numerous methods of specimen preservation have been put on trial by diverse people in the medical feld as are the inventions. But only few have caught people's interest and are popularized today. This part provides unique insights into specialized custom-made techniques, evolution of recent advances like plastination and virtual museum that have popularized as visual delights. Plastination gives handy, perennial life-like acrylic specimens, whereas virtual museum takes museum feld to the electronic era making use of computers and virtual environment.

  18. The museum maze in oral pathology demystifed: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, Bs

    2013-01-01

    Museum technology is perpetually changing due to current requirements and added inventions for our comfort and furbished display of specimens. Hence numerous methods of specimen preservation have been put on trial by diverse people in the medical feld as are the inventions. But only few have caught people's interest and are popularized today. This part provides unique insights into specialized custom-made techniques, evolution of recent advances like plastination and virtual museum that have popularized as visual delights. Plastination gives handy, perennial life-like acrylic specimens, whereas virtual museum takes museum feld to the electronic era making use of computers and virtual environment. PMID:24685810

  19. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  20. Tourette's syndrome, Part II: Contemporary approaches to assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, L; Ort, S I; Hardin, M T

    1993-08-01

    Clinical assessment of a child with Tourette's syndrome (TS) includes a careful review of motor and phonic tics. In addition, commonly associated problems of such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity) should also be evaluated. Treatment almost always includes education of the child, family, and school personnel concerning the natural history and behavioral boundaries of the disorder. Other treatment interventions depend to a great extent on the primary source of impairment. This article, the second of two parts, presents three illustrative cases and reviews current treatment interventions for children and adolescents with TS.

  1. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  2. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions. PMID:25756068

  3. Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-world background of the Special Theory of Relativity started in part one of this article is continued in this secondpart. Four-dimensional inversion is shown to be a special Lorentz transformation that transforms the positive spacetime coordinates of a frame of reference in the positive universe into the negative spacetime coordinates of the symmetry-partner frame of reference in the negative universe in the two-world picture, contrary to the conclusion that four-dimensional inversion is impossible as actual transformation of the coordinates of a frame of reference in the existing one-world picture. By starting with the negative spacetime dimensions in the negative universe derived in part one, the signs of mass and other physical parameters and physical constants in the negative universe are derived by application of the symmetry of laws between the positive and negative universes. The invariance of natural laws in the negative universe is demonstrated. The derived negative sign of mass in the negative universe is a conclusion of over a century-old effort towards the development of the concept of negative mass in physics.

  4. Agricultural burning smoke in Eastern Washington: Part II. Exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Jimenez, Jorge; Claiborn, Candis; Gould, Tim; Simpson, Christopher D.; Larson, Tim; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    Several studies have documented potential health effects due to agricultural burning smoke. However, there is a paucity of literature characterizing community residents' exposure to agricultural burning smoke. This study assesses personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters smoke ( Eb) for 33 asthmatic adults in Pullman, WA. PM 2.5 concentrations were measured on 16 subjects, inside of all but four residences, outside of 6 residences, and at a central site. The mean±standard deviation of personal exposure to PM 2.5 was 13.8±11.1 μg m -3, which was on average 8.0 μg m -3 higher during the agricultural burning episodes (19.0±11.8 μg m -3) than non-episodes (11.0±9.7 μg m -3). The levoglucosan (LG, a unique marker for biomass burning PM) on personal filter samples also was higher during the episodes than non-episodes (0.026±0.030 vs. 0.010±0.012 μg m -3). We applied the random component superposition model on central-site and home indoor PM measurements, and estimated a central-site infiltration factor between 0.21 and 2.05 for residences with good modeling performance. We combined the source apportionment and total exposure modeling results to estimate individual Eb, which ranged from 1.2 to 6.7 μg m -3 and correlated with personal LG with an r of 0.51. The sensitivity analysis of applying the infiltration efficiency estimated from the recursive model showed that the Eb (range: 1.3-4.3 μg m -3) obtained from this approach have a higher correlation with personal LG ( r=0.75). Nevertheless, the small sample size of personal LG measurements prevents a comparative and conclusive assessment of the model performance. We found a significant between-subject variation between episodes and non-episodes in both the Eb estimates and subjects' activity patterns. This suggests that the LG measurements at the central site may not always represent individual exposures to agricultural burning smoke. We recommend collecting more

  5. Ultrasensitivity part II: multisite phosphorylation, stoichiometric inhibitors, and positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, James E; Ha, Sang Hoon

    2014-11-01

    In this series of reviews, we are examining ultrasensitive responses, the switch-like input-output relationships that contribute to signal processing in a wide variety of signaling contexts. In the first part of this series, we explored one mechanism for generating ultrasensitivity, zero-order ultrasensitivity, where the saturation of two converting enzymes allows the output to switch from low to high over a tight range of input levels. In this second installment, we focus on three conceptually distinct mechanisms for ultrasensitivity: multisite phosphorylation, stoichiometric inhibitors, and positive feedback. We also examine several related mechanisms and concepts, including cooperativity, reciprocal regulation, coherent feed-forward regulation, and substrate competition, and provide several examples of signaling processes where these mechanisms are known or are suspected to be applicable. PMID:25440716

  6. Responsive Persistence Part II. Practices of Postmodern Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Olga; Dienhart, Anna; Turner, Jean

    2013-10-01

    This article, a companion to Part I of this series of articles, discusses how therapists informed by social constructionist and postmodern ideas enact persistence in their work with families. Transcripts and video-recordings of therapy interaction facilitated by selected major champions for three postmodern (collaborative) therapies: Michael White (narrative therapy), Harlene Anderson (collaborative language systems approach), and Bill O'Hanlon (solution-oriented therapy) were examined for persistence practices. The article offers a range of possible ways in which postmodern therapists may enact their influence in facilitating generative and helpful conversations with families and remain responsive to clients' preferences and understandings. Implications for family therapy practice, training, and supervision are discussed. PMID:25800424

  7. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Abel, David (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD)

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  8. Gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, V. F.; Klinkov, S. V.; Zaikovskii, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents the radial distributions of the pressure measured with a Pitot tube for the case of a radial jet with/without swirling of the input flow in the pre-chamber; the length of the supersonic part of the jet, dependency of the jet thickness as a function of the distance from the nozzle outlet, and approximating analytical formula for the jet thickness that generalizes the experimental data. Experimental data demonstrated that at the deposition distances lower than 4-6 gauges from the nozzle outlet, the solid particle velocity and temperature are almost uniform over the jet cross section. This means that the target surface can be allocated here without loss in coating quality and deposition coefficient. The maximal recommended distance where the deposition is still possible is the length of l s0 ~ 16 gauges.

  9. Fundamental Limits of Wideband Localization - Part II: Cooperative Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yuan; Win, Moe Z

    2010-01-01

    The availability of positional information is of great importance in many commercial, governmental, and military applications. Localization is commonly accomplished through the use of radio communication between mobile devices (agents) and fixed infrastructure (anchors). However, precise determination of agent positions is a challenging task, especially in harsh environments due to radio blockage or limited anchor deployment. In these situations, cooperation among agents can significantly improve localization accuracy and reduce localization outage probabilities. A general framework of analyzing the fundamental limits of wideband localization has been developed in Part I of the paper. Here, we build on this framework and establish the fundamental limits of wideband cooperative location-aware networks. Our analysis is based on the waveforms received at the nodes, in conjunction with Fisher information inequality. We provide a geometrical interpretation of equivalent Fisher information for cooperative networks....

  10. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  11. Examination of the teaching styles of nursing professional development specialists, part I: best practices in adult learning theory, curriculum development, and knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary K

    2014-05-01

    The American Nurses Association advocates for nursing professional development (NPD) specialists to have an earned graduate degree, as well as educational and clinical expertise. However, many NPD specialists have limited exposure to adult learning theory. Limited exposure to adult learning theory may affect NPD educational practices, learning outcomes, organizational knowledge transfer, and subsequently, the professional development of the nurses they serve and quality of nursing care. An examination of current teaching practices may reveal opportunities for NPD specialists to enhance educational methods to promote learning, learning transfer, and organizational knowledge and excellence. This article, the first in a two-part series, examines best practices of adult learning theories, nursing professional development, curriculum design, and knowledge transfer. Part II details the results of a correlational study that examined the effects of four variables on the use of adult learning theory to guide curriculum development for NPD specialists in hospitals.

  12. Cosmology In Terms Of The Deceleration Parameter. Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Bolotin, Yu L; Lemets, O A; Yerokhin, D A; Zazunov, L G

    2015-01-01

    In the early seventies, Alan Sandage defined cosmology as the search for two numbers: Hubble parameter ${{H}_{0}}$ and deceleration parameter ${{q}_{0}}$. The first of the two basic cosmological parameters (the Hubble parameter) describes the linear part of the time dependence of the scale factor. Treating the Universe as a dynamical system it is natural to assume that it is non-linear: indeed, linearity is nothing more than approximation, while non-linearity represents the generic case. It is evident that future models of the Universe must take into account different aspects of its evolution. As soon as the scale factor is the only dynamical variable, the quantities which determine its time dependence must be essentially present in all aspects of the Universe' evolution. Basic characteristics of the cosmological evolution, both static and dynamical, can be expressed in terms of the parameters ${{H}_{0}}$ and ${{q}_{0}}$. The very parameters (and higher time derivatives of the scale factor) enable us to const...

  13. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  14. Stochastic dynamics of Arctic sea ice Part II: Multiplicative noise

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Woosok

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the numerical solutions of a stochastic Arctic sea ice model with multiplicative noise over a wide range of external heat-fluxes, $\\Delta F_0$, which correspond to greenhouse gas forcing. When the noise is multiplicative, the noise-magnitude depends on the state-variable, and this will influence the statistical moments in a manner that differs from the additive case, which we analyzed in Part I of this study. The state variable describing the deterministic backbone of our model is the energy, $E(t)$, contained in the ice or the ocean and for a thorough comparison and contrast we choose the simplest form of multiplicative noise $\\sigma E(t) \\xi(t)$, where $\\sigma$ is the noise amplitude and $\\xi(t)$ is the noise process. The case of constant additive noise (CA) we write as $\\sigma\\overline{E_S}\\xi(t)$, in which $\\overline{E_S}$ is the seasonally averaged value of the periodic deterministic steady-state solution $E_S(t)$, or the deterministic seasonal cycle. We then treat the case of seasonally-varyi...

  15. Oral health in Brazil - Part II: Dental Specialty Centers (CEOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.

  16. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted.

  17. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.

  18. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  19. Medicine at the crossroads. Part II. Summary of completed project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Medicine at the crossroads (a.k.a. The Future of Medicine) is an 8-part series of one-hour documentaries which examines the scientific and social forces that have shaped the practice of medicine around the world. The series was developed and produced over a five-year period and in eleven countries. Among the major issues examined in the series are the education of medical practitioners and the communication of medical issues. The series also considers the dilemmas of modern medicine, including the treatment of the elderly and the dying, the myth of the quick fix in the face of chronic and incurable diseases such as HIV, and the far-reaching implications of genetic treatments. Finally, the series examines the global progress made in medical research and application, as well as the questions remaining to be answered. These include not only scientific treatment, but accessibility and other critical topics affecting the overall success of medical advances. Medicine at the crossroads is a co-production of Thirteen/WNET and BBC-TV in association with Television Espafiola SA (RTVE) and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Stefan Moore of Thirteen/WNET and Martin Freeth of BBC-TV are series producers. George Page is executive in charge of medicine at the crossroads. A list of scholarly advisors and a program synopses is attached.

  20. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  1. Global Thermohaline Circulation. Part II: Sensitivity with Interactive Atmospheric Transports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Stone, Peter H.; Marotzke, Jochem

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the stability of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to an increase in the surface freshwater forcing in the presence of interactive meridional transports in the atmosphere. The ocean component is the idealized global general circulation model used in Part I. The atmospheric model assumes fixed latitudinal structure of the heat and moisture transports, and the amplitudes are calculated separately for each hemisphere from the large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) and SST gradient, using parameterizations based on baroclinic stability theory. The ocean-atmosphere heat and freshwater exchanges are calculated as residuals of the steady-state atmospheric budgets.Owing to the ocean component's weak heat transport, the model has too strong a meridional SST gradient when driven with observed atmospheric meridional transports. When the latter are made interactive, the conveyor belt circulation collapses. A flux adjustment is introduced in which the efficiency of the atmospheric transports is lowered to match the too low efficiency of the ocean component.The feedbacks between the THC and both the atmospheric heat and moisture transports are positive, whether atmospheric transports are interactive in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere, or both. However, the feedbacks operate differently in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, because the Pacific THC dominates in the Southern Hemisphere, and deep water formation in the two hemispheres is negatively correlated. The feedbacks in the two hemispheres do not necessarily reinforce each other because they have opposite effects on low-latitude temperatures. The model is qualitatively similar in stability to one with conventional `additive' flux adjustment, but quantitatively more stable.

  2. Fundamentals of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Part II: Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Joshua A.; Michelmann, Karsten; Ridgeway, Mark E.; Park, Melvin A.

    2016-04-01

    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) is a new high resolution (R up to ~300) separation technique that utilizes an electric field to hold ions stationary against a moving gas. Recently, an analytical model for TIMS was derived and, in part, experimentally verified. A central, but not yet fully explored, component of the model involves the fluid dynamics at work. The present study characterizes the fluid dynamics in TIMS using simulations and ion mobility experiments. Results indicate that subsonic laminar flow develops in the analyzer, with pressure-dependent gas velocities between ~120 and 170 m/s measured at the position of ion elution. One of the key philosophical questions addressed is: how can mobility be measured in a dynamic system wherein the gas is expanding and its velocity is changing? We noted previously that the analytically useful work is primarily done on ions as they traverse the electric field gradient plateau in the analyzer. In the present work, we show that the position-dependent change in gas velocity on the plateau is balanced by a change in pressure and temperature, ultimately resulting in near position-independent drag force. That the drag force, and related variables, are nearly constant allows for the use of relatively simple equations to describe TIMS behavior. Nonetheless, we derive a more comprehensive model, which accounts for the spatial dependence of the flow variables. Experimental resolving power trends were found to be in close agreement with the theoretical dependence of the drag force, thus validating another principal component of TIMS theory.

  3. Prediction of periventricular leukomalacia. Part II: Selection of hemodynamic features using computational intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Samanta; G.L. Bird; M. Kuijpers; R.A. Zimmerman; G.P. Jarvik; G. Wernovsky; R.R. Clancy; D.J. Licht; J.W. Gaynor; C. Nataraj

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of Part II is to analyze the dataset of extracted hemodynamic features (Case 3 of Part I) through computational intelligence (CI) techniques for identification of potential prognostic factors for periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) occurrence in neonates with congenital heart

  4. 48 CFR 1436.270-3 - Part II-Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part II-Contract clauses... Construction 1436.270-3 Part II—Contract clauses. For Section I, Contract clause, include any clauses required by law or by the FAR (including subpart 36.5), the DIAR (including subpart 1436.5), and...

  5. Charting the Course for a Nursing Online Journal Club: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonan, Marilyn; Bukoye, Bola; Clapp, Alison; Shermont, Herminia; O'Sullivan Oliveira, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    In a pediatric inpatient setting, an interdisciplinary team designed and implemented an online journal club to discuss current nursing trends and research, as well as to foster evidence-based practice. This article is Part II of a two-part series in which the implementation process is described. PMID:26790492

  6. Eponyms related to genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement; part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mohammed Al-Aboud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement. In our part I, we reviewed the eponyms linked to Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (HGF [1]. Historical Article How to cite this article: Al Aboud A, Al-Aboud NM, Barnawi H, Al Hakami A. Eponyms related to genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement: Part II. Our Dermatol Online. 2015;6(1:114-117. Submission: 27.05.2013; Acceptance: 21.09.2014 DOI: 10.7241/ourd.20151.32 In this part II of this review, we are going to shed some light on eponyms linked to groups of genetic disorders which may feature gingival enlargement.

  7. Eponyms related to genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement; part II

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Mohammed Al-Aboud; Hanan Barnawi; Ahlam Al Hakami

    2015-01-01

    There are genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement. In our part I, we reviewed the eponyms linked to Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (HGF) [1]. Historical Article How to cite this article: Al Aboud A, Al-Aboud NM, Barnawi H, Al Hakami A. Eponyms related to genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement: Part II. Our Dermatol Online. 2015;6(1):114-117. Submission: 27.05.2013; Acceptance: 21.09.2014 DOI: 10.7241/ourd.20151.32 In this part II of thi...

  8. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health

  9. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglands, John D; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Ridgway, John P

    2012-09-20

    This is the second of two reviews that is intended to cover the essential aspects of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. Starting with the basic pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms described in part I, it briefly discusses further approaches to accelerate image acquisition. It then continues by showing in detail how the contrast behaviour of black blood fast spin echo and bright blood cine gradient echo techniques can be modified by adding rf preparation pulses to derive a number of more specialised pulse sequences. The simplest examples described include T2-weighted oedema imaging, fat suppression and myocardial tagging cine pulse sequences. Two further important derivatives of the gradient echo pulse sequence, obtained by adding preparation pulses, are used in combination with the administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent for myocardial perfusion imaging and the assessment of myocardial tissue viability using a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. These two imaging techniques are discussed in more detail, outlining the basic principles of each pulse sequence, the practical steps required to achieve the best results in a clinical setting and, in the case of perfusion, explaining some of the factors that influence current approaches to perfusion image analysis. The key principles of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) are also explained in detail, especially focusing on timing of the acquisition following contrast agent bolus administration, and current approaches to achieving time resolved MRA. Alternative MRA techniques that do not require the use of an endogenous contrast agent are summarised, and the specialised pulse sequence used to image the coronary arteries, using respiratory navigator gating, is described in detail. The article concludes by explaining the principle behind phase contrast imaging techniques

  10. Adult onset glycogen storage disease type II (adult onset Pompe disease): report and magnetic resonance images of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Gaizo, Andrew [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology Resident, Atlanta, GA (United States); Banerjee, Sima [Emory University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology Department, Atlanta, GA (United States); Terk, Michael [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII), also referred to as Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency, is a rare inherited condition caused by a deficiency in acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity. The condition is often classified by age of presentation, with infantile and late onset variants (Laforet et al. J Neurology 55:1122-8, 2000). Late onset tends to present with progressive proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency (Winkel et al. J Neurology 252:875-84, 2005). We report two cases of biopsy confirmed adult onset GSDII, along with key Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. (orig.)

  11. Master plan Modoc National Wildlife Refuge [ Part I and Part II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Master Plan, consisting of three parts, is designed to accomplish sound and orderly development of Modoc Refuge and provides for a continuing program of...

  12. The grieving adult and the general practitioner: a literature review in two parts (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woof, W R; Carter, Y H

    1997-07-01

    This article is the first of a two-part literature review on bereavement. In part 1, those psychological theories that have improved the understanding of the bereavement process are summarized. In addition, the research examining the mortality and morbidity following a bereavement is critically analysed. PMID:9281874

  13. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Thirteenth Annual Meeting. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 9 to 11 April 1980. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programme in the field of LMFBRs and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  14. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts. PMID:27359151

  15. The grieving adult and the general practitioner: a literature review in two parts (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woof, W R; Carter, Y H

    1997-08-01

    In part 1 of this review, published last month, literature exploring the psychological bereavement theories and the health consequences of bereavement are summarized. The second part builds on this to outline the debate surrounding the characteristics of abnormal bereavement, while also focusing on risk factors for this morbidity. This leads on to a summary of the literature on bereavement care, particularly from a general practice point of view. Finally, areas for further research are highlighted. PMID:9302794

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. II Appendix II to Part 266—Tier I Feed Rate.../hr) Rural (g/hr) Complex Terrain (g/hr) 4 8.2E+01 4.2E+01 1.9E+01 6 9.1E+01 4.8E+01 2.8E+01 8...

  17. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  18. Understanding Medicines: Conceptual Analysis of Nurses' Needs for Knowledge and Understanding of Pharmacology (Part I). Understanding Medicines: Extending Pharmacology Education for Dependent and Independent Prescribing (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathard, Helen L.

    2001-01-01

    Part I reviews what nurses need to know about the administration and prescription of medicines. Part II addresses drug classifications, actions and effects, and interactions. Also discussed are the challenges pharmacological issues pose for nursing education. (SK)

  19. Starting a hospital-based home health agency: Part II--Key success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P

    1993-09-01

    In Part II of a three-part series, the financial, technological and legislative issues of a hospital-based home health-agency are discussed. Beginning a home healthcare service requires intensive research to answer key environmental and operational questions--need, competition, financial projections, initial start-up costs and the impact of delayed depreciation. Assessments involving technology, staffing, legislative and regulatory issues can help project service volume, productivity and cost-control.

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  1. Using Wiki to Teach Part-Time Adult Learners in a Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Siti Mariam Muhammad Abdul; Yusop, Farrah Dina

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the perceptions of 31 part-time adult learners who participated in an online collaborative writing experience. Situated in the context of a blended learning environment of an advanced English learning course, this study looked into learners' perceptions with respect to the benefits of collaborative writing using…

  2. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  3. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 2 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume II, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  4. COPING STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS - PART II: ROLE CONFLICT AND AGE

    OpenAIRE

    NATOVOVÁ, Ludmila; CHÝLOVÁ, Hana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the particularities of various stress coping strategies (measured by standardized stress coping strategies questionnaire SVF 78) used by undergraduate university students (N=177). The first part was focused on gender differences. Part II compares groups differing in age and level of family-school-work conflict, drawing on the division according to the type of study: Part-time (N=102) and Full-time (N=75) students as well as on the age distinction (age24: N=82). The finding...

  5. Model‐Based Assessment of Alternative Study Designs in Pediatric Trials. Part II: Bayesian Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smania, G; Baiardi, P; Ceci, A; Magni, P

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic based clinical trial simulation framework for evaluating the performance of a fixed‐sample Bayesian design (BD) and two alternative Bayesian sequential designs (BSDs) (i.e., a non‐hierarchical (NON‐H) and a semi‐hierarchical (SEMI‐H) one). Prior information was elicited from adult trials and weighted based on the expected similarity of response to treatment between the pediatric and adult populations. Study designs were evaluated in terms of: type I and II errors, sample size per arm (SS), trial duration (TD), and estimate precision. No substantial differences were observed between NON‐H and SEMI‐H. BSDs require, on average, smaller SS and TD compared to the BD, which, on the other hand, guarantees higher estimate precision. When large differences between children and adults are expected, BSDs can return very large SS. Bayesian approaches appear to outperform their frequentist counterparts in the design of pediatric trials even when little weight is given to prior information from adults. PMID:27530374

  6. The relative influence of secondary versus primary prevention using the national cholesterol education program adult treatment panel II guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldman, L; Coxson, P; Hunink, MGM; Goldman, PA; Tosteson, ANA; Mittleman, M; Williams, L; Weinstein, MC

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study was undertaken to project the population-wide effect of full implementation of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) II guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). BACKGROUND The ATP II has proposed guidelines for cholesterol reduction, but the long-term epidemio

  7. Surgical correction of class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting vertical maxillary excess along with class II skeletal deformity. A cosmetic correction was achieved by superior repositioning of maxilla with LeFort I osteotomy and augmentation genioplasty, along with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion

  8. Rail and multimodal freight: a problem-oriented survey (part II-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin MARINOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the Part II-2 of the series of problem-oriented surveys on rail and multimodal freight transportation services, which aim is to reveal the current situation in this sector and raises looming questions for discussion. The particular objective of Part II-2 is to discuss recently published works and documents dedicated to Multi-actor chain management and control, Mode choice and pricing strategies, Intermodal transportation policy and planning as well as Miscellaneous. It should be noted that this paper is a problem oriented survey and does not explicitly focus on the available scientific instrumental that has been applied in dealing with rail and multimodal freight. However, throughout the description methods and concepts are addressed, where it is of interest.

  9. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, J [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  10. Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults. II. Intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, D M; Beresford, S A; Larson, E B; LaCroix, A Z; Wagner, E H

    1992-01-01

    This review has focused on a specific part of the relationship of exercise to health. The overall evidence supporting the health benefits of exercise is substantial and has been critically reviewed recently (18, 94). Thus, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that all adults exercise regularly (94). The conclusions summarized below regarding older adults do not affect this basic recommendation. There is solid evidence that exercise can improve measures of fitness in older adults, particularly strength and aerobic capacity. These exercise effects occur in chronically ill adults, as well as in healthy adults. Because physical fitness is a determinant of functional status, it is logical to ask whether exercise can prevent or improve impairments in functional status in older adults. The evidence that exercise improves functional status is promising, but inconclusive. Problems with existing studies include a lack of randomized controlled trials, a lack of evidence that effects of exercise can be sustained over long periods of time, inadequate statistical power, and failure to target physically unfit individuals. Existing studies suggest that exercise may produce improvements in gait and balance. Arthritis patients may experience long-term functional status benefits from exercise, including improved mobility and decreased pain symptoms. Nonrandomized trials suggest exercise promotes bone mineral density and thereby decreases fracture risk. Recent studies have generally concluded that short-term exercise does not improve cognitive function. Yet the limited statistical power of these studies does not preclude what may be a modest, but functionally meaningful, effect of exercise on cognition. Future research, beyond correcting methodologic deficiencies in existing studies, should systematically study how functional status effects of exercise vary with the type, intensity, and duration of exercise. It should address issues in recruiting functionally

  11. Bloqueio do nervo supraescapular: procedimento importante na prática clínica. Parte II Suprascapular nerve block: important procedure in clinical practice. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um método de tratamento reprodutível, confiável e extremamente efetivo no controle da dor no ombro. Esse método tem sido amplamente utilizado por profissionais na prática clínica, como reumatologistas, ortopedistas, neurologistas e especialistas em dor, na terapêutica de enfermidades crônicas, como lesão irreparável do manguito rotador, artrite reumatoide, sequelas de AVC e capsulite adesiva, o que justifica a presente revisão (Parte II. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as técnicas do procedimento e suas complicações descritas na literatura, já que a primeira parte reportou as indicações clínicas, drogas e volumes utilizados em aplicação única ou múltipla. Apresentamse, detalhadamente, os acessos para a realização do procedimento tanto direto como indireto, anterior e posterior, lateral e medial, e superior e inferior. Diversas são as opções para se realizar o bloqueio do nervo supraescapular. Apesar de raras, as complicações podem ocorrer. Quando bem indicado, este método deve ser considerado.The suprascapular nerve block is a reproducible, reliable, and extremely effective treatment method in shoulder pain control. This method has been widely used by professionals in clinical practice such as rheumatologists, orthopedists, neurologists, and pain specialists in the treatment of chronic diseases such as irreparable rotator cuff injury, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke sequelae, and adhesive capsulitis, which justifies the present review (Part II. The objective of this study was to describe the techniques and complications of the procedure described in the literature, as the first part reported the clinical indications, drugs, and volumes used in single or multiple procedures. We present in details the accesses used in the procedure: direct and indirect, anterior and posterior, lateral and medial, upper and lower. There are several options to perform suprascapular nerve block

  12. A Historical Timeline of Doping in the Olympics (Part II 1970-1988)

    OpenAIRE

    Kremenik, Michael; Onodera, Sho; Nagao, Mitsushiro; Yuzuki, Osamu; Yonetani, Shozo

    2007-01-01

    This article is part II of A Historical Timeline of Doping in the Olympics. The timeline is divided into three sections for analysis: Section 1 timelines the science of doping with special emphasis on the East German doping program. Section 2 timelines drug testing. Section 3 timelines positive drug tests and the sanctioning of athletes. The science of doping highlights the development of scientific awareness of the effectiveness of performance enhancing drugs when used by highly trained Olym...

  13. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Summary Report - Part II of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - includes reports on development of fast reactors in France from 1977 to 1978; review of the activities related to fast reactors in Germany; status of fast breeder reactors development in Belgium and Netherlands; status of activities related to fast reactors in USSR, Japan USA, UK and Italy

  14. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  15. Pseudoelasticity and thermoelasticity of nickel-titanium alloys: a clinically oriented review. Part II: Deactivation forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Nicolay, O F; Cangialosi, T J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to organize a systematic reference to help orthodontists evaluate commonly used orthodontic nickel-titanium alloys. Part I of the article reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the temperature transitional ranges of the alloys. The thermomechanical behavior of these compounds is, in fact, strictly dependent upon the correlation between the temperature transitional range and the oral temperature range. Part II focuses on the mechanical characteristics of the alloys, such as the magnitude of the forces delivered and correlations with the temperature transitional range and oral temperature.

  16. Error Performance of Multidimensional Lattice Constellations-Part II: Evaluation over Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pappi, Koralia N; Chronis, Theodore N; Karagiannidis, George K

    2012-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part series of papers, where the error performance of multidimensional lattice constellations with signal space diversity (SSD) is investigated. In Part I, following a novel combinatorial geometrical approach which is based on parallelotope geometry, we have presented an exact analytical expression and two closed-form bounds for the symbol error probability (SEP) in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). In the present Part II, we extend the analysis and present a novel analytical expression for the Frame Error Probability (FEP) of multidimensional lattice constellations over Nakagami-m fading channels. As the FEP of infinite lattices is lower bounded by the Sphere Lower Bound (SLB), we propose the Sphere Upper Bound (SUB) for block fading channels. Furthermore, two novel bounds for the FEP of multidimensional lattice constellations over block fading channels, named Multiple Sphere Lower Bound (MSLB) and Multiple Sphere Upper Bound (MSUB), are presented. The expressions for the...

  17. Acute nursing care of the older adult with fragility hip fracture: An international perspective (Part 2)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Ann Butler

    2012-10-23

    The second part of this paper provides those who care for orthopaedic patients with evidence-supported international perspectives about acute nursing care of the older adult with fragility hip fracture. Developed by an international group of nurse experts and guided by a range of information from research and clinical practice, it focuses on nurse sensitive quality indicators during the acute hospitalisation for fragility hip fracture. Optimal care for the patient who has experienced such a fracture is the focus. This includes (in the first, earlier, part):\\r\

  18. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  19. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each Appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  20. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  1. A hybrid phenomenological model for ferroelectroelastic ceramics. Part II: Morphotropic PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, S.; Neumeister, P.; Balke, H.

    2016-10-01

    In this part II of a two part series, the rate-independent hybrid phenomenological constitutive model introduced in part I is modified to account for the material behavior of morphotropic lead zirconate titanate ceramics (PZT ceramics). The modifications are based on a discussion of the available literature results regarding the micro-structure of these materials. In particular, a monoclinic phase and a highly simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of micro-domains and nano-domains observed experimentally are incorporated into the model. It is shown that experimental data for the commercially available morphotropic PZT material PIC151 (PI Ceramic GmbH, Lederhose, Germany) can be reproduced and predicted based on the modified hybrid model.

  2. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  3. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  4. Design and Delivery of Quality Study Programs for Adult Part Time Students in Scandinavian Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentsen, Annette

    2007-01-01

    ). Using Scandinavian universities as examples this paper wants to analyse and discuss what kind of knowledge universities need to design and deliver appropriate study programs for different groups of adult part time students.      Having analyzed and evaluated existing knowledge in the field a new...... The transformation of universities from being educators of primarily young people before their entrance into the job market to modern educational institutions with a multitude of educational offers for diverse target groups must be built on knowledge and leadership in order to succeed (Jarvis 1995...... collection of empirical data on the adult learner in Scandinavian university study programs will be presented, analysed and discussed. This data collection has taken place in 2005-2006 in parallel in Norway, Sweden and Denmark by a research network supported by the Norwegian Netuniversity (Grepperud et el...

  5. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part II: Impact of Geological CO2 Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Some key points still prevent the full development of geological carbon sequestration in underground formations, especially concerning the assessment of the integrity of such storage. Indeed, the consequences of gas injection on chemistry and petrophysical properties are still much discussed in the scientific community, and are still not well known at either laboratory or field scale. In this article, the results of an experimental study about the mobilization of Trace Elements (TE during CO2 injection in a reservoir are presented. The experimental conditions range from typical storage formation conditions (90 bar, supercritical CO2 to shallower conditions (60 and 30 bar, CO2 as gas phase, and consider the dissolution of the two carbonates, coupled with the sorption of an initial concentration of 10−5 M of Zn(II, and the consequent release in solution of Mn(II and Sr(II. The investigation goes beyond the sole behavior of TE in the storage conditions: it presents the specific behavior of each element with respect to the pressure and the natural carbonate considered, showing that different equilibrium concentrations are to be expected if a fluid with a given concentration of TE leaks to an upper formation. Even though sorption is evidenced, it does not balance the amount of TE released by the dissolution process. The increase in porosity is clearly evidenced as a linear function of the CO2 pressure imposed for the St-Emilion carbonate. For the Lavoux carbonate, this trend is not confirmed by the 90 bar experiment. A preferential dissolution of the bigger family of pores from the preexisting porosity is observed in one of the samples (Lavoux carbonate while the second one (St-Emilion carbonate presents a newly-formed family of pores. Both reacted samples evidence that the pore network evolves toward a tubular network type.

  6. MR findings of synovial disease in children and young adults: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Merrow, Arnold C.; Emery, Kathleen H. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-One [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Synovial diseases in children can be classified into normal structures as potential sources of pathology (synovial folds: plicae, infrapatellar fat pad clefts); noninfectious synovial proliferation (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, hemophilic arthropathy, lipoma arborescens, synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, reactive synovitis), and infectious synovial proliferation, deposition disease, vascular malformations, malignancy (including metastasis) and intra-articular/periarticular cysts and cyst-like structures (ganglia). Familiarity with characteristic MR imaging findings of synovial diseases in children and young adults will enable a more confident diagnosis for earlier intervention and directed therapy. The first part of this paper will cover potential pathology of normal synovial structures as well as noninfectious synovial proliferation. (orig.)

  7. The WHO-DAS II: psychometric properties in the measurement of functional health status in adults with acquired hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Theresa H; Abrams, Harvey B; McArdle, Rachel; Wilson, Richard H; Doyle, Patrick J

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument firmly grounded in the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF). As such, it assesses functioning for six domains: communication, mobility, self-care, interpersonal, life activities, and participation. Domain scores aggregate to a total score. Because the WHO-DAS II contains questions relevant to hearing and communication, it has good face validity for use as an outcome measure for audiologic intervention. The purpose of the present study was to determine the psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II on a sample of individuals with adult-onset hearing loss, including convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest stability. Convergent validity was established by examining correlations between the WHO-DAS II (domain and total scores) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and the Hearing Aid Handicap for the Elderly (HHIE), two disease-specific measures, as well as with the Short Form-36 for veterans (SF-36V), a second generic measure. Data on all four measures were collected from 380 older individuals with adult-onset hearing loss who were not hearing aid users. The results of the convergent validity analysis revealed that the WHODAS II communication domain score was moderately and significantly correlated with scores on the APHAB and the HHIE. WHO-DAS II interpersonal and participation domain scores and the total scores were also moderately and significantly correlated with HHIE scores. These findings support the validity of using the WHO-DAS II for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions of adult-onset hearing loss. Several WHO-DAS II domain scores and the total score were also significantly and moderately-markedly correlated with scores from the SF-36V. These findings support the validity of the WHO-DAS II as a generic health-status instrument

  8. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--parts I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1976-01-01

    This three part article presents an anlysis of the distribution of power and of the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and details their implications in medicine. Part I presents a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discusses the countervailing pluralist and power elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concludes with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presents a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III (which will appear in the next issue of this journal) focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine. PMID:1022803

  9. Part I: Sound color in the music of Gyorgy Kurtag, Part II: "Leopard's Path," thirteen visions for chamber ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachimciuc, Igor

    The dissertation is in two parts, a theoretical study and a musical composition. In Part I the music of Gyorgy Kurtag is analyzed from the point of view of sound color. A brief description of what is understood by the term sound color, and various ways of achieving specific coloristic effects, are presented in the Introduction. An examination of Kurtag's approaches to the domain of sound color occupies the chapters that follow. The musical examples that are analyzed are selected from Kurtag's different compositional periods, showing a certain consistency in sound color techniques, the most important of which are already present in the String Quartet, Op. 1. The compositions selected for analysis are written for different ensembles, but regardless of the instrumentation, certain principles of the formation and organization of sound color remain the same. Rather than relying on extended instrumental techniques, Kurtag creates a large variety of sound colors using traditional means such as pitch material, register, density, rhythm, timbral combinations, dynamics, texture, spatial displacement of the instruments, and the overall musical context. Each sound color unit in Kurtag's music is a separate entity, conceived as a complete microcosm. Sound color units can either be juxtaposed as contrasting elements, forming sound color variations, or superimposed, often resulting in a Klangfarbenmelodie effect. Some of the same gestural figures (objets trouves) appear in different compositions, but with significant coloristic modifications. Thus, the principle of sound color variations is not only a strong organizational tool, but also a characteristic stylistic feature of the music of Gyorgy Kurtag. Part II, Leopard's Path (2010), for flute, clarinet, violin, cello, cimbalom, and piano, is an original composition inspired by the painting of Jesse Allen, a San Francisco based artist. The composition is conceived as a cycle of thirteen short movements. Ten of these movements are

  10. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  11. A US perspective on fast reactor fuel fabrication technology and experience. Part II: Ceramic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is Part II of a review focusing on the United States experience with oxide, carbide, and nitride fast reactor fuel fabrication. Over 60 years of research in fuel fabrication by government, national laboratories, industry, and academia has culminated in a foundation of research and resulted in significant improvements to the technologies employed to fabricate these fuel types. This part of the review documents the current state of fuel fabrication technologies in the United States for each of these fuel types, some of the challenges faced by previous researchers, and how these were overcome. Knowledge gained from reviewing previous investigations will aid both researchers and policy makers in forming future decisions relating to nuclear fuel fabrication technologies.

  12. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  13. Analysis of cornea curvature using radial basis functions - Part II: Fitting to data-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, G W; Płociniczak, Ł; Schiesser, W E

    2016-10-01

    In part I we discussed the solution of corneal curvature using a 2D meshless method based on radial basis functions (RBFs). In Part II we use these methods to fit a full nonlinear thin membrane model to a measured data-set in order to generate a topological mathematical description of the cornea. In addition, we show how these results can lead to estimations for corneal radius of curvature and certain physical properties of the cornea; namely, tension and elasticity coefficient. Again all calculations and graphics generation were performed using the R language programming environment. The model describes corneal topology extremely well, and the estimated properties fall well within the expected range of values. The method is straight forward to implement and offers scope for further analysis using more detailed 3D models that include corneal thickness. PMID:27570056

  14. Time Synchronization Attack in Smart Grid-Part II: Cross Layer Detection Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenghao; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Li, Husheng

    2012-01-01

    A novel time synchronization attack (TSA) on wide area monitoring systems in smart grid has been identified in the first part of this paper. A cross layer detection mechanism is proposed to combat TSA in part II of this paper. In the physical layer, we propose a GPS carrier signal noise ratio (C/No) based spoofing detection technique. In addition, a patch-monopole hybrid antenna is applied to receive GPS signal. By computing the standard deviation of the C/No difference from two GPS receivers, a priori probability of spoofing detection is fed to the upper layer, where power system state is estimated and controlled. A trustworthiness based evaluation method is applied to identify the PMU being under TSA. Both the physical layer and upper layer algorithms are integrated to detect the TSA, thus forming a cross layer mechanism. Experiment is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed TSA detection algorithm.

  15. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, N.;

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated...... of the interface surfaces as well as the air gap thermal resistance at the interface. The combined CMY and parallel plate gap model is then further developed to simulate the thermal contact resistance for the case of an interface material. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data...... with an average deviation of 17% for the case without interface material and 12% in the case of including additional material at the interfaces. The model is then employed to evaluate the power production of the integrated system using different interface materials, including graphite, aluminum (Al), tin (Sn...

  16. Enhancing physical activity in older adults receiving hospital based rehabilitation: a phase II feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Catherine M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation have low activity levels and poor mobility outcomes. Increased physical activity may improve mobility. The objective of this Phase II study was to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation. Methods Patients admitted to aged care rehabilitation with reduced mobility were randomized to receive usual care or usual care plus additional physical activity, which was delivered by a physiotherapist or physiotherapy assistant. The feasibility and safety of the proposed RCT protocol was evaluated. The primary clinical outcome was mobility, which was assessed on hospital admission and discharge by an assessor blinded to group assignment. To determine the most appropriate measure of mobility, three measures were trialled; the Timed Up and Go, the Elderly Mobility Scale and the de Morton Mobility Index. Results The protocol was feasible. Thirty-four percent of people admitted to the ward were recruited, with 47 participants randomised to a control (n = 25 or intervention group (n = 22. The rates of adverse events (death, falls and readmission to an acute service did not differ between the groups. Usual care therapists remained blind to group allocation, with no change in usual practice. Physical activity targets were met on weekdays but not weekends and the intervention was acceptable to participants. The de Morton Mobility Index was the most appropriate measure of mobility. Conclusions The proposed RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation was feasible. A larger multi-centre RCT to establish whether this intervention is cost effective and improves mobility is warranted. Trial registration The trial was registered with the ANZTCR (ACTRN12608000427370.

  17. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro;

    2004-01-01

    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocri...

  18. Delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. Part II: Liposomes, Micelles, Microemulsions and Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana C; Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José M S; Amaral, Maria H

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are a generation of drugs that include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and cell products. According to their particular molecular characteristics (e.g. high molecular size, susceptibility to enzymatic activity), these products present some limitations for administration and usually parenteral routes are the only option. To avoid these limitations, different colloidal carriers (e.g. liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers) have been proposed to improve biopharmaceuticals delivery. Liposomes are promising drug delivery systems, despite some limitations have been reported (e.g. in vivo failure, poor long-term stability and low transfection efficiency), and only a limited number of formulations have reached the market. Micelles and microemulsions require more studies to exclude some of the observed drawbacks and guarantee their potential for use in clinic. According to their peculiar structures, dendrimers have been showing good results for nucleic acids delivery and a great development of these systems during next years is expected. This is the Part II of two review articles, which provides the state of the art of biopharmaceuticals delivery systems. Part II deals with liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers. PMID:26278524

  19. Delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. Part II: Liposomes, Micelles, Microemulsions and Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana C; Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José M S; Amaral, Maria H

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are a generation of drugs that include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and cell products. According to their particular molecular characteristics (e.g. high molecular size, susceptibility to enzymatic activity), these products present some limitations for administration and usually parenteral routes are the only option. To avoid these limitations, different colloidal carriers (e.g. liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers) have been proposed to improve biopharmaceuticals delivery. Liposomes are promising drug delivery systems, despite some limitations have been reported (e.g. in vivo failure, poor long-term stability and low transfection efficiency), and only a limited number of formulations have reached the market. Micelles and microemulsions require more studies to exclude some of the observed drawbacks and guarantee their potential for use in clinic. According to their peculiar structures, dendrimers have been showing good results for nucleic acids delivery and a great development of these systems during next years is expected. This is the Part II of two review articles, which provides the state of the art of biopharmaceuticals delivery systems. Part II deals with liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers.

  20. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  1. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  2. 76 FR 56263 - Titles II and XVI: Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... young adults, we use the same definition for disability as we do for other adults.\\1\\ We also use adult... to young adults. \\15\\ An adolescent is a child ``age 12 to the attainment of age 18.'' See 20 CFR 416... these services until they are age 22. Other young adults may participate in postsecondary......

  3. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  4. Constructions of Optical Queues With a Limited Number of Recirculations--Part II: Optimal Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xuan-Chao

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in all-optical packet-switched networks is the lack of optical buffers, and one feasible technology for the constructions of optical buffers is to use optical crossbar Switches and fiber Delay Lines (SDL). In this two-part paper, we consider SDL constructions of optical queues with a limited number of recirculations through the optical switches and the fiber delay lines. Such a problem arises from practical feasibility considerations. In Part I, we have proposed a class of greedy constructions for certain types of optical queues, including linear compressors, linear decompressors, and 2-to-1 FIFO multiplexers, and have shown that every optimal construction among our previous constructions of these types of optical queues under the constraint of a limited number of recirculations must be a greedy construction. In Part II, the present paper, we further show that there are at most two optimal constructions and give a simple algorithm to obtain the optimal construction(s). The main idea i...

  5. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions: part II--an approach to intradermal proliferations and horizontally oriented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Shachar; Al Habeeb, Ayman; Ghazarian, Danny

    2010-05-01

    Melanocytic lesions show great morphological diversity in their architecture and the cytomorphological appearance of their composite cells. Whereas functional melanocytes show a dendritic cytomorphology and territorial isolation, lesional nevomelanocytes and melanoma cells typically show epithelioid, spindled or mixed cytomorphologies, and a range of architectural arrangements. Spindling is common to melanocytic lesions, and may either be a characteristic feature or a divergent appearance. The presence of spindle cells may mask the melanocytic nature of a lesion, and is often disconcerting, either due to its infrequent appearance in a particular lesion or its interpretation as a dedifferentiated phenotype. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions follow the full spectrum of potential biological outcomes, and difficulty may be experienced judging the nature of a lesion due to a lack of consistently reliable features to predict biological behaviour. Over time, recognition of numerous histomorphological features that may portend a more aggressive lesion have been identified; however, the translation of these features into a diagnostic entity requires a gestalt approach. Although most spindle cell melanocytic lesions may reliably be resolved through this standard approach, problem areas do exist for the surgical pathologist or dermatopathologist. With this review (part II of II), we complete our discussion of spindle cell melanocytic lesions, in order to: (1) model a systematic approach to such lesions; and (2) provide familiarity with those melanocytic lesions which either typically or occasionally display a spindled cytomorphology.

  6. What Mathematics Calculations Do Adults Do in Their Everyday Lives? Part 1 of a Report on the Everyday Mathematics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcote, Maria; Marshall, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The type of mathematics taught in schools is often criticised for being irrelevant to students' lives and not based in "real life". This article is Part 1 of a three part report that documents the findings of a research project that investigated the mathematical calculations completed by adults in their everyday, non-occupational lives…

  7. Societal Planning: Identifying a New Role for the Transport Planner-Part II: Planning Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    . The guidelines serve to frame the right considerations and questions when dealing with planning problems of a certain complexity. They can then facilitate the structuring and interpretation of empirical study. Emphasis is paid to describe the planning process as one of self-organizing dynamics vis......The paper seeks to formulate planning guidelines based on Habermas's theory of communicative action. Specifically, this has led to the formulation of a set of four planning validity claims concerned to four types of planning guidelines concerning adequacy, dependency, suitability and adaptability......-a-vis the planning validity claims. Among other things the contingency of this process is outlined. It is concluded (part I & II) that transport planners can conveniently utilize the guidelines in their professional practice, tailored to their particular settings....

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  9. CERN scientists take part in the Tevatron Run II performance review committee

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Tevatron Run II is under way at Fermilab, exploring the high-energy frontier with upgraded detectors that will address some of the biggest questions in particle physics.Until CERN's LHC switches on, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider is the world's only source of top quarks. It is the only place where we can search for supersymmetry, for the Higgs boson, and for signatures of additional dimensions of space-time. The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently convened a high-level international review committee to examine Fermilab experts' first-phase plans for the accelerator complex. Pictured here with a dipole magnet in CERN's LHC magnet test facility are the four CERN scientists who took part in the DOE's Tevatron review. Left to right: Francesco Ruggiero, Massimo Placidi, Flemming Pedersen, and Karlheinz Schindl. Further information: CERN Courier 43 (1)

  10. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included. PMID:26886768

  11. Implementing AORN recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lynne

    2014-09-01

    Construction in and around a working perioperative suite is a challenge beyond merely managing traffic patterns and maintaining the sterile field. The AORN "Recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II" provides guidance on building design; movement of patients, personnel, supplies, and equipment; environmental controls; safety and security; and control of noise and distractions. Whether the OR suite evolves through construction, reconstruction, or remodeling, a multidisciplinary team of construction experts and health care professionals should create a functional plan and communicate at every stage of the project to maintain a safe environment and achieve a well-designed outcome. Emergency preparedness, a facility-wide security plan, and minimization of noise and distractions in the OR also help enhance the safety of the perioperative environment.

  12. Arnold-Chiari Malformation Type I and II in Iranian Adults: Clinical and Radiologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masuomian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: To evaluate clinical and ra-diological presentations of Arnold chiari malforma-tion in Iranian adults."nPatients and Methods: eighty patients with the clini-cal and radiological features of the chiari malforma-tions were evaluated by using computed tomography scan (CT scan or MRI, from 2001 to 2005 in our uni-versity-affiliated hospital. Surgical confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained in all patients."nResults: The mean age of our cases was 26.7 years (18-58 years.Our patients consisted of 14 (77.7% male and four (22.3% female. The most common presenting symptom was sensory complaints in eight patients (44.5%. Headache, gait disturbances, vertigo and cerebellar dysfunction (vertigo and nystagmus, were seen in 6 (33.3%, 4 (22.2%, 3 (16.6% and 2 (11.1% patients respectively. According to surgery, 15 (83.3% were classified as chiari I malformation, while three patients (16.7% fulfilled the anatomic criteria of chiari II. Imaging showed that all patients had cerebellar herniation. Hydrocephaly, Meningo-myelocele, syringomyelia, cerebellar atrophy and corpus callosum agenesis were seen in five (27.7%, 3 (16.7%, 6 (33.3%, 2 (11.1% and one (5.1% patients respectively. "nConclusion: Chiari type I was more common than type II in our patients such as others and syringemye-lia was the most common imaging abnormality after cerebellar herniation.

  13. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 3: oral therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-12-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this 3-part series provided an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women and reviewed the role of proper skin care and topical therapies in this patient population. In Part 3, oral therapies including combination oral contraceptives, spironolactone, antibiotics, and isotretinoin are discussed along with important considerations that clinicians should keep in mind when selecting oral agents for management of AV in adult women. PMID:26761932

  14. Psychoeducational Interventions with Pediatric Cancer Patients: Part II. Effects of Information and Skills Training on Health-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Ivan L.; Bradlyn, Andrew S.; Kato, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a model that was used as a framework for reviewing studies of psychoeducational interventions intended to influence illness- and treatment-related behaviors and attitudes in pediatric cancer patients. In Part II, we distinguish between interventions that attempt to influence patients' behaviors just by…

  15. Modeling of optical spectra of the light-harvesting CP29 antenna complex of photosystem II--part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ximao; Kell, Adam; Pieper, Jörg; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, it was believed that the CP29 protein from higher plant photosystem II (PSII) contains 8 chlorophylls (Chl's) per complex (Ahn et al. Science 2008, 320, 794-797; Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999, 96, 10056-10061) in contrast to the 13 Chl's revealed by the recent X-ray structure (Pan et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2011, 18, 309-315). This disagreement presents a constraint on the interpretation of the underlying electronic structure of this complex. To shed more light on the interpretation of various experimental optical spectra discussed in the accompanying paper (part I, DOI 10.1021/jp4004328 ), we report here calculated low-temperature (5 K) absorption, fluorescence, hole-burned (HB), and 300 K circular dichroism (CD) spectra for CP29 complexes with a different number of pigments. We focus on excitonic structure and the nature of the low-energy state using modeling based on the X-ray structure of CP29 and Redfield theory. We show that the lowest energy state is mostly contributed to by a612, a611, and a615 Chl's. We suggest that in the previously studied CP29 complexes from spinach (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol.2000, 71, 574-589) two Chl's could have been lost during the preparation/purification procedure, but it is unlikely that the spinach CP29 protein contains only eight Chl's, as suggested by the sequence homology-based study (Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.1999, 96, 10056-10061). The likely Chl's missing in wild-type (WT) CP29 complexes studied previously (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol. 2000, 71, 574-589) include a615 and b607. This is why the nonresonant HB spectra shown in that reference were ~1 nm blue-shifted with the low-energy state mostly localized on about one Chl a (i.e., a612) molecule. Pigment composition of CP29 is discussed in the context of light-harvesting and excitation energy transfer.

  16. An investigation of body part as object (BPO) responses in normal and brain-damaged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, R J; Duffy, J R

    1989-07-01

    A test of simple pantomime was administered to three groups of adults and comparisons were made across groups of the incidence of subjects who exhibited body part as object (BPO) responses and of the mean frequency of occurrence of BPO in each group. The three groups were left-hemisphere-damaged aphasics (N = 28), right-hemisphere-damaged (N = 24), and normal controls (N = 28). The results indicated no significant differences among groups on the BPO measures. Also, to test the strength of association between the frequency of occurrence of BPO and measures of limb apraxia and severity of aphasia for the left-hemisphere-damaged aphasic group, correlation coefficients were obtained. The correlations were low and nonsignificant. The results of this investigation do not support the common clinical assumption that the occurrence of BPO during the performance of simple pantomimes is pathognomic for left-hemisphere pathology or associated with limb apraxia.

  17. [A case of adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) triggered by an overseas travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masayoshi; Shimada, Takuya; Hamaoka, Shima; Shibata, Masunari; Naito, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old male presented with abnormal behavior and consciousness disturbance on the day after traveling abroad and was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory tests showed hyperammonemia and hypercitrullinemia. The electro-encephalogram showed frontal dominant bilateral slow δ burst. He had a peculiar taste for nuts. But he didn't take nuts during the overseas travel for 3 days. The family history revealed that his younger brother died of a status epilepticus of unknown cause at the age of 29. These findings were compatible with hepatic encephalopathy due to adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). Gene analysis provided a definite diagnosis of CTLN2. Diet and drug therapy have improved his condition. He is due to have liver transplantation which is the only established radical treatment for CTLN2 if his condition becomes worse. The present case shows that cessation of the habitual intake of nuts only for 3 days could lead to onset of CTLN2. PMID:25283831

  18. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Eight Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 15-18 April 1975. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eighth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Past Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 15 to 18 April 1975. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMPBR’s and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  19. Hospital reimbursement incentives: is there a more effective option?--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    As discussed in Part I of this article, hospital executives in Canada, Germany, and the United States manage their facilities' resources to maximize the incentives inherent in their respective reimbursement system and thereby increase their bottom line. It was also discussed that an additional supply of available hospitals, physicians, and other services will generate increased utilization. Part II discusses how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 will eventually fail since it neither controls prices nor utilization (e.g., imaging, procedures, ambulatory surgery, discretionary spending). This article concludes with the discussion of the German multipayer approach with universal access and global budgets that might well be a model for U.S. healthcare in the future. Although the German healthcare system has a number of shortfalls, its paradigm could offer the most appropriate compromise when selecting the economic incentives to reduce the percentage of the U.S. gross domestic product expenditure for healthcare from 17.4% to roughly 12.0%. PMID:23547503

  20. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenomics of Immunosuppressants in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Jeannine S; Bemer, Meagan J; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2016-05-01

    Part I of this article included a pertinent review of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), the role of postgraft immunosuppression in alloHCT, and the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of the calcineurin inhibitors and methotrexate. In this article (Part II), we review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of mycophenolic acid (MPA), sirolimus, and the antithymocyte globulins (ATG). We then discuss target concentration intervention (TCI) of these postgraft immunosuppressants in alloHCT patients, with a focus on current evidence for TCI and on how TCI may improve clinical management in these patients. Currently, TCI using trough concentrations is conducted for sirolimus in alloHCT patients. Several studies demonstrate that MPA plasma exposure is associated with clinical outcomes, with an increasing number of alloHCT patients needing TCI of MPA. Compared with MPA, there are fewer pharmacokinetic/dynamic studies of rabbit ATG and horse ATG in alloHCT patients. Future pharmacokinetic/dynamic research of postgraft immunosuppressants should include '-omics'-based tools: pharmacogenomics may be used to gain an improved understanding of the covariates influencing pharmacokinetics as well as proteomics and metabolomics as novel methods to elucidate pharmacodynamic responses.

  1. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part II: Thermal modeling and analysis of experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Justin S G; Solanki, Prem K; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    This study aims at developing thermal analysis tools and explaining experimental observations made by means of polarized-light cryomacroscopy (Part I). Thermal modeling is based on finite elements analysis (FEA), where two model parameters are extracted from thermal measurements: (i) the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cuvette and the cooling chamber, and (ii) the effective thermal conductivity within the cryoprotective agent (CPA) at the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range. The effective thermal conductivity takes into account enhanced heat transfer due to convection currents within the CPA, creating the so-called Bénard cells. Comparison of experimental results with simulation data indicates that the uncertainty in simulations due to the propagation of uncertainty in measured physical properties exceeds the uncertainty in experimental measurements, which validates the modeling approach. It is shown in this study that while a cavity may form in the upper-center portion of the vitrified CPA, it has very little effect on estimating the temperature distribution within the domain. This cavity is driven by thermal contraction of the CPA, with the upper-center of the domain transitioning to glass last. Finally, it is demonstrated in this study that additional stresses may develop within the glass transition temperature range due to nonlinear behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient. This effect is reported here for the first time in the context of cryobiology, using the capabilities of polarized-light cryomacroscopy.

  2. Investigational drug tracking: phases I-III and NDA submissions--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K L

    1994-10-01

    The author catalogs over 800 investigational drugs/biologicals currently in Phase I, II or III clinical trials or drugs/biologicals submitted to the FDA as new drug applications. Part I of this article appeared in the September issue of Hospital Pharmacy. The list assists in predicting when new drugs will be marketed. The entries include generic/chemical name, investigational drug number, synonyms, trade names, manufacturers, clinical trial status, predicted approval year, indications or drug class, whether the drug has been developed through biotechnology, and references. Entries were gleaned from medical journals, stock market analysis publications, and the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association's Medicines in Development Series. The list is alphabetized by the generic/chemical name or investigational drug number and cross-indexed by the trade name and synonyms. The list reflects those drugs which were not FDA approved as of April 15, 1994. Part I concludes with the remaining alphabetical listing by generic/chemical name or investigational drug number. PMID:10137850

  3. Interactions between DNA and gemini surfactant: impact on gene therapy: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Taksim; Kamel, Amany O; Wettig, Shawn D

    2016-02-01

    Nonviral gene delivery, provides distinct treatment modalities for the inherited and acquired diseases, relies upon the encapsulation of a gene of interest, which is then ideally delivered to the target cells. Variations in the chemical structure of gemini surfactants and subsequent physicochemical characteristics of the gemini-based lipoplexes and their impact on efficient gene transfection were assessed in part I, which was published in first March 2016 issue of Nanomedicine (1103). In order to design an efficient vector using gemini surfactants, the interaction of the surfactant with DNA and other components of the delivery system must be characterized, and more critically, well understood. Such studies will help to understand how nonviral transfection complexes, in general, overcome various cellular barriers. The Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer studies, atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, small-angle x-ray scattering, are extensively used to evaluate the interaction behavior of gemini surfactants with DNA and other vector components. Part II of this review focuses on the use of these unique techniques to understand their interaction with DNA. PMID:26784450

  4. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made. PMID:14695368

  5. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research.

  6. CFD analysis of the ITER first wall 06 panel. Part II: Thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanino, R.; Bonifetto, R. [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Cau, F.; Portone, A. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Savoldi Richard, L., E-mail: laura.savoldi@polito.it [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the FW06 panel of the ITER shielding blanket is presented in two companion papers. In this Part II we concentrate on the thermal-hydraulics of the water coolant, driven by the nuclear volumetric and plasma surface heat loads discussed in Part I. Both the detailed steady state analysis of a single cooling channel and the coarse transient analysis of the whole panel are considered. The compatibility of the hot spots with the maximum recommended temperatures for the different materials is confirmed. The heat transfer coefficient between coolant and walls is obtained post-processing the results of the simulation and compared with the results of available correlations, which may be used for simpler analyses: in the fully developed flow regions of the cooling pipes, it turns out to be well approximated by the Sieder–Tate correlation. The operation margin with respect to the critical heat flux is also computed and turns out to be sufficiently large compared with the design limit.

  7. The effective blended tutor: supporting adult learners studying part-time, vocationally relevant degrees at a distance

    OpenAIRE

    Youde, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research into the personal qualities that adult learners value in their tutors within blended learning contexts. This paper takes steps to address this gap. Of significance, the paper explores tutor practices contributing to their effectiveness by considering learner perspectives. An Andragogical Model is proposed for effective blended learning to meet the needs of adult learners studying part-time, vocationally relevant degrees at a distance. The research is based at a ‘...

  8. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part II: Analysis by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; Castorena, Joe L; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a decedent's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In part I of this 2-part series, GSR results performed by SEM/EDX in undisputed cases of suicidal handgun wounds were studied. In part II, the same population was studied, deceased persons with undisputed suicidal handgun wounds, but GSR testing was performed using ICP-AES. A total of 102 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and the results of the GSR testing. This study found that 50% of cases where the deceased was known to have fired a handgun immediately prior to death had positive GSR results by ICP/AES, which did not differ from the results of GSR testing by SEM/EDX. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon were positive for GSR by either method, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether someone has discharged a firearm and is not useful as a determining factor of whether or not a wound is self-inflicted or non-self-inflicted. While a positive GSR result may be of use, a negative result is not helpful in the medical examiner setting as a negative result indicates that either a person fired a weapon prior to death or a person did not fire a weapon prior to death. PMID:17721164

  9. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  10. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  11. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:19226752

  12. Sludge in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden, part II[Combustion of]; Slam fraan skogsindustrin, fas II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kjoerk, Anders; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    During part II of this research program combustible sludge from the pulp and paper industry has been studied in detail. 560,000 tonnes of sludge per year (calculated as dry sludge) are produced in Sweden. The energy potential in the produced sludge is about 2 TWh/year. Today 1 TWh/year is produced in the pulp and paper mill's own boilers. This means that additional energy can be utilized from this material. An objective of this program has been to decide whether or not there are sludge types which are favourable respectively difficult to combust. By mixing different sludge types, or other waste products, emissions and/or problems during combustion can be minimized. These possibilities have been studied thoroughly in this program. A lot of sludge samples have been studied in laboratory scale at SP and in full-scale at Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. As a complement to the practical tests S.E.P. has done research regarding different aspects of sludge as a fuel; for example handling of sludge and regional drying. The results of 40 sintering tests at SP showed that the sintering temperature during combustion of sludge in a fluidised bed, with silica sand as bed material, varied between <850 deg C and >1100 deg C. The evaluation showed that the alkali content in the ash had the largest influence on the sintering temperature. Other factors were less important. During the tests at Chalmers eleven different sludge samples have been combusted together with wood pellets. Initially there were problems with the feeding to the boiler for some of the sludge samples. When the fuel feeding problems were solved the combustion took place without any problems. When sludge is co-combusted together with a 'clean' base fuel such as wood pellets the sulphur-, nitrogen- and chloride contents in the sludge have a large impact on the emissions. The normal way to reduce sulphur dioxide but also hydrogen chloride is to add lime in different positions into and after the boiler. In

  13. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part II. Solid route, metals deposition, other processes; Procesos de fabricacion de metales celulares. Parte II: Via solida, deposicion de metales otros procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2009-07-01

    At the first part of this paper review a description about cellular metal processes by liquid route, was made. In this second part, solid processes and metals deposition are described. In similar way, the different kind of processes in each case are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 147 refs.

  14. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Steatogenesis in adult-onset type II citrullinemia is associated with down-regulation of PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Michiharu; Kimura, Takefumi; Yazaki, Masahide; Tanaka, Naoki; Yang, Yang; Nakajima, Takero; Horiuchi, Akira; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joshita, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Tanaka, Eiji; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2015-03-01

    SLC25A13 (citrin or aspartate-glutamate carrier 2) is located in the mitochondrial membrane in the liver and its genetic deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). CTLN2 is one of the urea cycle disorders characterized by sudden-onset hyperammonemia due to reduced argininosuccinate synthase activity. This disorder is frequently accompanied with hepatosteatosis in the absence of obesity and ethanol consumption. However, the precise mechanism of steatogenesis remains unclear. The expression of genes associated with fatty acid (FA) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism was examined using liver samples obtained from 16 CTLN2 patients and compared with 7 healthy individuals. Although expression of hepatic genes associated with lipogenesis and TG hydrolysis was not changed, the mRNAs encoding enzymes/proteins involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1α, medium- and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1), very-low-density lipoprotein secretion (microsomal TG transfer protein), and FA transport (CD36 and FA-binding protein 1), were markedly suppressed in CTLN2 patients. Serum concentrations of ketone bodies were also decreased in these patients, suggesting reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation activity. Consistent with these findings, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was significantly down-regulated. Hepatic PPARα expression was inversely correlated with severity of steatosis and circulating ammonia and citrulline levels. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was enhanced in CTLN2 livers, which was likely associated with lower hepatic PPARα. Collectively, down-regulation of PPARα is associated with steatogenesis in CTLN2 patients. These findings provide a novel link between urea cycle disorder, lipid metabolism, and PPARα.

  16. Steatogenesis in adult-onset type II citrullinemia is associated with down-regulation of PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Michiharu; Kimura, Takefumi; Yazaki, Masahide; Tanaka, Naoki; Yang, Yang; Nakajima, Takero; Horiuchi, Akira; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joshita, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Tanaka, Eiji; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2015-03-01

    SLC25A13 (citrin or aspartate-glutamate carrier 2) is located in the mitochondrial membrane in the liver and its genetic deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). CTLN2 is one of the urea cycle disorders characterized by sudden-onset hyperammonemia due to reduced argininosuccinate synthase activity. This disorder is frequently accompanied with hepatosteatosis in the absence of obesity and ethanol consumption. However, the precise mechanism of steatogenesis remains unclear. The expression of genes associated with fatty acid (FA) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism was examined using liver samples obtained from 16 CTLN2 patients and compared with 7 healthy individuals. Although expression of hepatic genes associated with lipogenesis and TG hydrolysis was not changed, the mRNAs encoding enzymes/proteins involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1α, medium- and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1), very-low-density lipoprotein secretion (microsomal TG transfer protein), and FA transport (CD36 and FA-binding protein 1), were markedly suppressed in CTLN2 patients. Serum concentrations of ketone bodies were also decreased in these patients, suggesting reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation activity. Consistent with these findings, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was significantly down-regulated. Hepatic PPARα expression was inversely correlated with severity of steatosis and circulating ammonia and citrulline levels. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was enhanced in CTLN2 livers, which was likely associated with lower hepatic PPARα. Collectively, down-regulation of PPARα is associated with steatogenesis in CTLN2 patients. These findings provide a novel link between urea cycle disorder, lipid metabolism, and PPARα. PMID:25533124

  17. Critical Illness in Pregnancy: Part II: Common Medical Conditions Complicating Pregnancy and Puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K; Karnad, Dilip R; Bandi, Venkata; Hall, Nicole; Belfort, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The first of this two-part series on critical illness in pregnancy dealt with obstetric disorders. In Part II, medical conditions that commonly affect pregnant women or worsen during pregnancy are discussed. ARDS occurs more frequently in pregnancy. Strategies commonly used in nonpregnant patients, including permissive hypercapnia, limits for plateau pressure, and prone positioning, may not be acceptable, especially in late pregnancy. Genital tract infections unique to pregnancy include chorioamnionitis, group A streptococcal infection causing toxic shock syndrome, and polymicrobial infection with streptococci, staphylococci, and Clostridium perfringens causing necrotizing vulvitis or fasciitis. Pregnancy predisposes to VTE; D-dimer levels have low specificity in pregnancy. A ventilation-perfusion scan is preferred over CT pulmonary angiography in some situations to reduce radiation to the mother's breasts. Low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparins form the mainstay of treatment; vitamin K antagonists, oral factor Xa inhibitors, and direct thrombin inhibitors are not recommended in pregnancy. The physiologic hyperdynamic circulation in pregnancy worsens many cardiovascular disorders. It increases risk of pulmonary edema or arrhythmias in mitral stenosis, heart failure in pulmonary hypertension or aortic stenosis, aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome, or valve thrombosis in mechanical heart valves. Common neurologic problems in pregnancy include seizures, altered mental status, visual symptoms, and strokes. Other common conditions discussed are aspiration of gastric contents, OSA, thyroid disorders, diabetic ketoacidosis, and cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy. Studies confined to pregnant women are available for only a few of these conditions. We have, therefore, reviewed pregnancy-specific adjustments in the management of these disorders. PMID:26020727

  18. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  19. Japanese encephalitis (JE) part II: 14 years' follow-up of survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkari, N B S; Thacker, A K; Barthwal, S P; Mishra, V K; Prapann, Shiv; Srivastava, Deepak; Sarkari, M

    2012-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis, the commonest Arbovirus encephalitis, has been endemic in many parts of Asia, the Pacific Islands, and India; also, there have been many epidemics. Most of the post JE cases have been associated with neurological and neuropsychiatric deficits but have not been properly classified and followed. Practically all the previous studies were in children or young adults. The aim of this study, involving only adult cases, the largest ever being reported, has been to follow the 688/1,199 survivors of JE patients out of 1,282 of acute cases admitted during four epidemics for a period of 14 years after properly classifying the sequelae. This prospective study was conducted in B.R.D. Medical College Gorakhpur (India), involving 665/688 post JE cases with neuropsychiatric deficits from four epidemics of 1978, 1980, 1988 and 1989 which were properly classified in nine groups. While the first epidemic of 1978 was being studied, more disastrous episodes flared up and the patients were subsequently added. Hence, the total duration of this prospective study was from November 1978 to December 2003. There were 14 defaulted initially from 688 followed (23/688 without sequelae and 665/688 with neuropsychiatric deficits), and later 130 were lost from time to time at various stages of follow up. Four out of 23/688 discharged without any deficit had to be readmitted for bizarre movements, assaultative behaviour and euphoria without fever and altered sensorium. All of them improved by symptomatic treatment. Progressive improvement occurred in all the parameters consisting of psychological disturbances, higher cerebral dysfunction, speech disorders (dysphonia, dysarthria, dysphasias, apraxia and agnosia), extra pyramidal, pyramidal features, and hypothalamic disturbances, cranial nerves including pupils and fundi and seizures. Maximum cases improved between 6 months (55%) to 1 year (78%). Only some features improved between 5 to 14 years. Four patients of hemiplegia

  20. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008). PMID:19273990

  1. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  2. Towards multi-resolution global climate modeling with ECHAM6-FESOM. Part II: climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, T.; Goessling, H. F.; Jung, T.; Sidorenko, D.; Semmler, T.; Barbi, D.; Handorf, D.

    2016-06-01

    This study forms part II of two papers describing ECHAM6-FESOM, a newly established global climate model with a unique multi-resolution sea ice-ocean component. While part I deals with the model description and the mean climate state, here we examine the internal climate variability of the model under constant present-day (1990) conditions. We (1) assess the internal variations in the model in terms of objective variability performance indices, (2) analyze variations in global mean surface temperature and put them in context to variations in the observed record, with particular emphasis on the recent warming slowdown, (3) analyze and validate the most common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns, (4) diagnose the potential predictability of various climate indices, and (5) put the multi-resolution approach to the test by comparing two setups that differ only in oceanic resolution in the equatorial belt, where one ocean mesh keeps the coarse ~1° resolution applied in the adjacent open-ocean regions and the other mesh is gradually refined to ~0.25°. Objective variability performance indices show that, in the considered setups, ECHAM6-FESOM performs overall favourably compared to five well-established climate models. Internal variations of the global mean surface temperature in the model are consistent with observed fluctuations and suggest that the recent warming slowdown can be explained as a once-in-one-hundred-years event caused by internal climate variability; periods of strong cooling in the model (`hiatus' analogs) are mainly associated with ENSO-related variability and to a lesser degree also to PDO shifts, with the AMO playing a minor role. Common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns are simulated largely consistent with their real counterparts. Typical deficits also found in other models at similar resolutions remain, in particular too weak non-seasonal variability of SSTs over large parts of the ocean and episodic periods of almost absent

  3. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART II: BEEF COW/CALF REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part II: Nutritional & Reproductive Management Practices, were collected by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) from beef pr...

  4. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6.

  5. Fault Detection in Gear Drives with Non-Stationary Rotational Speed - Part II: the Time-Quefrency Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, G.; Ivanov, Yu. Ye.

    2003-03-01

    This paper deals with the recognition of faults in toothing during non-stationary start up and run down of gear drives. In the first part, this task was solved by means of the time-frequency analysis. A planetary gear was used as a case study. Part II contains a new approach using the time-quefrency analysis. The same example was successfully subjected in this procedure.

  6. Low carbon products to design innovative leather processes. Part II: determination of the optimal physical modification of tara

    OpenAIRE

    Ollé Otero, Lluís; Casas, Concepció; Diaz, Jorge; Sorolla, Sílvia; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the fruit of the tara bush as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to chromium and other mineral salts and vegetable extracts. Specifically, physical modifications have been developed in part II of the study to obtain a modified tara with a higher percentage of tannins and with a better level of penetration (see Low carbon products to design innovative leather processes. Part I: determination of the optimal chemical modification of...

  7. A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part II: Durability of materials

    OpenAIRE

    López-Delgado, A.; Guerrero, A; López, F. A.; Pérez, C.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Under the European LIFE Program a microencapsulation process was developed for liquid mercury using Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) technology, obtaining a stable concrete-like sulfur matrix that allows the immobilization of mercury for long-term storage. The process description and characterization of the materials obtained were detailed in Part I. The present document, Part II, reports the results of different tests carried out to determine the durability of Hg-S concrete...

  8. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6

  9. "Why not stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry--why not?" Part II: GATES in context with redox systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna Maria; Asuero, Agustin G; Toporek, Marcin; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Redox equilibria and titration play an important role in chemical analysis, and the formulation of an accurate mathematical description is a challenge. This article is devoted to static and (mainly) dynamic redox systems; the dynamic systems are represented by redox titrations. An overview addresses earlier approaches to static redox systems (redox diagram plots, including Pourbaix diagrams) and to titration redox systems, thereby covering a gap in the literature. After this short review, the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) is introduced, with generalized electron balance (GEB) as its inherent part within GATES/GEB. Computer simulation, performed according to GATES/GEB, enables following the changes in potential and pH of the solution, together with chemical speciation at each step of a titration, thus providing better insight into this procedure. The undeniable advantages of GATES/GEB over earlier approaches are indicated. Formulation of GEB according to two approaches (I and II) is presented on the respective examples. A general criterion distinguishing between non-redox and redox systems is presented. It is indicated that the formulation of GEB according to Approach II does not need the knowledge of oxidation degrees of particular elements; knowledge of the composition, expressed by chemical formula of the species and its charge, is sufficient for this purpose. Approach I to GEB, known also as the "short" version of GEB, is applicable if oxidation degrees for all elements of the system are known beforehand. The roles of oxidants and reductants are not ascribed to particular components forming a system and to the species thus formed. This is the complete opposite of earlier approaches to redox titrations, based on the stoichiometric redox reaction, formulated for this purpose. GEB, perceived as a law of matter conservation, is fully compatible with other (charge and concentration) balances related to the system in question. The applicability

  10. Impaired Memory in OT-II Transgenic Mice Is Associated with Decreased Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Possibly Induced by Alteration in Th2 Cytokine Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Gak; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Hyunju; Choi, Junghyun; Song, Eun Ji; Han, Seung-Yun; Oh, Myung Sook; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Il; Moon, Minho

    2016-08-31

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effects of CD4+ T cell on cognitive function. However, the changes of Th2 cytokines in restricted CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire model and their effects on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether and how the mice with restricted CD4+ repertoire TCR exhibit learning and memory impairment by using OT-II mice. OT-II mice showed decreased adult neurogenesis in hippocampus and short- and long- term memory impairment. Moreover, Th2 cytokines in OT-II mice are significantly increased in peripheral organs and IL-4 is significantly increased in brain. Finally, IL-4 treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of cultured adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells. Taken together, abnormal level of Th2 cytokines can lead memory dysfunction via impaired adult neurogenesis in OT-II transgenic. PMID:27432189

  11. Small Business Management. Volume II: Business Analysis. Entrepreneurship Education for Adults--Program Development and Implementation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    A practice problem in year-end business analysis is presented to provide experience with a system of single-entry bookkeeping as part of a small business management adult education program. The problem simulates an entire business year and includes transactions involving general business revenues and expenses pertaining to most small retailing…

  12. [The history of antitobacco actions in the last 500 years. Part. II. Medical actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus, who discovered it in Cuba in October, 1492. Spread of tobacco consumption was initiated by the French diplomat Jean Nicot de Villemain, who in 1560 recommended it in the form of powdered tobacco leaves to the French Queen Catherine de Medice to combat her migraine headaches, and introduced the term Nicotiana tobaccum. Tobacco consumption greatly rose after the I World War, and after the II World War it became very common, especially among man. In the first half of the 20th century the sale of tobacco products rose by 61%, and cigarettes dominated the market of tobacco products. At the beginning of the 20th century cigarettes constituted only 2% of the total sale of tobacco products, while in the middle of the 20th century--more than 80%. Although the first epidemiological papers indicating that "smoking is connected with the shortening of life span" were published in the first half of the 20th century, not until 1950 did Hill and Doll in Great Britain, and Wynder and Graham in USA in 1951 show a statistically significant correlation between cigarettes smoking and lung cancer occurrence. Many controversies according the use of tobacco accompanied it from the beginning of its presence in Europe. The conflicting opinions according to its influence to health coexisted in the 16th to 19th centuries. In this period, especially in the 19th century dominated moral and religious arguments against tobacco. In the 20th century however, and particularly in its second part, development in medical research was enhanced by civil voluntary actions against advertisement and passive smoking. This lead to the significant limitation of tobacco expansion in Europe, USA and Canada in the end of the 20th century.

  13. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  14. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  15. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging-part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Niels; van der Vliet, Ton; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Feuth, Ton; Roeleveld, Nel; Mullaart, Reinier A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may improve t

  16. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging--part 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Vliet, T. van der; Rotteveel, J.J.; Feuth, T.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may

  17. Neuro-Oftalmologia: sistema sensorial -- Parte II Revisão 1997 -- 1999 Neuro-Ophthalmology: sensorial system - Part II. Review 1997 - 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta é a segunda parte de uma revisão da literatura do sistema visual sensorial. O autor seleciona artigos publicados na literatura entre os anos de 1997 e 1999 relacionados a neurorretinites, neuropatia óptica compressiva, tumores do nervo óptico, pseudotumor cerebral, neuropatias ópticas hereditárias, hipoplasia do nervo óptico, drusas do disco óptico, neuropatia óptica tóxica, neuropatia óptica traumática, outras neuropatias ópticas e doenças retinianas, doenças do quiasma óptico e do trato óptico, assim como alterações geniculares e retrogeniculares, incluindo os distúrbios visuais corticais. Os artigos são apresentados e comentados quanto às suas conclusões, alcance e relações com o conhecimento previamente estabelecido.This is the second part of a review of papers on the visual afferent system published from 1997 to 1999. In this part the author presents the most important contributions made to areas such as neuroretinitis, optic nerve tumors, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hereditary optic neuropathies, optic disc drusen, optic nerve hypoplasia, traumatic and toxic optic neuropathy as well as geniculate and retrogeniculate visual disorders. Selected papers are considered in relation to their results and previously established concepts.

  18. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function. PMID:23022220

  19. The Three-Part Harmony of Adult Learning, Critical Thinking, and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making are fields that receive attention individually, although they are interspersed with elements of each other's theories and philosophies. In addressing adult learning precepts, it is essential to include critical thinking and decision-making. One without the other creates weakness; all must be…

  20. Evaluation and Treatment of Acne Patients – Part II: Topical, Systemic and Surgical Treatments, Acne Treatment in Pregnancy, Treatment Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    A. Figueiredo; Massa, A; Picoto, A; Soares, AP; Lopes, C; Resende, C; Rebelo, C; Brandão, FM; Marques-Pinto, G; Schonenberger de Oliveira, H; Selores, M.; Gonçalo, M; Bello, RT

    2011-01-01

    O Portuguese Acne Advisory Board (PAAB), grupo de dermatologistas portugueses que, à semelhança de grupos congéneres internacionais, tem dedicado particular atenção à definição de linhas de orientação para o tratamento da acne, pretende que o presente documento constitua uma ferramenta útil na abordagem dos doentes com esta patologia. Elaborou-se um dossier, para educação médica contínua, subdividido em 2 partes: Parte I – etiopatogenia e clínica; Parte II – abordagem terapêutica. Nesta P...

  1. The new production theory for health care through clinical reengineering: a study of clinical guidelines--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J R

    1995-01-01

    In Part I of this two-part article, in the December 1994 issue of the journal, the author discussed the manufacturing theories of Peter Drucker in terms of their applicability for the health care field. He concluded that Drucker's four principles and practices of manufacturing--statistical quality control, manufacturing accounting, modular organization, and systems approach--do have application to the health care system. Clinical guidelines, a variation on the Drucker theory, are a specific example of the manufacturing process in health. The performance to date of some guidelines and their implications for the health care reform debate are discussed in Part II of the article. PMID:10139603

  2. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  3. Neuro-Oftalmologia: sistema sensorial -- Parte II Revisão 1997 -- 1999 Neuro-Ophthalmology: sensorial system - Part II. Review 1997 - 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    2002-01-01

    Esta é a segunda parte de uma revisão da literatura do sistema visual sensorial. O autor seleciona artigos publicados na literatura entre os anos de 1997 e 1999 relacionados a neurorretinites, neuropatia óptica compressiva, tumores do nervo óptico, pseudotumor cerebral, neuropatias ópticas hereditárias, hipoplasia do nervo óptico, drusas do disco óptico, neuropatia óptica tóxica, neuropatia óptica traumática, outras neuropatias ópticas e doenças retinianas, doenças do quiasma óptico e do trat...

  4. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  5. Reactive polymers: part I - Novel polystyrene-anchored copper (II), nickel (II), cobalt (II), iron (III), zinc (II), cadmium (II), molybdenum (VI) and uranium (VI) complexes of the chelating resin containing thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new chelating resin containing thiosemicarbazone has been synthesized by the reaction of aldehydopolystyrene and thiosemicarbazide. The polystyrene bound thiosemicarbazone reacts with salicylaldehyde leading to the formation of a new Schiff base chelating resin which reacts with sodium monochloroacetate and gives the polymer bound S-acetatothiosemicarbazone. The new chelating resin forms complexes of the types PS-LCuX·S, PS-LNiX·3S, PS-LHNi(acac)2, PS-LCoX·3S, PS-LFeX2·2S, PS-LZnX·S, PS-LCdX·S, PS-LMoO2(acac) and PS-LUO2X·S (where PS-LH = polymeranchored ligand; S = DMF or CH3OH; X=Cl or CH3COO- and acacH = acetylacetone). The chelating resins and complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and electronic spectra and magnetic measurements. The Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Fe(III) complexes are paramagnetic while the Zn(II), Cd(II), Mo(VI) and U(VI) complexes are diamagnetic. The IR data indicate the thioenolization of the ligand in the complexes (except in PS-LHNi(acac)2 where it behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand). (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Evaluación neurofuncional del tallo cerebral Parte II: Reflejo mandibular = Neurofunctional evaluation of brain stem. II. Mandibular reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Sarmiento, Fidias E.; Pabón Porras, María Angélica; Granadillo Deluqu, Elías David

    2011-01-01

    El reflejo mandibular o maseterino posee conexiones nerviosas únicas, diferentes de las exhi­bidas por otros reflejos monosinápticos humanos, y permite evaluar, de forma fácil y eficien­te, el tallo cerebral por medio de la estimulación mecánica, eléctrica o magnética. Diversos estudios han demostrado la participación en este reflejo de las interneuronas del tallo cerebral y su modulación por estructuras supraespinales, que hacen parte fundamental de su integra­ción motora. El reflejo mandibu...

  7. Adult cardiac fibroblast proliferation is modulated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in normal and hypertrophied hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tamara P; Lawan, Ahmed; Robinson, Emma; Grieve, David J; Plevin, Robin; Paul, Andrew; Currie, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Increased adult cardiac fibroblast proliferation results in an increased collagen deposition responsible for the fibrosis accompanying pathological remodelling of the heart. The mechanisms regulating cardiac fibroblast proliferation remain poorly understood. Using a minimally invasive transverse aortic banding (MTAB) mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy, we have assessed fibrosis and cardiac fibroblast proliferation. We have investigated whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) regulates proliferation in fibroblasts isolated from normal and hypertrophied hearts. It is known that CaMKIIδ plays a central role in cardiac myocyte contractility, but nothing is known of its role in adult cardiac fibroblast function. The MTAB model used here produces extensive hypertrophy and fibrosis. CaMKIIδ protein expression and activity is upregulated in MTAB hearts and, specifically, in cardiac fibroblasts isolated from hypertrophied hearts. In response to angiotensin II, cardiac fibroblasts isolated from MTAB hearts show increased proliferation rates. Inhibition of CaMKII with autocamtide inhibitory peptide inhibits proliferation in cells isolated from both sham and MTAB hearts, with a significantly greater effect evident in MTAB cells. These results are the first to show selective upregulation of CaMKIIδ in adult cardiac fibroblasts following cardiac hypertrophy and to assign a previously unrecognised role to CaMKII in regulating adult cardiac fibroblast function in normal and diseased hearts. PMID:23881186

  8. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  9. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 2: Application to EBR-II Primary Sodium System and Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2006-03-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decontamination and decomissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidifed carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, USA. This report is Part 2 of a two-part report. This second report provides a supplement to the first report and describes the application of the humdidified carbon dioxide technique ("carbonation") to the EBR-II primary tank, primary cover gas systems, and the intermediate heat exchanger. Future treatment plans are also provided.

  10. Bauxitas refratárias: composição química, fases e propriedades - parte II Refractory bauxites: chemical composition, phases and properties - part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pascoal

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A bauxita apresenta uma ampla faixa de aplicações industriais, de acordo com sua composição química e mineralógica. No setor de refratários, esta matéria-prima tem adquirido grande importância, uma vez que pode substituir parcial ou totalmente agregados de alumina eletrofundida em formados e monolíticos, devido a sua alta refratariedade e custo inferior. Entre os maiores produtores mundiais encontram-se a China, a Guiana e o Brasil. Embora seja um dos maiores produtores mundiais de bauxita refratária, no Brasil pouco se conhece de suas características químicas e mineralógicas, bem como suas propriedades em serviço a altas temperaturas. Esta seqüência de artigos apresenta uma revisão sobre as aplicações, fases cristalinas, características e propriedades a alta temperatura de bauxitas refratárias chinesas e sul-americanas. Nesta segunda parte serão consideradas suas propriedades mecânicas a alta temperatura e um problema freqüente na utilização de bauxitas refratárias, a expansão térmica secundária.Bauxite shows a wide range of applications, according to its chemical and mineralogical composition. In the refractory industry, this raw material has partially or totally substituted fused alumina in bricks and castables, due to its high refractoriness and low cost. The major producers of refractory grade bauxite are, in this order, China, Guyana and Brazil. Although Brazil is one of the major suppliers of this raw material, very few studies have been carried out to understand its chemical, mineralogical and high-temperature properties. These papers present a review regarding the applications of South American and Chinese refractory grade bauxites, including the microchemistry of their crystalline phases and their hot properties. This second part will focus mechanical properties at high temperatures, and a common problem in refractory bauxites, the secondary thermal expansion.

  11. Zircônia tetragonal policristalina. Parte II: Microestrutura e resistividade elétrica Tetragonal zirconia polycrystals. Part II: Microstructure and electrical resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Tadokoro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta segunda parte são mostrados os resultados obtidos em cerâmicas densas de ZrO2: 3% mol Y2O3 (Y-TZP e 12% mol CeO2 (Ce-TZP, analisadas por espectroscopia Raman, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, e por espectroscopia de impedância. Os resultados mostram que, para ambos tipos de amostras, é possível obter cerâmicas densas (> 95% da densidade teórica para temperaturas de sinterização inferiores a 0,45 T F (T F = temperatura de fusão. A taxa de crescimento de grãos é dependente do cátion estabilizante, sendo maior para a Ce-TZP do que para a Y-TZP. Os espectros Raman de cerâmicas sinterizadas mostram as bandas típicas associadas aos modos ativos da fase cristalográfica tetragonal. Os resultados de espectroscopia de impedância são similares aos obtidos por outros pesquisadores tanto para cerâmicas convencionais quanto nanofásicas no caso da Y-TZP. Para a Ce-TZP foi observada uma redução na condutividade extrínseca em conseqüência da maior pureza do precursor cristalizado.Results on dense ZrO2: 3 mol% Y2O3 (Y-TZP and 12 mol% CeO2 (Ce-TZP ceramics are shown in this second part. Sintered specimens were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The main results show that both types of solid solutions may attain a high densification (> 95% of the theoretical density for sintering temperatures lower than 0.45 T F (T F = melting temperature. The rate of grain growth is governed by the stabilizing cation and is faster for Ce-TZP than for Y-TZP. Raman spectra exhibit the six characteristic bands of the tetragonal phase for both specimens. Impedance spectroscopy results for Y-TZP do not differ from those obtained for nanophase ceramics. A reduction in the extrinsic conductivity due to the high purity of the crystallized precursor was observed for Ce-TZP specimens.

  12. [S3 Guideline. Part 1: Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Non-Traumatic Adult Femoral Head Necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohndorf, K; Beckmann, J; Jäger, M; Kenn, W; Maus, U; Nöth, U; Peters, K M; Rader, C; Reppenhagen, S; Roth, A

    2015-08-01

    Non-traumatic femoral head necrosis (FHN) is primarily a disease of the middle-aged adult. Early diagnosis, at a time with lacking or minimal clinical symptoms, is mandatory to consider conservative therapy or joint preserving operations as a therapeutic option. The new German S3 guideline about diagnosis and therapy of FHN is a cooperative effort of five professional medical societies, overall headed by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie (DGOOC). This review (part I/III) cites and explains the statements of the S3 guideline as agreed on the use of imaging methods for diagnosis of FHN. A diagnostic algorithm is presented. FHN clinically has to be considered in case of equivocal pain of a hip joint with a minimum of 6 weeks duration, when risk factors can be revealed, groin pain at clinical investigation, limping, pain or limitation of movement in case of load, and no obvious differential diagnoses. Is an FHN clinically suspected, primarily radiographs of the pelvis ap and a Lauenstein projection of the hip involved should be carried out. When the radiographs are normal, an MRI of the hips should follow routinely. MRI allows the diagnosis of FNH with high accuracy. Furthermore, MRI reveals the site and the size of the necrotic area involved and evaluates the integrity of the joint surface and subchondral fractures. When ARCO stage II (ARCO: Association Research Circulation Osseous) is diagnosed and MRI does not allow one to determine the joint surface with certainty, a CT of the hip joints should be performed. The S3 guideline explains and recommends the use of the ARCO classification. Although, this classification of 1993 is still largely based on radiographs, the pragmatic use of an "extended" version seems reasonable. Today, classical radiographic criteria like impression of the joint surface and subchondral fractures ("crescent sign") are better to be evaluated by MRI, in cases of subtle findings MRI is even surpassed by CT

  13. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  14. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  15. THE FOOTWEAR DESIGNING SESSION USING CRISPIN DYNAMICS ENGINEER. PART II: Creating the parts, Estimating the material consumption, Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversification and customization of products are important characteristic of the modern economy and especially of the fashion industry. Because of this, the lifetime of the footwear product is very short and result the necessity to cut the design and production time. By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. With CRISPIN Dynamics, one can visualize a range of designs on-screen; work out the costs of a new style and even cut out sample shoe components. Reliance on manual skills is largely eliminated, so the staff can work creatively, but with increased accuracy and productivity. One can even send designs to a distant office or manufacturing centre in a matter of minutes. This paper presents the basic function of CRISPIN Dynamics CAD Suite Engineer for footwear design. The process of new product development has six stapes: digitized form of the medium copy, last flatting, model drawing, creation and management of individual parts, estimation of material consumption, multiplying the designed footwear product’s pattern. This product has been developed for shoemakers who wish to ensure that their business remains competitive by increasing the efficiency, speed and accuracy of pattern development and grading.

  16. From a set of parts to an indivisible whole. Part II: Operations in an open comparative mode

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new method, HGV2C, for pattern analysis. The HGV2C method involves the construction of a computer ego (CE) based on an individual object that can be either a part of the system under analysis or a newly created object based on a certain hypothesis. The CE provides a capability to analyze data from a specific standpoint, e.g. from a viewpoint of a certain object. The CE is constructed from two identical copies of a query object, and its functioning mechanism involves: a hypothesis-parameter (HP) and infothyristor (IT). HP is a parameter that is introduced into an existing set of parameters. The HP value for one of the clones of a query object is set to equal 1, whereas for another clone it is greater than 1. The IT is based on the previously described algorithm of iterative averaging and performs three functions: 1) computation of a similarity matrix for the group of three objects including two clones of a query object and a target object; 2) division of the group into two alternative su...

  17. Somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor-I and Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNAs in rate fetal and adult tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatomedin-C or insulin-like growth factor I (Sm-C/IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) have been implicated in the regulation of fetal growth and development. In the present study 32P-labeled complementary DNA probes encoding human and mouse Sm-C/IGF-I and human IGF-II were used in Northern blot hybridizations to analyze rat Sm-C/IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs in poly(A+) RNAs from intestine, liver, lung, and brain of adult rats and fetal rats between day 14 and 17 of gestation. In fetal rats, all four tissues contained a major mRNA of 1.7 kilobase (kb) that hybridized with the human Sm-C/IGF-I cDNA and mRNAs of 7.5, 4.7, 1.7, and 1.2 kb that hybridized with the mouse Sm-C/IGF-I cDNA. Adult rat intestine, liver, and lung also contained these mRNAs but Sm-C/IGF-I mRNAs were not detected in adult rat brain. These findings provide direct support for prior observations that multiple tissues in the fetus synthesize immunoreactive Sm-C/IGF-I and imply a role for Sm-C/IGF-I in fetal development as well as postnatally. Multiple IGF-II mRNAs of estimated sizes 4.7, 3.9, 2.2, 1.75, and 1.2 kb were observed in fetal rat intestine, liver, lung, and brain. The 4.7- and 3.9-kb mRNAs were the major hybridizing IGF-II mRNAs in all fetal tissues. Higher abundance of IGF-II mRNAs in rat fetal tissues compared with adult tissues supports prior hypotheses, based on serum IGF-II concentrations, that IGF-II is predominantly a fetal somatomedin. IGF-II mRNAs are present, however, in some poly(A+) RNAs from adult rat tissues. The brain was the only tissue in the adult rat where the 4.7- and 3.9-kb IGF-II mRNAs were consistently detected. These findings suggest that a role for IGF-II in the adult rat, particularly in the central nervous system, cannot be excluded

  18. The Medicare Part D coverage gap: implications for non-dually eligible older adults with a mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakk, Louanne; Woodward, Amanda Toler; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how the Medicare Part D coverage gap impacts non-dually eligible older adults with a mental illness. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 case managers from community-based agencies serving persons, age 55 and over, with a mental disorder. Five themes illustrating the central difficulties associated with the Part D gap emerged: medication affordability, beneficiary understanding, administrative barriers, Low-Income Subsidy income and asset guidelines, and medication compliance. Although the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act gradually reduces cost sharing within the gap, findings suggest that medication access and adherence may continue to be impacted by the benefit's structure. PMID:24377835

  19. Evaluación neurofuncional del tallo cerebral Parte II: Reflejo mandibular = Neurofunctional evaluation of brain stem. II. Mandibular reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sarmiento, Fidias E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El reflejo mandibular o maseterino posee conexiones nerviosas únicas, diferentes de las exhi­bidas por otros reflejos monosinápticos humanos, y permite evaluar, de forma fácil y eficien­te, el tallo cerebral por medio de la estimulación mecánica, eléctrica o magnética. Diversos estudios han demostrado la participación en este reflejo de las interneuronas del tallo cerebral y su modulación por estructuras supraespinales, que hacen parte fundamental de su integra­ción motora. El reflejo mandibular es útil para evaluar la afectación trigémino-trigeminal en polineuropatías como la diabetes, neuromiopatías como la esclerosis múltiple y en pacientes con trastornos del movimiento, con o sin disfunción oromandibular. La evaluación neuro­funcional de este reflejo craneofacial ayuda a identificar la integración sensorimotora del tallo cerebral y las posibles alteraciones de estas vías reflejas, debidas a anormalidades del sistema nervioso central o del periférico. Su apropiada ejecución e interpretación, clínica y neurológica, permite aplicar de manera más personalizada diversos protocolos de neurorre­habilitación, con el fin de ayudar a mejorar la calidad de vida de los individuos con afectación de estas vías neurales.

  20. Behavioral Criteria in Research and the Study of Racism: Performing the Jackal Function (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Asa G.; Jenkins, Yolanda L.

    This document describes the methodology and results of a pilot study and outlines the hypotheses and procedures of a final study to identify and measure racist behaviors and attitudes in adults. The impact of a slide presentation on racial attitudes was also examined. The context of the pilot study was a workshop on race relations designed to…

  1. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part II--Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    A study presented on the effect of parenting on stress response and other behaviors show that animals exposed to a high degree of nurturing show a blunted response to stress. Molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences in the adult offspring as well as the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic effects are propagated from one…

  2. Programming an interim report on the SETL project. Part I: generalities. Part II: the SETL language and examples of its use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J T

    1975-06-01

    A summary of work during the past several years on SETL, a new programming language drawing its dictions and basic concepts from the mathematical theory of sets, is presented. The work was started with the idea that a programming language modeled after an appropriate version of the formal language of mathematics might allow a programming style with some of the succinctness of mathematics, and that this might ultimately enable one to express and experiment with more complex algorithms than are now within reach. Part I discusses the general approach followed in the work. Part II focuses directly on the details of the SETL language as it is now defined. It describes the facilities of SETL, includes short libraries of miscellaneous and of code optimization algorithms illustrating the use of SETL, and gives a detailed description of the manner in which the set-theoretic primitives provided by SETL are currently implemented. (RWR)

  3. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  4. On understanding the very different science premises meaningful to CAM versus orthodox medicine: Part II--applications of Part I fundamentals to five different space-time examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, William A

    2010-04-01

    In Part I of this pair of articles, the fundamental experimental observations and theoretical perspectives were provided for one to understand the key differences between our normal, uncoupled state of physical reality and the human consciousness-induced coupled state of physical reality. Here in Part II, the thermodynamics of complementary and alternative medicine, which deals with the partially coupled state of physical reality, is explored via the use of five different foci of relevance to today's science and medicine: (1) homeopathy; (2) the placebo effect; (3) long-range, room temperature, macroscopic size-scale, information entanglement; (4) an explanation for dark matter/energy plus human levitation possibility; and (5) electrodermal diagnostic devices. The purpose of this pair of articles is to clearly differentiate the use and limitations of uncoupled state physics in both nature and today's orthodox medicine from coupled state physics in tomorrow's complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:20423220

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

  6. Essential features of Chiari II malformation in MR imaging : an interobserver reliability study-part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Niels; van der Vliet, Ton; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Feuth, Ton; Roeleveld, Nel; Mullaart, Reinier A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of morphological features of the malformation on MR images may not always be straightforward. In an attempt to select those features that u

  7. Essential features of Chiari II malformation in MR imaging: an interobserver reliability study--part 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Vliet, T. van der; Rotteveel, J.J.; Feuth, T.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of morphological features of the malformation on MR images may not always be straightforward. In an attempt to select those featur

  8. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Chronic Disease Disabilities. Volume II, Part C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section C of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on six types of chronic disease disabilities--rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, emphysema, carcinoma of the colon/rectum, kidney…

  9. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Behavioral Disabilities. Volume II, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of behavior disabilities--epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  10. Alzheimer’s disease and adult neurogenesis—Are endogenous stem cells part of the solution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Marlatt; J.J.M. Hoozemans; R. Veerhuis; P.J. Lucassen

    2009-01-01

    The human brain produces new neurons that mediate hippocampal plasticity but also have a potential role in hippocampal-related disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Factors such as stress and aging that reduce adult neurogenesis also serve as independent risk factors for Alzheimer’s d

  11. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  12. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  13. Empowering or Disabling? Emotional Reactions to Assessment amongst Part-Time Adult Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Andy; Lamond, Catherine; Coleyshaw, Liz; Beck, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on emotional reactions to learning and assessment. It draws on a qualitative research project involving first-generation adult students on a foundation degree programme. Endorsing the notion of emotional reactions as situated in participants' lived power relations, we map out emotional patterns to Semester 1 and then explore…

  14. Is traditional treatment a good option for an adult with a Class II deepbite malocclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo Quintão, Catia Cardoso; Miguel, Jose Augusto Mendes; Brunharo, Ione Portela; Zanardi, Gustavo; Feu, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The Tweed-Merrifield directional force technique is a useful treatment approach for a patient with a Class II malocclusion with dentoalveolar protrusion. The purpose of this case report was to present the diagnosis and treatment descriptions of a patient with an Angle Class II malocclusion complicated by tooth losses, severe dentoalveolar protrusion, and skeletal discrepancy. Treatment involved extraction of the maxillary first premolars, high-pull headgear to enhance anchorage, and high-pull J-hook headgear to retract and intrude the maxillary anterior segments. A successful outcome was achieved with traditional orthodontic treatment in this borderline surgical case.

  15. STANDARDIZATION AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF AYURVEDIC DRUG LAUHA BHASMA- PARTII COMPARATIVE BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, P.R.P; PRASAD, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    After analyzing the Lauha Bhasma samples qualitatively and quantitatively, in-vivo studies on healthy adult male rabbits were carried out. Randomly selected anaemic rabbits were divided into different groups and three variants of Lauha Bhasma and ferrous sulphate sample were administered to each group. The effect of each formulation was monitored by measuring the haemoglobin (Hb) content spectrophotometrically (cyanomethaemoglobin method). Increase in the haemoglobin content was found to be s...

  16. Phase I/II Clinical Trials Using Gene-Modified Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells for HIV: Lessons Learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald T. Mitsuyasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy for individuals infected with HIV has the potential to provide a once-only treatment that will act to reduce viral load, preserve the immune system, and mitigate cumulative toxicities associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The authors have been involved in two clinical trials (phase I and phase II using gene-modified adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, and these are discussed as prototypic trials within the general field of HSC gene therapy trials for HIV. Taken as a group these trials have shown (i the safety of both the procedure and the anti-HIV agents themselves and (ii the feasibility of the approach. They point to the requirement for (i the ability to transduce and infuse as many as possible gene-containing HSC and/or (ii high engraftment and in vivo expansion of these cells, (iii potentially increased efficacy of the anti-HIV agent(s and (iv automation of the cell processing procedure.

  17. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Part II: Intensive Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Forster, Katharine A.

    1992-04-01

    Project 83-7 was established under the Northeast Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program, Measure 704 (d) (1) to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration habitat improvement project, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two sub-projects: general and intensive monitoring. Results of the intensive monitoring sub-project are reported here. Results from the general monitoring sub-project will be reported in a separate document. The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. Field work began in 1987 in upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). Methods include using weirs to trap adults, conducting ground and aerial redd counts, snorkeling to estimate parr populations, PIT-tagging juveniles to determine parr-tosmolt survival, trapping fall and spring downstream emigrants with scoop traps, and outplanting adults to determine juvenile carrying capacity. PIT tags also provide a wide range of other information such as migration timing, effects of flow and passage conditions on smolt survival, other factors affecting smolt survival, and growth.

  18. Empirically Supported Interventions and School Psychology: Rationale and Methodological Issues--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2000-01-01

    This paper, part two of a two-part article, presents conceptual and practice issues on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings. Discusses the essential practice issues, given the dual goal of advancing research in empirically supported interventions and of producing a knowledge base that has direct meaning…

  19. Hyposplenism: a comprehensive review. Part II: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Basem M; Thawani, Nitika; Sae-Tia, Sutthichai; Corazza, Gino R

    2007-04-01

    In the first part of this review, we described the physiological basis of splenic function and hypofunction. We also described the wide spectrum of diseases that can result in functional hyposplenism. In the second part of this review, we will be discussing the clinical picture, including complications, diagnostic methods, and management of hyposplenism.

  20. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  1. Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics. Part II: two-dimensional scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Juan-José; Bingöl, Ferhat; Larsen, Gunner Chr.;

    2011-01-01

    expands the results of one-dimensional measurements already presented in the first part of this paper. Consequently, it is now possible to separate the deterministic and turbulent parts of the wake wind field, thus enabling capturing the wake in the meandering frame of reference. The results correspond...

  2. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs

  3. Ethics in America II: A Video Series for Middle School, High School, and Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenberg Media, 2007

    2007-01-01

    New, and yet familiar, hypothetical cases are debated and agonized over by eminent leaders from government, business, science and academia. "Ethics in America II" follows its predecessor by exploring gripping ethical dilemmas using the time-honored Socratic Dialogue format. The programs can be used with a discussion guide to help teachers engage…

  4. Increased astrocytic expression of metallothioneins I + II in brainstem of adult rats treated with 6-aminonicotinamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan; Moos, Torben

    1997-01-01

    were observed. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) to serum albumin was compromised in the entire brainstem. The astrocytic expression of MT-I + II could reflect the brains needs to scavenge metal ions released from either damaged cells or plasma proteins entering the brain due to the injured BBB, as well...

  5. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  6. Choque cardiogénico: Historia, fisiopatología e implicaciones terapeúticas. Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zeledón S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El choque cardiogénico es la principal causa de muerte entre los pacientes que presentan un síndrome coronario agudo. Después de la revisión histórica y de los conceptos fisiológicos y fisiopatológicos de esta condición clínica expuesta en la primera parte, se revisa su abordaje terapéutico, principalmente la revascularización de emergencia con angioplastía o cirugía.Cardiogenic shock: History, pathophysiology and therapeutical implications. Part II. Cardiogenic shock is the first cause of death among patients with acute coronary syndromes. After a previous discussion of the history and the physiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of this clinical condition in part 1, we review the therapeutic management which predominantly involves urgent angioplasty with stenting or coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  7. Effects of ozone on phospholipid synthesis by alveolar type II cells isolated from adult rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated alveolar type II cells were exposed to ozone by gas diffusion through the thin Teflon bottom of culture dishes. After exposure, type II cells were further incubated in the presence of labeled substrates to assess the capacity to synthesize surfactant lipids. The incorporation of [Me-14C]choline into both total and disaturated phosphatidylcholines in inhibited to 50% of the control values under conditions that result in a diffusion of 0.4 microgram O3/18 cm2-dish per 2.5 h. The incorporation rates of [1-14C]palmitate, [1-14C]acetate, D[U-14C]glucose, and [1,3-3H]glycerol into phosphatidylcholines are also lower after ozone exposure. Moreover, the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerols and phosphatidylethanolamines from these substrates is also inhibited by exposure of type II cells to ozone. These incorporation studies indicate that the effect of ozone is early in the biosynthetic pathway, probably at the step catalyzed by the enzyme glycerolphosphate acyltransferase. Determination of the activity of this enzyme after the ozone exposure shows that it is decreased, whereas the activity of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase is increased. The activity of choline phosphotransferase also appears to be decreased after exposure of type II cells to ozone, although this enzyme was less susceptible than glycerolphosphate acyltransferase. Studies with the sulfhydryl reagent 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) indicate a positive correlation between the effect of this compound on enzyme activities in sonicated type II cells and the sensitivity of these enzymes in intact cells to ozone. This suggests that the effect of ozone on the synthesis of surfactant lipids is at least partially exerted via oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase

  8. Interface fatigue crack propagation in sandwich X-joints – Part II: Finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the second and final part of this study is to simulate fatigue crack growth in the tested Sandwich Tear Test specimens, described in Part I, using the finite element method. To accelerate the simulation, a cycle jump method is utilized and implemented in the finite element routine...... in Part I are used as input to the fatigue crack growth simulation routine. A fair accuracy with 99% saving in computation time is achieved in the simulation of the Sandwich Tear Test specimens with H100 core. However, for the Sandwich Tear Test specimens with H45 core a large deviation between...

  9. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters.

  10. Treatment of Fingertip Amputation in Adults by Palmar Pocketing of the Amputated Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Jung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background First suggested by Brent in 1979, the pocket principle is an alternative methodfor patients for whom a microsurgical replantation is not feasible. We report the successfulresults of a modified palmar pocket method in adults.Methods Between 2004 and 2008, we treated 10 patients by nonmicrosurgical replantationusing palmar pocketing. All patients were adults who sustained a complete fingertip amputationfrom the tip to lunula in a digits. In all of these patients, the amputation occurred due to a crushor avulsion-type injury, and a microsurgical replantation was not feasible. We used the palmarpocketing method following a composite graft in these patients and prepared the pocket in thesubcutaneous layer of the ipsilateral palm.Results Of a total of 10 cases, nine had complete survival of the replantation and one had20% partial necrosis. All of the cases were managed to conserve the fingernails, which led toacceptable cosmetic results.Conclusions A composite graft and palmar pocketing in adult cases of fingertip injuryconstitute a simple, reliable operation for digital amputation extending from the tip to thelunula. These methods had satisfactory results.

  11. The flipped classroom for professional development: part II. making podcasts and videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charlene M; McDonald, Katie

    2013-11-01

    As described in Part I, podcasts and videos are educational technologies used to flip the classroom. This column describes the technology options for creating podcasts and videos and offers tips on developing podcasts and videos.

  12. Fulfilling the Promise of a Sequenced Human Genome – Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Eric [National Human Genome Research Institute

    2009-05-27

    Eric Green, scientific director of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), gives the opening keynote speech at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM on May 27, 2009. Part 2 of 2

  13. Input-Output Parametric Models for Nonlinear Systems. Part ii Stochastic Nonlinear Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leontaritis, I.J.; Billings, S A

    1984-01-01

    In the first part of this paper (Leontaritis and Billings 1984)recursive input-output models for deterministic nonlinear multivariable discrete-time systems were derived and sufficient conditions for their existence were defined. In this second part, the nonlinear model is compared with other system representations, several examples are introduced and the results are extended to create prediction error input-output models for multivariable nonlinear stochastic systems.

  14. The Lower Silurian Osmundsberg K-bentonite. Part II: Mineralogy, geochemistry, chemostratigraphy and tectonomagmatic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.; Kolata, Dennis R.; Sun, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Lower Silurian Osmundsberg K-bentonite is a widespread ash bed that occurs throughout Baltoscandia and parts of northern Europe. This paper describes its characteristics at its type locality in the Province of Dalarna, Sweden. It contains mineralogical and chemical characteristics that permit its regional correlation in sections elsewhere in Sweden as well as Norway, Estonia, Denmark and Great Britain. The Baltica as part of the subduction complex associated with the closure of Iapetus.

  15. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part II: Design and performance for medical imaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    For pt.I, see ibid., vol.52, no.2, p.177-91 (2005). In the first paper, the superiority of linear FM signals was shown in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and robustness to tissue attenuation. This second paper in the series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical....... The method is evaluated first for resolution performance and axial sidelobes through simulations with the program Field II. A coded excitation ultrasound imaging system based on a commercial scanner and a 4 MHz probe driven by coded sequences is presented and used for the clinical evaluation of the coded...

  16. Project Monitor: Part II. Conservation in small business: an exploratory study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P Y

    1979-08-01

    Project Monitor examined the energy conservation attitude and behavior of small samples of small business owners/operators in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, focusing on manufacturing concerns and retailers. Section I reports the findings on the energy conserving behavior of 92 smaller manufacturers and Section II identifies the factors which affect decision making concerning energy consuming activities by the owners/operators of 94 small retail establishments. In each, the impact of Project Pacesetter and of the coal strike and the general energy situation is considered. (MCW)

  17. The Course of Adult Experiences of Abuse in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Axis II Comparison Subjects: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Amelia; King, Hannah; Frankenburg, Frances F.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to assess the rates of adult experiences of verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects over ten years of prospective follow-up. The second objective was to determine time-to-cessation, recurrence, and new onset of each type of abuse. The Abuse History Interview was administered to 290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects at baseline. The AHI Follow-up Version was administ...

  18. Hodgkins disease - Part II: Management of advanced - stage disease, relapsed disease and long-term complications of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part II of the refresher course on Hodgkin's disease (HD) will: 1. Update chemotherapy principles and new regimens for HD. 2. Discuss the role and practice of radiation therapy in the management of stage III-IV disease. 3. Review the treatment of relapsed Hodgkin's disease after radiotherapy alone and the salvage approach to failures of primary chemotherapy and combined modality therapy. 4. Examine the role of radiation therapy in high-dose salvage programs with stem cell rescue. 5. Review the long-term complications of all modalities with an emphasis on secondary breast cancer and coronary heart disease

  19. Hodgkin's disease - Part II: Management of advanced-stage disease, relapsed disease and long-term complications of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part II of the refresher course on Hodgkin's disease (HD) will: 1. Update chemotherapy principles and new regimens for HD. 2. Discuss the role and practice of radiation therapy in the management of stage III-IV disease. 3. Review the treatment of relapsed Hodgkin's disease after radiotherapy alone and the salvage approach to failures of primary chemotherapy and combined modality therapy. 4. Examine the role of radiation therapy in high-dose salvage programs with stem cell rescue. 5. Review the long-term complications of all modalities with an emphasis on secondary breast cancer and coronary heart disease

  20. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas-Part II: Implementation and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    we use the theory developed in Part I to design a convergent nonlinear branch-and-bound method tailored to solve large-scale instances of the original discrete problem. The problem formulation and the needed theoretical results from Part I are repeated such that this paper is self-contained. We focus...... on the implementation details but also establish finite convergence of the branch-and-bound method. The algorithm is based on solving a sequence of continuous non-convex relaxations which can be formulated as quadratic programs according to the theory in Part I. The quadratic programs to be treated...... within the branch-and-bound search all have the same feasible set and differ from each other only in the objective function. This is one reason for making the resulting branch-and-bound method very efficient. The paper closes with several large-scale numerical examples. These examples are, to the...

  1. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  2. An improved methodology for erosion hazard mapping, Part II: Application to Lesotho

    OpenAIRE

    Chakela, Q.; Stocking, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the second part of a paper on an improved technique for erosion hazard mapping. In this part, the authors apply the new methodology to Lesotho, where erosion has been the most important factor in the decline in crop yields since the 1930s. The authors assess each factor in erosion and produce a composite map in order to measure the degree, distribution, and principal causative factors of erosion hazard. This map will serve as a guide to resource planning and as a promotion for strateg...

  3. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part II: GRAPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As was presented in the first part of this review paper, lately, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. In this part of the paper are presented the synthesis techniques used to produce the two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene, and also the most important properties and potential applications of graphene.

  4. [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for symptomatic non operable grade II fibrillary astrocytoma in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, C; Fontaine, D; Vandenbos, F; Chanalet, S; Bourg, V; Frénay, M; Alchaar, H; Bleuse, A; Bondiau, P Y; Brunetto, J L; Chatel, M; Courdi, A; Darcourt, J; Fauchon, F; Guibert, F; Grellier, P; Lanteri-Minet, M; Lonjon, M; Michiels, J F; Paquis, P; Paquis, V; Ramaioli, A; Rasendrarijao, D

    2004-05-01

    We collected 6 case-reports of symptomatric non removable low grade fibrillary astrocytoma of adults treated with a procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine chemotherapy regimen. All patients had drug-resistant epilepsy but brain imaging was stable. Total gross resection was rejected because of Volume or tumor location. After 4 to 7 cycles of chemotherapy, 2 patients had partial response and one minor response on brain MRI. All of them were seizure-free. Progression free survival was not reached at 5 Years. Up-front chemotherapy for low-grade astrocytomas may be useful and has to be prospectively evaluated. PMID:15269670

  5. The decision to extract: part II. Analysis of clinicians' stated reasons for extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L; Maxwell, R

    1996-04-01

    In a recently reported study, the pretreatment records of each subject in a randomized clinical trial of 148 patients with Class I and Class II malocclusions presenting for orthodontic treatment were evaluated independently by five experienced clinicians (drawn from a panel of 14). The clinicians displayed a higher incidence of agreement with each other than had been expected with respect to the decision as to whether extraction was indicated in each specific case. To improve our understanding of how clinicians made their decisions on whether to extract or not, the records of a subset of 72 subjects randomly selected from the full sample of 148, have now been examined in greater detail. In 21 of these cases, all five clinicians decided to treat without extraction. Among the remaining 51 cases, there were 202 decisions to extract (31 unanimous decision cases and 20 split decision cases). The clinicians cited a total of 469 reasons to support these decisions. Crowding was cited as the first reason in 49% of decisions to extract, followed by incisor protrusion (14%), need for profile correction (8%), Class II severity (5%), and achievement of a stable result (5%). When all the reasons for extraction in each clinician's decision were considered as a group, crowding was cited in 73% of decisions, incisor protrusion in 35%, need for profile correction in 27%, Class II severity in 15% and posttreatment stability in 9%. Tooth size anomalies, midline deviations, reduced growth potential, severity of overjet, maintenance of existing profile, desire to close the bite, periodontal problems, and anticipation of poor cooperation accounted collectively for 12% of the first reasons and were mentioned in 54% of the decisions, implying that these considerations play a consequential, if secondary, role in the decision-making process. All other reasons taken together were mentioned in fewer than 20% of cases. In this sample at least, clinicians focused heavily on appearance

  6. OPTIMAL POSITION OF THE HEEL FOLLOWING RECONSTRUCTION OF THE STAGE II ADULT ACQUIRED FLATFOOT DEFORMITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Matthew S.; Ellis, Scott J.; Chan, Jeremy Y.; Do, Huong T.; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2016-01-01

    Background While previous work has demonstrated a linear relationship between the amount of medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO) and the change in radiographic hindfoot alignment following reconstruction, an ideal postoperative hindfoot alignment has yet to be reported. The aim of this study was to identify an optimal postoperative hindfoot alignment by correlating radiographic alignment with patient outcomes. Methods Fifty-five feet in 55 patients underwent flatfoot reconstruction for stage II AAFD by two fellowship-trained foot and ankle orthopedic surgeons. Hindfoot alignment was determined as previously described by Saltzman and El-Khoury. Changes in pre- and postoperative scores in each FAOS subscale were calculated for patients in postoperative hindfoot valgus (≥0 mm valgus, n=18), mild varus (>0 to 5 mm varus, n=17), and moderate varus (>5 mm varus, n=20). Analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey’s tests were used to compare the change in FAOS scores between these three groups. Results At 22 months or more postoperatively, patients corrected to mild hindfoot varus showed a significantly greater improvement in the FAOS pain subscale compared to patients in valgus (p=0.04) and symptoms subscale compared to patients in moderate varus (p=0.03). Although mild hindfoot varus did not differ significantly from moderate varus or valgus in the other subscales, mild hindfoot varus did not perform worse than these alignments in any FAOS subscale. No statistically significant correlations between intraoperative MCO slide distances and FAOS subscales were found. Conclusions Our study indicates that correction of hindfoot alignment to between 0 and 5 mm of varus on the hindfoot alignment view (clinically a straight heel) following stage II flatfoot reconstruction was associated with the greatest improvement in clinical outcomes following hindfoot reconstruction in stage II AAFD. PMID:25948692

  7. Yoga Practice for the Management of Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: A systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Aljasir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of practicing yoga for the management of type II Diabetes was assessed in this systematic review through searching related electronic databases and the grey literature to the end of May 2007 using Ovid. All randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs comparing yoga practice with other type of intervention or with regular practice or both, were included regardless of language or type of publication. Each study was assessed for quality by two independent reviewers. Mean difference was used for summarizing the effect of each study outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Pooling of the studies did not take place due to the wide clinical variation between the studies. Publication bias was assessed by statistical methods. Five trials with 363 participants met the inclusion criteria with medium to high risk of bias and different intervention characteristics. The studies’ results show improvement in outcomes among patients with diabetes type II. These improvements were mainly among short term or immediate diabetes outcomes and not all were statistically significant. The results were inconclusive and not significant for the long-term outcomes. No adverse effects were reported in any of the included studies. Short-term benefits for patients with diabetes may be achieved from practicing yoga. Further research is needed in this area. Factors like quality of the trials and other methodological issues should be improved by large randomized control trials with allocation concealment to assess the effectiveness of yoga on diabetes type II. A definitive recommendation for physicians to encourage their patients to practice yoga cannot be reached at present.

  8. Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, Guido; Heijden, van der Beatrice I.J.M.; Lange, de Annet H.; Deller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue “Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part I: challen

  9. Hip protectors: recommendations for conducting clinical trials--an international consensus statement (part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, I D; Robinovitch, S; Birge, S;

    2010-01-01

    While hip protectors are effective in some clinical trials, many, including all in community settings, have been unable to demonstrate effectiveness. This is due partly to differences in the design and analysis. The aim of this report is to develop recommendations for subsequent clinical research....

  10. Sintering of Multilayered Porous Structures: Part II – Experiments and Model Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Olevsky, Eugene; Esposito, Vincenzo;

    2013-01-01

    Experimental analyses of shrinkage and distortion kinetics during sintering of bilayered porous and dense gadolinium-doped ceria Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95d structures are carried out, and compared with the theoretical models developed in Part I of this work. A novel approach is developed for the determinat...

  11. Numerical optimization of nitrogen application to rice. Part II. Field evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, H.F.M.; Qinghua, S.; Zhiming, Z.; Rao, K.S.; Riethoven, J.J.M.; Zhong, X.

    1997-01-01

    The MANAGE-N model (Part I; Ten Berge et al., this issue) was tested by comparing predicted and measured final crop biomass production for 48 rice cultivars under application of 0, 30–40, 60–80 and 90 to 120 kg urea-N per ha at Cuttack, India, during seven consecutive wet seasons. The overall coeffi

  12. Limited Feedback Multi-Antenna Quantization Codebook Design-Part II: Multiuser Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Khoshnevis, Behrouz

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper on optimal design of limited feedback single-user and multiuser spatial multiplexing systems. The first part of the paper studies the single-user system and this part addresses the multiuser case. The problem is cast in form of minimizing the average transmission power at the base station subject to the outage probability constraints at the users' side. The optimization is over the power control function at the base station as well as the users' channel quantization codebooks. The base station has $M$ antennas and serves $M$ single-antenna users, which share a common feedback link with a total rate of $B$ bits per fading block. We first fix the quantization codebooks and study the optimal power control problem which leads to an upper bound for the average transmission sum power. The upper bound solution is then used to optimize the quantization codebooks and to derive the optimal bit allocation laws in the asymptotic regime of $B\\to\\infty$. The paper shows that for ...

  13. Multi-scale narratives from an IA perspective: Part II Participatory local scenario development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.; Patel, M.; Rothman, D.; Quaranta, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper builds on Part I, where three European and Mediterranean scenarios were introduced. Theses scenarios can be typified as qualitative, integrated narrative storylines that describe three possible directions of future change until 2030. The main purpose of the paper is to summarise the metho

  14. AN ENGLISH-AMHARIC DICTIONARY OF EVERYDAY USAGE, PART II, (L-Z).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LESLAU, WOLF

    THIS VOLUME, (L-Z), COMPRISES THE SECOND HALF OF THE FIRST MODERN ENGLISH-AMHARIC DICTIONARY. THIS TWO-PART DICTIONARY HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR THE STUDENT FAMILIAR WITH THE SCRIPT AND GRAMMAR OF AMHARIC, THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE OF ETHIOPIA. THE SELECTIONS, LIMITED IN SCOPE, ARE BASED ON EDUCATED COLLOQUIAL AND ARE PRESENTED IN CONTEXTUAL SENTENCES.…

  15. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Part Ten; Discipline. Segments I & II, Volume X, Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The tenth volume of the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484) concentrates on discipline and is presented in two parts. This document is a self-instructional text with a tape script and intrinsically programed sections. EM 010 442 is…

  16. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  17. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part II: A Status Report, 1978-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    This follow-up report examines the status of the recruitment and retention strategies implemented by Triton College in 1978 as part of an effort to utilize the marketing concept in identifying and meeting changing educational needs. The report first provides operational definitions for "institutional advancement,""marketing concept,""promotion,"…

  18. PARAFAC2 - Part II. Modeling chromatographic data with retention time shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, Rasmus; Andersson, Claus A.; Kiers, Henk A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers an approach for handling retention time shifts in resolving chromatographic data using the PARAFAC2 model. In Part I of this series an algorithm for PARAFAC2 was developed and extended to N-way arrays. It was discussed that the PARAFAC2 model has a number of attractive features. It

  19. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part II Diagnostic Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (Long Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidhu, P. S.; Brabrand, K.; Cantisani, V.;

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part of the series on interventional ultrasound guidelines of the Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). It deals with the diagnostic interventional procedure. General points are discussed which are pertinent to all patients, followed by organ-...

  20. Towards a Postmodern Theory of Moral Education. Part II: Mapping the Terrain (Zygmunt Bauman's Postmodern Ethics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert J. J.; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.

    The project of which this paper is a part consists of three steps. The first step (an American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference 2000 paper subtitled "Clearing the Terrain") provided a critical overview of current debates on moral development and education, focusing on the relationship between empirical and theoretical research.…

  1. Resource Allocation for Downlink Cellular OFDMA Systems: Part II - Asymptotic Analysis and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ksairi, Nassar; ciblat, Phiippe; Hachem, Walid

    2008-01-01

    In a companion paper (see Resource Allocation for Downlink Cellular OFDMA systems: Part I - Optimal Allocation), we characterized the optimal resource allocation in terms of power control and sub-carrier assignment, for a downlink OFDMA system impaired by multicell interference. In our model, the network is assumed to be one dimensional (linear) for the sake of analysis. We also assume that a certain part of the available bandwidth is likely to be reused by different base stations and that the other part of the bandwidth is shared in an orthogonal way between the different base stations. The optimal resource allocation characterized in Part I is obtained by minimizing the total power spent by the network under the constraint that all users rate requirements in nats/s/Hz are satisfied. It is worth noting that when optimal resource allocation is used, any user receives data either in the reused bandwidth or in the protected bandwidth, but not in both (except for at most one pivot user in each cell). In the pres...

  2. Biological results of the snellius expedition XXII. Octocorallia from the Malay Archipelago (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verseveldt, J.

    1966-01-01

    The material dealt with in this second part of "Octocorallia from the Malay Archipelago" comprises mainly specimens belonging to the family Nephtheidae. Most of these nephtheids were obtained during the cruise of the "Willebrord Snellius". In addition to this material I examined some specimens colle

  3. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Task Force on Communications Policy, Washington, DC.

    The second part of a staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy dealing with the domestic telecommunications carrier industry consists of the final two appendices. In the first, the history, structure, present services, and future plans of the Western Union Telegraph Company are discussed. Evidence is given that by allowing…

  4. Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, Guido; Heijden, Beatrice van der; Lange, Annet de; Deller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose ‐ Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue "Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part I: challen

  5. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt

  6. Relation between the diffusion curve and the roughness of a tilting diffuser: part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, M. A.; Perez Quintian, F.; Landau, Monica R.; Hogert, Elsa N.; Gaggioli, Nestor G.

    1996-02-01

    We have studied the diffusion curve evolution in variable translucent rough surfaces. In order to carry on these studies, we used cells having an internal diffuser face. Inside these cells, we place a liquid of controllable refraction index. In this way, we are able to obtain a great range of roughness values without changing the correlation length. In this paper we extend the results obtained in another work presented in the II Iberoamerican Optical Meeting. We verify the existence of a similar phenomenon and its relation with the surface roughness. Moreover, we must note that this work has been done with coherent, but we think that we deal with a predominantly geometric phenomenon, not quite in agreement with most of the authors that are studying this subject.

  7. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This Volume VI of six volumes is data documentation, containing the standard table data used for the Administrator's Report at the beginning of 1978, along with the primary data sources and the office responsible. It also contains a copy of a PIES Integrating Model Report with a description of its content. Following an overview chapter, Chapter II, Supply and Demand Data Tables and Sources for the Mid-range Scenario for Target Years 1985 and 1990, data on demand, price, and elasticity; coal; imports; oil and gas; refineries; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal; transportation; and utilities are presented. The following data on alternate scenarios are discussed: low and high demand; low and high oil and gas supply; refinery and oil and gas data assuming a 5% annual increase in real world oil prices. Chapter IV describes the solution output obtained from an execution of PIES.

  8. Mixed ligand complexes of alkaline earth metals: Part XII. Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II complexes with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde or hydroxyaromatic ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHLESH AGRAWAL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of alkaline earth metal chlorides with 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been carried out in 1 : 1 : 1 mole ratio and the mixed ligand complexes of the type MLL’(H2O2 (where M = Mg(II, Ca(II, Sr(II and Ba(II, HL = 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and HL’ = salicylaldehyde, 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 2-hydroxypropiophenone have been isolated. These complexes were characterized by TLC, conductance measurements, IR and 1H-NMR spectra.

  9. Traumatic injuries of brachial plexus: present methods of surgical treatment Part II. Treatment policy for brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Novikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to familiarize practicing neurologists, neurosurgeons, traumatologists, and orthopedists with the current principles of diagnosis and treatment of different brachial plexus (BP injuries. Part I describes the anatomy of BP in detail, considers the main mechanisms of its injuries, and gives their current classification (Nervno-Myshechnye Bolezni (Neuromuscular Diseases 2012;4:19–27.Part II presents the author's approach to treatment of brachial plexus injuries according to the type of lesion and period of denervation: nonoperative methods; rehabilitation; preoperative management; indications for surgical treatment. The tactics and techniques of primary brachial plexus reconstructions are discussed in detail.

  10. The effect of Reynolds number on inertial particle dynamics in isotropic turbulence. Part II: Simulations with gravitational effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, Peter J; Collins, Lance R

    2015-01-01

    In Part I of this study, we analyzed the motion of inertial particles in isotropic turbulence in the absence of gravity using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Here, in Part II, we introduce gravity and study its effect over a wide range of flow Reynolds numbers, Froude numbers, and particle Stokes numbers. We see that gravity causes particles to sample the flow more uniformly and reduces the time particles can spend interacting with the underlying turbulence. We also find that gravity tends to increase inertial particle accelerations, and we introduce a model to explain that effect. We then analyze the particle relative velocities and radial distribution functions (RDFs), which are generally seen to be independent of Reynolds number for low and moderate Kolmogorov-scale Stokes numbers $St$. We see that gravity causes particle relative velocities to decrease, and that the relative velocities have higher scaling exponents with gravity. We observe that gravity has a non-trivial effect on clustering, acting to ...

  11. A North American brain tumor consortium phase II study of Poly-ICLC for adult patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butowski, Nicholas; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Lee, Bee L; Prados, Michael D.; Cloughesy, Timothy; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Abrey, Lauren; Fink, Karen; Lieberman, Frank; Mehta, Minesh; Robins, H. Ian; Junck, Larry; Salazar, Andres M.; Chang, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II study was designed to determine the objective response rate and 6-month progression free survival of adult patients with recurrent supratentorial anaplastic glioma when treated with the immune modulator, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC). Methods and Materials This was an open-labeled, single arm phase II study. Patients were treated with poly-ICLC alone. Patients may have had treatment for no more than two prior relapses. Treatment with poly-ICLC continued until tumor progression. Results 55 patients were enrolled in the study. 10 were ineligible after central review of pathology. 11% of patients (5 of 45) had a radiographic response. Time to progression was known for 39 patients and 6 remain on treatment. The estimated 6-month progression free survival was 24%. The median survival time was 43 weeks. Conclusions Poly-ICLC was well tolerated, but there was no improvement in 6-month progression free survival compared to historical database nor was there an encouraging objective radiographic response rate. Based on this study, poly-ICLC does not improve 6moPFS in patients with recurrent anaplastic gliomas but may be worth further study in combination with agents such as temozolomide. PMID:18850068

  12. Treatment of division II malocclusion in young adult with Forsus™ fatigue-resistant device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Krishna Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional technique for correcting class II malocclusion - involving the use of class II elastics and headgear - has been problematic due to its dependence on patient compliance. Functional orthopedic treatment seeks to correct malocclusions and harmonize the shape of the dental arch and orofacial functions. Removable functional appliances are normally very large in size, have unstable fixation, cause discomfort, exert pressure on the mucosa, reduce space for the tongue, cause difficulties in deglutition and speech, and very often affect esthetic appearance. With a fixed appliance like the Forsus™ fatigue-resistant device (FRD, as the appliance is fixed, there is less dependence on patient compliance and the remaining growth after the pubertal growth spurt can be harbored effectively. The Forsus™ FRD is not as rigid as the previous fixed functional appliances and hence is comfortable for the patients. In this case report we describe a patient at the end of the growth stage who had mandibular retrognathia and was successfully treated with the Forsus™ FRD.

  13. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker telmisartan induces apoptosis and autophagy in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozako, Tomohiro; Soeda, Shuhei; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Arima, Naomichi; Kuroki, Ayako; Hirata, Shinya; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Imakyure, Osamu; Tone, Nanako; Honda, Shin-Ichiro; Soeda, Shinji

    2016-05-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy that develops after long-term infection with human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1), requires new treatments. Drug repositioning, reuse of a drug previously approved for the treatment of another condition to treat ATL, offers the possibility of reduced time and risk. Among clinically available angiotensin II receptor blockers, telmisartan is well known for its unique ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, which plays various roles in lipid metabolism, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, telmisartan reduced cell viability and enhanced apoptotic cells via caspase activation in ex vivo peripheral blood monocytes from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) or via caspase-independent cell death in acute-type ATL, which has a poor prognosis. Telmisartan also induced significant growth inhibition and apoptosis in leukemia cell lines via caspase activation, whereas other angiotensin II receptor blockers did not induce cell death. Interestingly, telmisartan increased the LC3-II-enriched protein fraction, indicating autophagosome accumulation and autophagy. Thus, telmisartan simultaneously caused caspase activation and autophagy. A hypertension medication with antiproliferation effects on primary and leukemia cells is intriguing. Patients with an early diagnosis of ATL are generally monitored until the disease progresses; thus, suppression of progression from AC and indolent ATL to acute ATL is important. Our results suggest that telmisartan is highly effective against primary cells and leukemia cell lines in caspase-dependent and -independent manners, and its clinical use may suppress acute transformation and improve prognosis of patients with this mortal disease. This is the first report demonstrating a cell growth-inhibitory effect of telmisartan in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leukemia patients. PMID:27419050

  14. Part I: In-situ fluorometric quantification of microalgal neutral lipids. Part II: Thermal degradation behavior of investment casting polymer patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfang

    Research described in this dissertation covers two topics. Part-I is focused on in-situ determination of neutral lipid content of microalgae using a lipophilic fluorescent dye. The traditional Nile red stain-based method for detecting microalgal intracellular lipids is limited due to varying composition and thickness of rigid cell walls. In this study, the addition of dilute acid and heating of solution, were found to greatly enhance staining efficiency of Nile red for microalgal species evaluated. Oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion stabilized by a non-ionic surfactant was employed as a pseudo-standard that mimics lipid-bearing microalgal cells suspended in water. The average neutral lipid contents determined were very close to the results obtained by traditional gravimetric method and solid phase extraction. Part II of the dissertation explores thermo-physico-chemical properties of polymeric pattern materials, including expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam, polyurethane foam, and epoxy stereolithography (SLA) patterns, that are used in investment casting. Density, elastic modulus, expansion coefficient, thermal degradation behavior, etc. were experimentally investigated for their effects on metal casting quality. The reduction in toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) generated during thermal decomposition of polyurethane pattern was achieved by increasing either oxidant level or residence time in heated zone. Thermal degradation kinetics of the pattern materials were examined with a thermogravimetric analysis and activation energies were determined by Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods.

  15. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2010-09-16

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  16. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  17. Information theory in systems biology. Part II: protein-protein interaction and signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Díaz, José; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    By the development of information theory in 1948 by Claude Shannon to address the problems in the field of data storage and data communication over (noisy) communication channel, it has been successfully applied in many other research areas such as bioinformatics and systems biology. In this manuscript, we attempt to review some of the existing literatures in systems biology, which are using the information theory measures in their calculations. As we have reviewed most of the existing information-theoretic methods in gene regulatory and metabolic networks in the first part of the review, so in the second part of our study, the application of information theory in other types of biological networks including protein-protein interaction and signaling networks will be surveyed.

  18. Protective clothing for pesticide operators: part II--data analysis of fabric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anugrah; Schiffelbein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Development of objective measurements is an important requirement for establishing performance-based standards for protective clothing used while handling pesticide. This study, the second in a two-part series, reports on the work completed to evaluate the performance of approximately 100 fabrics that are either used or have the potential to be used for garments worn by operators while applying pesticides. Part I, published separately, provides an overview of these issues and describes research undertaken to select a test chemical for use in subsequent studies. The goals of this study were first to develop a comprehensive approach to evaluate the performance of garments currently being used by pesticide operators, and second, to use the laboratory and field data in the development of performance specifications.

  19. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  20. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss Part II: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Therapeutic Options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss. PMID:27392187

  1. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss Part II: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Therapeutic Options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss.

  2. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of mental health in adults of the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mental health disorders lead to disorder of effective functioning of people and deterioration of quality of life. Early detection of individuals at risk of mental health disorders is extremely important from the aspect of mental health disorders prevention. The aim of the research was to determine the frequency of mental health problems among adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica and to examine the association between frequency of mental health problems and socio-demographic and other characteristics of the population obtained by the questionnaire. Methods. The cross-sectional study on the representative sample of adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica was performed in October 2009. To obtain information about the characteristics of mental health the Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used. For performing survey at site the method of rapid epidemiological assessment was chosen. Statistical analysis included the methods of descriptive statistics, multivariate regression analysis and calculation of the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency of the questionnaire. Results. Mental health problems (total score were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Psychosomatic problems were present in more than half of the respondents (55.4%, while anxiety and insomnia were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Social dysfunction had more than three fifths of the respondents (63.1% and depression more than a quarter of the respondents (28.5%. More positive responses in the questionnaire were statistically significantly associated with older age, poor financial situation, abuse and assessing of the current political-security situation as high risk. The value of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.705. Conclusions. Almost half of the respondents (49.2% of North Kosovska Mitrovica had mental health problems. Mental health problems were associated with older age, poor

  4. Performance Evaluation of an Air-Conditioning Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Tai Lee; Thomas W. Bein

    1999-01-01

    A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect th...

  5. Analysis of pipe flow with free surface. Part II. Theoretical analysis and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Amane; Takaki, Ryuji

    1994-05-01

    Flow field near the front of an incompressible viscous fluid pushed into a circular pipe is analyzed theoretically and observed experimentally. In the theory, an approximated stream function for a steady state near the axis of the pipe is obtained by use of the Stokes equation. In the experiment, the shape of the surface was observed by a video camera. The theoretical velocity profile and the surface shape near the axis coincide with those from computation (Part I) and experiment.

  6. Advances in Digital Front-End and Software RF Processing: Part II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the first editorial of this two-part special issue, we pointed out that one of the biggest trends in wireless broadband, radar, sonar, and broadcasting technology is software RF processing and digital front-end [1]. Thistrend encompasses signal processing algorithms and integrated circuit design and includes digital pre-distortion (DPD), conversions between digital and analog signals, digita up-conversion (DUC), digital down-conversion (DDC), DC offset,

  7. Managing Returnable Containers Logistics - A Case Study Part II - Improving Visibility through Using Automatic Identification Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gretchen Meiser; Maleki, Reza A.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is the result of a project conducted on behalf of a company that uses its own returnable containers to transport purchased parts from suppliers. The objective of this project was to develop a proposal to enable the company to more effectively track and manage its returnable containers. The research activities in support of this project included (1) the analysis and documentation of the physical flow and the information flow associated with the container...

  8. Modeling crosshatch surface morphology in growing mismatched layers. Part II: Periodic boundary conditions and dislocation groups

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, A M; LeSar, R.; Kerner, M A; Speck, J.S.; Romanov, A E; Kolesnikova, A. L.; Bobeth, M; Pompe, W

    2004-01-01

    We present further developments and understanding of the commonly observed crosshatch surface morphology in strain-relaxed heteroepitaxial films. We have previously proposed that the crosshatch morphology is directly related with strain relaxation via threading dislocation glide which results in both surface step and misfit dislocation (MD) formation [see Andrews , J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1933 (2002)-now referred to as Part I]. In this article, we have used solutions for the stress fields and disp...

  9. A Review of the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars: Part II. Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Karagoz

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed the researches for new hopeful treatment modalities as well as the substances that are important to wound healing in the second part of this extensive review. The researchers have tried to find a way to scarless wound healing, and it seems likely that new therapies will be available within the next few years. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(1.000: 49-58

  10. Linear stability analysis in fluid-structure interaction with transpiration. Part II: numerical analysis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Miguel Angel; Le Tallec, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    We address the problem of flutter analysis of a coupled fluid-structure system involving an incompressible Newtonian fluid and a reduced structure. We use the Linearization Principle approach developed in Part I, particularly suited for fluid-structure problems involving moving boundaries. Thus, the stability analysis is reduced to the computation of the leftmost eigenvalu- es of a coupled eigenproblem of minimal complexity. The coupling is realized through specific transpiration interface co...

  11. Affine symmetry in mechanics of collective and internal modes. Part II. Quantum models

    OpenAIRE

    Sławianowski, J. J.; Kovalchuk, V.; Sławianowska, A.; Gołubowska, B.; Martens, A; Rożko, E. E.; Zawistowski, Z. J.

    2008-01-01

    Discussed is the quantized version of the classical description of collective and internal affine modes as developed in Part I. We perform the Schr\\"odinger quantization and reduce effectively the quantized problem from $n^{2}$ to $n$ degrees of freedom. Some possible applications in nuclear physics and other quantum many-body problems are suggested. Discussed is also the possibility of half-integer angular momentum in composed systems of spin-less particles.

  12. PIO I-II tendencies case study. Part 1. Mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a study is performed from the perspective of giving a method to reduce the conservatism of the well known PIO (Pilot-Induced Oscillation criteria in predicting the susceptibility of an aircraft to this very harmful phenomenon. There are three interacting components of a PIO – the pilot, the vehicle, and the trigger (in fact, the hazard. The study, conceived in two parts, aims to underline the importance of human pilot model involved in analysis. In this first part, it is shown, following classical sources, how the LQG theory of control and estimation is used to obtain a complex model of human pilot. The approach is based on the argument, experimentally proved, that the human behaves “optimally” in some sense, subject to his inherent psychophysical limitations. The validation of such model is accomplished based on the experimental model of a VTOL-type aircraft. Then, the procedure of inserting typical saturation nonlinearities in the open loop transfer function is presented. A second part of the paper will illustrate PIO tendencies evaluation by means of a grapho-analytic method.

  13. Anti-Hypertensive Herbs and their Mechanisms of Action: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtar eAnwar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has a history extending back to thousands of years, and during the intervening time, man has identified the healing properties of a very broad range of plants. Globally, the use of herbal therapies to treat and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD is on the rise. This is the second part of our comprehensive review where we discuss the mechanisms of plants and herbs used for the treatment and management of high blood pressure. Similar to the first part, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were utilized, and the following keywords and phrases were used as inclusion criteria: hypertension, high blood pressure, herbal medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, endothelial cells, nitric oxide, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation, hydrogen sulfide, nuclear factor kappa-B, oxidative stress and epigenetics/epigenomics. Each of the aforementioned keywords was co-joined with plant or herb in question, and where possible with its constituent molecule(s. This part deals in particular with plants that are used, albeit less frequently, for the treatment and management of hypertension. We then discuss the interplay between herbs/prescription drugs and herbs/epigenetics in the context of this disease. The review then concludes with a recommendation for more rigorous, well-developed clinical trials to concretely determine the beneficial impact of herbs and plants on hypertension and a disease-free living.

  14. THE FOURIER SERIES USED IN ANALYSE OF THE CAM MECHANISMS FOR THE SHOEMAKING MACHINES (PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted procedure for the cinematic analysis of the mechanism of a cam is essential in making a certain type of research operations. They mainly refer to the optimization of operations running on specific machinery, or to the re-design of the mechanism, in order to make the mechanism digital. This analysis seems even more important, when we consider the fact that most of the machines used in shoe industry nowadays use a cam mechanism. The paper is devided in two parts. In first part, it is elaborated a method of finding of a function G(x, belonging to a Fourier series, which approximates the numerical values {xi, yi}, with the biggest accuracy. Finding the function that approximates the most accurately the data set, for the position parameters of the follower S(ω, ( will lead to a complete kinematic and dynamic analysis of the cam mechanism. These values repeat with T = 2π period. In second part, the method is tasted using MatCAD work sessions which allow a numerical and graphical analysis of the mathematical relations involved, in order to test the reability of the method. The set of experimental data are resulted after measuring a cam mechanism of a machine used in shoemaking.

  15. Regional alterations in long bone 85Sr clearance produced by internal fixation devices. Part II. Histomorphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of each of the surgical stages involved in compression plating on the development of cortical thinning and porosity were assessed in the intact midshaft, stress-shielded femoral segments of adult mongrel dogs 6 months postoperatively. The data were evaluated in terms of a postsurgical tetracycline-based measure of remodeling and terminal 85Sr clearance (SrC) values for the plated segments of bone. Drilling had no effect on any parameter. Screw application was associated with minimal cortical thinning (p less than 0.05), while plate fixation clearly promoted thinning (p less than 0.01) and porosity (p less than 0.05). The percentage of labeled osteons, a measure of remodeling activity, increased only after plate fixation (p less than 0.05), and the labeling patterns suggested that most osteons had formed during the first 4 postsurgical months. That none of these changes were correlated with the 6-month SrC values suggests that the development of plate-induced osteopenia involves disparate histomorphometric time constants, rather than lack of any association

  16. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  17. Medicare Part D Enrollment in a Biracial Community-Based Population of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Evans, Denis A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit (Part D) program debuted in January 2006. We ascertained the sociodemographic and health characteristics of Blacks and Whites who enrolled in the early stages of the program. Design and Methods: Data were collected between April 2006 and October 2007 from an ongoing population-based biracial study of…

  18. Inadvertent interchange of electrocardiogram limb lead connections: analysis of predicted consequences part II: double interconnection errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Derek J

    2012-01-01

    Limb lead connection errors are known to be very common in clinical practice. The consequences of all possible single limb lead interconnection errors were analyzed in an earlier publication (J Electrocardiology 2008;41:84-90). With a single limb lead interconnection error, 6 combinations of limb lead connections are possible. Two of these combinations give rise to records in which the limb lead morphology is uninterpretable. Such records show a "flat line" in lead II or III. Three of the errors give rise to records that are fully interpretable once the specific interconnection error has been identified (although one of the errors cannot reliably be recognized in the absence of a previous record for comparison). One of the errors produces no change in the electrocardiogram recording. In all cases, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages. This communication predicts the changes in limb lead appearances consequent upon all possible double limb lead interchanges and illustrates these with records electively taken with such double interconnection errors. There are only 3 possible double limb lead interconnection errors. In 2 of the possible combinations, interpretation of the limb leads is impossible, and each of these errors gives rise to a flat line in lead I. In the third combination, the record is fully interpretable once the abnormality has been identified. In all 3 types, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages.

  19. Neutronic Analysis of the 3 MW TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor, Part I: Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the current core configuration of a 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh and validation of the results by benchmarking with the experimental, operational and available Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) values. The three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used to develop a versatile and accurate full-core model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detail all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. All fresh fuel and control elements as well as the vicinity of the core were precisely described. Continuous energy cross-section data from ENDF/B-VI and S(α, β) scattering functions from the ENDF/B-V library were used. The validation of the model against benchmark experimental results is presented. The MCNP predictions and the experimentally determined values are found to be in very good agreement, which indicates that the Monte Carlo model is correctly simulating the TRIGA reactor. (author)

  20. Arguments for Csr-Based Sustainable Competitiveness of Multinationals in Emerging Markets (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The (two parts of the paper aims to bring into discussion the case of CSR-based sustainable competitiveness of multinationals in emerging market economies, through an interdisciplinary approach (international business and strategic management applied to a multilevel analysis (country and company. The main conclusion of the paper is that, despite the circumstances that nowadays characterize international business in general and the emerging market economies in particular, such a transformation in business models is not only desirable, but mandatory. Key arguments in favor of this assumption are found (both theoretically and empirically at global/general level and, as well, at the emerging market economies’ level.

  1. Neuro-Oftalmologia: sistema sensorial ¾ Parte II Revisão 1997 ¾ 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Lana-Peixoto Marco Aurélio

    2002-01-01

    Esta é a segunda parte de uma revisão da literatura do sistema visual sensorial. O autor seleciona artigos publicados na literatura entre os anos de 1997 e 1999 relacionados a neurorretinites, neuropatia óptica compressiva, tumores do nervo óptico, pseudotumor cerebral, neuropatias ópticas hereditárias, hipoplasia do nervo óptico, drusas do disco óptico, neuropatia óptica tóxica, neuropatia óptica traumática, outras neuropatias ópticas e doenças retinianas, doenças do quiasma óptico e do trat...

  2. Air Navigation Systems: Chapter 6. Navigation and the Pioneering Flights Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip

    Part I of this chapter was included in the January 1997 issue of the Journal, Vol. 50, p. 65.The Smith Brothers, 1919. Captain Ross M. Smith, of the Australian Flying Corps based in Palestine, flew a Handley Page 0/400 late in 1918 on a special flight to Baghdad and beyond, carrying as passenger Major General W. G. H. Salmond, the RAF's Middle East Commander. Flying as co-pilot was Brigadier-General Borton, Commander of the Palestine Brigade. Smith had been flying, in support of Lawrence's forces, another 0/00 which Borton had brought from England.

  3. Transonic Airfoil Flow Simulation. Part II: Inviscid-Viscous Coupling Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir CARDOŞ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A calculation method for the subsonic and transonic viscous flow over airfoil using the displacement surface concept is described. This modelling technique uses a finite volume method for the time-dependent Euler equations and laminar and turbulent boundary-layer integral methods. In additional special models for transition, laminar or turbulent separation bubbles and trailing edge treatment have been selected. However, the flow is limited to small parts of trailing edge-type separation. Comparisons with experimental data and other methods are shown.

  4. OH-initiated oxidation of benzene - Part II. Influence of elevated NOx concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klotz, B; Volkamer, R; Hurley, MD;

    2002-01-01

    The present work represents a continuation of part I of this series of papers, in which we investigated the phenol yields in the OH-initiated oxidation of benzene under conditions of low to moderate concentrations of NOx, to elevated NOx levels. The products of the OH-initiated oxidation of benzene...... in 700 760 Torr of N-2/O-2 diluent at 297 +/- 4 K were investigated in 3 different photochemical reaction chambers. In situ spectroscopic techniques were employed for the detection of products, and the initial concentrations of benzene, NOx, and O-2 were widely varied (by factors of 6300, 1500, and 13...

  5. Nutrition of preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after hospital discharge – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia often present with severe growth failure at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Catch-up growth accelerates after hospital discharge, nevertheless, feeding problems may need a specialized approach. Following the revision of the scientific literature on the most relevant aspects on nutrition of patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after hospital discharge in Part I, in this article the Authors present and discuss important issues such as catch up growth, swallow dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux, and how to improve feeding competences.

  6. Reduced and Generalized Stokes Resolvent Equations in Asymptotically Flat Layers, Part II: H∞-Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Helmut

    2005-05-01

    We study the generalized Stokes equations in asymptotically flat layers, which can be considered as compact perturbations of an infinite (flat) layer Ω _0 = mathbb{R}^{n - 1} × ( - 1,1). Besides standard non-slip boundary conditions, we consider a mixture of slip and non-slip boundary conditions on the upper and lower boundary, respectively. In this second part, we use pseudodifferential operator techniques to construct a parametrix to the reduced Stokes equations, which solves the system in Lq-Sobolev spaces, 1 calculus of the (reduced) Stokes operator.

  7. Coupled Vibration of Unshrouded Centrifugal Compressor Impellers. Part II: Computation of Vibration Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hagelstein

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of small gas turbines and turbochargers in different technical fields has led to the development of highly-loaded centrifugal compressors with extremely thin blades. Due to high rotational speed and the correspondingly high centrifugal loads, the shape of the impeller hub must also be optimized. This has led to a reduction of the thickness of the impeller disc in the outlet region. The thin parts of the impeller are very sensitive and may be damaged by the excitation of dangerous blade vibrations.

  8. Investigation of novel propulsion systems – the exoskeletal engine concept. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian JUHASZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The exoskeletal engine represents a relatively new concept in the world of propulsion systems. It is a drum-rotor engine concept in which conventionally heavy shafts and discs are eliminated and replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in span wise compression. Thus the rotating blades are in compression rather than in tension. The resulting open channel at the engine centerline has immense potential for jet noise reduction and can also accommodate an inner combined-cycle thruster such as a ramjet. This is the second part of the article.

  9. π+p, π+n, and π+d interactions. A compilation. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A listing is presented of the 297 articles from which the data in Part I were abstracted. These listings contain additional information on each of these articles: authors, title, abstract, closely related references, beam, momenta of experiment, target, etc. One also gives tables of the data as they appeared in the original articles. Systematic comments are made specifying how the final data were obtained; for example, mass cuts for resonance production cross sections, spectator momentum cuts, corrections for systematic biases, etc. This information, extracted from the papers, is given to aid the reader in his evaluation of the results and in any comparison with other experiments

  10. Ageing behaviour of electrochemical double layer capacitors. Part II. Lifetime simulation model for dynamic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlen, Oliver; Kowal, Julia; Dirk Uwe Sauer [Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives ISEA, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-11-08

    Based on the results of the experimental study in Part I, a holistic simulation model that combines electrical and thermal simulation of electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules with an ageing model is presented. This simulation model allows analysing self-accelerating degradation effects caused by elevated voltages and temperatures. Furthermore, the divergence of cell performance in a stack of cells can be investigated which makes the model a valuable tool for cell and stack design as well as for testing operating strategies and cooling systems. (author)

  11. The multigene families of actinoporins (part II): Strategies for heterologous production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, A; Hervis, Y P; Socas, L B P; Canet, L; Faheem, M; Barbosa, J A R G; Lanio, M E; Pazos, I F

    2016-08-01

    The sea anemone venom contains pore-forming proteins (PFP) named actinoporins, due to their purification from organisms belonging to Actiniaria order and its ability to form pores in sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Actinoporins are generally basic, monomeric and single-domain small proteins (∼20 kDa) that are classified as α-type PFP since the pore formation in membranes occur through α-helical elements. Different actinoporin isoforms have been isolated from most of the anemones species, as was analyzed in the first part of this review. Several actinoporin full-length genes have been identified from genomic-DNA libraries or messenger RNA. Since the actinoporins lack carbohydrates and disulfide bridges, their expression in bacterial systems is suitable. The actinoporins heterologous expression in Escherichia coli simplifies their production, replaces the natural source reducing the ecological damage in anemone populations, and allows the production of site-specific mutants for the study of the structure-function relationship. In this second part of the review, the strategies for heterologous production of actinoporins in Escherichia coli are analyzed, as well as the different approaches used for their purification. The activity of the recombinant proteins with respect to the wild-type is also reviewed. PMID:27080349

  12. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part II: implications for clinical practice and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, Michel H. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, Paris Cedex 12 (France); CEA-DSV-DRM Hopital, Service de Recherches en Hemato-Immunologie, Saint Louis, Paris (France); Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria R.; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina di [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carosella, Edgardo D. [CEA-DSV-DRM Hopital, Service de Recherches en Hemato-Immunologie, Saint Louis, Paris (France)

    2005-03-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to the genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation, offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. Although only a small percentage of individuals are ''hypersensitive'' to radiation effects, all medical specialists using ionising radiation should be aware of the aforementioned progress in medical knowledge. The present paper, the second of two parts, reviews human disorders known or strongly suspected to be associated with hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. The main tests capable of detecting such pathologies in advance are analysed, and ethical issues regarding genetic testing are considered. The implications for radiation protection of possible hypersensitivity to radiation in a part of the population are discussed, and some guidelines for nuclear medicine professionals are proposed. (orig.)

  13. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part II: implications for clinical practice and radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Michel H; Gisone, Pablo A; Perez, Maria R; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Giorgio, Marina Di; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2005-03-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression has attracted greater attention to the genetic and epigenetic susceptibility to cancer, possibly enhanced by ionising radiation. This issue is especially important for radiation therapists since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following standard radiation therapy, while normally sensitive patients could receive higher doses of radiation, offering a better likelihood of cure for malignant tumours. Although only a small percentage of individuals are "hypersensitive" to radiation effects, all medical specialists using ionising radiation should be aware of the aforementioned progress in medical knowledge. The present paper, the second of two parts, reviews human disorders known or strongly suspected to be associated with hypersensitivity to ionising radiation. The main tests capable of detecting such pathologies in advance are analysed, and ethical issues regarding genetic testing are considered. The implications for radiation protection of possible hypersensitivity to radiation in a part of the population are discussed, and some guidelines for nuclear medicine professionals are proposed. PMID:15692806

  14. Open-Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part II - Validation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen

    2012-04-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  15. Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part II Validation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Galvin, Janine [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  16. Graph Theoretic Foundations of Multibody Dynamics Part II: Analysis and Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan

    2011-10-01

    This second, of a two part paper, uses concepts from graph theory to obtain a deeper understanding of the mathematical foundations of multibody dynamics. The first part [7] established the block-weighted adjacency (BWA) matrix structure of spatial operators associated with serial and tree topology multibody system dynamics, and introduced the notions of spatial kernel operators (SKO) and spatial propagation operators (SPO). This paper builds upon these connections to show that key analytical results and computational algorithms are a direct consequence of these structural properties and require minimal assumptions about the specific nature of the underlying multibody system. We formalize this notion by introducing the notion of SKO models for general tree-topology multibody systems. We show that key analytical results, including mass matrix factorization, inversion, and decomposition hold for all SKO models. It is also shown that key low-order scatter/gather recursive computational algorithms follow directly from these abstract-level analytical results. Application examples to illustrate the concrete application of these general results are provided. The paper also describes a general recipe for developing SKO models. The abstract nature of SKO models allows the application of these techniques to a very broad class of multibody systems. PMID:22102791

  17. Retrieving Storm Electric Fields from Aircrfaft Field Mill Data: Part II: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William; Mach, D. M.; Christian H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Bateman M. G.

    2006-01-01

    The Lagrange multiplier theory developed in Part I of this study is applied to complete a relative calibration of a Citation aircraft that is instrumented with six field mill sensors. When side constraints related to average fields are used, the Lagrange multiplier method performs well in computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V m(sup -1) and a 5 V m(sup -1) error in the mean fair-weather field function, the 3D storm electric field is retrieved to within an error of about 12%. A side constraint that involves estimating the detailed structure of the fair-weather field was also tested using computer simulations. For mill measurement errors of 1 V m(sup -l), the method retrieves the 3D storm field to within an error of about 8% if the fair-weather field estimate is typically within 1 V m(sup -1) of the true fair-weather field. Using this type of side constraint and data from fair-weather field maneuvers taken on 29 June 2001, the Citation aircraft was calibrated. Absolute calibration was completed using the pitch down method developed in Part I, and conventional analyses. The resulting calibration matrices were then used to retrieve storm electric fields during a Citation flight on 2 June 2001. The storm field results are encouraging and agree favorably in many respects with results derived from earlier (iterative) techniques of calibration.

  18. The available-enthalpy (flow-exergy) cycle. Part-II: applications to idealized baroclinic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The local available-enthalpy cycle proposed in Part I of this paper is applied to document energetics of three numerical simulations, representing life cycles of idealized baroclinic waves. An improved temporal numerical scheme defined in Part I is used in this study, together with the Arpege-IFS model using a T42 triangular truncation. A 45{\\deg}N and 200 hPa dry unstable jet is constructed with the most unstable mode at zonal wave number 8. Energetic impacts of both horizontal and vertical diffusion schemes are determined separately. The role of ageostrophic winds within the Ekman layer is investigated, leading to an explanation for large observed values for the dissipation terms and to a new formulation of the potential-energy conversions. The magnitudes of these new conversion terms are compared with those of the usual barotropic and baroclinic conversions. A new version for the available-enthalpy cycle is proposed. It is suitable for open systems and it includes explicitly the potential-energy component ...

  19. A new linear transfer theory and characterization method for image detectors. Part II: Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubk, Axel, E-mail: Axel.Lubk@triebenberg.de [CEMES-CNRS 29, rue Jeanne Marvig B.P. 94347 F-31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Roeder, Falk [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Niermann, Tore [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gatel, Christophe; Joulie, Sebastien; Houdellier, Florent [CEMES-CNRS 29, rue Jeanne Marvig B.P. 94347 F-31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Magen, Cesar [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA) - ARAID, and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Hyetch, Martin J. [CEMES-CNRS 29, rue Jeanne Marvig B.P. 94347 F-31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    A novel generalized linear transfer theory describing the signal and noise transfer in image detectors has been developed in Part I (Niermann, this issue, ) of this paper. Similar to the existing notion of a point spread function (PSF) describing the transfer of the first statistical moment (the average), a noise spread function (NSF) was introduced to characterize the spatially resolved transfer of noise (central second moment, covariance). Following the theoretic results developed in Part I (Niermann, this issue, ), a new experimental method based on single spot illumination has been developed and applied to measure 2D point and 4D noise spread functions of CCD cameras used in TEM. A dedicated oversampling method has been used to suppress aliasing in the measured quantities. We analyze the 4D noise spread with respect to electronic and photonic noise contributions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a new detector characterization method based on single spot illumination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly accurate MTFs comparable to the knife-edge method are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4D noise spread functions have been successfully measured for the first time.

  20. Modeling heart rate regulation--part II: parameter identification and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, K R; Gray, G A; Olufsen, M S

    2008-06-01

    In part I of this study we introduced a 17-parameter model that can predict heart rate regulation during postural change from sitting to standing. In this subsequent study, we focus on the 17 model parameters needed to adequately represent the observed heart rate response. In part I and in previous work (Olufsen et al. 2006), we estimated the 17 model parameters by minimizing the least squares error between computed and measured values of the heart rate using the Nelder-Mead method (a simplex algorithm). In this study, we compare the Nelder-Mead optimization method to two sampling methods: the implicit filtering method and a genetic algorithm. We show that these off-the-shelf optimization methods can work in conjunction with the heart rate model and provide reasonable parameter estimates with little algorithm tuning. In addition, we make use of the thousands of points sampled by the optimizers in the course of the minimization to perform an overall analysis of the model itself. Our findings show that the resulting least-squares problem has multiple local minima and that the non-linear-least squares error can vary over two orders of magnitude due to the complex interaction between the model parameters, even when provided with reasonable bound constraints. PMID:18172764

  1. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part II: Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications.

  2. High-temperature turbine technology program hot-gas path development test. Part II. Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    This topical report of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) Phase II program presents the results of testing full-scale water-cooled first-stage and second-stage turbine nozzles at design temperature and pressure to verify that the designs are adequate for operation in a full-scale turbine environment. Low-cycle fatigue life of the nozzles was demonstrated by subjecting cascade assemblies to several hundred simulated startup/shutdown turbine cycles. This testing was accomplished in the Hot-Gas Path Development Test Stand (HGPDTS), which is capable of evaluating full-scale combustion and turbine nozzle components. A three-throat cascade of the first-stage turbine nozzle was successfully tested at a nozzle inlet gas temperature of 2630/sup 0/F and a nozzle inlet pressure of 11.3 atmospheres. In addition to steady-state operation at the design firing temperature, the nozzle cascade was exposed to a simulated startup/shutdown turbine cycle by varying the firing temperature. A total of 42 h at the design point and 617 thermal cycles were accumulated during the test periods. First-stage nozzle test results show that measured metal and coolant temperatures correspond well to the predicted design values. This nozzle design has been shown to be fully satisfactory for the application (2600/sup 0/F), with growth capability to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature. A post-test metallurgical examination of sectioned portions of the tested nozzles shows a totally bonded structure, confirming the test results and attesting to the successful performance of water-cooled composite nozzle hardware.

  3. Toward a molecular understanding of adaptive immunity:A chronology, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By 1980 it was obvious that to more fully understand adaptive immunity, one needed to somehow reduce the tremendous complexity of antigen recognition by T cell populations. Thus, there were two developments that resulted in a paradigm shift in immunology, one being the generation of monoclonal antibodies, and the other the development of monoclonal functional antigen-specific T cell lines. For the first time, the cellular reagents became available to ask new questions as to how individual cells comprising the complex cell populations recognize and respond to changes in their molecular environments. The first successful generation of monoclonal T cells depended upon the understanding that antigen renders cells responsive to the antigen non-specific T cell growth factor that came to be termed interleukin-2 (IL-2, which could then be used in propagating large numbers of the progeny of single cells, which in turn could then be used for molecular analyses. Monoclonal functional human T cells were used to immunize mice to generate clone-specific (clonotypic monoclonal antibodies, which then permitted the first biochemical characterizations of the antigen recognition elements of the T cell antigen receptor complex. Moreover, the use of monoclonal cytolytic and helper/inducer human T cell clones essentially proved that the T cell-specific molecules T4 and T8 functioned as accessory molecules in antigen recognition by defining MHC class II or class I restriction respectively. As well, the expression of the T3 molecules, found to be common to all T cells, were shown further to be obligatory for functional antigen-specific T cell signaling. The monoclonal IL-2-dependent T cells were also instrumental in the isolation and purification of the IL-2 molecule to homogeneity, the first interleukin molecule to be identified and characterized. These advances then led to the generation of pure radiolabeled IL-2 molecules that were used to identify the first

  4. Nematodes parasitic in fishes of cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Part 1. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Mendoza-Franco, E; González-Solís, D

    1995-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of adult nematodes collected from fishes from cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, southeastern Mexico, in 1993-1994. Examinations of a total of 533 fishes (17 species) originating from 39 cenotes from the Mexican states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo revealed the presence of the following nine nematode species: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) kidderi, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae, P. (S.) neocaballeroi, Philometroides caudata, Hysterothylacium cenotue. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis, Paracapillaria rhamdiae, P. teixerafreitasi and Capillostrongyloides sp. (only females). Four species (R. kidderi, P. rebecae, P. neocaballeroi and Capillostrongyloides sp.) are briefly described and illustrated and some problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. Taxonomic changes include Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) neocaballeroi (Caballero-Deloya. 1977) comb. n. and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae (Andrade-Salas, Pineda-López et García-Magaña, 1994) comb. n. The nematode fauna of fishes in cenotes of the Yucatan Peninsula shows its appurtenance to the Neotropical fauna with close affinities with that of fish nematodes from South America, but with a considerable degree of endemism. PMID:8774767

  5. Engaging and empowering patients to manage their type 2 diabetes, Part II: Initiatives for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Stephan; Serrano-Gil, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has reached pandemic proportions. The impact of it and its long-term sequelae represent a significant burden for many healthcare systems around the world, and a significant number of patients struggle to achieve the internationally recommended targets for the modifiable risk factors that optimize healthy outcomes. In the first part of this two-part review, the scene was set showing that there seems to be a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) gap hindering successful management of T2D. Although theoretical knowledge about how T2D should be managed exists, the attitude of patients and healthcare professionals seems to influence the practicalities of implementing life-enhancing changes for patients living with diabetes. Following the chronic care model, macro-level initiatives such as Finland's national diabetes program, "The Development Programme for the Prevention and Care of Diabetes" (DEHKO), encourage a coordinated, supportive policy and financial environment for healthcare system change, and are advocated by the International Diabetes Federation. Over a 10-year period, the DEHKO program aims to demonstrate that a top-down population approach to prevention, focusing on reducing obesity, increasing physical activity, and encouraging healthier eating habits, may improve the overall health of the nation. However, the patient is the focus of day-to-day management of T2D, and innovative strategies that use a community (meso-level) approach to encourage self-management, or that embrace new technologies to access diabetes self-management education or support networks, are likely to be the way forward. Such measures may close the apparent KAP gap and bring about real and measurable benefits in quality of life and life expectancy. The second part of this review describes some of the many and varied initiatives designed to engage and empower patients to self-manage their T2D, with the aim of increasing the proportion of patients reaching health

  6. Part I. Cobalt thiolate complexes modeling the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. Part II. Formation of inorganic nanoparticles on protein scaffolding in Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Irene Yuk Man

    Part I. A series of novel cobalt dithiolate complexes with mixed imine/amine ligand systems is presented here as electronic and structural models for the active site in the bacterial enzyme class, nitrile hydratase (NHase). Pentadentate cobalt(II) complexes with S2N 3 ligand environments are first studied as precursors to the more relevant cobalt(III) complexes. Adjustment of the backbone length by removal of a methylene group increases the reactivity of the system; whereas reduction of the two backbone imine bonds to allow free rotation about those bonds may decrease reactivity. Reactivity change due to the replacement of the backbone amine proton with a more sterically challenging methyl group is not yet clear. Upon oxidation, the monocationic pentadentate cobalt(III) complex, 1b, shows promising reactivity similar to that of NHase. The metal's open coordination site allows reversible binding of the endogenous, monoanionic ligands, N 3- and NCS-. Oxygenation of the thiolate sulfur atoms by exposure to O2 and H2O 2 produces sulfenate and sulfinate ligands in complex 8, which resembles the crystal structure of "deactivated" Fe NHase. However, its lack of reactivity argues against the oxygenated enzyme structure as the active form. Six-coordinate cobalt(III) complexes with S2N4 amine/amine ligand systems are also presented as analogues of previously reported iron(III) compounds, which mimic the spectroscopic properties of Fe NHase. The cobalt complexes do not seem to similarly model Co NHase. However, the S = 0 cobalt(III) center can be spectroscopically silent and difficult to detect, making comparison with synthetic models using common techniques hard. Part II. Dodecameric Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase mutant, E165C, stacks along its six-fold axis to produce tubular nanostructures in the presence of some divalent metal ions, as does the wild type enzyme. The centrally located, engineered Cys-165 residues appear to bind to various species and may serve as

  7. Indo-Pacific variability on seasonal to multidecadal timescales. Part II: Multiscale atmosphere-ocean linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The coupled atmosphere-ocean variability of the Indo-Pacific on interannual to multidecadal timescales is investigated in a millennial control run of CCSM4 and in observations using a family of modes recovered in Part~I of this work from unprocessed SST data through nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis (NLSA). It is found that ENSO and combination modes of ENSO with the annual cycle exhibit a seasonally synchronized southward shift of equatorial surface zonal winds and thermocline adjustment consistent with terminating El Nino and La Nina events. The surface wind patterns associated with these modes also generate teleconnections between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, leading to a pattern of SST anomalies characteristic of the Indian Ocean dipole. Fundamental and combination modes representing the tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) in CCSM4 are also found to be consistent with mechanisms for seasonally synchronized biennial variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon and Walker circulation. On longer tim...

  8. Managing Returnable Containers Logistics - A Case Study Part II - Improving Visibility through Using Automatic Identification Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Meiser

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This case study is the result of a project conducted on behalf of a company that uses its own returnable containers to transport purchased parts from suppliers. The objective of this project was to develop a proposal to enable the company to more effectively track and manage its returnable containers. The research activities in support of this project included (1 the analysis and documentation of the physical flow and the information flow associated with the containers and (2 the investigation of new technologies to improve the automatic identification and tracking of containers. This paper explains the automatic identification technologies and important criteria for selection. A companion paper details the flow of information and containers within the logistics chain, and it identifies areas for improving the management of the containers.

  9. Nanodiamond in tellurite glass Part II: practical nanodiamond-doped fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Yinlan; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Greentree, Andrew D; Gibson, Brant C; Monro, Tanya M; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Tellurite glass fibers with embedded nanodiamond are attractive materials for quantum photonics applications. Reducing the loss of these fibers in the 600-800 nm wavelength range of nanodiamond fluorescence is essential to exploit the unique properties of nanodiamond in the new hybrid material. The first part of this study reported the origin of loss in nanodiamond-doped glass and impact of glass fabrication conditions. Here, we report the fabrication of nanodiamond-doped tellurite fibers with significantly reduced loss in the visible through further understanding of the impact of glass fabrication conditions on the interaction of the glass melt with the embedded nanodiamond. We fabricated tellurite fibers containing nanodiamond in concentrations up to 0.7 ppm-weight, while reducing the loss by more than an order of magnitude down to 10 dB/m at 600-800 nm.

  10. Mathematical modeling of materially nonlinear problems in structural analyses, Part II: Application in contemporary software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonić Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of nonlinear material models in the software package Ansys. The development of the model theory is presented in the paper of the mathematical modeling of material nonlinear problems in structural analysis (part I - theoretical foundations, and here is described incremental-iterative procedure for solving problems of nonlinear material used by this package and an example of modeling of spread footing by using Bilinear-kinematics and Drucker-Prager mode was given. A comparative analysis of the results obtained by these modeling and experimental research of the author was made. Occurrence of the load level that corresponds to plastic deformation was noted, development of deformations with increasing load, as well as the distribution of dilatation in the footing was observed. Comparison of calculated and measured values of reinforcement dilatation shows their very good agreement.

  11. Data hiding in image and video: Part II--designs and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Yu, Heather; Liu, Bede

    2003-01-01

    This paper applies the solutions to the fundamental issues addressed in Part I to specific design problems of embedding data in image and video. We apply multilevel embedding to allow the amount of embedded information that can be reliably extracted to be adaptive with respect to the actual noise conditions. When extending the multilevel embedding to video, we propose strategies for handling uneven embedding capacity from region to region within a frame as well as from frame to frame. We also embed control information to facilitate the accurate extraction of the user data payload and to combat such distortions as frame jitter. The proposed algorithm can be used for a variety of applications such as copy control, access control, robust annotation, and content-based authentication.

  12. Thermohaline circulation stability: a box model study - Part II: coupled atmosphere-ocean model

    CERN Document Server

    Lucarini, V; Lucarini, Valerio; Stone, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the stability of a coupled version of an inter-hemispheric 3-box model of Thermohaline Circulation (THC) is presented. This study follows a similarly structured analysis on an uncoupled version of the same model presented in Part I. We study how the strength of THC changes when the system undergoes forcings representing global warming conditions. Each perturbation to the initial equilibrium is characterized by the total radiative forcing realized, by the rate of increase, and by the North-South asymmetry. The choice of suitably defined metrics allows us to determine the boundary dividing the set of radiative forcing scenarios that lead the system to equilibria characterized by a THC pattern similar to the present one, from those that drive the system to equilibria where the THC is reversed. We also consider different choices for the atmospheric transport parameterizations and for the ratio between the high latitude to tropical radiative forcing. We generally find that fast forcings are ...

  13. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains."

  14. Biocompatibility evaluation in vitro. Part II: Functional expression of human and animal osteoblasts on the biomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DNA synthesis and collagen formations on the implant material by cell culture in vitro are the most important phenotypical expression to estimate the biocompatibility. In this part, DNA synthesis and collagen formation on implant materials were quantitatively and qualitatively estimated by radioactive isotope H+-thymidine to incorporate into DNA chains, H+-proline to incorporate into type I collagen proteins followed by scin-tillation counting and antibody-antigen immunocytochemistry staining, respectively. Research results demonstrate that hydroxyapatite (HA) stimulates DNA synthesis and collagen formation on the material whereas this stimulation is restricted by adding spinel to the materials. There are statistical differences between the influences of material components on both DNA synthesis and collagen formation. It is supposed that porous materials can supply more platforms for cell anchoring, and more DNA and collagen are synthesised on the porous materials. Immersion in culture medium results in new HA crystal formation on the porous HA materials.

  15. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  16. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  17. The Systemic Products as a Source of Competitive Advantage on Healthcare Sector Example. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela SZTANGRET

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the healthcare sector, different healthcare providers, such as home care, primary care, pharmacies and hospital clinics but also a financial institution, collaborate in order to increase values for patients, such as better health state, more complex services, high quality of services, and increased feeling of safety. By creating a value, flexible networks health care providers and additional actors create value through collaboration. The purpose of this article is to identify the specific character of systemic healthcare product, created in synergy relations of medical enntities in the area of new way of meeting customers’ needs. Critical analysis of literature in the field of studied category is conducted in the article; furthermore qualitative method of empirical studies (case study and quantitative (online questionnaire is applied for practical illustration of described processes and phenomena. The article is a second part of the stud.

  18. How Clean Are Hotel Rooms? Part II: Examining the Concept of Cleanliness Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Barbara A; Kirsch, Katie; Kline, Sheryl Fried; Sirsat, Sujata; Stroia, Olivia; Choi, Jin Kyung; Neal, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Hotel room cleanliness is based on observation and not on microbial assessment even though recent reports suggest that infections may be acquired while staying in hotel rooms. Exploratory research in the first part of the authors' study was conducted to determine if contamination of hotel rooms occurs and whether visual assessments are accurate indicators of hotel room cleanliness. Data suggested the presence of microbial contamination that was not reflective of visual assessments. Unfortunately, no standards exist for interpreting microbiological data and other indicators of cleanliness in hotel rooms. The purpose of the second half of the authors' study was to examine cleanliness standards in other industries to see if they might suggest standards in hotels. Results of the authors' study indicate that standards from other related industries do not provide analogous criteria, but do provide suggestions for further research. PMID:26427263

  19. A Stochastic Closure for Two-Moment Bulk Microphysics of Warm Clouds: Part II, Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, David

    2016-01-01

    The representation of clouds and associated processes of rain and snow formation remains one of the major uncertainties in climate and weather prediction models. In a companion paper (Part I), we systematically derived a two moment bulk cloud microphysics model for collision and coalescence in warm rain based on the kinetic coalescence equation (KCE) and used stochastic approximations to close the higher order moment terms, and do so independently of the collision kernel. Conservation of mass and consistency of droplet number concentration of the evolving cloud properties were combined with numerical simulations to reduce the parametrization problem to three key parameters. Here, we constrain these three parameters based on the physics of collision and coalescence resulting in a "region of validity." Furthermore, we theoretically validate the new bulk model by deriving a subset of the "region of validity" that contains stochastic parameters that skillfully reproduces an existing model based on an a priori dro...

  20. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium.

  1. EFFECT OF DENTIN TUBULES TO THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DENTIN.PART II:EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Bo; Zheng Quanshui; Zhang Qing; Wang Jiade

    2000-01-01

    To verify the theoretical models of varying transversely isotropic stress-strain relations of dentin established in the preceding work(Part I),we perform a set of experiments.Because of the very fine tooth size,it usually seems to be difficult to directly measure the inhomogeneons and anisotropic parameters of dentin.In this paper,by the digital speckle correlation method,tensile experiments are made on the small dentin samples either parallel or perpendicular to the dentin tubules.With the theoretically predicted elastic stress-strain relations,an optimization method is proposed to fit the strain curve adapted to the experimental data.The results show that the theoretical elastic stress-strain relations coincides very well with the experimental observations.The determined Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of dentin matrix are 29.5GPa and 0.44,respectively,in the optimization sense.

  2. Periodic nonlinear Fourier transform for fiber-optic communications, Part II: eigenvalue communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design of communication systems based on using periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT), following the introduction of the method in the Part I. We show that the famous "eigenvalue communication" idea [A. Hasegawa and T. Nyu, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 395 (1993)] can also be generalized for the PNFT application: In this case, the main spectrum attributed to the PNFT signal decomposition remains constant with the propagation down the optical fiber link. Therefore, the main PNFT spectrum can be encoded with data in the same way as soliton eigenvalues in the original proposal. The results are presented in terms of the bit-error rate (BER) values for different modulation techniques and different constellation sizes vs. the propagation distance, showing a good potential of the technique. PMID:27505800

  3. Spin and pseudospin in monolayer graphene: Part II. Competition between exchange and spin–orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin and pseudospin properties of monolayer graphene, when both the exchange and extrinsic spin–orbit (SO) interactions are taken into account, are analyzed within a framework of geometric algebra. The rotor equations for even and odd parts of electron bispinor are constructed in three-dimensional (3D) Euclidean space thus providing clear geometrical interpretation to the problem. It is shown that in the presence of combined action of exchange and SO interactions the spin and pseudospin fields in a monolayer graphene from two-dimensional become 3D, with spin and pseudospin components pointing out of the graphene plane. Also, the effect of both interactions on the Berry phase is considered analytically. (paper)

  4. Waveform cross correlation for seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions. Part II: Synthetic master events

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Waveform cross correlation is an efficient tool for detection and characterization of seismic signals. The efficiency critically depends on the availability of master events. For the purposes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, cross correlation can globally reduce the threshold monitoring by 0.3 to 0.4 magnitude units. In seismically active regions, the optimal choice of master events is straightforward. There are two approaches to populate the global grid in aseismic areas: the replication of real masters and synthetic seismograms calculated for seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System. Synthetic templates depend on the accuracy of shape and amplitude predictions controlled by focal depth and mechanism, source function, velocity structure and attenuation along the master/station path. As in Part I, we test three focal mechanisms (explosion, thrust fault, and actual Harvard CMT solution for one of the April 11, 2012 Sumatera aftershocks) and two velocity structures (ak135 and CRUST 2.0...

  5. Planning structural inspection and maintenance policies via dynamic programming and Markov processes. Part II: POMDP implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this two part study is to highlight the advanced attributes, capabilities and use of stochastic control techniques, and especially Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs), that can address the conundrum of planning optimum inspection/monitoring and maintenance policies based on stochastic models and uncertain structural data in real time. In this second part of the study a distinct, advanced, infinite horizon POMDP formulation with 332 states is cast and solved, related to a corroding reinforced concrete structure and its minimum life-cycle cost. The formation and solution of the problem modernize and extend relevant approaches and motivate the use of POMDP methods in challenging practical applications. Apart from uncertain observations the presented framework can also support uncertain action outcomes, non-periodic inspections and choice availability of inspection/monitoring types and intervals, as well as maintenance actions and action times. It is thus no surprise that the estimated optimum policy consists of a complex combination of a variety of actions, which cannot be achieved by any other method. To be able to solve the problem we resort to a point-based value iteration solver and we evaluate its performance and solution quality for this type of applications. Simpler approximate solvers based on MDPs are also used and compared and the important notions of observation gathering actions and the value of information are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • An advanced, non-stationary, 332 state, infinite horizon POMDP formulation is solved. • The cost-benefit of information is naturally incorporated in the methodology. • The formation and solution of the problem modernize and extend relevant approaches. • The estimated complex optimum policy cannot be achieved by any other method. • The suggested framework is compared with simpler techniques based on MDPs (MLS, QMPD)

  6. Atmospheric corrosion tests along the Norwegian-Russian border. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, J.F.; Mikhailov, A.A.

    1997-12-31

    A bilateral exposure programme was carried out along the Norwegian-Russian border in 1990-1991, 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 to evaluate quantitatively the effect of sulphur pollutants on the atmospheric corrosion of important materials in sub-arctic climate. The first part of the programme demonstrated that also in subarctic climate do metals corrode depending on the atmospheric corrosivity, and dose-response functions were derived which combined the effects of SO{sub 2} and time of wetness. The second part of the programme, which is described in this report, involved exposures of carbon steel, zinc and copper at two sites in Norway and three sites in Russia. It is concluded that the accelerated atmospheric corrosion of metals in regions along the border is mainly due to dry deposition of sulphur. At some sites, dry deposition of Cl contributes because of sea-salt aerosols. The corrosivity of acid precipitation is certain but could not be represented as a function because of the small differences observed in the pH values at the different sites. At all test sites the kinetics of corrosion of steel, zinc and copper are characterized by a reduced corrosion rate after one year of exposure. Time of wetness is an important parameter in predicting atmospheric corrosion of metals even on a regional scale. Hence, for monitoring and for trend-effect analysis, it is very important to determine the corrosivity of SO{sub 2} with time of wetness. In accordance with dose-response functions obtained, the yearly corrosion rate for steel and zinc are higher for the areas with higher amounts of dry deposition of Cl than for areas with analogous but only SO{sub 2}-containing atmosphere. 6 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Terrorismo, barbárie e desordem: parte II Terrorism, barbarity and disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie de Mijolla-Mellor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma interrogação sobre as representações dos atos terroristas na imprensa e na televisão, examinaremos as noções de barbárie, de crueldade e de sadismo de um ponto de vista simultaneamente individual e coletivo. As novas formas do conflito e da destrutividade que marcam quotidianamente a atualidade incitam a uma reflexão ampla sobre a natureza, as relações e mesmo os paradoxos da oposição entre ordem e desordem. A ordem responde a uma necessidade de domínio sobre o mundo e constitui uma parte inerente à busca do sentido da vida própria a cada um. Entretanto, longe de atingir uma harmonia, ela produz contestações, revoltas e, necessita ser "mantida", confundindo-se, por sua vez, com uma violência "legítima".From an interrogation on the representation of the terrorist acts in the press and the television, we examine the notions of barbarity, cruelty and sadism, both in the individual and collective field, from a psychoanalytic point of view. The new forms of the conflict and the destructiveness which marks the quotidian of our epoch, evoke an ample reflection on the nature, the relations, and even the paradoxes of the opposition between order and clutter. Order results from the necessity of domination over the world, and constitutes an inherent part of the search for a meaning for life. However, far from leading to harmony, it produces contestations, revolts and it needs to be "maintained", being confused with a "legitimate" violence.

  8. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING : PART II : EFFECTS ON METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  9. Modelo Pedagogico de Educacion Primaria para Adultos: Manual para el Asesor de Estudiantes Libres. Primera Parte (A Pedagogical Model for Adult Primary Education: Manual for the Student Advisor. Part One).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This guide, part of a Mexican series of instructional materials, is intended for advisors of students participating in an adult education program offered through public and private organizations in communities in Mexico. The first part of the program comprises Spanish and math; the second, education for family life, education for community life,…

  10. Personality and Biography: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the History of Adult Education. Volume II: Biographies of Adult Educators from Five Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenthal-Haase, Martha, Ed.

    This volume contains 36 biographies: "I.T.A. Wallace-Johnson and Radical Adult Education (AE) in Sierra Leone in the Years 1938/1939" (Turay); "Frank C. Laubach as the Father of the Adult Literacy Movement in India" (Ghosh); "A Historical Study on the Theory and Practice of Social and AE in Korea" (Lee); "Integrative Adult Educators" (Yaron);…

  11. Transition metal complexes with pyrazole-based ligands.Part 29. Reactions of zinc(II) and mercury(II) thiocyanate with 4-acetyl-3-amino-5-methylpyrazole

    OpenAIRE

    KATALIN MÉSZÁROS SZÉCSÉNYI; BERTA HOLLÓ; VUKADIN M. LEOVAC; Bogdanović, Goran A.; Jaćimović, Željko K.

    2009-01-01

    The work is concerned with the crystal and molecular structures of zinc(II) and mercury(II) complexes with 4-acetyl-3-amino-5-methyl-pyrazole (aamp) of the coordination formulae [Zn(NCS)2(aamp)2] and (Haamp)2[Hg(SCN)4]. The zinc(II) complex was obtained by the reaction of a warm methanolic solution of aamp with a mixture of zinc(II) nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate, whereas the mercury(II) complex was prepared by the reaction of a warm ethanolic solution of aamp and a warm, slightly acidified...

  12. Part I. Student success in intensive versus traditional introductory chemistry courses. Part II. Synthesis of salts of the weakly coordinating trisphat anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mildred V.

    Part I. Intensive courses have been shown to be associated with equal or greater student success than traditional-length courses in a wide variety of disciplines and education levels. Student records from intensive and traditional-length introductory general chemistry courses were analyzed to determine the effects, of the course format, the level of academic experience, life experience (age), GPA, academic major and gender on student success in the course. Pretest scores, GPA and ACT composite scores were used as measures of academic ability and prior knowledge; t-tests comparing the means of these variables were used to establish that the populations were comparable prior to the course. Final exam scores, total course points and pretest-posttest differences were used as measures of student success; t-tests were used to determine if differences existed between the populations. ANCOVA analyses revealed that student GPA, pretest scores and course format were the only variables tested that were significant in accounting for the variance of the academic success measures. In general, the results indicate that students achieved greater academic success in the intensive-format course, regardless of the level of academic experience, life experience, academic major or gender. Part II. Weakly coordinating anions have many important applications, one of which is to function as co-catalysts in the polymerization of olefins by zirconocene. The structure of tris(tetrachlorobenzenedialato) phosphate(V) or "trisphat" anion suggests that it might be an outstanding example of a weakly coordinating anion. Trisphat acid was synthesized and immediately used to prepare the stable tributylammonium trisphat, which was further reacted to produce trisphat salts of Group I metal cations in high yields. Results of the 35Cl NQR analysis of these trisphat salts indicate only very weak coordination between the metal cations and the chlorine atoms of the trisphat anion.

  13. Toward a Fundamental Theory of Optimal Feature Selection: Part II-Implementation and Computational Complexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgera, S D

    1987-01-01

    Certain algorithms and their computational complexity are examined for use in a VLSI implementation of the real-time pattern classifier described in Part I of this work. The most computationally intensive processing is found in the classifier training mode wherein subsets of the largest and smallest eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors of the input data covariance pair must be computed. It is shown that if the matrix of interest is centrosymmetric and the method for eigensystem decomposition is operator-based, the problem architecture assumes a parallel form. Such a matrix structure is found in a wide variety of pattern recognition and speech and signal processing applications. Each of the parallel channels requires only two specialized matrix-arithmetic modules. These modules may be implemented as linear arrays of processing elements having at most O(N) elements where N is the input data vector dimension. The computations may be done in O(N) time steps. This compares favorably to O(N3) operations for a conventional, or general, rotation-based eigensystem solver and even the O(2N2) operations using an approach incorporating the fast Levinson algorithm for a matrix of Toeplitz structure since the underlying matrix in this work does not possess a Toeplitz structure. Some examples are provided on the convergence of a conventional iterative approach and a novel two-stage iterative method for eigensystem decomposition.

  14. INTEGRACIÓN ESTRATÉGICA: EL PROYECTO DE CAMBIO. PARTE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colectivo de autores

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo constituye la segunda parte de "Dirección estratégica integrada Conceptualización". Ambos describen la experiencia realizada en la Empresa Astilleros del Caribe (Asticar por un equipo de profesores del Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría, junto a dirigentes y trabajadores de la empresa, en la introducción de una iniciativa de perfeccionamiento de la gestión empresarial denominada por el grupo de consultores norteamericanos como integración estratégica. El primer artículo trata el diagnóstico del nivel de integración estratégica LIF, conteniendo el procedimiento general de diagnóstico, los instrumentos, la plataforma para gestionar integralmente el proceso de cambio y los resultados de su aplicación en la empresa. En este segundo artículo, se presenta el proyecto de cambio para elevar el nivel de integración estratégica LIF en Asticar.

  15. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part II: Optimisation of imaging conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Part I of this series of two papers, we demonstrated the formation of a high efficiency phase-contrast image at atomic resolution using a pixelated detector in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with ptychography. In this paper we explore the technique more quantitatively using theory and simulations. Compared to other STEM phase contrast modes including annular bright field (ABF) and differential phase contrast (DPC), we show that the ptychographic phase reconstruction method using pixelated detectors offers the highest contrast transfer efficiency and superior low dose performance. Applying the ptychographic reconstruction method to DPC segmented detectors also improves the detector contrast transfer and results in less noisy images than DPC images formed using difference signals. We also find that using a minimum array of 16×16 pixels is sufficient to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for imaging beam sensitive weak phase objects. Finally, the convergence angle can be adjusted to enhance the contrast transfer based on the spatial frequencies of the specimen under study. - Highlights: • High efficiency phase contrast transfer function (PCTF) can be achieved using pixelated detectors followed by a ptychographic reconstruction. • Ptychographic reconstruction offers the highest PCTF across the entire spatial frequency range compared to DPC and ABF. • Image simulations show that a ptychographic reconstruction using pixelated detectors offers a superior low dose performance for imaging weak phase objects. • Optimisation of imaging conditions using pixelated detectors are discussed by considering the contrast transfer function for various cases

  16. Seabed Disposal Program. Annual report, January--December 1976. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first two years of the program, studies were made of the water column extending from the seabed to the surface in mid-gyre regions. It was concluded that this water column is unsuitable for consideration as the disposal medium. Studies were shifted to characterization of the mid-plate, mid-gyre sediments, natural processes in the sediments, and how these natural processes are altered or impacted by the presence of high-level radioactive wastes. These activities continued in the third year of the Program and include (1) development of a number of analytical models as part of the overall systems analysis effort; (2) an extensive program to evaluate the sorption properties of the sediments with respect to single species ions and the competition provided by other waste constituents; (3) an assessment of thermal problems associated with the radiogenic heat produced by the waste and its impact upon the physical and chemical properties of the sediments; (4) continued studies to characterize the sediments; (5) development of capabilities to investigate waste canister emplacement techniques; (6) corrosion studies to evaluate potential canister materials; (7) biological investigations in support of assessment studies addressing accident scenarios and environmental impact; and (8) development of an international program of scientific investigations and information exchange. At the end of the third year, available data indicate that studies should be continued on the concept of disposal in the seabed

  17. Friction Stir Welding of Al Alloy 2219-T8: Part II-Mechanical and Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju; Feng, Zhi-Cao; Li, Ji-Chao; Frankel, G. S.; Wang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Ai-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In Part I of this series, abnormal agglomerations of θ particles with size of about 100 to 1000 µm were observed in friction stir welded AA2219-T8 joints. In this work, the effects of these agglomerated θ particles on the mechanical and corrosion properties of the joints are studied. Tensile testing with in situ SEM imaging was utilized to monitor crack initiation and propagation in base metal and weld nugget zone (WNZ) samples. These tests showed that cracks initiated in the θ particles and at the θ/matrix interfaces, but not in the matrix. The WNZ samples containing abnormal agglomerated θ particles had a similar ultimate tensile stress but 3 pct less elongation than other WNZ samples with only normal θ particles. Measurements using the microcell technique indicated that the agglomerated θ particles acted as a cathode causing the dissolution of adjacent matrix. The abnormal θ particle agglomerations led to more severe localized attack due to the large cathode/anode ratio. Al preferential dissolution occurred in the abnormal θ particle agglomerations, which was different from the corrosion behavior of normal size θ particles.

  18. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part II: Optimisation of imaging conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao, E-mail: hao.yang@materials.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Department of Materials. Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Pennycook, Timothy J.; Nellist, Peter D. [University of Oxford, Department of Materials. Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    In Part I of this series of two papers, we demonstrated the formation of a high efficiency phase-contrast image at atomic resolution using a pixelated detector in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with ptychography. In this paper we explore the technique more quantitatively using theory and simulations. Compared to other STEM phase contrast modes including annular bright field (ABF) and differential phase contrast (DPC), we show that the ptychographic phase reconstruction method using pixelated detectors offers the highest contrast transfer efficiency and superior low dose performance. Applying the ptychographic reconstruction method to DPC segmented detectors also improves the detector contrast transfer and results in less noisy images than DPC images formed using difference signals. We also find that using a minimum array of 16×16 pixels is sufficient to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for imaging beam sensitive weak phase objects. Finally, the convergence angle can be adjusted to enhance the contrast transfer based on the spatial frequencies of the specimen under study. - Highlights: • High efficiency phase contrast transfer function (PCTF) can be achieved using pixelated detectors followed by a ptychographic reconstruction. • Ptychographic reconstruction offers the highest PCTF across the entire spatial frequency range compared to DPC and ABF. • Image simulations show that a ptychographic reconstruction using pixelated detectors offers a superior low dose performance for imaging weak phase objects. • Optimisation of imaging conditions using pixelated detectors are discussed by considering the contrast transfer function for various cases.

  19. Characterisation and optimisation of flexible transfer lines for liquid helium. Part II: Thermohydraulic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, N.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.

    2016-10-01

    In part one of this publication experimental results for a single-channel transfer line used at liquid helium (LHe) decant stations are presented. The transfer of LHe into mobile dewars is an unavoidable process since the places of storage and usage are generally located apart from each other. The experimental results have shown that reasonable amounts of LHe evaporate due to heat leak and pressure drop. Thus, generated helium cold gas has to be collected and reliquefied, demanding a huge amount of electrical energy. Although this transfer process is common in cryogenic laboratories, no existing code could be found to model it. Therefore, a thermohydraulic model has been developed to model the LHe flow at operating conditions using published heat transfer and pressure drop correlations. This paper covers the basic equations used to calculate heat transfer and pressure drop, as well as the validation of the thermohydraulic code, and its application within the optimisation process. The final transfer line design features reduced heat leak and pressure drop values based on a combined measurement and modelling campaign in the range of 0.112 < pin < 0.148 MPa, 190 < G < 450 kg/(m2 s), and 0.04 < xout < 0.12.

  20. Interspecies allometric scaling: prediction of clearance in large animal species: part II: mathematical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Mahmood, I; Hunter, R P

    2006-10-01

    Interspecies scaling is a useful tool for the prediction of pharmacokinetic parameters from animals to humans, and it is often used for estimating a first-time in human dose. However, it is important to appreciate the mathematical underpinnings of this scaling procedure when using it to predict pharmacokinetic parameter values across animal species. When cautiously applied, allometry can be a tool for estimating clearance in veterinary species for the purpose of dosage selection. It is particularly valuable during the selection of dosages in large zoo animal species, such as elephants, large cats and camels, for which pharmacokinetic data are scant. In Part I, allometric predictions of clearance in large animal species were found to pose substantially greater risks of inaccuracies when compared with that observed for humans. In this report, we examine the factors influencing the accuracy of our clearance estimates from the perspective of the relationship between prediction error and such variables as the distribution of body weight values used in the regression analysis, the influence of a particular observation on the clearance estimate, and the 'goodness of fit' (R(2)) of the regression line. Ultimately, these considerations are used to generate recommendations regarding the data to be included in the allometric prediction of clearance in large animal species. PMID:16958788

  1. Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Metal Bond Diamond Wheels- Part II: Wheel Wear Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    The use of stereo scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to investigate the wear mechanism of the wire EDM true metal bond diamond wheel for ceramic grinding is presented. On the grinding wheel, a wedge-shape removal part was machined to enable the examination and measurement of the worn wheel surfaces using the stereo SEM. The stereo SEM was calibrated by comparing results of depth profile of a wear groove with the profilometer measurements. On the surface of the grinding wheel after wire EDM truing and before grinding, the diamond protruding heights were measured in the level of 35 {micro}m, comparing to the 54 {micro}m average size of the diamond in the grinding wheel. The gap between the EDM wire and rotating grinding wheel is estimated to be about 35 to 40 {micro}m. This observation indicates that, during the wire EDM, electrical sparks occur between the metal bond and EDM wire, which leaves the diamond protruding in the gap between the wire and wheel. The protruding diamond is immediately fractured at the start of the grinding process, even under a light grinding condition. After heavy grinding, the grinding wheel surface and the diamond protrusion heights are also investigated using the stereo SEM. The height of diamond protrusion was estimated in the 5 to 15 {micro}m range. This study has demonstrated the use of stereo SEM as a metrology tool to study the grinding wheel surface.

  2. Cayley Configuration Spaces of 1-dof Tree-decomposable Linkages, Part II: Combinatorial Characterization of Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Sitharam, Meera; Gao, Heping

    2011-01-01

    We continue the study of Cayley complexity of generic 1-dof linkages, i.e, the algebraic complexity of describing interval endpoints of the Cayley configuration space. Using the properties of these endpoints, we define in Part I a class of graphs G whose generic linkages have low Cayley complexity on a given non-edge f: i.e, all interval endpoints are QRS. Consider any non-edge f of a 1-dof linkage's underlying graph G for which G \\cup f is tree-decomposable. Does the Cayley complexity depend on the choice of f? We answer this question in the negative. Specifically, we show that if the graph has low Cayley complexity over some choice of f, then it has low Cayley complexity for any choice of f. This shows that low Cayley complexity is a property of G (independent of non-edge f). Then, we give an combinatorial algorithmic characterization of graphs with low Cayley complexity. Next, we show a surprising result that (graph) planarity is equivalent to low Cayley complexity for a natural subclass of 1-dof triangle-...

  3. Lapabot: a compact telesurgical robot system for minimally invasive surgery: part II. Telesurgery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Woo; Lee, Duck Hee; Kim, Young Woo; Lee, Byeong Han; Jo, Yung Ho

    2012-05-01

    As described in Part I, the Lapabot was developed considering telesurgery from the initial design stage. The robot configuration is based on the master-slave structure in which the operator can be separated spatially from the patient. The distributed control architecture communicating through high-speed network enables remote control of surgical robot manipulators. In this work, we added network communication modules using user datagram protocol/internet protocol for implementation of the telesurgical system. For a stable network environment, a dedicated research network was adopted. To characterize the network environment, a data packet sender and a repeater whose packet length and packet structure are similar to those of the real data packet were developed. The developed system was evaluated through in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. With the developed system, we have successfully performed remote control of the Lapabot. The roundtrip time delay for the control signal ranged from 1.4 to 4.1 ms. The total time delay for the operator including image signal acquisition and transmission delays was under 333 ms. It did not impede surgical procedures. Initial evaluation results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed telesurgical system.

  4. Effect of stride length on overarm throwing delivery: Part II: An angular momentum response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2016-04-01

    This is the second component of a two-part series investigating 3D momentum profiles specific to overhand throwing, where altering stride reportedly influences throwing mechanics resulting in significantly different physiologic outcomes and linear momentum profiles. Using a randomized cross-over design, nineteen pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to pitch two simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An 8-camera motion capture system (240Hz) integrated with two force plates (960Hz) and radar gun tracked each overhand throw. Segmental angular momentums were summed yielding throwing arm and total body momentums, from which compensation ratio's (relative contribution between the two) were derived. Pairwise comparisons at hallmark events and phases identified significantly different angular momentum profiles, in particular total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios (P⩽0.05) as a result of manipulating stride length. Sagittal, frontal, and transverse angular momentums were affected by stride length changes. Transverse magnitudes showed greatest effects for total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios. Since the trunk is the main contributor to linear and angular momentum, longer strides appear to better regulate transverse trunk momentum in double support, whereas shorter strides show increased momentum prior to throwing arm acceleration.

  5. Prognosis and Management of Congenital Hair Shaft Disorders without Fragility-Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gaurav; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-09-01

    Hair shaft disorders are characterized by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the prognosis and treatment options for hair shaft disorders. We used keywords in the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify all publications in English related to the prognosis and management of hair shaft disorders. Data were extracted from 96 articles that met search criteria. Findings were limited to case reports and small case series, as no studies were found. Disorders that improve in childhood include pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, woolly hair, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Others, such as trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix, pili annulati, and pili bifurcati, improve with minoxidil. Oral retinoids have been found to improve hair abnormalities in trichorrhexis invaginata and monilethrix. There is no specific treatment for congenital hair shaft abnormalities. Gentle hair care is the mainstay of care for hair shaft disorders associated with fragility. Practices for gentle care include no brushing, backcombing, chemical products, tight braids, heat exposure, or mechanical grooming. Furthermore, any inherited or congenital disorder requires genetic counseling as part of management. PMID:27293153

  6. Surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneal spaces part II: the architecture of the retroperitoneal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2010-01-01

    The extraperitoneal space extends between peritoneum and investing fascia of muscles of anterior, lateral and posterior abdominal and pelvic walls, and circumferentially surrounds the abdominal cavity. The retroperitoneum, which is confined to the posterior and lateral abdominal and pelvic wall, may be divided into three surgicoanatomic zones: centromedial, lateral (right and left), and pelvic. The preperitoneal space is confined to the anterior abdominal wall and the subperitoneal extraperitoneal space to the pelvis. In the extraperitoneal tissue, condensation fascias delineate peri- and parasplanchnic spaces. The former are between organs and condensation fasciae, the latter between this fascia and investing fascia of neighboring muscles of the wall. Thus, perirenal space is encircled by renal fascia, and pararenal is exterior to renal fascia. Similarly for the urinary bladder, paravesical space is between the umbilical prevesical fascia and fascia of the pelvic wall muscles-the prevesical space is its anterior part, between transversalis and umbilical prevesical fascia. For the rectum, the "mesorectum" describes the extraperitoneal tissue bound by the mesorectal condensation fascia, and the pararectal space is between the latter and the muscles of the pelvic wall. Perisplanchnic spaces are closed, except for neurovascular pedicles. Prevesical and pararectal (presacral) and posterior pararenal spaces are in the same anatomical level and communicate. Anterior to the anterior layer of the renal fascia, the anterior interfascial plane (superimposed and fused mesenteries of pancreas, duodenum, and colon) permits communication across the midline. Thus parasplanchnic extraperitoneal spaces of abdomen and pelvis communicate with each other and across the midline.

  7. Primer on medical genomics part II: Background principles and methods in molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefferi, Ayalew; Wieben, Eric D; Dewald, Gordon W; Whiteman, David A H; Bernard, Matthew E; Spelsberg, Thomas C

    2002-08-01

    The nucleus of every human cell contains the full complement of the human genome, which consists of approximately 30,000 to 70,000 named and unnamed genes and many intergenic DNA sequences. The double-helical DNA molecule in a human cell, associated with special proteins, is highly compacted into 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and an additional pair of sex chromosomes. The entire cellular DNA consists of approximately 3 billion base pairs, of which only 1% is thought to encode a functional protein or a polypeptide. Genetic information is expressed and regulated through a complex system of DNA transcription, RNA processing, RNA translation, and posttranslational and cotranslational modification of proteins. Advances in molecular biology techniques have allowed accurate and rapid characterization of DNA sequences as well as identification and quantification of cellular RNA and protein. Global analytic methods and human genetic mapping are expected to accelerate the process of identification and localization of disease genes. In this second part of an educational series in medical genomics, selected principles and methods in molecular biology are recapped, with the intent to prepare the reader for forthcoming articles with a more direct focus on aspects of the subject matter.

  8. Rich methane laminar flames doped with light unsaturated hydrocarbons. Part II: 1,3butadiene

    CERN Document Server

    Gueniche, Hadj-Ali; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2007-01-01

    In line with the study presented in the part I of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been investigated. The flame contains 20.7% (molar) of methane, 31.4% of oxygen and 3.3% of 1,3-butadiene, corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.8, and a ratio C4H6 / CH4 of 16 %. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 600 K close to the burner up to 2150 K. Quantified species included usual methane C0-C2 combustion products and 1,3-butadiene, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1,2-butadiene, butynes, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, 1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-butene, benzene and toluene. In order to model these new results, some improvements have been made to a mechanism previously developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C3-C4 unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reacti...

  9. Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers: Part II: Gain media, laser systems, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The field of optically pumped planar waveguide lasers has seen a rapid development over the last two decades driven by the requirements of a range of applications. This sustained research effort has led to the demonstration of a large variety of miniature highly efficient laser sources by combining different gain media and resonator geometries. One of the most attractive features of waveguide lasers is the broad range of regimes that they can operate, spanning from continuous wave and single frequency through to the generation of femtosecond pulses. Furthermore, their technology has experienced considerable advances to provide increased output power levels, deriving benefits from the relative immunity from the heat generated in the gain medium during laser operation and the use of cladding-pumped architectures. This second part of the review on optically pumped planar waveguide lasers provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art research in this field in terms of gain materials, laser system designs, and as well as a perspective on the status of their application as real devices in various research areas.

  10. Adaptive learning via selectionism and Bayesianism, Part II: the sequential case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Animals increase or decrease their future tendency of emitting an action based on whether performing such action has, in the past, resulted in positive or negative reinforcement. An analysis in the companion paper [Zhang, J. (2009). Adaptive learning via selectionism and Bayesianism. Part I: Connection between the two. Neural Networks, 22(3), 220-228] of such selectionist style of learning reveals a resemblance between its ensemble-level dynamics governing the change of action probability and Bayesian learning where evidence (in this case, reward) is distributively applied to all action alternatives. Here, this equivalence is further explored in solving the temporal credit-assignment problem during the learning of an action sequence ("operant chain"). Naturally emerging are the notion of secondary (conditioned) reinforcement predicting the average reward associated with a stimulus, and the notion of actor-critic architecture involving concurrent learning of both action probability and reward prediction. While both are consistent with solutions provided by contemporary reinforcement learning theory (Sutton & Barto, 1998) for optimizing sequential decision-making under stationary Markov environments, we investigate the effect of action learning on reward prediction when both are carried out concurrently in any on-line scheme. PMID:19395235

  11. Developing a software for removable partial denture design: Part II: Introduction of RPD graph software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejatidanesh F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Designing removable partial dentures is one of the most important phases of prosthetic treatments. Computer can be used to facilitate and increase accuracy of removable partial denture design. The aim of this study was to develop a software for removable partial denture design.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire (discussed in part I and major textbooks, were used to determine the design rules.  The software (RPD Graph was developed using Visual C++ and Maryam program. The RPD Graph can determine the classification of partial edentulous arch. With defining the missing teeth and providing data about prognosis and conditions of abutment teeth, the removable partial design will be developed by RPD Graph. This software is a knowledge-based system which has specific characteristics. It can be used as an educational tool for teaching RPD design and as a clinical tool for supporting clinician's decision. In addition it can be developed to more complete softwares.

  12. The exponentiated Hencky-logarithmic strain energy. Part II: Coercivity, planar polyconvexity and existence of minimizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Patrizio; Lankeit, Johannes; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel; Martin, Robert; Steigmann, David

    2015-08-01

    We consider a family of isotropic volumetric-isochoric decoupled strain energies based on the Hencky-logarithmic (true, natural) strain tensor log U, where μ > 0 is the infinitesimal shear modulus, is the infinitesimal bulk modulus with the first Lamé constant, are dimensionless parameters, is the gradient of deformation, is the right stretch tensor and is the deviatoric part (the projection onto the traceless tensors) of the strain tensor log U. For small elastic strains, the energies reduce to first order to the classical quadratic Hencky energy which is known to be not rank-one convex. The main result in this paper is that in plane elastostatics the energies of the family are polyconvex for , extending a previous finding on its rank-one convexity. Our method uses a judicious application of Steigmann's polyconvexity criteria based on the representation of the energy in terms of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor U. These energies also satisfy suitable growth and coercivity conditions. We formulate the equilibrium equations, and we prove the existence of minimizers by the direct methods of the calculus of variations.

  13. Post-Messinian evolution of the Florence Rise area (Western Cyprus Arc) Part II: Experimental modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, N. C.; Vendeville, B. C.; Loncke, L.

    2013-04-01

    The Florence rise is located southwest of the island of Cyprus and belongs to the western part of the Cyprus arc. The Florence rise is an accretionary prism, with some amount of strike slip, where the thick layer of evaporitic Messinian decouples deformation in the post-Messinian cover from that in the pre-Messinian "basement." The basement structural highs, whether presently active or inactive, influence the deformation and displacement patterns of the salt and its overburden. Our first experiment focused on the presence, in nature, of normal faults located above basement thrusts. Deformation of the salt layer and its overburden was influenced by several processes. On one hand, the entire model was subjected to regional shortening, and basement thrusts formed. On the other hand, the local vertical rise associated with basement thrusts created local slopes down which the salt and overburden glided gravitationally, in some places leading to the formation of normal faults in an otherwise compressional regional setting. Our second experiment was designed to model the buttressing effect of the Florence rise and the Eratosthenes Seamount on thin-skinned displacement patterns during regional gravity spreading of the Nile cone. Results indicate that in the Northeastern distal region, buttressing by these two basement highs forced the salt and its overburden to flow northeastward, as a lateral escape toward the free boundary of the region.

  14. Growth theory after Keynes, part II: 75 years of obstruction by the mainstream economics culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Van den Berg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Part I of this essay explained the sequence of events that enabled the neoclassical paradigm to regain its dominant position in mainstream economics following serious challenges by ‘Keynesian’ economists. This second essay seeks to answer the question of why the economics profession was so willing to sustain the neoclassical paradigm in the face of the reality-based challenges by ‘Keynesian’ economists like Harrod and Domar. The answer is sought in the culture of economics, the history of science in general, and the study of power in the field of political economy. This article draws heavily on the work of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, who divides culture into habitus (procedures and dispositions and doxa (more abstract beliefs and philosophies, in order to provide insight into how culture affects economic thinking. Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence helps to explain how a narrower neoclassical growth model was enthusiastically accepted as a replacement for the ‘Keynesian’ Harrod-Domar growth model. Financial and business interests clearly understood the power of culture and they used their accumulated wealth to support the neoliberal doxa and neoclassical habitus that would induce economists to willingly provide intellectual cover for policies that benefitted those financial and business interests. We conclude with a discussion on how the history of thought on economic development might have evolved if the Keynesian paradigm, and its dynamic Harrod-Domar model, had prevailed

  15. Friction Stir Welding of Al Alloy 2219-T8: Part II-Mechanical and Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju; Feng, Zhi-Cao; Li, Ji-Chao; Frankel, G. S.; Wang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Ai-Ping

    2016-09-01

    In Part I of this series, abnormal agglomerations of θ particles with size of about 100 to 1000 µm were observed in friction stir welded AA2219-T8 joints. In this work, the effects of these agglomerated θ particles on the mechanical and corrosion properties of the joints are studied. Tensile testing with in situ SEM imaging was utilized to monitor crack initiation and propagation in base metal and weld nugget zone (WNZ) samples. These tests showed that cracks initiated in the θ particles and at the θ/matrix interfaces, but not in the matrix. The WNZ samples containing abnormal agglomerated θ particles had a similar ultimate tensile stress but 3 pct less elongation than other WNZ samples with only normal θ particles. Measurements using the microcell technique indicated that the agglomerated θ particles acted as a cathode causing the dissolution of adjacent matrix. The abnormal θ particle agglomerations led to more severe localized attack due to the large cathode/anode ratio. Al preferential dissolution occurred in the abnormal θ particle agglomerations, which was different from the corrosion behavior of normal size θ particles.

  16. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  17. Low-temperature charging of lithium-ion cells Part II: Model reduction and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmlinger, Jürgen; Tippmann, Simon; Buchholz, Michael; Dietmayer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-ion cells, especially when used in electric vehicles at varying operation conditions, require a sophisticated battery management to ensure an optimal operation regarding operation limits, performance, and maximum lifetime. In some cases, the best trade-off between these conflictive goals can only be reached by considering internal, non-measurable cell characteristics. This article presents a data-driven model-reduction method for a strict electrochemical model. The model describes the charging process of a lithium-ion cell and possibly occurring degradation effects in a large temperature range and is presented in Part I of this contribution. The model-reduction process is explained in detail, and the gained model is compared to the original electrochemical model showing a very high approximation quality. This reduced model offers a very low computation complexity and is therefore suitable for the implementation in a battery management system (BMS). Based on this model, an advanced charging strategy is presented and evaluated for possible reductions in charging times especially at low temperatures.

  18. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany. PMID:25866161

  19. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  20. MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine oil spill model for short-term forecasting – Part 1: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De Dominicis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The processes of transport, diffusion and transformation of surface oil in seawater can be simulated using a Lagrangian model formalism coupled with Eulerian circulation models. This paper describes the formalism and the conceptual assumptions of a Lagrangian marine oil slick numerical model and re-writes the constitutive equations in a modern mathematical framework. The Lagrangian numerical representation of the oil slick requires three different state variables: the slick, the particle and the structural state variables. Transformation processes (evaporation, spreading, dispersion and coastal adhesion act on the slick state variables, while particles variables are used to model the transport and diffusion processes. The slick and particle variables are recombined together to compute the oil concentration in water, a structural state variable. The mathematical and numerical formulation of oil transport, diffusion and transformation processes described in this paper, together with the many simplifying hypothesis and parameterizations, form the basis of a new, open source Lagrangian surface oil spill model, so-called MEDSLIK-II. Part 2 of this paper describes the applications of MEDSLIK-II to oil spill simulations that allow the validation of the model results and the study of the sensitivity of the simulated oil slick to different model numerical parameterizations.

  1. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, Răzvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters α and β. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, α and β, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers β to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing β by about 0.07 compared to DM, with α unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases α by about 2

  2. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part II. High Temperature Structural Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A high temperature structural integrity assessment belongs to the Part II of a whole preliminary guideline for the high temperature structure. The main contents of this guideline are the evaluation procedures of the creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth in high temperature condition, the high temperature LBB evaluation procedure, and the inelastic evaluations of the welded joints in SFR structures. The methodologies for the proper inelastic analysis of an SFR structures in high temperatures are explained and the guidelines of inelastic analysis options using ANSYS and ABAQUS are suggested. In addition, user guidelines for the developed NONSTA code are included. This guidelines need to be continuously revised to improve the applicability to the design and analysis of the SFR structures.

  3. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  4. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents, for the first time, comprehensive data on the incidence of solid cancer and risk estimates for A-bomb survivors in the extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) cohort. Among 79,972 individuals, 8613 first primary solid cancers were diagnosed between 1958 and 1987. As part of the standard registration process of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, cancer cases occurring among members of the LSS-E85 cohort were identified using a computer linkage system supplemented by manual searches. Special efforts were made to ensure complete case ascertainment, data quality and data consistency in the two cities. For all sites combined, 75% of the cancers were verified histologically, 6% were diagnosed by direct observation, 8% were based on a clinical diagnosis, and 12.6% were ascertained by death certificate only. A standard set of analyses was carried out for each of the organs and organ systems considered. Depending on the cancer site, Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) organ or kerma doses were used for computing risk estimates. Analyses were based on a general excess relative risk model (the background rate times one plus the excess relative risk). Analyses carried out for each site involved fitting the background model with no dose effect, a linear dose-response model with no effect modifiers, a linear-quadratic dose-response model with no effect modifiers, and a series of linear dose-response models that included each of the covariates (sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, attained age and city) individually as effect modifiers. Because the tumor registries ascertain cancers in the registry catchment areas only, an adjustment was made for the effects of migration. In agreement with prior LSS findings, a statistically significant excess risk for all solid cancers was demonstrated. 116 refs., 8 figs., 78 tabs

  5. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  6. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional ~150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging ~7 days per month during winter and ~2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  7. A review of biomass burning emissions, part II: Intensive physical properties of biomass burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen tremendous advances in atmospheric aerosol particle research that is often performed in the context of climate and global change science. Biomass burning, one of the largest sources of accumulation mode particles globally, has been closely studied for its radiative, geochemical, and dynamic impacts. These studies have taken many forms including laboratory burns, in situ experiments, remote sensing, and modeling. While the differing perspectives of these studies have ultimately improved our qualitative understanding of biomass burning issues, the varied nature of the work make inter-comparisons and resolutions of some specific issues difficult. In short, the literature base has become a milieu of small pieces of the biomass-burning puzzle. This manuscript, the second part of four, examines the properties of biomass-burning particle emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning the measurement of smoke particle size, chemistry, thermodynamic properties, and emission factors. Where appropriate, critiques of measurement techniques are presented. We show that very large differences in measured particle properties have appeared in the literature, in particular with regards to particle carbon budgets. We investigate emissions uncertainties using scale analyses, which shows that while emission factors for grass and brush are relatively well known, very large uncertainties still exist in emission factors of boreal, temperate and some tropical forests. Based on an uncertainty analysis of the community data set of biomass burning measurements, we present simplified models for particle size and emission factors. We close this review paper with a discussion of the community experimental data, point to lapses in the data set, and prioritize future research topics.

  8. A review of biomass burning emissions part II: intensive physical properties of biomass burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen tremendous advances in atmospheric aerosol particle research that is often performed in the context of climate and global change science. Biomass burning, one of the largest sources of accumulation mode particles globally, has been closely studied for its radiative, geochemical, and dynamic impacts. These studies have taken many forms including laboratory burns, in situ experiments, remote sensing, and modeling. While the differing perspectives of these studies have ultimately improved our qualitative understanding of biomass-burning issues, the varied nature of the work make inter-comparisons and resolutions of some specific issues difficult. In short, the literature base has become a milieu of small pieces of the biomass-burning puzzle. This manuscript, the second part of four, examines the properties of biomass-burning particle emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning the measurement of smoke particle size, chemistry, thermodynamic properties, and emission factors. Where appropriate, critiques of measurement techniques are presented. We show that very large differences in measured particle properties have appeared in the literature, in particular with regards to particle carbon budgets. We investigate emissions uncertainties using scale analyses, which shows that while emission factors for grass and brush are relatively well known, very large uncertainties still exist in emission factors of boreal, temperate and some tropical forests. Based on an uncertainty analysis of the community data set of biomass burning measurements, we present simplified models for particle size and emission factors. We close this review paper with a discussion of the community experimental data, point to lapses in the data set, and prioritize future research topics.

  9. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment. PMID:27145363

  10. A microencapsulation process of liquid mercury by sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification technology. Part II: Durability of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Delgado, A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Under the European LIFE Program a microencapsulation process was developed for liquid mercury using Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS technology, obtaining a stable concrete-like sulfur matrix that allows the immobilization of mercury for long-term storage. The process description and characterization of the materials obtained were detailed in Part I. The present document, Part II, reports the results of different tests carried out to determine the durability of Hg-S concrete samples with very high mercury content (up to 30 % w/w. Different UNE and RILEM standard test methods were applied, such as capillary water absorption, low pressure water permeability, alkali/acid resistance, salt mist aging, freeze-thaw resistance and fire performance. The samples exhibited no capillarity and their resistance in both alkaline and acid media was very high. They also showed good resistance to very aggressive environments such as spray salt mist, freeze-thaw and dry-wet. The fire hazard of samples at low heat output was negligible.

    Dentro del Programa Europeo LIFE, se ha desarrollado un proceso de microencapsulación de mercurio liquido, utilizando la tecnología de estabilización/solidificación con azufre polimérico (SPSS. Como resultado se ha obtenido un material estable tipo concreto que permite la inmovilización de mercurio y su almacenamiento a largo plazo. La descripción del proceso y la caracterización de los materiales obtenidos, denominados concretos Hg-S, se detallan en la Parte I. El presente trabajo, Parte II, incluye los resultados de los diferentes ensayos realizados para determinar la durabilidad de las muestras de concreto Hg-S con un contenido de mercurio de hasta el 30 %. Se han utilizado diferentes métodos de ensayo estándar, UNE y RILEM, para determinar propiedades como la absorción de agua por capilaridad, la permeabilidad de agua a baja presión, la resistencia a álcali y ácido, el comportamiento en

  11. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part I: Impact of Salinity, Initial pH and Initial Zn(II Concentration in Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of inorganic elements on carbonate minerals is well known in strictly controlled conditions which limit the impact of other phenomena such as dissolution and/or precipitation. In this study, we evidence the behavior of Zn(II (initially in solution and two trace elements, Mn(II and Sr(II (released by carbonate dissolution in the context of a leakage from a CO2 storage site. The initial pH chosen are either equal to the pH of the water-CO2 equilibrium (~ 2.98 or equal to the pH of the water-CO2-calcite system (~ 4.8 in CO2 storage conditions. From this initial influx of liquid, saturated or not with respect to calcite, the batch experiments evolve freely to their equilibrium, as it would occur in a natural context after a perturbation. The batch experiments are carried out on two natural carbonates (from Lavoux and St-Emilion with PCO2 = 10−3.5 bar, with different initial conditions ([Zn(II]i from 10−4 to 10−6 M, either with pure water or 100 g/L NaCl brine. The equilibrium regarding calcite dissolution is confirmed in all experiments, while the zinc sorption evidenced does not always correspond to the two-step mechanism described in the literature. A preferential sorption of about 10% of the concentration is evidenced for Mn(II in aqueous experiments, while Sr(II is more sorbed in saline conditions. This study also shows that this preferential sorption, depending on the salinity, is independent of the natural carbonate considered. Then, the simulations carried out with PHREEQC show that experiments and simulations match well concerning the equilibrium of dissolution and the sole zinc sorption, with log KZn(II ~ 2 in pure water and close to 4 in high salinity conditions. When the simulations were possible, the log K values for Mn(II and Sr(II were much different from those in the literature obtained by sorption in controlled conditions. It is shown that a new conceptual model regarding multiple Trace Elements (TE sorption is

  12. Water activity and activation diameters from hygroscopicity data - Part II: Application to organic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Koehler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed for using particle hygroscopicity measurements made with a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA to determine water activity as a function of solute weight percent. In Part I, the method was tested for particles composed of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate. Here, we report results for several atmospherically-relevant organic species: glutaric acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and levoglucosan. Predicted water activities for aqueous dicarboxylic acid solutions are quite similar in some cases to published estimates and the simplified predictions of Köhler theory, while in other cases substantial differences are found, which we attribute primarily to the semivolatile nature of these compounds that makes them difficult to study with the HTDMA. In contrast, estimates of water activity for levoglucosan solutions compare very well with recently-reported measurements and with published data for aqueous glucose and fructose solutions. For all studied species, the critical dry diameters active at supersaturations between 0.2 and 1% that are computed with the HTDMA-derived water activities are generally within the experimental error (~20% estimated in previously-published direct measurements using cloud condensation nuclei counters. For individual compounds, the variations in reported solution water activity lead to uncertainties in critical dry diameters of 5-25%, not significantly larger than the uncertainty in the direct measurements. To explore the impact of these uncertainties on modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, we incorporate the variations in estimates of solution water activities into the description of hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in an adiabatic parcel model and examine the impact on the predicted drop number concentrations. For the limited set of initial conditions examined here, we find that the uncertainties in critical dry diameters for individual species lead to 0-21% changes in

  13. Treatment of atrial fibrillation. Part II. Current realities and future prospects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria L.A.

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is one of the most common arrhythmias in the world. It causes serious disturbances in cardiac hemodynamics and is dangerous because of its life-threatening consequences. The problem of treatment of AF is one the main and discussed problems in contemporary arrhythmology and cardiac surgery. Nowadays there are a lot of methods of treatment of atrial fibrillation, but their effectiveness and indications to them need a detailed analysis. Strategies of conservative therapy of AF help us to achieve sinus rhythm only in 50% cases. That's why the question of searching more effective surgical methods was obvious. First attempts in surgical treatment were made in 1980s. Such operations as left atrial isolation, His-bundle’s ablation and the “corridor” procedure were performed. But these operations were trying to isolate AF or to localize it in the certain part of atrium to minimize its negative effects on the ventricles, but the fibrillation was preserved. Fist operation eliminating AF was named Maze operation and was made in 1987 year. The conception of this operation is to create surgical incisions with cut and sew technique that helps us to divide atrial myocardium into the small segments that doesn’t allow macro-reentrant circuits to sustain. That's why the ability to fibrillate or to flutter is excluded. Later this operation had undergone several modifications what helped to correct its main disadvantages. Eventually Maze III operation became gold standard in AF treatment. But this operation was technically difficult and was not possible to be made by average surgeons. That’s why the necessity to search alternative energy sources to make ablation lines instead of surgical incisions and simplify the operation appeared. The main types of ablation used in this operation are cryoablation, radiofrequency, ultrasound and microwave ablation. In many investigations alternative energy sources are compared to each other to

  14. Synthetic coprecipitates of exopolysaccharides and ferrihydrite. Part II: Siderophore-promoted dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Christian; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2008-02-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) coprecipitated with exopolymers of plants and microbes may differ in its geochemical reactivity from its abiotic counterpart. We synthesized Fh in the presence and absence of acid polysaccharides (polygalacturonic acid (PGA), alginate, xanthan) and characterized the physical and structural properties of the precipitates formed [Mikutta C., Mikutta R., Bonneville S., Wagner F., Voegelin A., Christl I. and Kretzschmar R. (2008) Synthetic coprecipitates of exopolysaccharides and ferrihydrite. Part I: Characterization. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta]. In this paper, we focus on the reactivity of PGA and alginate coprecipitates and pure Fh, and studied their interaction with the microbial siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB) in the presence and absence of low molecular weight organic (LMWO) acid anions (malate, citrate). Batch adsorption and dissolution experiments were performed in the dark at pH 7 in 10 mM NaClO 4 background electrolyte. In the dissolution experiments, different modes of ligand addition were applied (single, simultaneous, stepwise). With an estimated Langmuir sorption maximum of 15 mmol/mol Fe, a PGA coprecipitate with 11% C org sorbed about four times as much DFOB as pure Fh, and the amount of DFOB sorbed was ˜4-fold larger than estimated from the sum of DFOB sorption to pure Fh and PGA alone. The apparent initial dissolution rates, Rapp-initial, and pseudo-first order rate coefficients, k, of the coprecipitates exceeded those of pure Fh by up to two orders of magnitude. Citrate and malate exerted a strong synergistic effect on the DFOB-promoted dissolution of pure Fh, whereas synergistic effects of both anions were absent or negligible for the coprecipitates. Rapp-initial of the citrate and DFOB-promoted dissolution of PGA coprecipitates increased with increasing molar C/Fe ratio of the coprecipitates, independent of the charge of the LMWO ligand. Our results indicate that polyuronates stabilize Fh particles sterically and /or

  15. Community participation in improving environmental situation--a case study of Panchkhal. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, D P

    1983-01-01

    During 1980, the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project initiated the construction of 5 low-cost toilets in the rural Panchkhal Project area of Nepal for demonstration purposes on a subsidy basis. On recommendation from the members of the cooperation committee, these toilets were constructed within school premises located in different Village Panchayats. The overall strategy adopted during the parasite control program was to generate community participation in latrine construction. In the fiscal year 1981, 30 more subsidized sanitary toilets were built in the pilot area. With a view to determine how many families would be interested in constructing sanitary toilets on a subsidy basis towards the later part of 1981, the Project invited applications from the people of the pilot area. This was done to check people's attitudes towards the program. The response was encouraging. By the end of 1981, there were 300 applications; interest would have increased if the Project could aid all of the potential applicants. UNICEF has been involved in latrine construction by granting money and aiding in latrine design. The Panchkhal experience shows that community people are prepared to spend as much as 75% of the building costs for constructing sanitary toilets, when they are convinced that their health will improve as a result. Those who can afford the toilets will pay Nepal Rs25 (about US$1.90); those who cannot pay cash will provide labor to make the cement slabs. The very poor sector of the community, upon recommendation of members of the cooperation committees, may be given squatting slabs free of charge, if they are interested in constructing latrines. Constraints to the program include: difficult geography for constructing latrines; deforestation and dried-up wells; high illiteracy; lack of higher education facilities; and lack of appropriate technology. Recommendations call for distribution of materials at a nominal charge; casting the slabs over the

  16. Muerte súbita de origen neuropatológicos: (II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte del presente artículo, en el número anterior de esta Revista, se discutió ampliamente el concepto de muerte súbita de origen neuropatológico. Tomando en cuenta el mismo, se realizó este análisis de las autopsias y reportes de neuropatología de 1998 al 2006 de la Sección de Patología Forense del Departamento de Medicina Legal para establecer las causas de muerte más frecuentes y el perfil epidemiológico de los fallecidos. Esto para recomendar aspectos útiles para el manejo este tipo de casos para el personal directamente involucrado. Después de revisar las causas de muerte de 23099 autopsias que se efectuaron en el período en estudio, 338 casos coincidieron con la definición propuesta de muerte súbita de origen neuropatológico y en términos generales hubo concordancia entre lo que se anota en la literatura mundial y lo que se ha presentado en nuestro país en el intervalo analizado.In the first section of these report, on the previous edition of these magazine, it was discussed widely the concept of the neuropathological origen of the sudden death. Taking that preview this analysis was made from the autopsies and the neuropathological reports from 1998 to 2006 from the "Sección de Patología Forense" of costarican "Departamento de Medicina Legal" to establish the most frequent causes of death and the epidemiologic profile of the deceased. These to advice usefull aspects for the management of those cases by the involved staff. After reviewing the causes of death of 23099 autopsies made on the chosen period, 338 cases achived the definition of neuropathological sudden death proposed. In general there was found agreement between the findings on worldwide literature and the findings of our country during these period.

  17. Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part II. Health care system delivery and workforce supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrickson Michael

    2011-08-01

    choice decision-making process at each medical trainee level to determine best recruitment strategies. Educational debt is an unexpectedly minor determinant for pediatric residents and subspecialty fellows. A two-year fellowship training option may retain the mandatory scholarship component and attract an increasing number of candidate trainees. Diversity, work-life balance, scheduling flexibility to accommodate part-time employment, and reform of conditions for academic promotion all need to be addressed to ensure future growth of the pediatric rheumatology workforce.

  18. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy-Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    This is the second installment in our search for a comprehensive economic model to mitigate climate change due to anthropogenic activity. Last year we presented how the unique features of our economic model measure changes in carbon flux due to anthropogenic activity, referred to as carbon quality or CQ, and how the model is used to value such changes in the climate system. This year, our paper focuses on how carbon quality can be implemented to capture the effect of economic activity and international trade on the climate system, thus allowing us to calculate a Return on Climate System (RoCS) for all economic assets and activity. The result is that the RoCS for each public and private economic activity and entity can be calculated by summing up the RoCS for each individual economic asset and activity in which an entity is engaged. Such a macro-level scale is used to rank public and private entities including corporations, governments, and even entire nations, as well as human adaptation and carbon storage activities, providing status and trending insights to evaluate policies on both a micro- and macro-economic level. With international trade, RoCS measures the embodied effects on climate change that will be needed to assess border fees to insure carbon parity on all imports and exports. At the core of our vision is a comprehensive, 'open-source' construct of which our carbon quality metric is the first element. One goal is to recognize each country's endemic resources and infrastructure that affect their ability to manage carbon, while preventing spatial and temporal shifting of carbon emissions that reduce or reverse efforts to mitigate climate change. The standards for calculating the RoCS can be promulgated as part of the Generally Accepted Accounted Principles (GAAP) and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) to ensure standard and consistent reporting. The value of such insights on the climate system at all levels will be crucial to managing

  19. The institutional cooperation of probation officers for adults as a part of supervision of the condemned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Świerczek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This text is the observation of the adult’s probation officer about institutional cooperation done as pa part of actions he made. The author presents the subject and the object of the actions of probation officers. He also discusses the actions that are necessary for the rehabilitation process to be effective. Presents duties of the probation officers. Shows the current legal instruments and routines established according to the civil code.By means of duties such as inspection, education, motivation and also diagnostical, verifying, disciplinary and penal actions, the author points at subjects that are necessary for the help to be effective. The tasks, that are done during rehabilitation process and social readaptation of the supervised, are conscious and intentional actions of the probation officers. They are done by means of attaining the subjectivity and individuality of the supervised. They are also adequate to their perceptual, intellectual and mental abilities. The author emphasized the fact that rehabilitation process would not be possible without the cooperation with other institutions as it would contradict the general and fundamental rules of the probation process. The cooperation, that is done in an open environment, is inseparable and integral aspect of educational-rehabilitation work.

  20. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  1. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D E; Mabuchi, K; Ron, E; Soda, M; Tokunaga, M; Ochikubo, S; Sugimoto, S; Ikeda, T; Terasaki, M; Izumi, S

    1994-02-01

    This report presents, for the first time, comprehensive data on the incidence of solid cancer and risk estimates for A-bomb survivors in the extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) cohort. Among 79,972 individuals, 8613 first primary solid cancers were diagnosed between 1958 and 1987. As part of the standard registration process of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, cancer cases occurring among members of the LSS-E85 cohort were identified using a computer linkage system supplemented by manual searches. Special efforts were made to ensure complete case ascertainment, data quality and data consistency in the two cities. For all sites combined, 75% of the cancers were verified histologically, 6% were diagnosed by direct observation, 8% were based on a clinical diagnosis, and 12.6% were ascertained by death certificate only. A standard set of analyses was carried out for each of the organs and organ systems considered. Depending on the cancer site, Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) organ or kerma doses were used for computing risk estimates. Analyses were based on a general excess relative risk model (the background rate times one plus the excess relative risk). Analyses carried out for each site involved fitting the background model with no dose effect, a linear dose-response model with no effect modifiers, a linear-quadratic dose-response model with no effect modifiers, and a series of linear dose-response models that included each of the covariates (sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, attained age and city) individually as effect modifiers. Because the tumor registries ascertain cancers in the registry catchment areas only, an adjustment was made for the effects of migration. In agreement with prior LSS findings, a statistically significant excess risk for all solid cancers was demonstrated [excess relative risk at 1 Sv (ERR1Sv) = 0.63; excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10(4) person-year sievert (PY Sv) = 29.7]. For cancers of the stomach (ERR1SV = 0.32), colon

  2. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - Part II: Management of primary extranodal lymphomas, generalized disease and salvage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To review the approach to the diagnosis, classification, assessment, treatment and continuing management of patients with primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the management of generalized disease with the emphasis on the current role of salvage treatment with high dose chemotherapy and stem cell/bone marrow support strategies. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may involve any part of the body. Many lymphomas, such as MALT, angiocentric T-cell, etc., commonly present in extranodal sites. Lymphomas presenting in the GI tract, and head and neck, are most common with the single most common site being the stomach. Gastric lymphoma is associated with Helicobacter pylorii and is most common in areas endemic for Helicobacter pylorii infection. Recent advances in the understanding of the etiology of gastric MALT, thyroid, and intestinal lymphomas present new opportunities for the application of novel therapeutic approaches e.g. antibiotic therapy for Helicobacter pylori and early stage IPSID. Lymphomas presenting in the orbit, thyroid, breast, bone, extradural and skin are of interest because of the importance of expert RT in securing local control. Primary brain lymphomas present a particular challenge to the radiation oncologist. Although localized, primary brain lymphomas are extremely difficult to control. Rare sites of extranodal lymphoma include testis, female genital tract, and lung. Extranodal lymphomas are often localized and cure with RT or CMT is possible. They represent a assorted group of diseases with diverse presentations, prognosis, sensitivity to RT and expected outcome. They are of particular importance to radiation oncologists as they require special attention to patterns of spread and treatment planning. The principles of management of primary extranodal lymphoma, however, follow those applicable to localized nodal presentations. Although primary extranodal lymphomas are highly curable, a proportion of patients will fail with disseminated

  3. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Robson Brown, K [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  4. Variable Modal Parameter Identification for Non-Linear Mdof Systems. Part II: Experimental Validation and Advanced Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.H. Chong

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Part II is to provide an experimental validation of the methodology presented in Part I and to consider a representative engineering case, the study of which requires a relatively large numerical model. A beam system with cubic stiffness type non-linearity was used in the experimental study. The non-linear response was measured at three locations and the underlying linear system was obtained via linear modal analysis of low-excitation response data. The non-linear parameter variations were obtained as a function of the modal amplitude and the response of the system was generated for other force levels. The results were found to agree very well with the corresponding measurements, indicating the success of the non-linear modal analysis methodology, even in the presence of true experimental noise. An advanced numerical case study that included both inherent structural damping and non-linear friction damping, was considered next. The linear finite element model of a high-pressure turbine blade was used in conjunction with three local non-linear friction damper elements. It was shown that the response of the system could be predicted at any force level, provided that that non-linear modal parameters were available at some reference force level. The predicted response levels were compared against those obtained from reference simulations and very good agreement was achieved in all cases.

  5. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Part II: Downstream processing and zinc recovery by electrowinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Oustadakis, P; Katsiapi, A; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2010-07-15

    The characterization and the agitation leaching of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) by diluted sulphuric acid have been studied in Part I, as a separate article. The aim of the present research work (Part II) is the development of a purification process of the leach liquor for the recovery of high-purity zinc by electrowinning. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of the following four (4) unit operations: (1) Removal of iron as easily filterable crystalline basic sulphate salt of the jarosite type, at atmospheric pressure, by chemical precipitation at pH: 3.5 and 95 degrees C. (2) Zinc solvent extraction by Cyanex 272 at pH: 3.5, T: 40 degrees C, with 25% extractant concentration. (3) Stripping of the loaded organic phase by zinc spent electrolyte (62.5 g/L Zn(2+)) at T: 40 degrees C with diluted H(2)SO(4) (3 mol/L). (4) Zinc electrowinning from sulphate solutions (at 38 degrees C) using Al as cathode and Pb as anode. The acidity of the electrolyte was fixed at 180 g/L H(2)SO(4), while the current density was kept constant at 500 A/m(2).

  6. Kafka, Borges, and the creation of consciousness, Part II: Borges--a life of letters encompassing everything and nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2009-04-01

    The ways in which Kafka and Borges struggled with the creation of consciousness in their lives and in their literary works are explored in this two-part essay. In Part II, a biographical sketch of Jorge Luis Borges is juxtaposed with a close reading of one of his fictions, "The Library of Babel" (1941a). In this story, the universe is an infinite Library, a psychological/literary space comprised of books that contain everything that has ever been or ever will be written. By the end of the story, Borges becomes a character in his own fiction. This development was paralleled in Borges's "real life" as he invented a persona named "Borges," a literary creation that allowed Borges to become a character in a story that was his life. The essay concludes with a comparison of the ways in which Borges and Kafka each used writing as a way of creating his own distinctive form of consciousness, and, in so doing, contributed to the creation of twentieth-century consciousness.

  7. Contamination smoke: a simulation of heavy metal containing aerosols from fires in plutonium glove boxes: part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the dispersion of plutonium bearing aerosols during glove box fires on a laboratory scale has been, in part I of this work, focussed on fires of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA - the major glove box construction material) whose surfaces were contaminated with cerium-europium oxide powder as a substitute for plutonium-uranium oxide. The present part II completes the study with comparative fire experiments involving contaminated samples of various glove box materials burning in or exposed to the flames of the standardized 0.6 MW fire source previously developed. Beyond spreading of the Ce-Eu-oxide powder as mentioned above, the other important surface contamination process is used, i.e. deposition and subsequent drying of droplets from acid cerium-europium solutions. It is shown that, among the tested materials, and with the exception of synthetic glove rubber, burning PMMA spreads the most radioactive contamination. On the other hand, this potential risk is much lower for fires involving materials contaminated from solution deposition than from powder or pellets. Attempts to measure the airborne contaminant particle sizes did not yield conclusive results. They suggest, however, that contamination from solutions leads to smaller heavy-metal containing aerosol particles than contamination with powder

  8. A NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE EFFECT ON CHINESE REGIONAL CLIMATE DUE TO SEASONAL VARIATION OF LAND SURFACE PARAMETERS (PART II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 李维亮; 周秀骥

    2001-01-01

    The effect on climate due to seasonal variation of vegetation and roughness length was simulated in Part I of this essay. In Part II, the individual effect of albedo and the joint effect of all those factors (vegetation, roughness length and albedo) were calculated by numerical sensitivity experiments. The results showed that: (1) There is no significant effect on precipitation if the albedo of 4 seasons is used to replace the CRCM's climate average data, but the effect on land surface temperature can be seen clearly. And the effect also can be seen in adjacent regions. (2) If all these three factors are used to replace the CRCM's climate average data at the same time, the effect on precipitation is significant, the most variation value is 300 mm. And the effect on temperature is similar to what we can see if only one of these factors in CRCM is replaced by monthly or seasonal data. (3) Seasonal variation of land surface parameters has important effect not only on regional climate, but also on global environment.

  9. Nitric oxide and redox regulation in the liver: part II. Redox biology in pathologic hepatocytes and implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesen, Diana L; Kuo, Paul C

    2011-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are created in normal hepatocytes and are critical for normal physiologic processes, including oxidative respiration, growth, regeneration, apoptosis, and microsomal defense. When the levels of oxidation products exceed the capacity of normal antioxidant systems, oxidative stress occurs. This type of stress, in the form of ROS and RNS, can be damaging to all liver cells, including hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, stellate cells, and endothelial cells, through induction of inflammation, ischemia, fibrosis, necrosis, apoptosis, or through malignant transformation by damaging lipids, proteins, and/or DNA. In Part I of this review, we will discuss basic redox biology in the liver, including a review of ROS, RNS, and antioxidants, with a focus on nitric oxide as a common source of RNS. We will then review the evidence for oxidative stress as a mechanism of liver injury in hepatitis (alcoholic, viral, nonalcoholic). In Part II of this review, we will review oxidative stress in common pathophysiologic conditions, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, iron overload, Wilson's disease, sepsis, and acetaminophen overdose. Finally, biomarkers, proteomic, and antioxidant therapies will be discussed as areas for future therapeutic interventions.

  10. Part I. Synthesis and characterization of C2 substituted imidazolium room temperature ionic liquids. Part II. Survey and analysis of organic chemistry textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Elliot G.

    Part I. Among room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), those derived from the imidazolium cation are the most common. RTILs have generally been viewed solely as solvents, but they are able to participate in certain types of reactions, particularly due to the relatively high acidity at the imidazolium C2. Deprotonation affords N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), which can cause unwanted side reactions. Consequently, the major limitation of imidazolium RTILs is that they cannot be used as solvents in highly basic reactions such as the Baylis-Hillman and Grignard reactions. This work reveals a convenient route for the preparation of C2-substituted imidazolium ionic liquids. This method involves the alkylation of N-heterocyclic carbenes, which are readily generated from the C2-unsubstituted imidazolium ionic liquids. It works well for nonfunctionalized alkyl chlorides and less well for alkyl bromides and iodides, likely due to competing elimination reactions. The resulting C2-substituted salts can be transformed into ionic liquids via standard anion metathesis reactions. Part II. Recent advances in media and the increasingly encyclopedic nature of traditional textbooks have made their role in college classes uncertain. In an effort to discover what is really being taught in organic chemistry courses across the US, a survey of organic chemistry professors in all 50 states was conducted to determine what material is covered in their organic chemistry courses for science majors. Survey Monkey, an online survey program, was used to construct a short 10-item survey which was sent to organic chemistry professors at various types of institutions across the nation. We sent out 2417 surveys and received 489 responses. The results of this survey revealed what topics the professors believe is core material and what they feel is extraneous. Additionally, this research identifies the things these professors would like to see changed in the organic chemistry texts. From the open

  11. Part i: Lie-Backlund Theory and Linearization of Differential Equations. Part II: Monte Carlo Simulations of 1-D Quantum Spin Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J.

    Part I begins with an account of groups of Lie -Back-lund (L-B) tangent transformations; it is then shown that L-B symmetry operators depending on integrals (nonlocal variables), such as discussed by Konopelchenko and Mokhnachev (1979), are related by change of variables to the L-B operators which involve no more than derivatives. A general method is set down for transforming a given L-B operator into a new one, by any invertible transformation depending on (. . ., D(,x)('-1) u, u, u(,x), . . .). It is shown that once a given differential equation admits a L-B operator, there is in general a very large number of related ("secondary") equations which admit the same operator. The L-B Theory involving nonlocal variables is used to characterize group theoretically the linearization both of the Burgers equation, u(,t) + uu(,x) - u(,xx) = 0, and of the o.d.e. u(,xx) + (omega)('2)(x)u + Ku('-3) = 0. Secondary equations are found to play an important role in understanding the group theoretical background to the linearization of differential equations. Part II deals with Monte Carlo simulations of the l-d quantum Heisenberg and XY-models, using an approach suggested by Suzuki (1976). The simulation is actually carried out on a 2-d, m x N, Isinglike system, equivalent to the original N-spin quantum system when m (--->) (INFIN). The results for m (LESSTHEQ) 10 and kT/(VBAR)J(VBAR) (GREATERTHEQ) .0125 are good enough to show that the method is generally applicable to quantum spin models; however some difficulties caused by singular bonding in the classical lattice (Wiesler 1982) and by the generation of unwanted states have to be taken into account in practice. The finite-size scaling method of Fisher and Ferdinard is adapted for use near T = 0 in the ferromagnetic Heisenberg model; applied to the simulation data it shows that the low temperature susceptibiltiy behaves at T('-(gamma)), where (gamma) = 1.32 (+OR-) 10%. Also, simple and potentially useful finite-size scaling

  12. Effect of Sea Breeze on Air Pollution in the Greater Athens Area. Part II: Analysis of Different Emission Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paola; Thunis, Philippe; Martilli, Alberto; Clappier, Alain

    2000-04-01

    The Mediterranean Campaign of Photochemical Tracers-Transport and Chemical Evolution that took place in the greater Athens area from 20 August to 20 September 1994 has confirmed the role of sea-breeze circulation in photochemical smog episodes that had been suggested already by a number of experiments and numerical studies.The meteorological and photochemical modeling of this campaign were discussed in Part I. Part II focuses on the study of the 14 September photochemical smog event associated with a sea-breeze circulation. The objective of the study is to identify and to understand better the nonlinear processes that produce high ozone concentrations. In particular, the effect of land and sea breezes is investigated by isolating the effect of nighttime and daytime emissions on ozone concentrations. The same principle then is used to isolate the effect on ozone concentrations of the two main sources of emissions in the greater Athens area: the industrial area around Elefsis and the Athens urban area. Last, the buildup of ozone from one day to another is investigated.From this study, it comes out that ozone production in the Athens area is mainly a 1-day phenomenon. The increased values of photochemical pollutant (up to 130 ppb at ground level) reached during summertime late afternoons on mountain slopes to the north and northeast of the city are related mainly to the current-day emissions. Nevertheless, the recirculation of old pollutants can have an important effect on ozone concentrations in downtown Athens, the southern part of the peninsula, and over the sea, especially near Aigina Island.

  13. Occlusion effects, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    The present report studies the mechanism of the occlusion effect by means of literature studies, experiments and model estimates. A mathematical model of the occlusion effect is developed. The model includes the mechanical properties of the earmould and the airborne sound as well as the body...

  14. PART II. HYDRATED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Drabik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential focus of the study has been to acquire thermoanalytical events, incl. enthalpies of decompositions - ΔH, of technological materials based on two types of Portland cements. The values of thermoanalytical events and also ΔH of probes of technological compositions, if related with the data of a choice of minerals of calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates, served as a valued input for the assessment of phases present and phase changes due to the topical hydraulic processes. The results indicate mainly the effects of "standard humidity" or "wet storage" of the entire hydration/hydraulic treatment, but also the presence of cement residues alongside calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates (during the tested period of treatment. "A diluting" effect of unhydrated cement residues upon the values of decomposition enthalpies in the studied multiphase system is postulated and discussed

  15. Part II Example Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 尚秀葵; 胡明海; 徐莉

    2000-01-01

    Male, age of 27 years. History of the present disease: In the recent three weeks, the patient has the symptoms including tiredness, difficult falling in sleep even sleeplessness during whole night, accompanied with restlessness,palpitation, poor appetite, amnesia.

  16. Introduction to Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banalieva, Elitsa R.; Tihanyi, Laszlo; Devinney, Timothy M.;

    2015-01-01

    Do multinational enterprises evolve differently in emerging and developed economies? Although one camp argues that emerging economy multinationals are different from their developed country counterparts owing to the underdeveloped institutions in their home countries, another camp counters...

  17. America's Nomads (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Diana

    1981-01-01

    Evidence suggests that living and labor conditions have improved very little among agricultural laborers and are particularly hopeless among migrants. Since the government, food producers, industry, and consumers are all beneficiaries of the present farm system, it is unlikely that farm workers will be able to unionize and control their own…

  18. Liver transplantation versus conservative treatment for adult-onset type II citrullinemia: our experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, N; Kubo, N; Narumi, S; Toyoki, Y; Ishido, K; Kudo, D; Umehara, M; Yakoshi, Y; Hakamada, K

    2013-11-01

    Adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the SLC25A13 gene, is characterized by increased serum citrulline and ammonia levels. Patients with CTLN2 also display various neuropsychiatric symptoms. Many individuals with CTLN2 are fond of protein-rich and/or lipid-rich foods with an aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods. We herein report two cases of CTLN2 treated with living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and provide a review of the pertinent literature. Case 1 was a 43-year-old man admitted to our hospital for repetitive episodes of consciousness disturbance. Case 2 was a 37-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of abnormal behavior associated with hyperammonemia. A definitive diagnosis of CTLN2 was accomplished by DNA analysis in both patients, who successfully underwent LDLT using liver segments from donor siblings with confirmed heterozygous gene expression. Case 2 also underwent conservative therapy with arginine and a high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted diet prior to LDLT. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and food was unrestricted in both patients. We also identified 77 cases of CTLN2 in the literature and reviewed them in terms of outcome of both liver transplantation and conservative therapy. The survival rate in patients treated by liver transplantation was 100%, whereas that in patients treated by conservative treatment showed improvement from 39.5% to 76.5% over the years. Liver transplantation is a practical treatment that fundamentally improves patient quality of life after transplantation. However, recent studies have suggested that arginine and sodium pyruvate administration combined with intensive nutritional support is also an effective therapy for CTLN2. Further development of conservative therapy may provide a safer, more affordable alternative to liver transplantation in the near future.

  19. Procesamiento léxico del castellano por parte de niños y adultos Spanish' Lexical processing on the part of children and adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA BAQUERO CASTELLANOS

    2005-06-01

    processing or word's processing on the part of children and adults. Since the investigations in Spanish have shown the fundamental paper of the syllable in this processing, the objective was to investigate on if the effect inhibitor of the high frequency of the syllable - typical in adults - it would be present also in the children of grades 3o (8-9 years and 7º (13 and 14 years.

  20. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles.

  1. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. PMID:27219504

  2. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discuss methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100% WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100% conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic. - Research highlights: → We evaluate the feasibility of global energy supply from wind, water, and solar energy. → WWS energy can be supplied reliably and economically to all energy-use sectors. → The social cost of WWS energy generally is less than the cost of fossil-fuel energy. → Barriers to 100% WWS power worldwide are socio-political, not techno-economic.

  3. Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

    1996-05-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

  4. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part II: Data Sources from Specific Library Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage in statistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated searc...

  5. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part II: Data Sources from Specific Library Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a two-part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage in statistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  6. La Palabra es Nuestra: Primaria para Adultos. Segunda Parte, Volumen 1-2. Edicion Experimental (The Language Is Ours: Primer for Adults. Part Two, Volumes 1-2. Experimental Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    These workbooks are part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. They provide readings and exercises for developing literacy skills. Pictures and fill-in-the blank exercises appear frequently. Volume 1…

  7. Nuestras cuentas diarias: Matematicas. Primaria para adultos, Primera parte, Volumens 1 y 2. Edicion Experimental (Our Daily Accounting: Mathematics. Primer for Adults, Part One, Volumes 1 and 2. Experimental Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    These workbooks are part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The workbooks, divided in two volumes, are designed to teach skills required in managing ordinary financial transactions and daily tasks…

  8. Nuestras cuentas diarias: Matematicas. Primaria para adultos, Segunda parte, Volumens 1 y 2. Edicion Experimental (Our Daily Accounting: Mathematics. Primer for Adults, Part Two, Volumes 1 and 2. Experimental Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    These workbooks are part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The workbooks are designed to teach skills needed to manage ordinary financial transactions and daily tasks requiring a knowledge of…

  9. La Palabra es Nuestra: Primaria para Adultos. Primera Parte, Volumen 1-2. Edicion Experimental. (The Language Is Ours: Primer for Adults. Part One, Volumes 1-2. Experimental Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    These workbooks are part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. These workbooks, designed to continue developing literacy skills, include pictures, dialogues, crossword puzzles, and fill-in-the blank…

  10. Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetrical Flow Control—Part II: Nonaxisymmetrical Self-Recirculation Casing Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    This is part II of a two-part paper involving the development of an asymmetrical flow control method to widen the operating range of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with high-pressure ratio. A nonaxisymmetrical self-recirculation casing treatment (SRCT) as an instance of asymmetrical flow control method is presented. Experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the impact of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the surge point of the centrifugal compressor. First, the influence of t...

  11. Lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte. parte II: consumo hídrico do coqueiro anão verde irrigado Large-scale weighing lysimeter. part II: water requirements of the irrigated dwarf-green coconut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inajá F. Sousa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, como segunda parte de uma pesquisa realizada no Estado de Sergipe, objetiva determinar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultura na fase de crescimento do coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L., com base em medições lisimétricas e no modelo do balanço de energia, segundo a razão de Bowen. Obteve-se a evapotranspiração de referência pelo método de Penman-Monteith, na escala diária em todo o período experimental. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi programado para a automação da coleta de todos os sensores necessários à obtenção dos componentes do balanço de energia. O consumo hídrico do coqueiro durante a fase de crescimento é de 1.263,30 mm, com média diária de 3,90 mm d-1. O coeficiente de cultura nessa fase fenológica da palmeira varia entre 0,50 e 1,80, com média de 0,96.This paper, as Part II of a research carried out in Sergipe state, aims to determine evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of dwarf-green coconut (Cocos nucifera L. based on lysimeter measurements and Bowen ratio-energy balance method. The reference evapotranspiration was obtained by the Penman-Monteith approach on daily-scale during the experimental period. The data acquisition system was used to obtain all data from the sensors necessary to determine the energy balance components. The water requirements of coconut palm during the phenological growth stage is 1263.30 mm, with daily average of 3.90 mm d-1. The crop coefficient during this phenological growth stage varies between 0.50 and 1.80, with daily mean of 0.96.

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  13. Proceedings of the EMU Conference on Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions (Dearborn, Michigan, April 5-7, 1984). Part II: Program Overviews and Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voght, Geoffrey M., Ed.

    Part II of the proceedings includes nine presentations. They are: "Business and Foreign Language Tie the Knot at Nazareth College: A Four Year Program Model" (Octave G. Naulleau); "For an Actual Education in International Management" (Alain Eclache and Georges Labet); "A Foreign Language Program for Majors in Hotel and Restaurant Management:…

  14. Report on the Council of Graduate Schools-Graduate Record Examinations Board 1981-82 Survey of Graduate Enrollment, Part II, June 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Virginia B.; Khoury, Bernard V.

    Results of the Council of Graduate Schools-Graduate Record Examinations Board 1981-1982 Survey of Graduate Enrollment, Part II are presented, based on usable responses from 299 institutions. The survey findings provide information about changes in the pattern of graduate school enrollment and allow comparisons between public and private…

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Miscellaneous, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous, Part II Section of the proceedings contains the following eight papers: "Academic Letters of Recommendation: Perceived Ethical Implications and Harmful Effects of Exaggeration" (David L. Martinson and Michael Ryan); "It's All about the Information Salience Effects on the Perceptions of News Exemplification" (Francesca Dillman…

  16. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Lateralization and Transposition for Dental Implant Placement. Part II: a Systematic Review of Neurosensory Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Abayev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This article, the second in a two-part series, continues the discussion of inferior alveolar nerve lateralization/transposition for dental implant placement. The aim of this article is to review the scientific literature and clinical reports in order to analyse the neurosensory complications, risks and disadvantages of lateralization/transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve followed by implant placement in an edentulous atrophic posterior mandible. Material and Methods: A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed and PMC databases, as well as academic sites and books. The articles were searched from January 1997 to July 2014. Articles in English language, which included adult patients between 18 - 80 years of age who had minimal residual bone above the mandibular canal and had undergone inferior alveolar nerve (IAN repositioning, with minimum 6 months of follow-up, were included. Results: A total of 21 studies were included in this review. Ten were related to IAN transposition, 7 to IAN lateralization and 4 to both transposition and lateralization. The IAN neurosensory disturbance function was present in most patients (99.47% [376/378] for 1 to 6 months. In total, 0.53% (2/378 of procedures the disturbances were permanent. Conclusions: Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning is related to initial transient change in sensation in the majority of cases. The most popular causes of nerve damage are spatula-caused traction in the mucoperiosteal flap, pressure due to severe inflammation or retention of fluid around the nerve and subsequent development of transient ischemia, and mandibular body fracture.

  17. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  18. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-21

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  19. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part II: responses in the leaves and general conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie, E-mail: nvanhoud@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Cuypers, Ann [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Horemans, Nele [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bello, Daniel Martinez [Hasselt University, Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Havaux, Michel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA)/Cadarache, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie, Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie de la Photosynthese, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    The cellular redox balance seems an important modulator under heavy metal stress. While for other heavy metals these processes are well studied, oxidative stress related responses are also known to be triggered under uranium stress but information remains limited. This study aimed to further unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. Seventeen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown on a modified Hoagland solution under controlled conditions, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 {mu}M uranium for 1, 3 and 7 days. While in Part I of this study oxidative stress related responses in the roots were discussed, this second Part II discusses oxidative stress related responses in the leaves and general conclusions drawn from the results of the roots and the leaves will be presented. As several responses were already visible following 1 day exposure, when uranium concentrations in the leaves were negligible, a root-to-shoot signaling system was suggested in which plastids could be important sensing sites. While lipid peroxidation, based on the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds, was observed after exposure to 100 {mu}M uranium, affecting membrane structure and function, a transient concentration dependent response pattern was visible for lipoxygenase initiated lipid peroxidation. This transient character of uranium stress responses in leaves was emphasized by results of lipoxygenase (LOX2) and antioxidative enzyme transcript levels, enzyme capacities and glutathione concentrations both in time as with concentration. The ascorbate redox balance seemed an important modulator of uranium stress responses in the leaves as in addition to the previous transient responses, the total ascorbate concentration and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. This could represent either a slow transient response or a stable increase with regard to plant acclimation to uranium stress

  20. The WHO-DAS II: Psychometric Properties in the Measurement of Functional Health Status in Adults With Acquired Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chisolm, Theresa H.; Abrams, Harvey B.; McArdle, Rachel; Wilson, Richard H.; Doyle, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument firmly grounded in the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF). As such, it assesses functioning for six domains: communication, mobility, self-care, interpersonal, life activities, and participation. Domain scores aggregate to a total score. Because the WHO-DAS II contains questions relevant to hearing and communication, it has goo...