Tosi, Laura L; Oetgen, Matthew E; Floor, Marianne K; Huber, Mary Beth; Kennelly, Ann M; McCarter, Robert J; Rak, Melanie F; Simmonds, Barbara J; Simpson, Melissa D; Tucker, Carole A; McKiernan, Fergus E
A better understanding of the natural history of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in adulthood should improve health care for patients with this rare condition. The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation established the Adult Natural History Initiative (ANHI) in 2010 to give voice to the health concerns of the adult OI community and to begin to address existing knowledge gaps for this condition. Using a web-based platform, 959 adults with self-reported OI, representing a wide range of self-reported disease severity, reported symptoms and health conditions, estimated the impact of these concerns on present and future health-related quality of life (QoL) and completed a Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) survey of health issues. Adults with OI report lower general physical health status (p report generally similar mental health status. Musculoskeletal, auditory, pulmonary, endocrine, and gastrointestinal issues are particular future health-related QoL concerns for these adults. Numerous other statistically significant differences exist among adults with OI as well as between adults with OI and the referent PROMIS® population, but the clinical significance of these differences is uncertain. Adults with OI report lower general health status but are otherwise more similar to the general population than might have been expected. While reassuring, further analysis of the extensive OI-ANHI databank should help identify areas of unique clinical concern and for future research. The OI-ANHI survey experience supports an internet-based strategy for successful patient-centered outcomes research in rare disease populations.
Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.
Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…
Di Iorio, Osvaldo
A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned.
Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Mani, Revathy; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Vittal Praveen, Smitha
The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Verhamme, Camiel; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; de Haan, Rob J.; de Visser, Marianne
Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A is the most prevalent hereditary demyelinating polyneuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural history of the disease in adults during a 5-year follow-up and to compare the changes over time with those found in normal ageing. In a cohort of 46 adult
Patelis, Antonios; Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria; Borres, Magnus P; Burney, Peter; Gislason, Thorarinn; Torén, Kjell; Forsberg, Bertil; Alving, Kjell; Malinovschi, Andrei; Janson, Christer
No longitudinal studies exist on the natural history of food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in adults. To examine the natural history of food hypersensitivity, the natural history of IgE sensitisation to food allergens and to investigate the risk factors for new onset food hypersensitivity. Food hypersensitivity was questionnaire-assessed in 2307 individuals (aged 20-45 years) from Iceland and Sweden during the European Community Respiratory Health Survey both at baseline and follow-up 9 years later. IgE food and aeroallergen sensitisation were assessed in a subgroup of these individuals (n = 807). Values of 0.35 kU/L and above were regarded as positive sensitisation. Food hypersensitivity was reported by 21% of the subjects and this proportion remained unchanged at follow-up (p = 0.58). Fruits, nuts and vegetables were the three most common causes of food hypersensitivity, with a similar prevalence at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in general by 56% (pfood hypersensitivity. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity remained unchanged while the prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in adults over a 9-year follow-up period. The decrease in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens was considerably larger than the change in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to aeroallergens.
Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter
The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually described with a focus on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) over time as this allows for exploration of risk factors for an accelerated decline-and thus of developing COPD. From epidemiological studies we...
Mochel, Fanny; Schiffmann, Raphael; Steenweg, Marjan E.; Akman, Hasan O.; Wallace, Mary; Sedel, Frédéric; Laforêt, Pascal; Levy, Richard; Powers, J. Michael; Demeret, Sophie; Maisonobe, Thierry; Froissart, Roseline; Da Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos; Fogel, Brent L.; Natowicz, Marvin R.; Lubetzki, Catherine; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Rosenmann, Hanna; Barash, Varda; Kakhlon, Or; Gomori, J. Moshe; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Lossos, Alexander
Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy characterized by neurogenic bladder, progressive spastic gait, and peripheral neuropathy. Polyglucosan bodies accumulate in the central and peripheral nervous systems and are often associated with glycogen branching
Jones, Deborah J; Munro, Cindy L; Grap, Mary Jo
The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of dental plaque accumulation in mechanically ventilated adults. Accumulation of dental plaque and bacterial colonisation of the oropharynx is associated with a number of systemic diseases including ventilator associated pneumonia. Data were collected from mechanically ventilated critically ill adults (n=137), enrolled within 24 hours of intubation. Dental plaque, counts of decayed, missing and filled teeth and systemic antibiotic use was assessed on study days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Dental plaque averages per study day, tooth type and tooth location were analysed. Medical respiratory, surgical trauma and neuroscience ICU's of a large tertiary care centre in the southeast United States. Plaque: all surfaces >60% plaque coverage from day 1 to day 7; molars and premolars contained greatest plaque average >70%. Systemic antibiotic use on day 1 had no significant effect on plaque accumulation on day 3 (p=0.73). Patients arrive in critical care units with preexisting oral hygiene issues. Dental plaque tends to accumulate in the posterior teeth (molars and premolars) that may be hard for nurses to visualise and reach; this problem may be exacerbated by endotracheal tubes and other equipment. Knowing accumulation trends of plaque will guide the development of effective oral care protocols. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bunch, T Jared; May, Heidi T; Bair, Tami L; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Crandall, Brian G; Cutler, Michael J; Jacobs, Victoria; Mallender, Charles; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Weiss, J Peter; Day, John D
There are a paucity of data about the long-term natural history of adult Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) patients in regard to risk of mortality and atrial fibrillation. We sought to describe the long-term outcomes of WPW patients and ascertain the impact of ablation on the natural history. Three groups of patients were studied: 2 WPW populations (ablation: 872, no ablation: 1461) and a 1:5 control population (n=11 175). Long-term mortality and atrial fibrillation rates were determined. The average follow-up for the WPW group was 7.9±5.9 (median: 6.9) years and was similar between the ablation and nonablation groups. Death rates were similar between the WPW group versus the control group (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.11; P=0.56). Nonablated WPW patients had a higher long-term death risk compared with ablated WPW patients (hazard ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.50-20.93; P<0.0001). Incident atrial fibrillation risk was higher in the WPW group compared with the control population (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.87; P<0.0001). Nonablated WPW patients had lower risk than ablated patients (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.53; P<0.0001). Long-term mortality rates in WPW patients are low and similar to an age-matched and gender-matched control population. WPW patients that underwent the multifactorial process of ablation had a lower mortality compared to nonablated WPW patients. Atrial fibrillation rates are high long-term, and ablation does not reduce this risk. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis that results in white plaques with epidermal atrophy usually affecting the genital area in both adults and children. The causes of LSA are not clear but possible predisponsing factors include trauma, infection (borrelia, human papilloma virus, autoimmune diseases and local irritation. This study is a retrospective case review of children and adults with LSA attending the department of Dermatology at the Royal Infirmary in Edinburgh, clinical notes for 22 patients were reviewed for age, sex, personal and familial history, symptoms associated diseases and clinical course and treatment. The mean ages at diagnosis of LSA in 9 children (8F: 1M and 13 adults (13 F were 7 and 57.5 years respectively. The mean duration of illness was 1.5 year in children and 5.5 year in adults. Itching was the most common symptom in both children and adults. Children also suffered with difficulties in defaecation and in micturation , dribbling, incontinence, constipation and bleeding. Atopy and hypothyroidism were common associated conditions in both the groups. Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva was confirmed in two adult patients. This study showed the variable symptoms in children, which seemed more severe than in the adult population.
Galfione, María Verónica
This article presents a rereading of Buffon´s Natural History in the light of the concepts of temporal reversibility and irreversibility. The goal is to determine to what extent Buffon introduces a transformationist concept of natural forms in this work. To that effect, the main points of classical natural history and the doctrine of preformed germs are analyzed. Subsequently, Buffon´s use of the temporal variable is considered. This examination shows that despite his rejection of the theory ...
King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne
on the educational value afforded by understanding the epistemological bases of natural history and its particular forms of reasoning. We also briefly discuss the ways in which an education in natural history provides the foundation for environmental and social justice efforts that directly affect the lives of young...
The Egyptian Journal of Natural History publishes taxonomic and faunistic studies, or field-based research involving the natural history of the Egyptian fauna and flora. Both short and long papers are welcomed. We particularly encourage studies on Sinai.View the Instructions for authors All papers are reviewed by at least ...
Wanner, Christoph; Oliveira, João P.; Ortiz, Alberto; Mauer, Michael; Germain, Dominique P.; Linthorst, Gabor E.; Serra, Andreas L.; Maródi, László; Mignani, Renzo; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Vujkovac, Bojan; Lemay, Roberta; Beitner-Johnson, Dana; Waldek, Stephen; Warnock, David G.
These analyses were designed to characterize renal disease progression in untreated adults with Fabry disease. Data from the Fabry Registry for 462 untreated adults (121 men and 341 women) who had at least two estimated GFR (eGFR) values over a span of ≥12 months before starting enzyme replacement
Benjamin D. Kuhns
Full Text Available Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI is a clinical syndrome resulting from abnormal hip joint morphology and is a common cause of hip pain in young adults. FAI has been posited as a precursor to hip osteoarthritis, however, conflicting evidence exists and the true natural history of the disease is unclear. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of how FAI damages the hip joint by highlighting its pathomechanics and etiology. We then review the current evidence relating FAI to osteoarthritis. Lastly, we will discuss the potential of hip preservation surgery to alter the natural history of FAI, reduce the risk of developing osteoarthritis and the need for future arthroplasty.
The Journal of East African Natural History is published jointly by the East Africa Natural History Society and the National Museums of Kenya. The Journal publishes papers and notes in the field of natural history, broadly defined as the study of organisms in their natural state, relevant to the eastern African region.
Mistry, Pramod K; Belmatoug, Nadia; vom Dahl, Stephan; Giugliani, Roberto
Gaucher disease is a rare and extraordinarily heterogeneous inborn error of metabolism that exhibits diverse manifestations, a broad range of age of onset of symptoms, and a wide clinical spectrum of disease severity, from lethal disease during infancy to first age of onset of symptoms in octogenarians. Before the advent of the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG) Gaucher Registry, the understanding of the natural history and phenotypic range of Gaucher disease was based on isolated case reports and small case series. Limited data hindered understanding of the full spectrum of the disease leading to some early misconceptions about Gaucher disease, notably, that nonneuronopathic (type 1) disease was a disease of adults only. The global scope of the ICGG Gaucher Registry, with its vast body of longitudinal data, has enabled a real appreciation of both the phenotypic spectrum of Gaucher disease and its natural history. This body of evidence represents the foundation for accurate assessment of the response to specific therapies for Gaucher disease and to the development of standard-of-care to monitor disease activity. Here, we outline the key developments in delineating the natural history of this highly complex disease and role of the ICGG Gaucher Registry in this effort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marília P. Gaiarsa
Full Text Available Even though natural history information is crucial for answering key ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions, basic studies are still lacking for Neotropical snakes. This study aims at contributing to the knowledge of the Neotropical tribe Pseudoboini, based on literature data, analysis of museum specimens and unpublished data. The tribe is mainly composed of moderate-sized snakes, although small and large-sized snakes also occur in the clade. Mean fecundity ranged from two (Rodriguesophis iglesiasi to 29 eggs (Clelia plumbea and the species are predominantly terrestrial and nocturnal. Most species are diet specialists and lizards are the most commonly consumed prey (found in the diet of 29 species, followed by small mammals (consumed by 20 species and snakes (consumed by 18 species. Although the tribe Pseudoboini appears to be well studied, for 15 species (32% only a small amount of information or none was available. We hope that our study can motivate research on the least known species.
Pitot, Henry C.
The stages of initiation and promotion in the natural history of epidermal carcinogenesis have been known for many years. Recently, experimental systems other than skin have been shown to exhibit similar, if not completely analogous, stages in the natural history of neoplasia. In particular, the demonstration by Peraino and his associates that phenobarbital may enhance the production of hepatomas by a relatively subcarcinogenic dose of acetylaminofluorene was one of the first demonstrations of stages occurring in an extraepidermal neoplasm. Studies reported in this paper have demonstrated that administration of phenobarbital (0.05% in the diet) for 6 months following a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (5 to 10 mg/kg) given within 24 hours after partial hepatectomy resulted in a marked increase in the number of enzyme-altered foci in the liver as well as in the production of hepatocellular carcinomas. This was compared to animals receiving only a single dose of diethylnitrosamine following partial hepatectomy with no further treatment, in which only a relatively small number of foci were evident in the absence of phenobarbital feeding. Using three different enzyme markers, a distinct degree of phenotypic heterogeneity of the enzyme-altered foci in liver was demonstrated. These studies have shown that liver carcinogensis can be readily divided into two stages: a) initiation by a single dose of diethylnitrosamine following partial hepatectomy and b) promotion by the continuous feeding of phenobarbital. Furthermore, the immediate progeny of the initiated cells, the enzyme-altered focus, may be recognized by suitable microscopic means prior to the formation of gross lesions as required in the skin system. These initiated cell populations exhibit a degree of biochemical heterogeneity which reflects that seen in fully developed hepatic neoplasms, suggesting that promotion and progression in this system does not significantly alter the basic biochemical characteristics of
OBJECTIVE: Early elective termination of pregnancy is the most common outcome of a diagnosis of anencephaly in developed countries. Experience and expertise with management of ongoing pregnancies is limited. We aimed to investigate the natural history of these pregnancies from diagnosis to delivery and to determine timing of death. METHOD: A retrospective review of cases of anencephaly diagnosed between 2003 and 2009 in tertiary-referral university teaching hospitals in Cork. RESULTS: The majority of cases (25\\/26; 96%) were diagnosed prenatally at a median gestation of 21(+2) weeks (range 13(+4)-32(+4)). The median maternal age was 30 years (range 17-41) and 50% were primigravidae. Seven pregnancies were complicated by polyhydramnios and four deliveries were complicated by shoulder dystocia. The median gestation at delivery was 35 weeks (range 22(+5)-42(+6)); 69% of labours were induced at a median gestation of 34 weeks. Six women (6\\/26; 23%) had a pre-labour intrauterine fetal death and nine women (9\\/26; 35%) had an intrapartum fetal death. Median neonatal survival time was 55 min (range 10 min to 8 days). Six parents donated neonatal organs for transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study provides useful information for health professionals caring for patients with a diagnosis of anencephaly. The majority of these infants die prior to delivery but short-term survival is possible.
The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.
Mavrelos, D; Ben-Nagi, J; Holland, T; Hoo, W; Naftalin, J; Jurkovic, D
Fibroids are common, hormone-dependent, benign uterine tumors. They can cause significant morbidity and the symptoms depend largely on their size. The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of fibroids and identify factors that may influence their growth. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of premenopausal women who were diagnosed with uterine fibroids on ultrasound examination. All women underwent at least two transvaginal ultrasound scans, which were all performed by a single operator. Fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes and the mean diameter was calculated. The size and position of every individual fibroid was assessed and recorded on a computerized database. The volume of each fibroid was calculated using the formula for a sphere. A total of 122 women were included in the study. Their median age at the initial examination was 40 (range, 27-45) years. Seventy-two (59.0%) were nulliparous and 74 (60.7%) had multiple fibroids. The median interval between the initial and final examination was 21.5 (range, 8-90) months. The median fibroid volume increased by 35.2% per year. Small fibroids (< 20 mm mean diameter) grew significantly faster than larger fibroids (P = 0.007). The median increase in size was significantly higher in cases of intramural fibroids (53.2 (interquartile range (IQR), 11.2-217)%) than in subserous fibroids (25.1 (IQR, 1.1-87.1)%) and submucous fibroids (22.8 (IQR, - 11.7 to 48.3)%) (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis retained only fibroid size at presentation as an independent predictor of fibroid growth. The growth of fibroids in premenopausal women is influenced by the tumor's size at presentation.
Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is X-linked recessive hereditary disease. DMD gene mutations result in dystrophin deficiency, which causes not only muscle movement disorders but also scoliosis, cognitive dysfunction, urinary tract diseases, respiratory diseases and heart diseases. Most patients die in early adult for respiratory and circulatory failure. Early multidisciplinary therapies will significantly delay disease progression and improve patients' quality of life. However, DMD diagnosis and treatment exist significantly time delay now. In this study, we review the natural history of DMD, including motor, cognitive, respiratory and heart function, for improving DMD early recognition, diagnosis and treatment, so as to benefit DMD patients. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.05.004
Phillips, John S; McFerran, Don J; Hall, Deborah A; Hoare, Derek J
Tinnitus is a prevalent condition, but little has been published regarding the natural history of the condition. One technique for evaluating the long-term progression of the disease is to examine what happens to participants in the no-intervention control arm of a clinical trial. The aim of this study was to examine no-intervention or waiting-list data reported in trials, in which participants on the active arm received any form of tinnitus intervention. CINAHL, PsychINFO, EMBASE, ASSIA, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, EBSCO Host, and Cochrane. Inclusion criteria followed the PICOS principles: Participants, adults with tinnitus; Intervention, none; Control, any intervention for alleviating tinnitus; Outcomes, a measure assessing tinnitus symptoms using a multi-item patient-reported tinnitus questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures included multi-item patient-reported questionnaires of mood and health-related quality of life and measures that quantified change in tinnitus loudness; Study design, randomized controlled trials or observational studies utilizing a no-intervention or waiting-list control group. Data were extracted and standardized mean difference was calculated for each study to enable meta-analysis. The evidence strongly favored a statistically significant decrease in the impact of tinnitus over time, though there was significant heterogeneity and clinical significance cannot be interpreted. Outcome data regarding secondary measures did not demonstrate any clinically significant change. Participants allocated to the no-intervention or waiting-list control arm of clinical trials for a tinnitus intervention show a small but significant improvement in self-reported measures of tinnitus with time; the clinical significance of this finding is unknown. There is, however, considerable variation across individuals. These findings support previous work and can cautiously be used when counseling patients. Laryngoscope, 128:217-227, 2018. © 2017 The
Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen
Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working...
At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.
Weimers, Petra; Munkholm, Pia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic, relapsing diseases with unknown etiologies. The purpose of this review is to present the natural disease course evidenced in the latest epidemiology data. RECENT...
Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.
Oct 15, 2010 ... Paradoxically, this is probably the period in the history of advanced countries in which increasing public and personal efforts have been directed toward the dissemination of scientific knowledge to increase public understanding of science. This article vindicates the role of natural history museums in ...
Thomsen, Simon F
The atopic diseases - atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever - pose a great burden to the individual and society, not least, since these diseases have reached epidemic proportions during the past decades in industrialized and, more recently, in developing countries. Whereas the prevalence...... of the atopic diseases now seems to have reached a plateau in many Western countries, they are still on the increase in the developing world. This emphasizes continuing research aimed at identifying the causes, risk factors, and natural history of these diseases. Herein, the fundamental aspects of the natural...... history and epidemiology of the atopic diseases are reviewed....
Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Caye-Thomasen, Per
This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma. A treatm......This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma...
Sloan, Phillip R
This paper seeks to show Kant's importance for the formal distinction between descriptive natural history and a developmental history of nature that entered natural history discussions in the late eighteenth century. It is argued that he developed this distinction initially upon Buffon's distinctions of 'abstract' and 'physical' truths, and applied these initially in his distinction of 'varieties' from 'races' in anthropology. In the 1770s, Kant appears to have given theoretical preference to the 'history' of nature [Naturgeschichte] over 'description' of nature [Naturbeschreibung]. Following Kant's confrontations with Johann Herder and Georg Forster in the late 1780s, Kant weakened the epistemic status of the 'history of nature' and gave theoretical preference to 'description of nature'. As a result, Kant's successors, such as Goethe, could draw from Kant either a justification for a developmental history of nature, or, as this paper argues, a warrant from the critical philosophy for denying the validity of the developmental history of nature as anything more than a 'regulative' idea of reason.
Nov 1, 2017 ... Author Guidelines. Submission: manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document in an email attachment, to the Editor-in-Chief, Journal of East African Natural History at email@example.com. The manuscript should be accompanied by a covering letter from the author, or in the case of multiple ...
The paper investigates the ideas that have prevented environmental knowledge from developing into action and change. According to Clarence J. Glacken throughout European history design ideas about the relation between man and nature have prevented the many local observations of the negative...... expose some ecological ideas – that nature itself is a perpetual equilibrium and that man lived in harmony with nature until the emergence of modernity (industrialisation, capitalism, and technology) – as illusions. Such ‘new’ ecological ideas can be seen as disguised versions of the old design idea...
Torack, R M
The historical events in the evolution of Alzheimer's disease are reviewed, including the initial description by Alois Alzheimer and the subsequent controversy regarding the nosological specificity of this entity. The similarity of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease is emphasized. The basis for the modern concept of Alzheimer's disease as premature or accelerated aging is included in the review. The pathological correlates of the major categories of adult dementia have been described. The traditional criteria of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques have been re-evaluated using the current insight into these changes afforded by electron microscopy and biochemistry. The significance of amyloid has been described because it occurs within the senile plaque and also as the essential component of congophilic angiopathy. The new information regarding neuronal cell counts and the loss of choline acetyltransferase has been evaluated in terms of an indication of a pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. The current understanding of normal pressure hydrocephalus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and multi-infarct dementia has been described. Brain biopsy in dementia has been described as having diagnostic, research, pathogenic, and prognostic value. The precautions involving the performance and handling of the biopsy have been stressed, particularly because these procedures involve conditions of possible slow virus etiology. The polemic for Alzheimer's disease as aging or slow virus infection has been summarized. At this time a consideration seems justified that Alzheimer's disease is an age-related, slow virus disease due to a hitherto unknown immune defect. Aging as an etiological agent must be clarified before Alzheimer's disease, in any form, can be considered to be an inevitable consequence of longevity.
Full Text Available A survey on the challenges and concerns invovled with digitizing natural history specimens was circulated to curators, collections managers, and administrators in the natural history community in the Spring of 2009, with over 200 responses received. The overwhelming barrier to digitizing collections was a lack of funding, based on a limited number of sources, leaving institutions mostly responsible for providing the necessary support. The uneven digitization landscape leads to a patchy accumulation of records at varying qualities, and based on different priorities, ulitimately influencing the data's fitness for use. The survey also found that although the kind of specimens found in collections and their storage can be quite varible, there are many similar challenges when digitizing including imaging, automated text scanning and parsing, geo-referencing, etc. Thus, better communication between domains could foster knowledge on digitization leading to efficiencies that could be disseminated through documentation of best practices and training.
Natural history collections play an indispensable and often overlooked role in the conservation and management of our Nation’s flora and fauna. Scientific specimens housed in museum collections not only open an important window into the current and past diversity of life on Earth, but also play a vital role in fueling cutting-edge scientific research in many disciplines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) curates a collection of vertebrates from the Intermountain and Southwestern United States that is used by researchers from around the globe. As one of the largest Federal natural history collections in the western United States, the USGS specimen holdings offer unique opportunities to study the fauna of this incredibly diverse and unique region.
Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC). Date Released: 6/9/2010.
Terjesen, Terje; Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein
Background The prognosis in Perthes' disease varies considerably according to certain risk factors, but there is no concensus regarding the relative importance of these factors. We assessed the natural history of the disease and defined prognostic factors of value in deciding the proper treatment. Patients and methods During the 5-year period 1996?2000, a nationwide study on Perthes' disease was performed in Norway. 425 patients were registered. The present study involved the 212 children (me...
Al-Jhani, Ali S.; Nooh, Nasser S.; Al-Rajhi, Nasser M.; El-Sebaie, Medhat M.; Al-Amro, Abdullah S.; Mahasen, Ziyad Z.; Otieschan, Abdullah T.
To assess natural history, treatment outcome and pattern of relapse in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma. A review was conducted of the medical records of all adult patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma, who were treated at King Faisal Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1990 and December 1999. A total of 60 patients were identified for analysis, 36 men and 24 women; the median age was 58-years (range 23-95). Major presenting symptoms were facial swelling 55%, facial pain 50%, and nasal obstruction 43.4%, with a median duration of 5-months (range 1-24). Histology was quamous cell carcinoma in 71.7% and adenoid cystic in 16.7%. They were restaged according to American Joint Committee on Cancer classification 1997 as II, III and IV in 1, 10 and 49. Thirty patients received treatment with curative intent (surgery in 4 patients, radiotherapy in 2, and combined modality in 24), 6 patients refused treatment and 24 were treated palliatively. With a median follow up of 50-months (range 2-128) in surviving patients treated with a curative intent, 12/30 failed locally, 4/30 in the regional neck nodes and 2/30 had systemic relapse. The actuarial 5-year overall survival (OS), relapse free survival (RFS) and local control rate (LC) were 55%, 39% and 51%. Treatment modality was the only significant prognostic factor for outcome, with 5 year OS, RFS and LC of 72%, 49% and 61%, for combined modality using surgery followed by radiotherapy compared to 0% for single approach (p=0.0003, p=0.0052 and p=0.0098). This study indicates that the majority of our patients presented with advanced disease, resulting in poor outcome to conventional treatment modalities. Efforts should be directed to minimize the delay in diagnosis at the primary care level. Combined modality treatment should be offered to all patients with locally advanced disease. New approaches such as neoadjuvant or concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without surgery need to
As part of their defence of evolutionary theory, T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer argued that natural history was no longer a legitimate scientific discipline. They outlined a secularized concept of life from biology to argue for the validity of naturalism. Despite their support for naturalism, they offered two different responses to the decline of natural history. Whereas Huxley emphasized the creation of a biological discipline, and all that that entailed, Spencer was more concerned with constructing an entire intellectual system based on the idea of evolution. In effect, Spencer wanted to create a new scientific worldview based on evolutionary theory. This had consequences for their understanding of human history, especially of how science had evolved through the ages. It affected their conceptions of human agency, contingency, and directionality in history. Examining Huxley's and Spencer's responses to the "end" of natural history reveals some of the deep divisions within scientific naturalism and the inherent problems of naturalism in general. Whereas Huxley chose to separate the natural and the historical, Spencer opted to fuse them into a single system. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Focus and Scope. The Journal of East African Natural History is published jointly by the East Africa Natural History Society and the National Museums of Kenya. The Journal publishes papers and notes in the field of natural history, broadly defined as the study of organisms in their natural state, relevant to the eastern African ...
Eric J. Chaisson
Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.
Luciano ESPINOSA RUBIO
Full Text Available Today, the Nature-History relations are the ecological ones: we are living in a global eco-bio-techno-noos-sphere and that means that ecological crisis is a crisis of civilization too. Above all, the climate change and its social and political consequences will have a great impact in our lives, and we must respond without losing our rights. In the intellectual way, we need new narrations in order to affront the situation and perhaps the theory of the lesser evil is one of the better answers that we can find.
Dodd, C. Kenneth
Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.
Sarvet, Aaron L; Hasin, Deborah
Illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco use disorders contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. Knowledge about the major elements of the natural history of substance use disorders (incidence, remission, persistence, and relapse) is crucial to a broader understanding of the course and outcomes of substance use disorders. Prospective cohort studies in nonclinical samples indicate that externalizing psychopathology in earlier life, including early disordered substance use, delinquency, and personality disorders, are related to substance use disorders later in life and chronic course. Externalizing psychopathology may be initiated by early adverse experiences, for example, childhood maltreatment and stressful life events. After controlling for confounders, 'age at first use' as a causal factor for alcohol use disorder later in life and the 'drug substitution' hypothesis are not supported in general population data. Future research should focus on elaborating the causal framework that leads to the development and persistence of severe substance use disorders, with an emphasis on identifying modifiable factors for intervention by policy makers or health professionals. More research is needed on the natural history of substance use disorders in low-income and middle-income countries.
Full Text Available Juliana L Basko-Plluska, Vesna Petronic-RosicDepartment of Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease which affects primarily the skin and joints. It occurs worldwide, but its prevalence varies considerably between different regions of the world. Genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factors play an important role in determining the development and prognosis of psoriasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic loci as potential psoriasis susceptibility regions, including PSORS1 through PSORS7. Histocompatibility antigen (HLA studies have also identified several HLA antigens, with HLA-Cw6 being the most frequently associated antigen. Epidemiological studies identified several modifiable risk factors that may predispose individuals to developing psoriasis or exacerbate pre-existing disease. These include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, diet, infections, medications and stressful life events. The exact mechanism by which they trigger psoriasis remains to be elucidated; however, existing data suggest that they are linked through Th1-mediated immunological pathways. The natural history of psoriasis varies depending on the clinical subtype as well as special circumstances, including pregnancy and HIV infection. In general, psoriasis is a chronic disease with intermittent remissions and exacerbations. The differential diagnosis is vast and includes many other immune-mediated, inflammatory disorders.Keywords: psoriasis, epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis
The author examined the natural history of intracranial meningioma after radiotherapy using CT or MR imaging. Twenty patients with intracranial meningioma received radiotherapy from a high-energy linear accelerator (4-10 MV X rays) from 1980 to 1996. The total doses were 50 Gy to the tumor bed in single doses of 2 Gy in 5 weekly fractions. Meningiomas in 10 of 20 patients were reduced within 1 to 38 months after radiotherapy, the average being 11 months. The tumors were controlled for a median of 60 months after radiotherapy (range 19-126 months). Four other patients have shown no change in tumor size after radiotherapy. The tumors were controlled for a median of 70 months after radiotherapy (range 37-127 months). The other six patients have shown tumor growth within 3 to 25 months after radiotherapy, after which the tumors stopped growing for a median of 71 months (range 2-181 months). Neither tumor size nor histological type was related to response. The growth of tumors was controlled by radiotherapy for a median duration of 43 months in the meningothelial type, 52 months in the fibroblastic type, and 61 months in the transitional type. The median duration for all benign tumors was 52 months. A moderate correlation was noted between tumor response and functional outcome after radiotherapy in 9 patients with neurological deficits. The natural histories of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy were grouped into three categories. Some tumors showed no change in size over a long period. This was a characteristic response after radiotherapy that differed from that of other brain tumors. The results of this study provide important information for the follow-up of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy. (author)
Terjesen, Terje; Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein
The prognosis in Perthes' disease varies considerably according to certain risk factors, but there is no concensus regarding the relative importance of these factors. We assessed the natural history of the disease and defined prognostic factors of value in deciding the proper treatment. During the 5-year period 1996-2000, a nationwide study on Perthes' disease was performed in Norway. 425 patients were registered. The present study involved the 212 children (mean age 5.1 years, 77% boys) who were affected unilaterally and who had been treated with physiotherapy only (which is considered not to change the natural history). They were followed by taking radiographs at the time of diagnosis and after 1, 3, and 5 years. At the 5-year follow-up, the outcome was evaluated according to a modification of the Stulberg classification: good (spherical femoral head), fair (ovoid femoral head), and poor (flat femoral head). The 5-year radiographic results were strongly dependent on 4 risk factors: age 6 years or more at diagnosis, total femoral head necrosis, height of the lateral pillar of the epiphysis less than 50% of normal height, and femoral head cover less than 80%. As the number of risk factors increased from 0 to 4, the proportion of patients with good radiographic 5-year outcome decreased from 79% to 0% and the proportion with poor outcome increased from 3% to 91%. Most children under 6 years of age do not need any special treatment. In older children, no special treatment is indicated if the whole femoral head is not necrotic and the femoral head cover is > 80%. In the most severe forms of the disease (i.e. more than 2 risk factors), surgical containment treatment seems advisable.
This paper analyses the place of natural history within Bacon's divisions of the sciences in The Advancement of Learning (1605) and the later De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum (1623). It is shown that at various points in Bacon's divisions, natural history converges or overlaps with natural philosophy, and that, for Bacon, natural history and natural philosophy are not discrete disciplines. Furthermore, it is argued that Bacon's distinction between operative and speculative natural philosophy and the place of natural history within this distinction, are discontinuous with the later distinction between experimental and speculative philosophy that emerged in the methodology of the Fellows of the early Royal Society.
Full Text Available There have been great advances in the conservative and surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the last few decades. The challenge for the physician is the decision for the optimal time to institute therapy for the individual child. This makes an understanding of the natural history and risk factors for curve progression of significant importance. Reported rates of curve progression vary from 1.6% for skeletally mature children with a small curve magnitude to 68% for skeletally immature children with larger curve magnitudes. Although the patient′s age at presentation, the Risser sign, the patient′s menarchal status and the magnitude of the curve have been described as risk factors for curve progression, there is evidence that the absolute curve magnitude at presentation may be most predictive of progression in the long term. A curve magnitude of 25º at presentation may be predictive of a greater risk of curve progression. Advances in research may unlock novel predictive factors, which are based on the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder.
Aman, M G
The composition of hyperactivity as a syndrome is discussed from a historical perspective, and the principal events leading to the recent emphasis on attentional characteristics of hyperactive children are summarized. Some of the major challenges to the legitimacy of hyperactivity as a valid syndrome are set forth, and after critical examination of the most influential work, it is concluded that hyperactivity has not been disproved. This is followed by a survey of the large follow-up literature dealing with the natural history of children diagnosed as hyperactive. It is noted that the manifestations of the syndrome appear to change with age but there is little indication that problems simply remit with maturity. The evidence indicates that hyperactivity, as diagnosed in the past, is often a serious disorder with long-term and far-reaching consequences for the children and their families. Multivariate studies are also discussed, as they have important implications for differential outcome. Different symptoms such as aggression, overactivity, and learning disability appear to contain unique information about current and future status, and therefore it appears useful to retain these distinctions rather than view such children as part of an undifferentiated group. It is unknown whether the recent guidelines for diagnosing Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity will alter or refine the outlook for children so identified, but this is an active area of research at present.
Leeson, Elwood R.
confluence of the Smoky Hill and Republican Rivers, From that point the river flows eastward about 175 miles to Kansas City where it empties into the Missouri River. The basic history of its natural flow can be depicted in general by the records from three gaging stations. The one at Bonner Springs, about 21 miles upstream from the mouth, may be considered as representing the total outflow from the basin; the one at Ogden, about 8 miles downstream from the confluence of the Smoky Hill and Republican Rivers, may be considered as representing the combined contribution of those streams to the Kansas River flow; and the one at Topeka, being only about 16 river miles nearer to Ogden than to Bonner Springs, may be considered as representing flows at the mid-point along the river.
Salipas, Andrew; Kimmel, Lara A; Edwards, Elton R; Rakhra, Sandeep; Moaveni, Afshin Kamali
Fractures of the medial third of the clavicle comprise less than 3% of all clavicle fractures. The natural history and optimal management of these rare injuries are unknown. The aim of our study is to describe the demographics, management and outcomes of patients with medial clavicle fractures treated at a Level 1 Trauma Centre. A retrospective review was conducted of patients presenting to our institution between January 2008 and March 2013 with a medial third clavicle fracture. Clinical and radiographic data were recorded including mechanism of injury, fracture pattern and displacement, associated injuries, management and complications. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) scores from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). Shoulder outcomes were assessed using two patient reported outcomes scores, the American Shoulder and Elbow Society Score (ASES) and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Sixty eight medial clavicle fractures in 68 patients were evaluated. The majority of patients were male (n=53), with a median age of 53.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 37.5-74.5 years). The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident (n=28). The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.4%. The fracture pattern was almost equally distributed between extra articular (n=35) and intra-articular (n=33). Fifty-five fractures (80.9%) had minimal or no displacement. Associated injuries were predominantly thoracic (n=31). All fractures were initially managed non-operatively, with a broad arm sling. Delayed operative fixation was performed for painful atrophic delayed union in two patients (2.9%). Both patients were under 65 years of age and had a severely displaced fracture of the medial clavicle. One intra-operative vascular complication was seen, with no adverse long-term outcome. Follow-up was obtained in 85.0% of the surviving cohort at an average of three years post injury (range 1-6 years). The mean ASES
Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...
Nannenberg, Eline A.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Dijksman, Lea M.; Alders, Marielle; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Birnie, Martijn; van Langen, Irene M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.
Background-For most arrhythmia syndromes, the risk of sudden cardiac death for asymptomatic mutation carriers is ill defined. Data on the natural history of these diseases, therefore, are essential. The family tree mortality ratio method offers the unique possibility to study the natural history at
Chris Maser; Bruce R. Mate; Jerry F. Franklin; C.T. Dyrness
The book presents detailed information on the biology, habitats, and life histories of the 96 species of mammals of the Oregon coast. Soils, geology, and vegetation are described and related to wildlife habitats for the 65 terrestrial and 31 marine species. The book is not simply an identification guide to the Oregon coast mammals but is a dynamic portrayal of their...
Fernandez, J; Soriano, V; Mayorga, L; Mayor, M
The natural history of stings, the clinical reaction of the patient and in vivo and in vitro tests are necessary parameters to assess before initiating Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. In the decision to initiate immunotherapy with Hymenoptera venom, it is not usual to evaluate the natural history of the disease, which seems to be self-limiting and therefore of variable clinical significance. Our aim was to determine the natural history of Hymenoptera hypersensitivity over 4 consecutive years in a rural Mediterranean population. An epidemiological study of Hymenoptera sting reactions and possible sensitivity was carried out in 145 randomly selected subjects out of a rural Mediterranean population of 600. Seventy-two subjects, including those with a history of anaphylaxis, completed the 4-year study. The nature of their clinical reactions, age, sex, history of atopy, profession, family history of reactions to Hymenoptera insects, time elapsed since the last sting, number of stings and specific IgE and IgG were determined (the latter, to the three most important insects in the area: Apis mellifera, Polistes dominulus, and Vespula germanica). Of the 72 subjects, four subjects had systemic reactions (SR), 23 had large local reaction (LLR) and all the others (117) was minor local reactions. None who had experienced an SR had a repeat SR when re-stung over the 4-year study. Of those with LLR, 12 subjects had the same type of reaction and 11 experienced more mild local reactions when re-stung. In the SR and local reaction groups, IgE to honey bee (Hb) increased significantly during the study period, whereas in those with only LLR, specific IgE to wasp (Polistes) decreased. Specific IgG to Polistes and Vespula (wasps) decreased significantly, whereas there was no change in the specific IgG to Hb in any of the groups. The number of stings per year decreased at the end of the study in all groups, but positive-specific IgG was higher in subjects with the greatest number of
The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to the senses to what is least accessible to them. Moreover, the Latin natural histories are parts of a methodological procedure in which the provisional rules and axioms obtained in one history can be used as theoretical assumptions for another history, thereby permitting one to delve ever more profoundly into the structure of nature.
Nath, Neetika; Mitchell, John B O; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo
Phylogenomic analysis of the occurrence and abundance of protein domains in proteomes has recently showed that the α/β architecture is probably the oldest fold design. This holds important implications for the origins of biochemistry. Here we explore structure-function relationships addressing the use of chemical mechanisms by ancestral enzymes. We test the hypothesis that the oldest folds used the most mechanisms. We start by tracing biocatalytic mechanisms operating in metabolic enzymes along a phylogenetic timeline of the first appearance of homologous superfamilies of protein domain structures from CATH. A total of 335 enzyme reactions were retrieved from MACiE and were mapped over fold age. We define a mechanistic step type as one of the 51 mechanistic annotations given in MACiE, and each step of each of the 335 mechanisms was described using one or more of these annotations. We find that the first two folds, the P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolase and the NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like homologous superfamilies, were α/β architectures responsible for introducing 35% (18/51) of the known mechanistic step types. We find that these two oldest structures in the phylogenomic analysis of protein domains introduced many mechanistic step types that were later combinatorially spread in catalytic history. The most common mechanistic step types included fundamental building blocks of enzyme chemistry: "Proton transfer," "Bimolecular nucleophilic addition," "Bimolecular nucleophilic substitution," and "Unimolecular elimination by the conjugate base." They were associated with the most ancestral fold structure typical of P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases. Over half of the mechanistic step types were introduced in the evolutionary timeline before the appearance of structures specific to diversified organisms, during a period of architectural diversification. The other half unfolded gradually after organismal diversification and during a
Making "Nature" is the first book to chronicle the foundation and development of Nature, one of the world's most influential scientific institutions. Now nearing its hundred and fiftieth year of publication, Nature is the international benchmark for scientific publication. Its contributors include Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford, and Stephen Hawking, and it has published many of the most important discoveries in the history of science, including articles on the structure of DNA, the discovery of the neutron, the first cloning of a mammal, and the human genome. But how did Nature become such an essential institution? In Making "Nature," Melinda Baldwin charts the rich history of this extraordinary publication from its foundation in 1869 to current debates about online publishing and open access. This pioneering study not only tells Nature's story but also sheds light on much larger questions about the history of science publishing, changes in scientific communication, and shifting notions of "scientific comm...
Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…
Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course...... of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanistic processes leading to long-term nonprogression and viral control are likely to differ. Concerted...... the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV...
Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert
On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B
The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
From pre-historic times miners represented the group which received, inadvertently, occupational exposure to natural radionuclides. At the end of the 19th century scientists researching the newly found radiation called ''radioactivity'' became exposed frequently to uranium, thorium and their decay chains, still hardly aware of the potential risks associated with their work. In the first half of the 20th century some employees in the radium industry received high doses in the course of their professional duties as chemists, maintenance workers, or radium dial painters; many of them lacked adequate information on radiation protection. After World War II the increased international demand for uranium in the military and civilian sector caused overexposures of several thousands of miners (volunteers, prisoners), mostly due to the inhalation of elevated levels of radon and its decay products. By comparison on an international scale a relatively small number of workers was exposed to increased levels of thorium and its decay products in the thorium and rare-earth extraction industry. Health effects due to these past exposures range from relatively weak associations to statistically significant excesses for a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory diseases or cancer of the bone, lung or pancreas. An assessment of today industrial exposure situations indicates a wide range of occupations exposed to partly significant levels of natural radionuclides. 36 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs
Life-history evolution in Drosophila has been extensively studied, and .... Overall, if one looks at studies of adult life history and ...... Thus, if the balance of biotic and abiotic selective ... these four species, and indicate that more detailed work on.
Black, Donald W
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.
Weimers, Petra; Munkholm, Pia
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic, relapsing diseases with unknown etiologies. The purpose of this review is to present the natural disease course evidenced in the latest epidemiology data. The prevalence of IBD is rapidly increasing, affecting five million patients worldwide with the highest incidence observed in Northern Europe and Northern America. It has been shown that both CD and UC patients are at an increased risk for developing cancer of the gastrointestinal tract compared to the general population. Though the disease course of IBD is unpredictable, the rate of surgical treatment has declined potentially as a consequence of the introduction of immunomodulators and new biologic treatment options. Treatments with biological agents and/or immunosuppressive drugs as well as disease monitoring with eHealth devices seem to have a positive impact on the disease course. However, long-term follow-up studies are still lacking and therefore no reliable conclusions can be drawn as of yet. Medical compliance is paramount in the treatment of IBD, and continuous research focusing on approaches that increase compliance is also necessary.
Garone, Caterina; Taylor, Robert W; Nascimento, Andrés; Poulton, Joanna; Fratter, Carl; Domínguez-González, Cristina; Evans, Julie C; Loos, Mariana; Isohanni, Pirjo; Suomalainen, Anu; Ram, Dipak; Hughes, M Imelda; McFarland, Robert; Barca, Emanuele; Lopez Gomez, Carlos; Jayawant, Sandeep; Thomas, Neil D; Manzur, Adnan Y; Kleinsteuber, Karin; Martin, Miguel A; Kerr, Timothy; Gorman, Grainne S; Sommerville, Ewen W; Chinnery, Patrick F; Hofer, Monika; Karch, Christoph; Ralph, Jeffrey; Cámara, Yolanda; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Domínguez-Carral, Jana; Ortez, Carlos; Emperador, Sonia; Montoya, Julio; Chakrapani, Anupam; Kriger, Joshua F; Schoenaker, Robert; Levin, Bruce; Thompson, John L P; Long, Yuelin; Rahman, Shamima; Donati, Maria Alice; DiMauro, Salvatore; Hirano, Michio
Thymine kinase 2 (TK2) is a mitochondrial matrix protein encoded in nuclear DNA and phosphorylates the pyrimidine nucleosides: thymidine and deoxycytidine. Autosomal recessive TK2 mutations cause a spectrum of disease from infantile onset to adult onset manifesting primarily as myopathy. To perform a retrospective natural history study of a large cohort of patients with TK2 deficiency. The study was conducted by 42 investigators across 31 academic medical centres. We identified 92 patients with genetically confirmed diagnoses of TK2 deficiency: 67 from literature review and 25 unreported cases. Based on clinical and molecular genetics findings, we recognised three phenotypes with divergent survival: (1) infantile-onset myopathy (42.4%) with severe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, frequent neurological involvement and rapid progression to early mortality (median post-onset survival (POS) 1.00, CI 0.58 to 2.33 years); (2) childhood-onset myopathy (40.2%) with mtDNA depletion, moderate-to-severe progression of generalised weakness and median POS at least 13 years; and (3) late-onset myopathy (17.4%) with mild limb weakness at onset and slow progression to respiratory insufficiency with median POS of 23 years. Ophthalmoparesis and facial weakness are frequent in adults. Muscle biopsies show multiple mtDNA deletions often with mtDNA depletion. In TK2 deficiency, age at onset, rate of weakness progression and POS are important variables that define three clinical subtypes. Nervous system involvement often complicates the clinical course of the infantile-onset form while extraocular muscle and facial involvement are characteristic of the late-onset form. Our observations provide essential information for planning future clinical trials in this disorder. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Yi, Honggang; Corrigan, John D; Singichetti, Bhavna; Bogner, Jennifer A; Manchester, Kara; Guo, Jinhong; Yang, Jingzhen
To examine the associations between lifetime history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with loss of consciousness (LOC) and several types of current disability among adult, noninstitutionalized residents of Ohio. 2014 Ohio Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System participants (n = 6998). Statewide population-based survey. Lifetime history of TBI with LOC (number and severity of injury, age of first injury), and number and type of disability (vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and/or independent living). Of the 6998 participants, 1325 reported lifetime history of TBI with LOC, and 1959 reported currently having one or more disabilities. When weighted, these represented 21.7% and 23.7% of Ohio's noninstitutionalized adult population, respectively. Adults with a history of TBI with LOC showed greater odds of any disability compared with adults with no history (odds ratio = 2.49; 95% confidence interval = 1.97-3.15). The likelihood of having any and each type of disability increased as the number of TBIs or the severity of worst TBI increased, regardless of sustaining first TBI before or after the age of 15 years. Lifetime history of TBI with LOC is significantly associated with disability among Ohio adults. Further research on the natural course of the relation and preventive strategies is warranted.
Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.
Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.
This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.
Sunderland, Mary E
Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ therefore provides a window to the modernization of natural history. This paper concentrates on the directorial transitions that occurred at the MVZ between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the MVZ had four directors: Alden H. Miller (Director 1940-1965), an ornithologist; Aldo Starker Leopold (Acting Director 1965-1966), a conservationist and wildlife biologist; Oliver P. Pearson (Director 1966-1971), a physiologist and mammalogist; and David B. Wake (Director 1971-1998), a morphologist, developmental biologist, and herpetologist. The paper explores how a diversity of overlapping modernization strategies, including hiring new faculty, building infrastructure to study live animals, establishing new kinds of collections, and building modern laboratories combined to maintain collections at the MVZ's core. The paper examines the tensions between the different modernization strategies to inform an analysis of how and why some changes were institutionalized while others were short-lived. By exploring the modernization of collections-based research, this paper emphasizes the importance of collections in the transformation of the life sciences.
Galland, R.B.; Spencer, J.
The natural history and surgical management of radio enteritis is reviewed. Predisposing factors include the dose of radiation patients build, combination with chemotherapy, previous operations and vascular disease. Management is related to the stage of disease at presentation, and tailored to the clinical problem. Surgical management must take into account the poor healing associated with irradiated intestine. (author)
Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)
Full Text Available Natural product research has been a major component of the CSIR's bioscience activities for its entire history, and particularly in the 1960s and 1970s. This type of work is also strongly aligned with one of the objectives of the CSIR, namely...
PRACTICE POINTS - Natural history and epidemiology of post transplantation diabetes mellitus. ... Conclusions: The most important risk factor predisposing to the development of PTD is the immunosuppressive drugs. The selection of immunosuppressive regimen should take into account individuals diabetes risk profile ...
Nodding syndrome: origins and natural history of a longstanding epileptic disorder in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Conclusion: Historical accounts of head nodding (amesinzia kichwa, Swahili) among the Wapogoro tribe fit the August 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of probable Nodding Syndrome.
Lapalme-Remis, S.; Lewis, E.C.; De Meulemeester, C.; Chakraborty, P.; Gibson, K.M.; Torres, C.; Guberman, A.; Salomons, G.; Jakobs, C.; Ali-Ridha, A.; Parviz, M.; Pearl, P.L.
Objective: The natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in adulthood is unknown; we elucidate the clinical manifestations of the disease later in life. Methods: A 63-year-old man with long-standing intellectual disability was diagnosed with SSADH deficiency following
Natural History of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Stages 4 and 5. ... Conclusion: Low serum bicarbonate level and high urinary protein excretion at baseline are independent predictors of progression in stage 4 and 5 CKD. Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; End stage renal disease; Glomerular filtration rate; ...
Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, there were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.
In the eighteenth century, natural histories of animals incorporated narratives about animal behaviour and narratives of discovery and experimentation. Naturalists used first-person accounts to link the stories of their scientific investigations to the stories of the animal lives they were studying. Understanding nature depended on narratives that shifted back and forth in any given text between animal and human, and between individual cases and generalizations about species. This paper explores the uses of narrative through examples from the work of René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur and Abraham Trembley. In all cases, narrative took the genre of natural history well beyond straightforward description and classification. Prose accounts of insect actions and mechanisms worked in tandem with visual narratives embedded in the accompanying illustrations, where artists developed strategies for representing sequences of minute changes over time. By throwing into relief the narrative sections of natural histories, the examples considered here expose the role played by these tales of encounters with the insect world in the making of natural historical knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holmes, Michael W; Hammond, Talisin T; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Walsh, Rachel E; LaBarbera, Katie; Wommack, Elizabeth A; Martins, Felipe M; Crawford, Jeremy C; Mack, Katya L; Bloch, Luke M; Nachman, Michael W
Natural history collections provide an immense record of biodiversity on Earth. These repositories have traditionally been used to address fundamental questions in biogeography, systematics and conservation. However, they also hold the potential for studying evolution directly. While some of the best direct observations of evolution have come from long-term field studies or from experimental studies in the laboratory, natural history collections are providing new insights into evolutionary change in natural populations. By comparing phenotypic and genotypic changes in populations through time, natural history collections provide a window into evolutionary processes. Recent studies utilizing this approach have revealed some dramatic instances of phenotypic change over short timescales in response to presumably strong selective pressures. In some instances, evolutionary change can be paired with environmental change, providing a context for potential selective forces. Moreover, in a few cases, the genetic basis of phenotypic change is well understood, allowing for insight into adaptive change at multiple levels. These kinds of studies open the door to a wide range of previously intractable questions by enabling the study of evolution through time, analogous to experimental studies in the laboratory, but amenable to a diversity of species over longer timescales in natural populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state. Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the
Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
George B. Richardson
Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
Lawrence N Hudson
Full Text Available The world's natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect-a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.
Baris, Hagit N.; Cohen, Ian J.; Mistry, Pramod K.
Gaucher disease (GD), a prototype lysosomal storage disorder, results from inherited deficiency of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase due to biallelic mutations in GBA. The result is widespread accumulation of macrophages engorged with predominantly lysosomal glucocerebroside. A complex multisystem phenotype arises involving the liver, spleen, bone marrow and occasionally the lungs in type 1 Gaucher disease; in neuronopathic fulminant type 2 and chronic type 3 disease there is in addition progressive neurodegenerative disease. Manifestations of Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) include hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, a complex pattern of bone involvement with avascular osteonecrosis (AVN), osteoporosis, fractures and lytic lesions. Enzyme replacement therapy became the standard of care in 1991, and this has transformed the natural history of GD1. This article reviews the clinical phenotypes of GD, diagnosis, pathophysiology and its natural history. A subsequent chapter discusses the treatment options. PMID:25345088
The natural history of HCV infection remains ill-defined. The knowledge accumulated on the progression of HCV to date is important, however. It is now abundantly clear that the progression of disease is generally slow, and the development of cirrhosis and its complications is a possibility, not a probability as hitherto thought. Predicting the outcome remains a quandary for clinicians. Ultimately it will be possible to define the natural history of hepatitis C infection through a combination of research in the fields of virology, immunology, and molecular biology and by monitoring the biochemical and histologic progress of the disease. Only then will it be possible to intervene appropriately and develop new therapies to prevent the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Shaha, Ashok R.
Objectives: To understand the natural history of thyroid cancer and high risk groups; To define the biological behavior of thyroid cancer and relate it to various prognostic factors and risk groups; To divide the management strategies into conservation, radical surgery and radioactive iodine treatment; To define the role of external radiation therapy and the management of complex and advanced thyroid cancer; To analyze the results of management of anaplastic thyroid cancer and make a plea for combined modality treatment; To define the current role of genetic studies in medullary thyroid cancer. At the end of this refresher course, the attendees will be able to understand the natural history, the prognostic factors and risk groups and surgical and combined modality treatment in thyroid cancer
The American Museum of Natural History, one of the world's largest natural history museums, is the locus of a rich array of scientific research, exhibition and educational resources through its Department of Astrophysics, its Rose Center for Earth and Space and its Hall of Meteorites. For the past decade, the Museum's National Center for Science Literacy, Education and Technology has leveraged these assets to create a panoply of web-based resources for students, teachers and the general public. This session will review several of these resources, including the Digital Universe (a three-dimensional mapping of the Universe); The Solar System (an online graduate course for K-12 teachers); multimedia highlighting searches for exoplanets and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays; Journey to the Stars (a DVD version of the current planetarium show); and the astronomy section of Ology (a website for children ages 7 and up). A copy of the Journey to the Stars DVD will be provided to all attendees. )
Numerous studies were presented in Digestive Disease Week 2015 (DDW 2015) on the natural history, complications, and safety of treatments in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as novel findings on fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. The present article reviews presentations on the natural history of IBD, the risk of complications and their prevention, treatment safety, aspects related to fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, as well as the risk of cancer and its association with IBD and with drugs used in its treatment. In the next few years, more data will become available on treatment safety and the possible complications that can develop in IBD patients due to the disease itself and the drugs employed in its treatment, which will allow measures to be adopted to improve prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Frank, S A
Kin selection theory is a kind of causal analysis. The initial form of kin selection ascribed cause to costs, benefits and genetic relatedness. The theory then slowly developed a deeper and more sophisticated approach to partitioning the causes of social evolution. Controversy followed because causal analysis inevitably attracts opposing views. It is always possible to separate total effects into different component causes. Alternative causal schemes emphasize different aspects of a problem, reflecting the distinct goals, interests and biases of different perspectives. For example, group selection is a particular causal scheme with certain advantages and significant limitations. Ultimately, to use kin selection theory to analyse natural patterns and to understand the history of debates over different approaches, one must follow the underlying history of causal analysis. This article describes the history of kin selection theory, with emphasis on how the causal perspective improved through the study of key patterns of natural history, such as dispersal and sex ratio, and through a unified approach to demographic and social processes. Independent historical developments in the multivariate analysis of quantitative traits merged with the causal analysis of social evolution by kin selection. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Mannino, DM; Watt, G; Hole, D
. Exacerbations of COPD are additional important indicators of both quality of life and outcomes in COPD patients. Definitions of exacerbations can vary, ranging from an increase in symptoms to COPD-related hospitalisations and death. COPD exacerbations are more common in patients with lower levels of lung...... function and may lead to more rapid declines in lung function. Better understanding of the natural history of COPD may lead to better definitions of specific COPD phenotypes, better interventions and improved outcomes....
Buterbaugh, Kristin L.; Shah, Apurva S.
Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is an upper extremity paralysis that occurs due to traction injury of the brachial plexus during childbirth. Approximately 20 % of children with brachial plexus birth palsy will have residual neurologic deficits. These permanent and significant impacts on upper limb function continue to spur interest in optimizing the management of a problem with a highly variable natural history. BPBP is generally diagnosed on clinical examination and does not typically req...
MARY F WILLSON
Full Text Available In recent years natural history has been derided by some scientists as an old-fashion endeavor that does not follow the model of "hard" science and therefore should be considered "dead" and replaced by modern ecology, evolutionary biology, and conservation biology. We contend that natural history has much to offer to contemporary scientists and that it has a primary role in the creative process of generating novel hypotheses and designing significant field experiments and observationsEn años recientes, la historia natural ha sido desacreditada por científicos que la consideran un modelo obsoleto de ciencia y que, en consecuencia, se trataría de una disciplina "muerta" que ha sido reemplazada por la ecología moderna, la biología evolutiva y la biología de la conservación. Argumentamos aquí que la historia natural tiene mucho que ofrecer a los científicos contemporáneos y que juega un rol principal en el proceso de creación de hipótesis y en el diseño acertado de observaciones y experimentos de campo
Degenerative rotator cuff disease is commonly associated with ageing and is often asymptomatic. The factors related to tear progression and pain development are just now being defined through longitudinal natural history studies. The majority of studies that follow conservatively treated painful cuff tears or asymptomatic tears that are monitored at regular intervals show slow progression of tear enlargement and muscle degeneration over time. These studies have highlighted greater risks for disease progression for certain variables, such as the presence of a full-thickness tear and involvement of the anterior aspect supraspinatus tendon. Coupling the knowledge of the natural history of degenerative cuff tear progression with variables associated with greater likelihood of successful tendon healing following surgery will allow better refinement of surgical indications for rotator cuff disease. In addition, natural history studies may better define the risks of nonoperative treatment over time. This article will review pertinent literature regarding degenerative rotator cuff disease with emphasis on variables important to defining appropriate initial treatments and refining surgical indications. PMID:26726288
Brown, Julie K
In 1909, curator Charles-Edward Winslow established a department of public health in New York City's American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Winslow introduced public health as a biological science that connected human health-the modern sciences of physiology, hygiene, and urban sanitation-to the natural history of plants and animals. This was the only time an American museum created a curatorial department devoted to public health. The AMNH's Department of Public Health comprised a unique collection of live bacterial cultures-a "Living Museum"-and an innovative plan for 15 exhibits on various aspects of health. I show how Winslow, facing opposition from AMNH colleagues, gathered scientific experts and financial support, and explain the factors that made these developments seem desirable and possible. I finish with a discussion of how the Department of Public Health met an abrupt and "inglorious end" in 1922 despite the success of its collections and exhibitions.
George B. Richardson; Ching-Chen Chen; Chia-Liang Dai; Patrick H. Hardesty; Christopher M. Swoboda
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict...
Full Text Available This study focuses on the connection between social representations of history and collective memory from the perspective of elementary concepts of social representations theory: anchoring, objectification and naturalization. The aims of the study are to arrive at a conceptual clarity of this connection and demonstrate how to apply basic concepts of social representations theory to the study of collective memory. The study also focuses on the naturalized characteristics of Finnish history. The data consist of the covers of twenty Finnish history books between the years 1965 and 2014. All the covers are embellished with typography or visual images. The covers were analysed using a semiotic approach in which the interest is in the description (denotation, the associations (connotation and the meaning system these construe (myth. The analysis shows how national history is concretized with visual images (objectification, how the meaning of representation is conveyed (anchoring and how collective memory is maintained (naturalization, transmitted and shaped during the years. The results show how the stable collective memories and changing social representations of history are interacting. The most frequently used visual element was the colour blue, which alludes to the Finnish flag, a symbol of the nation that represents the core of Finnish history. The study suggests that it is possible to conceptualize collective memories as naturalized social representations of history. It shows how processes of anchoring and objectification serve as tools of collective memory and how the naturalized conceptions are subtly changed. In addition, the study develops the use of visual semiotic analysis in social representations research.
Full Text Available Workers from the genus Aphaenogaster are among the most abundant ants in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. The biology of these so-called rudis-group ant species, including details about their sociometry, productivity, natural history, and behavior, are synthesized here using published and newly collected data. The latter was collected, in part, using an artificial field nest, and its construction and use are explained. Ants of the rudis group occur in high densities in forest habitats (0.5–1.3 nests m2, have moderate sized colonies (population means from 266 to 613 workers per nest, and are keystone seed dispersers. Many aspects of their life history and behavior follow an annual cycle that tracks seasonal changes. These include foraging, reproduction, the production of new workers and nest migrations. This synthesis highlights what is known about these ants and reveals gaps in our knowledge that require further study.
Everett, Glyn; Geoghegan, Hilary
Natural history has a long tradition in the UK, dating back to before Charles Darwin. Developing from a principally amateur pursuit, natural history continues to attract both amateur and professional involvement. Within the context of citizen science and public engagement, we examine the motivations behind citizen participation in the national survey activities of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme, looking at: people's experiences of the surveys as 'project-based leisure'; their motivations for taking part and barriers to continued participation; where they feature on our continuum of engagement; and whether participation in an OPAL survey facilitated their movement between categories along this continuum. The paper focuses on a less-expected but very significant outcome regarding the participation of already-engaged amateur naturalists in citizen science. Our main findings relate to: first, how committed amateur naturalists (already-engaged) have also enjoyed contributing to OPAL and the need to respect and work with their interest to encourage broader and deeper involvement; and second, how new (previously-unengaged) and relatively new participants (casually-engaged) have gained confidence, renewed their interests, refocussed their activities and/or gained validation from participation in OPAL. Overall, we argue that engagement with and enthusiasm for the scientific process is a motivation shared by citizens who, prior to participating in the OPAL surveys, were previously-unengaged, casually-engaged or already-engaged in natural history activities. Citizen science has largely been written about by professional scientists for professional scientists interested in developing a project of their own. This study offers a qualitative example of how citizen science can be meaningful to participants beyond what might appear to be a public engagement data collection exercise.
Ceccherini, E; Sereni, P; Ferrari, F; Fagioli Zucchi, A; Croce, F; Di Maggio, G; Vattimo, A; Mancini, S
After considering the natural history of spleen auto-transplant, a clinical case followed up for seven months with instrumental (echography, scintigraphy) and humoral (Jolly bodies, Heinz bodies, reticulocytes, platelets, complement, immune globulin) examinations has been considered so as to verify "take" and function. One months after reimplantation the patient was again operated on for the onset of an intestinal occlusion due to adherences. On that occasion it was possible to control that the implant had taken. It is concluded that personally used parameters proved to be well correlated and that scintigraphy and echography are two complementary, effective techniques for monitoring auto-transplants.
Percy, Alan K; Neul, Jeffrey L; Glaze, Daniel G; Motil, Kathleen J; Skinner, Steven A; Khwaja, Omar; Lee, Hye-Seung; Lane, Jane B; Barrish, Judy O; Annese, Fran; McNair, Lauren; Graham, Joy; Barnes, Katherine
Analysis of 819 participants enrolled in the Rett syndrome (RTT) Natural History Study validates recently revised diagnostic criteria. 765 females fulfilled 2002 consensus criteria for classic (653/85.4%) or variant (112/14.6%) RTT. All participants classified as classic RTT fulfilled each revised main criterion; supportive criteria were not uniformly present. All variant RTT participants met at least 3 of 6 main criteria in the 2002, 2 of 4 main criteria in the current format, and 5 of 11 supportive criteria in both. This analysis underscores the critical role of main criteria for classic RTT; variant RTT requires both main and supportive criteria.
Full Text Available Ce recueil inclut les divers essais que Thoreau a consacrés à la nature pendant une vingtaine d’années et qui ont été publiés précédemment sous le titre inexact d’Excursions (1962 : « Natural History of Massachusetts », « A Walk to Wachusett », « A Winter Walk », « Walking », « The Succession of Forest Trees », « Autumnal Tints », « Wild Apples » ; il ajoute « Huckleberrie », projet de conférence tardif, publié seulement en 1970. Le texte a été soigneusement mis au point par William Rossi, l...
Lancaster, James A T
This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration.
Gross, Bradley A; Du, Rose
Cavernous malformations (CMs) are angiographically-occult clusters of dilated sinusoidal channels that may present clinically with seizures, focal neurological deficits and/or hemorrhage. Across natural history studies, the annual hemorrhage rate ranged from 1.6-3.1% per patient-year, decreasing to 0.08-0.2% per patient-year for incidental CMs and to 0.3-0.6% for the collective group of unruptured CMs. Prior hemorrhage is a significant risk factor for subsequent CM hemorrhage. Hemorrhage clustering, particularly within the first 2 years, is an established phenomenon that may confound results of natural history studies evaluating the rate of rehemorrhage. Indeed, rehemorrhage rates for hemorrhagic CMs range from 4.5-22.9% in the literature. Surgical resection is the gold standard treatment for surgically-accessible, symptomatic CMs. Incidental CMs or minimally symptomatic, surgically inaccessible eloquent lesions may be considered for observation. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a controversial treatment approach of consideration only for cases of highly aggressive, surgically inaccessible CMs.
Nikoubashman, O.; Wiesmann, M.; Tournier-Lasserve, E.; Mankad, K.; Bourgeois, M.; Brunelle, F.; Sainte-Rose, C.; Wiesmann, M.; Zerah, M.; Di Rocco, F.
Aim: To elucidate the natural history of dot-like or “black spot” cavernomas. Materials and methods: Data of 18 children with black spot cavernomas were analysed retrospectively. Results: Eleven boys and seven girls presented 187 black spot cavernomas during a mean observation period of 5.5 years. Mean and median age at diagnosis of the 187 cavernomas was 9.6 years. There were 70 de novo black spot cavernomas. Boys presented significantly more cavernomas than girls. There were three KRIT1 mutation carriers and four PDCD10 mutation carriers. Children with a PDCD10 mutation presented significantly more lesions than those children with a KRIT1 mutation (mean number of lesions per patient: 23.3 versus 3.3, respectively). There were 10 radiological haemorrhagic events caused by 10 black spot lesions. Two of these events were symptomatic. The haemorrhage rate of black spot cavernomas was 0.7% per lesion-year. Conclusions: A mean bleeding rate of 0.7% per lesion-year is lower than the overall haemorrhage rates provided in the literature. Nonetheless, black spot cavernomas are not purely benign lesions. Furthermore, genetic mutations may play a role in the natural history of black spot cavernomas
Becerra, José María
Full Text Available We propose the founding of a Natural History bioinformatics framework, which would solve one of the main problems in Natural History: data which is scattered around in many incompatible systems (not only computer systems, but also paper ones. This framework consists of computer resources (hardware and software, methodologies that ease the circulation of data, and staff expert in dealing with computers, who will develop software solutions to the problems encountered by naturalists. This system is organized in three layers: acquisition, data and analysis. Each layer is described, and an account of the elements that constitute it given.
Se presentan las bases de una estructura bioinformática para Historia Natural, que trata de resolver uno de los principales problemas en ésta: la presencia de datos distribuidos a lo largo de muchos sistemas incompatibles entre sí (y no sólo hablamos de sistemas informáticos, sino también en papel. Esta estructura se sustenta en recursos informáticos (en sus dos vertientes: hardware y software, en metodologías que permitan la fácil circulación de los datos, y personal experto en el uso de ordenadores que se encargue de desarrollar soluciones software a los problemas que plantean los naturalistas. Este sistema estaría organizado en tres capas: de adquisición, de datos y de análisis. Cada una de estas capas se describe, indicando los elementos que la componen.
Mathews-Bradshaw, Beth; Johnson, Rebecca; Kaplan, Stuart; Craddock, Kelli; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon
This article outlines the history, background, and accomplishments of the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance. The LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance, a program of the Lance Armstrong Foundation, was developed as a vehicle for a strategic plan designed to implement the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group (AYAO PRG) recommendations. The AYAO PRG was co-sponsored by Lance Armstrong Foundation and the National Cancer Institute (NCI); both LIVESTRONG and NCI provide strategic oversight and guidance to the Alliance. Highlights and accomplishments: The Alliance accomplishments include the publication of disease-specific retrospective analyses, funding of an AYA cohort study and biorepository proposal, publication of two position statements on guidelines for care of AYAs with cancer and training for AYA oncology health professionals, promotion of an international charter of rights for AYA cancer patients, creation and distribution of a survey to college health professionals, creation and implementation of a Cancer Centers Working Group and Institutional Review Board Toolkit, and continued growth and collaboration through an annual meeting. The growth and success of the Alliance has coincided with the growth of AYA oncology as a field. The collaborative environment of the Alliance draws together a diverse group of individuals united in the effort to increase survival rates and improve the quality of life for adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer.
In 1909, curator Charles-Edward Winslow established a department of public health in New York City’s American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Winslow introduced public health as a biological science that connected human health—the modern sciences of physiology, hygiene, and urban sanitation—to the natural history of plants and animals. This was the only time an American museum created a curatorial department devoted to public health. The AMNH’s Department of Public Health comprised a unique collection of live bacterial cultures—a “Living Museum”—and an innovative plan for 15 exhibits on various aspects of health. I show how Winslow, facing opposition from AMNH colleagues, gathered scientific experts and financial support, and explain the factors that made these developments seem desirable and possible. I finish with a discussion of how the Department of Public Health met an abrupt and “inglorious end” in 1922 despite the success of its collections and exhibitions. PMID:24205997
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In 1733, as part of a programme to publish its early works in a uniform format, the Paris Academy of Sciences reprinted Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des animaux (Histoire des animaux), last published in 1676, a work of both natural history and mechanistic anatomy. However, unlike the other works in this enterprise, Histoire des animaux was extensively edited and updated. In 1749 Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon published the first volume of Histoire naturelle. Its volumes on quadrupeds, written with Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, held significant similarities to Histoire des animaux. The relationship between these works has not hitherto been examined. Buffon's early ideas on species, in particular, resemble the emphasis on particulars of Histoire des animaux.
Full Text Available Michael Tomasello has greatly expanded our knowledge of human cognition and how it differs from that of other animals. In this commentary to his recent book A Natural History of Human Thinking, I first critique some of the presuppositions and arguments of his evolutionary story about how homo sapiens’ cognition emerged. For example, I question the strategy of relying on the modern chimpanzee as a model for our last shared ancestor, and I doubt the idea that what changed first over evolutionary time was hominin behavior, which then in turn brought about changes in cognition. In the second half of the commentary I aim to show that the author oscillates between an additive and a transformative account of human shared intentionality. I argue that shared intentionality shapes cognition in its entirety and therefore precludes the possibility that humans have the same, individual intentionality (as shown in, e.g. their instrumental reasoning as other apes.
Dubois, Bruno; Hampel, Harald; Feldman, Howard H; Scheltens, Philip; Aisen, Paul; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Benali, Habib; Bertram, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Broich, Karl; Cavedo, Enrica; Crutch, Sebastian; Dartigues, Jean-François; Duyckaerts, Charles; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Gauthier, Serge; Genthon, Remy; Gouw, Alida A; Habert, Marie-Odile; Holtzman, David M; Kivipelto, Miia; Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, José-Luis; O'Bryant, Sid E; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rowe, Christopher; Salloway, Stephen; Schneider, Lon S; Sperling, Reisa; Teichmann, Marc; Carrillo, Maria C; Cummings, Jeffrey; Jack, Cliff R
During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Serletis, Demitre; Parkin, Patricia; Bouffet, Eric; Shroff, Manohar; Drake, James M; Rutka, James T
The authors review their experience with massive plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) in patients with pediatric neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) to better characterize the natural history and management of these complex lesions. The authors performed a retrospective review of data obtained in seven patients with NF1 in whom massive PNs were diagnosed at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. These patients attended routine follow-up examinations conducted by a number of specialists, and serial neuroimaging studies were obtained to monitor disease progression. The most common presenting feature of PN was that of a painful, expanding lesion. Furthermore, two patients harbored multiple, distinct PNs affecting different body sites. With respect to management, two patients were simply observed, undergoing serial neuroimaging studies; two patients underwent biopsy sampling of their plexiform lesions; two patients underwent attempted medical treatment (farnesyl transferase inhibitor, R11577, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy); and three patients required surgical debulking of their PNs because the massive growth of these tumors caused functional compromise. Ultimately, one patient died of respiratory complications due to progressive growth of the massive PN lesion. In this review of their experience, the authors found certain features that underscore the presentation and natural history of PNs. The management of these complex lesions, however, remains unclear. Slow-growing PNs may be observed conservatively, but the authors' experience suggests that resection should be considered in selected cases involving significant deterioration or functional compromise. Nevertheless, patients with massive PNs will benefit from close surveillance by a team of specialists to monitor for ongoing disease progression.
Lutz, Martha Victoria Rosett
Scientific literacy is a central goal of science education. One purpose of this investigation was to reevaluate the definition of 'scientific literacy.' Another purpose was to develop and implement new curriculum involving natural history experiments with insects, with the goal of allowing students opportunities to construct an understanding of the nature of science, a crucial aspect of scientific literacy. This investigation was a qualitative case study. Methods of data collection included direct observations, analysis of sketches and written products created by students and class-room teachers, and analysis of audio tapes. Major findings include: (1) Scientific literacy is generally defined by lists of factual information which students are expected to master. When asked to evaluate their knowledge of selected items on a list published in a science education reform curriculum guide, 15 practicing scientists reported lack of familiarity or comprehension with many items, with the exception of items within their areas of specialization. (2) Genuine natural history experiments using insects can be incorporated into the existing school schedule and need not require any increase in the budget for science materials. (3) Students as young as first through third grade can learn the manual techniques and conceptual skills necessary for designing and conducting original natural history experiments, including manipulating the insects, making accurate sketches, developing test able hypotheses, recording data, and drawing conclusions from their data. Students were generally enthusiastic both about working with live insects and also conducting genuine science experiments. (4) Girls appear both positive and engaged with natural history activities and may be more likely than boys to follow through on designing, conducting, and reporting on independent experiments. The results imply that a valid definition of scientific literacy should be based on the ability to acquire scientific
... possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and associated funerary... assessment of the human remains was made by the Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in... History have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(9), the human remains described above represent...
Newson, Rachel S.; Kemps, Eva B.
The current study investigated the nature of subjective cognitive complaints of older adults in relation to a broad array of individual cognitive functions known to decline with age. A 60-item questionnaire was developed to examine: (1) whether older adults experience problems with these cognitive functions (problems with cognition); (2) the…
Buterbaugh, Kristin L; Shah, Apurva S
Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is an upper extremity paralysis that occurs due to traction injury of the brachial plexus during childbirth. Approximately 20 % of children with brachial plexus birth palsy will have residual neurologic deficits. These permanent and significant impacts on upper limb function continue to spur interest in optimizing the management of a problem with a highly variable natural history. BPBP is generally diagnosed on clinical examination and does not typically require cross-sectional imaging. Physical examination is also the best modality to determine candidates for microsurgical reconstruction of the brachial plexus. The key finding on physical examination that determines need for microsurgery is recovery of antigravity elbow flexion by 3-6 months of age. When indicated, both microsurgery and secondary shoulder and elbow procedures are effective and can substantially improve functional outcomes. These procedures include nerve transfers and nerve grafting in infants and secondary procedures in children, such as botulinum toxin injection, shoulder tendon transfers, and humeral derotational osteotomy.
Full Text Available Nadya Al-Harthy,1 Teru Kumagi21Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman; 2Gastroenterology and Metabology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, JapanAbstract: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that mainly targets the cholangiocytes of the interlobular bile ducts in the liver. It is a rare disease with prevalence of less than one in 2000. Its prevalence in developing countries is increasing presumably because of growth in recognition and knowledge of the disease. PBC is thought to result from a combination of multiple genetic factors and superimposed environmental triggers. The contribution of the genetic predisposition is evidenced by familial clustering. Several risk factors, including exposure to infectious agents and chemical xenobiotics, have been suggested. Common symptoms of the disease are fatigue and pruritus, but most patients are asymptomatic at first presentation. The prognosis of PBC has improved because of early diagnosis and use of ursodeoxycholic acid, the only established medical treatment for this disorder. When administered at adequate doses of 13–15 mg/kg/day, up to two out of three patients with PBC may have a normal life expectancy without additional therapeutic measures. However, some patients do not respond adequately to ursodeoxycholic acid and might need alternative therapeutic approaches.Keywords: primary biliary cirrhosis, natural history, long-term outcome, ursodeoxycholic acid, biochemical response, target therapy
Arturo H. Ariño
Full Text Available This contribution explores the problem of recognizing and measuring the universe of specimen-level data existing in Natural History Collections around the world, in absence of a complete, world-wide census or register. Estimates of size seem necessary to plan for resource allocation for digitization or data capture, and may help represent how many vouchered primary biodiversity data (in terms of collections, specimens or curatorial units might remain to be mobilized. Three general approaches are proposed for further development, and initial estimates are given. Probabilistic models involve crossing data from a set of biodiversity datasets, finding commonalities and estimating the likelihood of totally obscure data from the fraction of known data missing from specific datasets in the set. Distribution models aim to find the underlying distribution of collections’ compositions, figuring out the occult sector of the distributions. Finally, case studies seek to compare digitized data from collections known to the world to the amount of data known to exist in the collection but not generally available or not digitized. Preliminary estimates range from 1.2 to 2.1 gigaunits, of which a mere 3% at most is currently web-accessible through GBIF’s mobilization efforts. However, further data and analyses, along with other approaches relying more heavily on surveys, might change the picture and possibly help narrow the estimate. In particular, unknown collections not having emerged through literature are the major source of uncertainty.
The term progesterone should only be used for the natural hormone produced by the ovaries or included in a registered drug. The modern history of progesterone begins with the first book-length description of the female reproductive system including the corpus luteum and later with the Nobel Prize winner, Adolf Butenandt who took a crucial step when he succeeded in converting pregnanediol into a chemically pure form of progesterone, the corpus luteum hormone. The deficient production of progesterone was shown first to be the cause of the luteal-phase deficiency responsible for infertility and early pregnancy loss due to inadequate secretory transformation of the endometrium. Later, progesterone was confirmed to be the best and safest method of providing luteal-phase support in assisted reproductive technology. Progesterone provides adequate endometrial protection and is suggested to be the optimal progestagen in menopausal hormone therapy in terms of cardiovascular effects, venous thromboembolism, probably stroke and even breast cancer risk. Neuroprotective effects of progesterone have also been demonstrated in several of experimental models including cerebral ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Vaginal progesterone was shown to decrease the risk of preterm birth in women with a mid-trimester sonographic short cervix and to improve perinatal outcomes in singleton and twin gestations.
Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Cox, Trevor F
Increased circulating homogentisic acid in body fluids occurs in alkaptonuria (AKU) due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to conversion of HGA to a pigmented melanin-like polymer, known as ochronosis. The tissue damage in AKU is due to ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, deploying nitisinone effectively requires its administration at the most optimal time in the natural history. AKU has a long apparent latent period before overt ochronosis develops. The rate of change of ochronosis and its consequences over time following its recognition has not been fully described in any quantitative manner. Two potential tools are described that were used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires in 44 people with AKU. Analysis of the data reveals distinct phases of the disease, a pre-ochronotic phase and an ochronotic phase. The ochronotic phase appears to demonstrate an earlier slower progression followed by a rapidly progressive phase. The rate of change of the disease will have implications for monitoring the course of the disease as well as decide on the most appropriate time that treatment should be started for it to be effective either in prevention or arrest of the disease.
Fortune, Anne F
Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is an indolent T lymphoproliferative disorder that was difficult to diagnose with certainty until clonality testing of the T cell receptor gene became routinely available. We studied the natural history and response to treatment in 25 consecutive patients with T-LGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 in which the diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis, to define an effective treatment algorithm. The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 27-78), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.8 and presenting features of fatigue (n = 13), recurrent infections (n = 9), and\\/or abnormal blood counts (n = 5). Thirteen patients with symptomatic disease were treated as follows: pentostatin (nine patients), cyclosporine (six patients), methotrexate (three patients), and alemtuzumab in two patients in whom pentostatin was ineffective. Pentostatin was the single most effective therapy, with a response rate of 75% and minimal toxicity. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) 37 months from diagnosis were 80% and 52%, respectively. Treatment of T-LGL should be reserved for patients with symptomatic disease, but in this series, pentostatin treatment was less toxic and more effective than cyclosporine or methotrexate.
Full Text Available Honeybees and their products are highly prized by many cultures around the world, and as a result, indigenous communities have come to possess rich and detailed knowledge of the biology of these important insects. In this paper, I present an in-depth investigation into some aspects of honeybee natural history, as related to me by the Solega people of southern India. The Solega recognize, name, and exploit four honeybee species, and are well aware of the geographical and temporal distributions of each one. In spite of not being beekeepers – as they only forage for wild honey – their knowledge of obscure and complex phenomena such as honeybee gender and reproduction rivals that of comparable, non-industrial beekeeping societies. Swarming, another hard-to-understand honeybee behavior, is also accurately explained by Solega consultants. I contrast this knowledge to that of European bee-keeping cultures, as evidenced by the writings of Aristotle and 18th century European beekeepers. This paper shows that the Solega have a reliable and internally consistent body of honeybee knowledge based entirely on brief encounters with these wild, migratory insects that are present in the forest for only part of the year.
Maron, Martin S; Rowin, Ethan J; Olivotto, Iacopo; Casey, Susan A; Arretini, Anna; Tomberli, Benedetta; Garberich, Ross F; Link, Mark S; Chan, Raymond H M; Lesser, John R; Maron, Barry J
Left ventricular outflow tract gradients are absent in an important proportion of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, the natural course of this important patient subgroup remains largely unresolved. The authors systematically employed exercise (stress) echocardiography to define those patients without obstruction to left ventricular outflow at rest and/or under physiological exercise and to examine their natural history and clinical course to create a more robust understanding of this complex disease. We prospectively studied 573 consecutive HCM patients in 3 centers (44 ± 17 years; 66% male) with New York Heart Association functional class I/II symptoms at study entry, including 249 in whom left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was absent both at rest and following physiological exercise (<30 mm Hg; nonobstructive HCM) and retrospectively assembled clinical follow-up data. Over a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 225 of 249 nonobstructive patients (90%) remained in classes I/II, whereas 24 (10%) developed progressive heart failure to New York Heart Association functional classes III/IV. Nonobstructive HCM patients were less likely to experience advanced limiting class III/IV symptoms than the 324 patients with outflow obstruction (1.6%/year vs. 7.4%/year rest obstruction vs. 3.2%/year provocable obstruction; p < 0.001). However, 7 nonobstructive patients (2.8%) did require heart transplantation for progression to end stage versus none of the obstructive patients. HCM-related mortality among nonobstructive patients was low (n = 8; 0.5%/year), with 5- and 10-year survival rates of 99% and 97%, respectively, which is not different from expected all-cause mortality in an age- and sex-matched U.S. population (p = 0.15). HCM patients with nonobstructive disease appear to experience a relatively benign clinical course, associated with a low risk for advanced heart failure symptoms, other disease complications, and HCM-related mortality, and
Javaheri, Shahrokh; Smith, Jason; Chung, Eugene
Central sleep apnea (CSA) may occasionally occur in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during titration with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. To determine the prevalence and the natural history of CPAP-emergent CSA. This is a retrospective study of 1286 patients with a diagnosis of OSAwho underwent titration with a positive airway device during a 1-year period. Patients were seen in consultation and underwent full-night attended polysomnography followed by full-night attended CPAP titration. Four weeks after CPAP therapy, patients returned to the clinic for follow-up, and objective adherence to CPAP was recorded. In patients who had CSA on CPAP, a second full-night attended CPAP titration was recommended. Eighty-four of the 1286 patients developed a central apnea index (CAI) of 5 or greater per hour while on CPAP. The incidence of CSA varied from 3% to 10% monthly, with an overall incidence of 6.5%. Forty-two of the 84 patients returned for a second CPAP titration. In 33 patients, CSA was eliminated. In each of the remaining 9 patients, the CAI remained at 5 or greater per hour, with an average of 13 per hour. These patients characteristically had the most severe OSA, and 5 had a CAI of 5 or more per hour at baseline. Two of the 9 patients were on opioids In this large retrospective study of 1286 patients with a diagnosis of OSA, 6.5% had CPAP-emergent or persistent CSA. However, CPAP-emergent CSA was generally transitory and was eliminated within 8 weeks after CPAP therapy. The prevalence of CPAP-persistent CSA was about 1.5%. Severity of OSA, a CAI of 5 or greater per hour, and use of opioids were potential risk factors.
Full Text Available Natural history collections represent a vast repository of biodiversity data of international significance. There is an imperative to capture the data through digitisation projects in order to expose the data to new and established users of biodiversity data. On the basis of review of current state of digitization of natural history collections, a demand driven approach is advocated through the use of metadata to promote and increase access to natural history collection data.
We describe the natural history of 13 musculoskeletal conditions requiring hospitalization and identify demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, occupational, and clinical characteristics most strongly...
Panayi, Vasilis; Froud, Oliver J; Vine, Louisa; Laurent, Paul; Woolson, Kathy L; Hunter, Jeremy G; Madden, Richard G; Miller, Catherine; Palmer, Jo; Harris, Nicola; Mathew, Joe; Stableforth, Bill; Murray, Iain A; Dalton, Harry R
Forty percent of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) present with acute jaundice/hepatitis. Such patients, when treated promptly, are thought to have a good prognosis. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of AIH in patients presenting with jaundice/hepatitis and to determine whether the diagnosis could have been made earlier, before presentation. This study is a retrospective review of 2249 consecutive patients who presented with jaundice to the Jaundice Hotline clinic, Truro, Cornwall, UK, over 15 years (1998-2013) and includes a review of the laboratory data over a 23-year period (1990-2013). Of the 955 patients with hepatocellular jaundice, 47 (5%) had criterion-referenced AIH: 35 female and 12 male, the median age was 65 years (range 15-91 years); the bilirubin concentration was 139 μmol/l (range 23-634 μmol/l) and the alanine transaminase level was 687 IU/l (range 22-2519 IU/l). Among the patients, 23/46 (50%) were cirrhotic on biopsy; 11/47 (23%) died: median time from diagnosis to death, 5 months (range 1-59); median age, 72 years (range 59-91 years). All 8/11 patients who died of liver-related causes were cirrhotic. Weight loss (P=0.04) and presence of cirrhosis (P=0.004) and varices (P=0.015) were more common among those who died. Among patients who died from liver-related causes, 6/8 (75%) died less than 6 months from diagnosis. Cirrhosis at presentation and oesophageal varices were associated with early liver-related deaths (P=0.011, 0.002 respectively). Liver function test results were available in 33/47 (70%) patients before presentation. Among these patients, 16 (49%) had abnormal alanine transaminase levels previously, and eight (50%) were cirrhotic at presentation. AIH presenting as jaundice/hepatitis was mainly observed in older women: 50% of the patients were cirrhotic, and liver-related mortality was high. Some of these deaths were potentially preventable by earlier diagnosis, as the patients had abnormal liver
malignant lesion. In this review, we discuss the biology and natural history of HPV infection and its association with cervical cancer.Keywords: biology, HPV, cancer
Asher Marc A
risks of major surgery, a 6 to 29% chance of requiring re-operation, and the remote possibility of developing a pain management problem. Knowledge of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis natural history and long-term treatment effects is and will always remain somewhat incomplete. However, enough is know to provide patients and parents the information needed to make informed decisions about management options.
... Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is... possession and control of the Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT. The human remains and... unworked faunal bone. The associated funerary objects found with the interments indicate that the human...
... Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT... lot of horse tack, a metal punch, 1 piece of worked wood, gunshot, two mirrors, a harness ring, an awl...
... Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service...: Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, telephone (801... fragments, 13 pieces of horse tack, 3 saddle fragments, 1 knife sheath, 1 rifle and barrel, 1 lot of bullet...
Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan
The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...
Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Barrows, C. W.
In the Anthropocene, the relevancy of natural history in environmental science is challenged and marginalized today more than ever. We tested the hypothesis that natural history is relevant to the fields of environmental science and ecology by assessing the values, needs, and decisions related to natural history of graduate students and environmental science professionals across 31 universities and various employers, respectively, in California. Graduate students surveyed (93.3%) agreed that natural history was relevant to science, approximately 70% believed it "essential" for conducting field-based research; however, 54.2% felt inadequately trained to teach a natural history course and would benefit from additional training in natural history (> 80%). Of the 185 professionals surveyed, all felt that natural history was relevant to science and "essential" or "desirable" in their vocation (93%). Our results indicate a disconnect between the value and relevancy of natural history in 21st century ecological science and opportunities for gaining those skills and knowledge through education and training.
Curtis, Valerie A
Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease throughout history. Purification ritual, miasma, contagion, zymotic and germ theories of disease are ideas that spread through society because they are intuitively attractive, because they are supported by evidence either from direct experience or from authoritative report and because they are consistent with existing beliefs. In contrast to much historical and anthropological assertion, I argue that hygiene behaviour and disgust predate culture and so cannot fully be explained as its product. The history of ideas about disease thus is neither entirely socially constructed nor an "heroic progress" of scientists leading the ignorant into the light. As an animal behaviour the proper domain of hygiene is biology, and without this perspective attempts at explanation are incomplete. The approaches of biological anthropology have much to offer the practice of cultural history.
It has been believed that the outbreak of echinococcosis at Rebun Island had ceased by 1970. The first patient was diagnosed in 1936 and 131 patients have been authorized as echinococcosis so far. The conference of measures against the outbreak had been organized in 1948 and started to eradicate Echinococcus multilocularis from the Island. Medical examination to detect the patients and the capture and autopsy of dogs and cats had been carried out hard till 1970. At that time, foxes imported from Simusiru Island in the middle Kuriles during the years 1924 to 1926 had already disappeared and it has seemed to be sure that stray dogs and cats might carry E. multilocularis and excrete infectious eggs in stead of foxes. Since we have had no real data concerning the natural history of patients with echinococcosis without any treatments, it can not be recognized the time of infection and the role of dogs or cats on the spread of echinococcosis at Rebun Island. From the new data, it is concluded that the active life cycle of E. multilocularis between foxes and vole might be closed by 1940, since the last patient infected with E. multilocularis was born in 1940 and died in 1945. Furthermore, it is estimated that more than 200 patients (3 to 4% of people at the island) might die from echinococcosis, because of the fact of the unusual increase of mortality of liver disorders and oldness observed during the years of 1940 to 1960. 81 patients with the high possibility of echinococcosis detected from 1937 to 1963 can be added to 131 authorized patients. Surprisingly, it is noticed that the standard deviations of ages of death of 94 patients born in Meiji era (1880-1912) and 59 in Taisho and Showa eras (1912-1940) are 63.16 +/- 11.68, and 34.32 +/- 11.87, respectively. It means that both old and young people might be infected simultaneously but for the long period. There was no difference between the susceptibility of young and old men to E. multilocularis. The numbers of male
In the study of the causes of disease that have arisen during the development of humankind, one can distinguish three major perspectives: the natural, the supernatural, and the artificial. In this paper we distinguish the rational natural causes of disease from the irrational natural causes. Within the natural and rational causal approaches of disease, we can highlight the Egyptian theory of putrid intestinal materials called "wechdu", the humoral theory, the atomistic theory, the contagious theory, the cellular theory, the molecular (genetic) theory, and the ecogenetic theory. Regarding the irrational, esoteric, and mystic causal approaches to disease, we highlight the astrological, the alchemical, the iatrochemical, the iatromechanical, and others (irritability, solidism, brownism, and mesmerism).
Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa
Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…
Hoffman, Andrew J.; Georg, Susse
Every field of inquiry goes through a life cycle; a new idea emerges, it develops into a growing body of literature and either continues to grow or enters a decline. A sure sign of the successful growth of a field is an effort to institutionalize its history, categorize its accomplishments...
Rafael Ramis Barceló
Full Text Available This Review-Article tries to explain and contextualize the magnificent The Development of Ethics by Terence Irwin. It is a historiographical achievement in History of Ethics and this paper tries to present it to Spanish scholars. It is also a discussion of the main points of this work
restrictive and not very representative • Passes “ eyeball test” for style Source history captures the style of measured field data: Ratio of... eyeball test.” For all of the cases, the simulated and measured soil data often appeared very similar in style throughout the entire low permeability...representative metric confirmed that the modeling results demonstrated reasonable accuracy, which matches the expectations based on simple “ eyeball
Çibik, Ayse Sert
The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…
Attention to the history of chemistry can help us recognise the characteristics of chemistry that have helped to maintain it as a separate scientific discipline with a unique identity. Three such features are highlighted in this paper. First, chemistry has maintained a distinct type of theoretical thinking, independent from that of physics even in the era of quantum chemistry. Second, chemical research has always been shaped by its ineliminable practical relevance and usefulness. Third, the lived experience of chemistry, spanning the laboratory, the classroom and everyday life, is distinctive in its multidimensional sensuousness. Furthermore, I argue that the combination of these three features makes chemistry an exemplary science.
From ancient Greece to the rise of modern science in the 18th and 19th centuries, liberal adult education was a predominant philosophy. Progressivism, which developed in opposition, had the greatest impact on adult education. It viewed the teacher as a guide, consultant, and resource; the learner as responsible for learning in partnership with the…
Kelly, John C
Cervical spondylosis is a broad term which describes the age related chronic disc degeneration, which can also affect the cervical vertebrae, the facet and other joints and their associated soft tissue supports. Evidence of spondylitic change is frequently found in many asymptomatic adults. Radiculopathy is a result of intervertebral foramina narrowing. Narrowing of the spinal canal can result in spinal cord compression, ultimately resulting in cervical spondylosis myelopathy. This review article examines the current literature in relation to the cervical spondylosis and describes the three clinical syndromes of axial neck pain, cervical radiculopathy and cervical myelopathy.
Spechler, S J
Epidemiological studies of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) are confounded by the lack of a standardized definition and a diagnostic 'gold-standard' for the disorder. In Western countries, 20-40% of the adult population experience heartburn, which is the cardinal symptom of GORD, but only some 2% of adults have objective evidence of reflux oesophagitis. The incidence of GORD increases with age, rising dramatically after 40 years of age. There is also wide geographical variation in prevalence. Complications, including oesophageal ulcer and stricture, and Barrett's oesophagus, are found in up to 20% of patients with verified reflux oesophagitis. The signs and symptoms of GORD often wax and wane in intensity, and spontaneous remissions have been reported. In most cases, however, GORD is a chronic condition that returns shortly after discontinuing therapy. Although GORD causes substantial morbidity, the annual mortality rate due to GORD is very low (approximately 1 death per 100,000 patients), and even severe GORD has no apparent effect on longevity, although the quality of life can be significantly impaired. There are data to suggest that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) contributes to oesophagitis and stricture formation in patients with GORD. Although these data are not conclusive, it seems prudent, if possible, to avoid the use of NSAIDs in patients with GORD, particularly those with oesophageal stricture.
Maron, B.J.; Tajik, A.J.; Ruttenberg, H.D.; Graham, T.P.; Atwood, G.F.; Victorica, B.E.; Lie, J.T.; Roberts, W.C.
The clinical and morphologic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 20 patients recognized as having cardiac disease in the first year of life are described. Fourteen of these 20 infants were initially suspected of having heart disease solely because a heart murmur was identified. However, the infants showed a variety of clinical findings, including signs of marked congestive heart failure (in the presence of nondilated ventricular cavities and normal or increased left ventricular contractility) and substantial cardiac enlargement on chest radiograph. Other findings were markedly different from those usually present in older children and adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (e.g., right ventricular hypertrophy on the ECG and cyanosis). Consequently, in 14 infants, the initial clinical diagnosis was congenital cardiac malformation other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The clinical course was variable in these patients, but the onset of marked congestive heart failure in the first year of life appeared to be an unfavorable prognostic sign; nine of the 11 infants with congestive heart failure died within the first year of life. In infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, unlike older children and adults with this condition, sudden death was less common (two patients) than death due to progressive congestive heart failure
Paul K. Dayton
Full Text Available This essay addresses the question of blending natural history and ecological wisdom into the genuine creativity exemplified by Prof. Ramon Margalef. Many have observed that modern biology is a triumph of precision over accuracy, and that ecology has sought maturity by striving toward this model in which the precision value of the tools has supplanted important questions. In pursuing a model of hard science, ecology has struggled with Popperian approaches designed to create a thin patina of real science over the vast seas of uncertainty so admired by the naturalists. We start with a discussion of the importance of natural history in ecology and conservation, and the present state of natural history in academic ecology. We then discuss the respect for natural history in human cultures, and conclude that an infatuation with authority has obfuscated the important truths to be found in nature. We consider some general processes associated with creativity, and finally we ask how natural history influences creativity in ecology. We conclude that the soaring creativity exemplified by Ramon Margalef is based on a joyful almost spiritual understanding of natural history and the courage to avoid authority.
... Natural History, Norman, OK. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from Le Flore... Flore County, OK. The mound site was excavated by the Works Progress Administration (WPA), under the...
Kim, Sun Young; Irving, Karen E.
This study (1) explores the effectiveness of the contextualized history of science on student learning of nature of science (NOS) and genetics content knowledge (GCK), especially interrelationships among various genetics concepts, in high school biology classrooms; (2) provides an exemplar for teachers on how to utilize history of science in…
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-12395; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound... History, University of Puget Sound, has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation with the...
Wei, Bing; Li, Yue; Chen, Bo
This study aimed to examine the representations of nature of science (NOS) in the eight histories of science selected from three series of integrated science textbooks used in junior high school in China. Ten aspects of NOS were adopted in the analytical framework. It was found that NOS had not been well treated in the selected histories of…
Nondahl, David M; Shi, Xiaoyu; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Dalton, Dayna S; Tweed, Ted S; Wiley, Terry L; Carmichael, Lakeesha L
Using data from a population-based cohort study, we compared four published algorithms for identifying notched audiograms and compared their resulting classifications with noise exposure history. Four algorithms: (1) , (2) , (3) , and (4) were used to identify notched audiograms. Audiometric evaluations were collected as a part of the 10-yr follow-up examinations of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, in Beaver Dam, WI (2003-2005, N = 2395). Detailed noise exposure histories were collected by interview at the baseline examination (1993-1995) and updated at subsequent visits. An extensive history of occupational noise exposure, participation in noisy hobbies, and firearm usage was used to evaluate consistency of the notch classifications with the history of noise exposure. The prevalence of notched audiograms varied greatly by definition (31.7, 25.9, 47.2, and 11.7% for methods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). In this cohort, a history of noise exposure was common (56.2% for occupational noise, 71.7% for noisy hobbies, 13.4% for firearms, and 81.2% for any of these three sources). Among participants with a notched audiogram, almost one-third did not have a history of occupational noise exposure (31.4, 33.0, 32.5, and 28.1% for methods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively), and approximately 11% did not have a history of exposure to any of the three sources of noise (11.5, 13.6, 10.3, and 7.6%). Discordance was greater in women than in men. These results suggest that there is a poor agreement across existing algorithms for audiometric notches. In addition, notches can occur in the absence of a positive noise history. In the absence of an objective consensus definition of a notched audiogram and in light of the degree of discordance in women between noise history and notches by each of these algorithms, researchers should be cautious about classifying noise-induced hearing loss by notched audiograms.
Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…
A systematic account of the use of alpha particles up to the 1930s for promoting the disintegration of atoms is here provided. As will be shown, a number of different radium family alpha sources were used in the experiments that led to the discoveries of the proton (Rutherford E 1919 Phil. Mag. 37 581-7) and neutron (Chadwick J 1932 Nature 129 312). The reasons leading to the employment of a particular alpha particle source, as well as the relationship between these sources and the available methods of recording, will be closely addressed
We distinguish between four cosmological transitions in the history of Western intellectual thought, and focus on how these cosmologies differentially define matter, space and time. We demonstrate that how time is conceptualized significantly impacts a cosmology's notion on causality, and hone in on how time is conceptualized differentially in modern physics and evolutionary biology. The former conflates time with space into a single space-time continuum and focuses instead on the movement of matter, while the evolutionary sciences have a tradition to understand time as a given when they cartography how organisms change across generations over or in time, thereby proving the phenomenon of evolution. The gap becomes more fundamental when we take into account that phenomena studied by chrono-biologists demonstrate that numerous organisms, including humans, have evolved a "sense" of time. And micro-evolutionary/genetic, meso-evolutionary/developmental and macro-evolutionary phenomena including speciation and extinction not only occur by different evolutionary modes and at different rates, they are also timely phenomena that follow different periodicities. This article focusses on delineating the problem by finding its historical roots. We conclude that though time might be an obsolete concept for the physical sciences, it is crucial for the evolutionary sciences where evolution is defined as the change that biological individuals undergo in/over or through time.
Katz, Yitzhak; Goldberg, Michael R
Because of the paucity of reports and variability in the diagnostic criteria utilized, little is known regarding the natural outcome of patients with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). Data extracted from referenced manuscripts, as well as allergists' unpublished observations from across the globe, were used to form a cohesive opinion regarding its natural outcome. All authors concur that there is a generally high rate of recovery for FPIES. The most common foods causing FPIES are milk and soy. Depending upon which study is analyzed, by the age of 3-5 years, approximately 90% of patients recover from their disease. Recovery from FPIES to solid foods, occurs at a later age, but may reflect a later stage of introduction of the food into the diet. An important clinical outcome, although not common, is a shift from FPIES food hypersensitivity to an IgE-mediated food allergy. This necessitates a change in the oral food challenge protocol, if IgE-mediated sensitization is detected. Over the past several years, there has been an increasing awareness of FPIES. This knowledge should lead to a more timely diagnosis and should reassure parents and practitioners alike regarding its favorable course.
Illiteracy is a huge problem, socially, economically and educationally. This study of the history and current practices of American public libraries examines their role in supporting the development of human literate abilities and in helping all Americans to be critically literate in order to participate fully and successfully in our society. This…
Espin, Christine A; Cevasco, Jazmin; van den Broek, Paul; Baker, Scott; Gersten, Russell
In this study, we examine the nature and quality of students' comprehension of history. Specifically, we explore whether cognitive-psychological theories developed to capture the comprehension of narrative text can be used to capture the comprehension of history. Participants were 36 students with learning disabilities who had taken part in an earlier study designed to investigate the effects of an interactive instructional intervention in history. The results of the original study supported the effectiveness of the intervention in terms of amount recalled. The results of the present study reveal that historical understanding can be characterized as the construction of meaning through the creation of a causal network of events. The study of history within a causal network framework has implications for understanding the nature and quality of students' learning of history, and for potentially identifying sources of failure in learning.
In a series of papers read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society through the 1820s, the Cambridge mathematician George Peacock laid the foundation for a natural history of arithmetic that would tell a story of human progress from counting to modern arithmetic. The trajectory of that history, Peacock argued, established algebraic analysis as a form of universal reasoning that used empirically warranted operations of mind to think with symbols on paper. The science of counting would suggest arithmetic, arithmetic would suggest arithmetical algebra, and, finally, arithmetical algebra would suggest symbolic algebra. This philosophy of suggestion provided the foundation for Peacock's "principle of equivalent forms," which justified the practice of nineteenth-century English symbolic algebra. Peacock's philosophy of suggestion owed a considerable debt to the early Cambridge Philosophical Society culture of natural history. The aim of this essay is to show how that culture of natural history was constitutively significant to the practice of nineteenth-century English algebra.
Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas are benign monoclonal tumors characterized by their capacity to grow and produce thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) autonomously, i.e. in the absence of thyrotropin (TSH). Mutations of the TSH receptor (TSH-R) have been found in the majority of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas. On radioisotope scanning they generally appear as hot nodules because they concentrate radioiodide or 99mTc pertechnate, whereas the normal surrounding and contralateral tissue concentrate little isotopes. A toxic adenoma probably evolves gradually from a small autonomously hyperfunctioning adenoma that initially is only slightly more active than the extranodular tissue. This has been referred to as a "warm" nodule or a "compensated" adenoma. The diagnostic criterion for this designation is the persistence of detectable serum TSH maintaining some radioiodine uptake by the extranodular tissue. This "compensated" adenoma persists as long as the autonomous hormone output is not sufficient to suppress thyrotropin, i.e. to cause hyperthyroidism. The rate of development of thyrotoxicosis in patients with hyperfunctioning adenomas who are euthyroid initially is about 4% per year and depends on the size of the adenoma, iodine intake and age of the patient. No clear relationship can be establish between the nature of the TSH receptor mutations and the phenotype of the tumor.
Nagata, Shinji; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Matsushima, Toshio; Fukui, Masashi; Sadoshima, Shouzou; Kuwabara, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)
This report reviews the natural courses of misery perfusion in 5 patients with atherosclerotic cerebrovascular occlusion diseases. Cases 1 showed partial improvement and Case 2 showed deterioration of misery perfusion on positron emission tomography (PET). These 2 patients did not show any clinical changes during the follow-up periods. Case 3 showed remarkable improvement of misery perfusion during the 2-year follow-ups, but his neurological condition worsened. The EC-IC bypass improved both in PET and clinical symptoms. Case 4 had a stroke at the region of misery perfusion in PET. Case 5 had a lacunar infarction 2 years after the EC-IC bypass on the opposite side. PET taken one month before the stroke did not show any signs of hypoperfusion in the area of the lacunar infarction. Misery perfusion seems not to be a static but a dynamic condition that can develop into cerebral infarction by some hemodynamic stresses. Cerebral cortical or lobar infarction may occur in the region of severe misery perfusion. EC-IC bypass may prevent impending infarction of the cerebral cortex by improving the regional cerebral blood flow. However, EC-CI bypass will not prevent the lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia or internal capsule. (author).
This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.
Lonjon, M; Pennes, F; Sedat, J; Bataille, B
Giant cerebral aneurysms represent 5% of intracranial aneurysms, and become symptomatic between 40 and 70 years with a female predominance. In the paediatric population, the giant aneurysm rate is higher than in the adult population. Classified as saccular, fusiform and serpentine, the natural history of giant cerebral aneurysms is characterized by thrombosis, growth and rupture. The pathogenesis of these giant aneurysms is influenced by a number of risk factors, including genetic variables. Genome-wide association studies have identified some chromosomes highlighting candidate genes. Although these giant aneurysms can occur at the same locations as their smaller counterparts, a predilection for the cavernous location has been observed. Giant aneurysms present with symptoms caused by a mass effect depending on their location or by rupture; ischemic manifestations rarely reveal the aneurysm. If the initial clinical descriptions have been back up by imagery, the clinical context with a pertinent analysis of the risk factors remain the cornerstone for the management decisions of these lesions. Five year cumulative rupture rates for patients with giant aneurysm were 40% for those located on the anterior part of circle of Willis and 50% for those on the posterior part. The poor outcome of untreated patients justifies the therapeutic risks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Full Text Available Light is both the ultimate energy source for most organisms and a rich information source. Vitamin A-based chromophore was initially used in harvesting light energy, but has become the most widely used light sensor throughout evolution from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Vitamin A-based photoreceptor proteins are called opsins and have been used for billions of years for sensing light for vision or the equivalent of vision. All vitamin A-based light sensors for vision in the animal kingdom are G-protein coupled receptors, while those in unicellular organisms are light-gated channels. This first major switch in evolution was followed by two other major changes: the switch from bistable to monostable pigments for vision and the expansion of vitamin A’s biological functions. Vitamin A’s new functions such as regulating cell growth and differentiation from embryogenesis to adult are associated with increased toxicity with its random diffusion. In contrast to bistable pigments which can be regenerated by light, monostable pigments depend on complex enzymatic cycles for regeneration after every photoisomerization event. Here we discuss vitamin A functions and transport in the context of the natural history of vitamin A-based light sensors and propose that the expanding functions of vitamin A and the choice of monostable pigments are the likely evolutionary driving forces for precise, efficient, and sustained vitamin A transport.
Bock, Jonathan M; Varadarajan, Varun; Brawley, Mary C; Blumin, Joel H
The natural clinical progression of aspiration to eventual pulmonary compromise is not well understood. We hypothesized that dietary modification recommendations, Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) score, and dysphagia etiology would be associated with changes in time to first pulmonary event and overall survival for patients with documented aspiration on radiologic testing. This study identified a cohort of patients with detectable unsensed penetration or aspiration on videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), and followed this cohort over time for development of pulmonary events and death. We then evaluated the association of aspiration severity and dietary modification recommendations on incidence of these endpoints. Retrospective chart review. A total of 2,616 VFSS exam reports were reviewed from our institution performed between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010. Aspiration or unsensed penetration (PAS of 5 or greater) was detected in 564 (21.5%) of these patients, who were then included in the study cohort. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for development of pulmonary events (pneumonia, pneumonitis, or other life-threatening pulmonary illness) and all-cause mortality for up to 54 months after initial VFSS. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression were performed for time to first pulmonary event and survival predicted by recommended diet, PAS score, and dysphagia etiology. Dysphagia etiology was highly associated with increased development of pulmonary events for some patients, especially those with generalized nonspecific dysphagia due to deconditioning or frailty (hazard ratio [HZ] vs. stroke 2.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-5.69, P = .001) and esophageal dysphagia (HZ: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.17-6.02, P = .019). Dysphagia etiology was also associated with increased mortality for patients with generalized nonspecific dysphagia due to deconditioning or frailty (HZ: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.0-5.52, P dysphagia is associated
East Jeffrey M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%. The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with
This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.
Kent, Samuel W; Wilson, Andrew D; Plumb, Mandy S; Williams, Justin H G; Mon-Williams, Mark
Action selection is subject to many biases. Immediate movement history is one such bias seen in young infants. Is this bias strong enough to affect adult behavior? Adult participants reached and grasped a cylinder positioned to require either pronation or supination of the hand. Successive cylinder positions changed either randomly or systematically between trials. Random positioning led to optimized economy of movement. In contrast, systematic changes in position biased action selection toward previously selected actions at the expense of movement economy. Thus, one switches to a new movement only when the savings outweigh the costs of the switch. Immediate movement history had an even larger influence on children aged 7-15 years. This suggests that switching costs are greater in children, which is consistent with their reduced grasping experience. The presence of this effect in adults suggests that immediate movement history exerts a more widespread and pervasive influence on patterns of action selection than researchers had previously recognized.
Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights
Das, Mithun; Pal, Susil; Ghosh, Arnab
Our objective was to test the association between familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult Asian Indians. A total of 448 adult (>30 years) individuals (257 males and 191 females) participated in the study. Familial risk of T2DM was classified into three groups viz., 1=both parents affected; 2=parent and/or siblings affected and 3=none or no family history for T2DM. Anthropometric measures, blood pressures, fasting blood glucose and metabolic profiles were studied using standard techniques. MS was defined accordingly. The prevalence of MS phenotypes was estimated and compared among the three familial risk strata. Individuals with a history of both parents affected from diabetes had significantly higher (Pfamily history of T2DM. Significant difference was also noticed between individuals with and without MS according to the family history of diabetes (Pfamily history of T2DM. Family history of T2DM had significant effect on individuals with MS as compared to their counterparts (individuals having no family history of T2DM). It therefore seems reasonable to argue that family history of T2DM could be useful as a predictive tool for early diagnosis and prevention of MS in Asian Indian population.
Hamedan Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah
Hip fracture is the most common injury occurring to elderly people and is associated with restrictions of the activities of the patients themselves. The discovery of a hip fracture can be the beginning of a complex journey of care, from initial diagnosis, through operational procedures to rehabilitation. The patient's history and physical examination form the basis of the diagnosis and monitoring of elderly patients with hip problems and dictate the appropriate treatment strategy to be implemented. The aim of this study is to discuss the different diagnoses of hip pain in a case study of an elderly woman who initially complained of pain in her right knee following a fall at home. It shows that musculoskeletal physical examination determined the management of the hip fracture that was found to be present. In addition, the aim of this article is to review diagnostic tests such as radiographs and recommend appropriate management and treatment of hip fractures in elderly patients.
Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Frølich, Jacob Stampe; Schulpen, Maya
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between body composition measures and menstrual status in a large sample of adult patients with a history of anorexia nervosa and to calculate the predicted probability of resumption of menstrual function. Furthermore, to establish whether fat percentage...... is superior to body mass index in predicting the resumption of menses. METHOD: One hundred and thirteen adult women with a history of anorexia nervosa underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and completed questionnaires regarding medication prescription and menstrual function. RESULTS: Fifty...
Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan
The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...... spontaneously but the study was possibly confounded by use of hormone replacement therapy in the population. We did a similar analysis of data collected during an earlier period when few women were exposed to hormone replacement therapy....
O'Sullivan, Eoin P
Transsphenoidal surgery is indicated for patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) causing compressive symptoms. Previous studies attempting to define the rate of recurrence\\/regrowth of surgically treated but radiation-naïve NFPAs were somewhat limited by selection bias and\\/or small numbers and\\/or lack of consistency of findings between studies. A better understanding of the natural history of this condition could allow stratification of recurrence risk and inform future management. We aimed to define the natural history of a large, mainly unselected cohort with surgically treated, radiotherapy (RT)-naïve NFPAs and to try to identify predictors of recurrence\\/regrowth.
Naples, James; Schwartz, Marissa; Eisen, Marc
Presidents George Washington and Theodore Roosevelt suffered complications of epiglottitis and otomastoiditis, respectively. The introduction of antibiotics and vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly reduced the incidence of these otolaryngologic infections, such that the natural history of the disease is rarely encountered. However, antibiotic resistance and pathogenic evolution has raised concern about increased virulence of these common organisms. A retrospective evaluation of the complications suffered by Washington and Roosevelt provides valuable insight to the natural history of common otolaryngologic infections that may reemerge as a result of organism evolution in response to antibiotics and vaccines.
Johnson, R J; Herring, C
This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.
Zarzaur, Ben L; Dunn, Julie A; Leininger, Brian; Lauerman, Margaret; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanthan; Kaups, Krista; Zamary, Kirellos; Hartwell, Jennifer L; Bhakta, Ankur; Myers, John; Gordy, Stephanie; Todd, Samuel R; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Teicher, Erik; Sperry, Jason; Privette, Alicia; Allawi, Ahmed; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Maung, Adrian A; Davis, Kimberly A; Cogbill, Thomas; Bonne, Stephanie; Livingston, David H; Coimbra, Raul; Kozar, Rosemary A
Following blunt splenic injury, there is conflicting evidence regarding the natural history and appropriate management of patients with vascular injuries of the spleen such as pseudoaneurysms or blushes. The purpose of this study was to describe the current management and outcomes of patients with pseudoaneurysm or blush. Data were collected on adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with blunt splenic injury and a splenic vascular injury from 17 trauma centers. Demographic, physiologic, radiographic, and injury characteristics were gathered. Management and outcomes were collected. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to determine factors associated with splenectomy. Two hundred patients with a vascular abnormality on computed tomography scan were enrolled. Of those, 14.5% were managed with early splenectomy. Of the remaining patients, 59% underwent angiography and embolization (ANGIO), and 26.5% were observed. Of those who underwent ANGIO, 5.9% had a repeat ANGIO, and 6.8% had splenectomy. Of those observed, 9.4% had a delayed ANGIO, and 7.6% underwent splenectomy. There were no statistically significant differences between those observed and those who underwent ANGIO. There were 111 computed tomography scans with splenic vascular injuries available for review by an expert trauma radiologist. The concordance between the original classification of the type of vascular abnormality and the expert radiologist's interpretation was 56.3%. Based on expert review, the presence of an actively bleeding vascular injury was associated with a 40.9% risk of splenectomy. This was significantly higher than those with a nonbleeding vascular injury. In this series, the vast majority of patients are managed with ANGIO and usually embolization, whereas splenectomy remains a rare event. However, patients with a bleeding vascular injury of the spleen are at high risk of nonoperative failure, no matter the strategy used for management. This group may warrant closer observation or
Hong, Jennifer; Zaman, Rifat; Coy, Shannon; Pastel, David; Simmons, Nathan; Ball, Perry; Mirza, Sohail; Abdu, William; Pearson, Adam; Lollis, S Scott
Although the primary goal of treatment of type II odontoid fracture is bony union, some advocate continued nonsurgical management of minimally symptomatic older patients who have fibrous union or minimal fracture motion. The risk of this strategy is unknown. We reviewed our long-term outcomes after dens nonunion to define the natural history of Type II odontoid fractures in elderly patients managed nonoperatively. A retrospective chart review of 50 consecutive adults aged 65 or older with Type II odontoid fracture initially managed nonsurgically from 1998 to 2012 at a single tertiary care institution was conducted. Particular attention was paid to patients who had orthosis removal despite absent bony fusion. Patients were contacted prospectively by telephone and followed until death, surgical intervention, or last known contact. Fifty patients initially were managed nonsurgically; of these, 21 (42.0%) proceeded to bony fusion, 3 (6%) underwent delayed surgery for persistent instability, and 26 (52%) had orthosis removal despite the lack of solid arthrodesis on imaging. The last group had a median follow-up of 25 months (range 4-158 months), with 20 of 26 (76.9%) followed until death. Of these patients, 1 patient developed progressive quadriplegia and dysphagia 11 months after initial injury. Compared with patients with spontaneous union, patients with nonunion had shorter life expectancy, despite no significant differences between the groups with respect to age, sex, injury mechanism, radiographic variables, or follow-up duration. Orthosis removal despite fracture nonunion may be reasonable in elderly patients with Type II dens fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hampras, Shalaka S; Giuliano, Anna R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fisher, Kate J; Abrahamsen, Martha E; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E
Several new polyomaviruses have been discovered in the last decade, including Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Little is known about the natural history of the more recently discovered polyomaviruses. We estimated the incidence, prevalence, and persistence of 9 polyomaviruses (MCPyV, BK polyomavirus, KI polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus, WU polyomavirus, Human polyomavirus 6 [HPyV6], HPyV7, HPyV9, and Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus) and examined factors associated with MCPyV infection in a prospective cohort of 209 men initially enrolled in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study. Participants enrolled at the US site of the HIM study were recruited into a substudy of cutaneous viral infections and followed for a median of 12.6 months. Eyebrow hair and normal skin swab specimens were obtained at each study visit, and the viral DNA load was measured using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. MCPyV infection showed the highest prevalence (65.1% of normal skin swab specimens and 30.6% of eyebrow hair specimens), incidence (81.7 cases per 1000 person-months among normal skin swab specimens, and 24.1 cases per 1000 person-months among eyebrow hair specimens), and persistence (85.8% of normal skin swab specimens and 58.9% of eyebrow hair specimens) among all polyomaviruses examined. Age of >44 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-4.33) and Hispanic race (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.01-6.88) were associated with an increased prevalence of MCPyV infection in eyebrow hair and normal skin swab specimens, respectively. MCPyV infection is highly prevalent in adults, with age and race being predisposing factors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.
The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008
During the 19th and early 20th century zoological gardens ranged among the most prominent places of popular natural history While aristocratic owners of earlier menageries installed animal collections mostly to symbolize their power over nature as well as to display their extensive diplomatic relations, the zoological gardens founded from the 1830s onwards all over Europe by members of the local bourgeois elites were supposed to mediate their social and political values by "enjoyably educating" a broader public. The new zoos were introduced as places at the antipodes of the frenzy, noise and motion of modern urban life, as spaces of pure, authentic nature whose observation would teach people a reasonable and responsible way of life in a civilised bourgeois community. Taking the Berlin Zoo as an example this paper questions these programmatic imaginations by showing how popular Naturkunde (natural history) was informed by cultures of urban entertainment and spectacle. It discusses the numerous relations and productive tensions that evolved out of the establishment of a "realm of nature" in the middle of the ever growing modern metropolis and investigates the consequences the zoo's rise as "the city's most important attraction" around the turn of the century had for the public perception of natural history as well as for the institution's scientific program.
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…
Full Text Available Experiment, as a new form of knowledge, was aBaconian creation. It was in Bacon’s project of Great Instauration and inBacon’s reformed natural history that experiment and experimentationceased to be illustrations of theories and become relatively autonomousdevices for the production of knowledge and for setting the mind straightin its attempts to gain knowledge. This paper explores the way in whichBacon’s Latin natural history transformed experiment and experimentationin such devices. More precisely, I investigate the way in which Bacon’sLatin natural histories were put together from a limited number ofsignificant experiments listed in the Novum Organum under the general title“instances of special power” or “instances of the lamp.” Contrary to thereceived view, my claim is that Bacon’s natural histories are based on alimited number of ‘core experiments’ and are generated through a specificmethodological procedure known under the name of experientia literata. Thispaper is an attempt to reconstruct the procedure of putting such naturalhistories together and a more in-depth exploration of their epistemologicaland therapeutic character.
Reumer, J.W.F.; Post, K.
As a result of increasing budget constraints and decreasing interest in classical natural history, the work effort of volunteer researchers and the need for private funding are of growing importance. A brief historical background is provided, showing the decreasing interest in the subject shown by
Peyre, M; Bernardeschi, D; Sterkers, O; Kalamarides, M
Bilateral vestibular schwannomas are the hallmark of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), occurring in 95% of patients. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity due to hearing loss, tinnitus, imbalance and facial weakness. As radiosurgery and chemotherapy have been recently introduced in the treatment armamentarium in addition to surgery, a thorough evaluation of vestibular schwannoma natural history is mandatory to determine the role and timing of each treatment modality. An exhaustive review of the literature was performed using the PubMed database concerning the natural history of tumor growth and hearing loss in NF2 patients with vestibular schwannomas. Although some aspects of vestibular schwannoma natural history remain uncertain (pattern of tumor growth, mean tumor growth rate), factors influencing growth such as age at presentation and paracrine factors are well established. Studies focusing on the natural history of hearing have highlighted different patterns of hearing loss and the possible role of intralabyrinthine tumors. The polyclonality of vestibular schwannomas in NF2 was recently unveiled, giving a new perspective to their growth mechanisms. An uniform evaluation of tumor growth using volumetric evaluation and hearing with standard classifications will ensure the use of common endpoints and should improve the quality of clinical trials as well as foster comparison among studies while ensuring more consistency in decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
W.P. Lima; J.H. Patric; N. Holowaychuk
Thirteen years of hydrologic data from two contiguous small watersheds in West Virginia were analyzed to determine the effects on streamflow of natural reforestation on abandoned farmlands. During the study period (1958-1970), streamflow on the watersheds was unchanged. The history of land use on the study area helps explain the apparent lack of hydrologic effects of...
Weber, Carolyn A.; Rule, Audrey C.
Curricular demands and best practices for middle school require interdisciplinary units. Arts integration can provide motivation and a new pathway to learning. This unit focused on inquiry into the natural history of artifacts and rocks recovered from the exposed subsoil of an area near Cedar Falls, Iowa that had been bulldozed as part of…
This essay argues that Charles Darwin's distinctive approach to studying distribution and diversity was shaped by his face-to-face interactions with maritime surveyors during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836). Introducing their hydrographic surveying methods into natural history enabled him to compare fossil and living marine organisms, to compare sedimentary rocks to present-day marine sediments, and to compare landscapes to submarine topology, thereby realizing Charles Lyell's fanciful ambition for a superior form of geology that might be practiced by an "amphibious being." Darwin's theories of continental uplift, coral reef formation, and the origin of species all depended on his amphibious natural history. This essay contributes to our understanding of theorizing in nineteenth-century natural history by illustrating that specific techniques of observing and collecting could themselves help to generate a particular theoretical orientation and, indeed, that such practical experiences were a more proximate source of Darwin's "Humboldtian" interest in distribution and diversity than Alexander von Humboldt's writings themselves. Darwin's debt to the hydrographers became obscured in two ways: through the "funneling" of credit produced by single-authorship publication in natural history and the "telescoping" of memory by which Darwin's new theories made him recall his former researches as though he had originally undertaken them for the very purpose of producing the later theory.
Considers the different analogies used by James Rettie, Teilhard de Chardin, Robert Ardrey, Jacob Bronowski, Richard Leakey, Steven Weinberg, Heinz Pagels, and Carl Sagan to make concepts related to time and natural history accessible to the layperson. Suggests that these analogies be used at the undergraduate level in both humanities and science…
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the in-service science teachers' (IST) perceptions and practices about curriculum and integration of the history of science (HOS) and the nature of science (NOS) affect their science courses. For this aim, how ISTs integrated the NOS and HOS in their elementary science courses for understanding of…
Paper discusses the role of supernova flares in the natural history of the Earth. Probability of the solar system occurrence in the residual of supernova explosion is estimated Possible effects of the Earth occurrence in the supernova residual are studied. 29 refs., 3 tabs
Platygastroid wasps preserved in Dominican amber and oil shale from the Kishenehn formation (Montana, USA) in the National Museum of Natural History are catalogued. Compression fossils in Kishenehn oil shale yield a specimen of Fidiobia, a specimen of Telenominae, and a specimen with a Scelio-type o...
For the purpose of this essay, I examine how evolutionary theory was treated and responded to in the American Museum of Natural History's Hall of the Age of Man during the early 1900s. Specifically, I examine how the curatorial work of the museum's president, Henry Fairfield Osborn, relied on the purported use of objectivity as a means by which to…
Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.
Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and…
Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia
This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…
Roberts, Lissa L.
Charles Coulston Gillispie’s “The Discovery of the Leblanc Process” and “The Natural History of Industry” (Isis 48 (1957): 152–70, 398–407) were unique, yet characteristic of their era. Together, they engaged with discussions of the historical relationship between science and industry. While
Austerlitz, Frédéric; Heyer, Evelyne
Here, we present a synthetic view on how Kimura's Neutral theory has helped us gaining insight on the different evolutionary forces that shape human evolution. We put this perspective in the frame of recent emerging challenges: the use of whole genome data for reconstructing population histories, natural selection on complex polygenic traits, and integrating cultural processes in human evolution.
Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus
secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies...
Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James
Dinosaurs in the middle school classroom can be exciting. These extinct reptiles are both an exotic subject and familiar to our students. Because students are inherently interested, dinosaurs can serve as an effective portal for the integration of biology, geology, ecology, and the history and nature of science. The field of dinosaur study is…
To describe the natural history spinal tuberculosis, classifications and principles of management based upon the grading of the neurological deficit. Review of literature was conducted with the aim to provide the clinico-radiological correlation of the natural history of spinal tuberculosis in different stages. Management strategy is developed based upon the severity of the neurological deficit. A five stage natural history of spinal tuberculosis is described. Stage of neurological involvement is further divided into 4 grades, predominantly on the basis of progressively increasing motor deficits as negligible, mild, moderate and severe with sensory and autonomic dysfunctions. Suitable principles of management with role of rest, braces, chemotherapy and surgery are discussed. Neurological deficit grading based management is developed. Grade 1 and 2, conservative treatment, grade 3, gray zone and grade 4, operative treatment is emphasized. The five stages of natural history of tuberculosis of spine have been developed from the clinician's point of view. Management of tuberculosis of spine, in general, it is no different than management of soft tissue tuberculosis, in HIV negative or positive patients. Role of surgery is very limited. Management of tubercular paraplegia, based upon the grading of paraplegia is simple, logical, efficient and easy to understand and remember by any orthopedic surgeon.
This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R
Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.
Yeboah, Kwame; Dodam, Kennedy Konlan; Affrim, Patrick Kormla; Adu-Gyamfi, Linda; Bado, Anormah Rashid; Owusu Mensah, Richard N A; Adjei, Afua Bontu; Gyan, Ben
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young adults poses significant cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk for later years. Parental history of CVDs is known to affect the prevalence of CVD risk in adulthood. In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of MetS in young adults and its relationship with parental CVDs is largely unknown. We studied the gender-specific prevalence of MetS and its association with parental history of diabetes, hypertension and CVDs in young adults resident in urban Ghana. In a cross-sectional design, 364 young adults aged 20-30 years were randomly recruited from students of University of Ghana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, lifestyle, medical and parental medical history. Anthropometric indices and blood pressures were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure plasma levels of glucose, lipid profile, urea and creatinine. MetS was defined according to the Joint Scientific Statement criteria. The prevalence of MetS was 12.4%, higher in females than male participants (18.4% vs 5.7, p = 0.019). Female participants had higher levels of all the components of MetS than the male participants. Compared to participants with no history of parental CVDs, participants with parental CVDs had a higher proportion of abdominal obesity. A positive history of parental CVDs was associated with increase in odds of MetS [OR (95% CI): 1.23 (1.12-3.04), p = 0.037]. In our study population, there is relatively high prevalence of MetS; higher in females compared to male participants. Parental history of CVDs was associated with MetS.
The works of physician and naturalist Emílio Joaquim da Silva Maia (1808-59) can be viewed as a scientific project that discovers Brazil and its inhabitants. Maia's nationalism and his romantic view of nature formed the underpinnings of his scientific theories, especially his studies on zoological geography. He subordinated the issue of the biological specificity of different regions of the world to his era's debates on the construction of Brazil as an independent nation. In his interpretations of European natural history, Maia endeavored to understand Brazilian nature as a specific achievement of the Cosmos, in keeping with Alexander von Humboldt's approach.
Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers: To evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. 1993 Annual report
The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags
.... The primary aims of this research were to identify risk factors for these chronic pain syndromes following surgical procedures for breast cancer, characterize their natural history, and examine...
Murphy, Kevin R; Barkley, Russell A; Bush, Tracie
The present study sought to examine subtype differences in comorbidity and in antisocial, educational, and treatment histories among young adults (ages 17-27) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparisons were made between ADHD Combined Type (ADHD-C; N = 60) and Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-I; N = 36) relative to each other and to a community control group of 64 adults. Both ADHD groups had significantly less education, were less likely to have graduated from college, and were more likely to have received special educational placement in high school. Both groups also presented with a greater likelihood of dysthymia, alcohol dependence/abuse, cannabis dependence/abuse, and learning disorders, as well as greater psychological distress on all scales of the SCL-90-R than the control group. Both ADHD groups were more likely to have received psychiatric medication and other mental health services than control adults. In comparison with ADHD-I, adults with ADHD-C differed in only a few respects. The C-type adults were more likely to have oppositional defiant disorder, to experience interpersonal hostility and paranoia, to have attempted suicide, and to have been arrested than the ADHD-I adults. These results are generally consistent with previous studies of ADHD in children, extend these findings to adults with ADHD, and suggest that the greater impulsivity associated with the ADHD-C subtype may predispose toward greater antisocial behavior and its consequences than does ADHD-I type in adults.
Full Text Available We present data and remarks on the history and contents of the whip spider collection housed in the Natural History Museum of Vienna, Austria. The collection comprises a total of 167 specimens from 4 families, 10 genera and 27 species. It includes types of four species: Charinus ioanniticus (Kritscher, 1959, Damon brachialis Weygoldt, 1999, Phrynus parvulus (Pocock, 1902 and Paraphrynus mexicanus (Bilimek, 1867. Short notes on interesting objects and former curators are provided as well as an appendix with a list of species kept alive by Michael Seiter.
Tsenkova, Vera K; Karlamangla, Arun S; Ryff, Carol D
Family history of diabetes is one of the major risk factors for diabetes, but significant variability in this association remains unexplained, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. To our knowledge, no previous work has examined whether psychological factors moderate the degree to which family history of diabetes increases diabetes risk. We investigated the relationships among parental history of diabetes, affective states (positive affect, negative affect, and depressed affect), and diabetes in 978 adults from the MIDUS 2 national sample. As expected, parental history of diabetes was associated with an almost threefold increase in diabetes risk. We found a significant interaction between positive affect and parental history of diabetes on diabetes (p = .009): higher positive affect was associated with a statistically significant lower relative risk for diabetes in participants who reported having a parental history of diabetes (RR = .66 per unit increase in positive affect; 95 % CI = .47; .93), but it did not influence diabetes risk for participants who reported no parental history of diabetes (p = .34). This pattern persisted after adjusting for an extensive set of health and sociodemographic covariates and was independent of negative and depressed affect. These results suggest that psychological well-being may protect individuals at increased risk from developing diabetes. Understanding such interactions between non-modifiable risk factors and modifiable psychological resources is important for delineating biopsychosocial pathways to diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions to prevent the development of diabetes.
Makino, Keitaro; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki
Fear of falling (FOF) is associated with spatial and temporal gait parameters in older adults. FOF is prevalent among older adults, both those with and without fall history. It is still unclear whether the relationships between FOF and gait parameters are affected by fall history. The aim of the present study was to compare gait parameters by the presence of FOF and fall history. A total of 3575 older adults (mean age 71.7 years, 49.7% female) met the inclusion criteria for the present study. We assessed the presence of fall history and FOF by face-to-face interview, and gait parameters (gait speed, stride length, step rate, double support time and variation of stride length) at a comfortable speed using a computerized electronic walkway. Prevalences of fall history and FOF were as follows: non-fallers without FOF 52.6% (n = 1881); fallers without FOF 6.3% (n = 227); non-fallers with FOF 34.4% (n = 1229); and fallers with FOF 6.7% (n = 238). Analysis of covariance showed significant differences among the four groups in all gait variables even after adjusting for age, sex and number of medications used. It should be noted that non-fallers with FOF showed significantly slower gait speed, shorter stride length and longer double support time than did non-fallers without FOF (P fall history. The assessment of FOF might be helpful for better understanding of age-related changes in gait control. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2455-2459. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann
Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a sample of English-speaking Latino young adults. A total of 224 Latino young adults completed a survey that included measures on family communication, cultural factors, religious commitment, and cancer worry. We found that few Latino young adults reported collecting information from their families for the purposes of creating a family health history (18%) or sharing information about hereditary cancer risk with family members (16%). In contrast, slightly more than half of the participants reported generally "talking with their mothers about their family's health history of cancer." Logistic regression results indicated that cancer worry (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-4.93), being female (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 1.02-8.08), and being older (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.01-1.76) were associated with increased rates of collecting information from family members. In contrast, orientation to the Latino culture (OR = 2.81; 95% CI = 1.33-5.94) and religious commitment (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.02-2.32) were associated with increased rates of giving cancer information. Results highlight the need for prevention programs to help further general discussions about a family's history of cancer to more specific information related to family health history.
de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Kovach, Katherine; Dittmar, Emily; Barua, Deepak; Barco, Brenden; Donohue, Kathleen
• Seed dormancy can affect life history through its effects on germination time. Here, we investigate its influence on life history beyond the timing of germination. • We used the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to chilling at the germination and flowering stages to test the following: how seed dormancy affects germination responses to the environment; whether variation in dormancy affects adult phenology independently of germination time; and whether environmental cues experienced by dormant seeds have an effect on adult life history. • Dormancy conditioned the germination response to low temperatures, such that prolonged periods of chilling induced dormancy in nondormant seeds, but stimulated germination in dormant seeds. The alleviation of dormancy through after-ripening was associated with earlier flowering, independent of germination date. Experimental dormancy manipulations showed that prolonged chilling at the seed stage always induced earlier flowering, regardless of seed dormancy. Surprisingly, this effect of seed chilling on flowering time was observed even when low temperatures did not induce germination. • In summary, seed dormancy influences flowering time and hence life history independent of its effects on germination timing. We conclude that the seed stage has a pronounced effect on life history, the influence of which goes well beyond the timing of germination. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
This paper focuses on the response of the Royal Society to the increasing contact with parts of the globe beyond Europe. Such contact was in accord with the programme of Baconian natural history that the early Royal Society espoused, but it also raised basic questions about the extent and nature of the pursuit of natural history. In particular, the paper is concerned with the attention paid to one particular branch of natural history, the study of other peoples and their customs. Such scrutiny of other peoples in distant lands raised basic questions about what methods natural history should employ and the extent to which it could serve as a foundation for more general and theoretical claims. By taking a wide sweep from the beginnings of the Royal Society until the end of the eighteenth century it is hoped light will be shed on the changing understanding of natural history over this period.
Fernández Rodriguez, Conrado M; Gutierrez Garcia, Maria Luisa
Chronic hepatitis C virus infection affects around 150 million persons, and 350,000 persons worldwide die of this disease each year. Although the data on its natural history are incomplete, after the acute infection, most patients develop chronic forms of hepatitis C with variable stages of fibrosis. In these patients, continual inflammatory activity can cause significant fibrosis, cirrhosis, decompensation of the liver disease, or hepatocarcinoma. In the next few years, it is expected that hepatitis C virus infection and its complications will significantly increase, as will the incidence of hepatocarcinoma in Spain. This review presents the data on the natural history of hepatitis C virus infection and discusses the potential impact of antiviral therapy on the distinct stages of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.
Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos
Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800
Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos
Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia.
For fish much of the life history is determined by body size. Body size and asymptotic size significantly influences important life history processes such as growth, maturity, egg production, and natural mortality. Futhermore, for a population to persist, offspring must be able to replace...... their parents on a one-for-one basis in the long run. Otherwise the population would either increase exponentially or become extinct. Combining data on growth and specific fecundity in a size-based fish community model of the North Sea and using the requirement of a one-for-one replacement provides...... the information necessary to estimate the scaling of natural mortality with size and asymptotic size. The estimated scaling is compared with output from multispecies fish stock models, with the empirical scaling of the maximum number of recruits per unit of spawning stock biomass with body size...
Iwaniuk, Andrew N
The comparative study of vertebrate brains is inherently dependent upon access to a sufficient number of species and specimens to perform meaningful comparisons. Although many studies rely on compiling published information, continued specimen collection, in addition to more extensive use of existing brain collections and natural history museums, are crucial for detailed neuroanatomical comparisons across species. This review highlights the importance of collecting species through a variety of means, details a marsupial brain collection, and stresses the potential of natural history museums as a resource for comparative neuroanatomy. By taking advantage of as many of these resources as possible, researchers can rapidly increase species coverage and generate a better understanding of how the brain evolves. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.
Wilson, A J
Competition among individuals is central to our understanding of ecology and population dynamics. However, it could also have major implications for the evolution of resource-dependent life history traits (for example, growth, fecundity) that are important determinants of fitness in natural populations. This is because when competition occurs, the phenotype of each individual will be causally influenced by the phenotypes, and so the genotypes, of competitors. Theory tells us that indirect genetic effects arising from competitive interactions will give rise to the phenomenon of 'evolutionary environmental deterioration', and act as a source of evolutionary constraint on resource-dependent traits under natural selection. However, just how important this constraint is remains an unanswered question. This article seeks to stimulate empirical research in this area, first highlighting some patterns emerging from life history studies that are consistent with a competition-based model of evolutionary constraint, before describing several quantitative modelling strategies that could be usefully applied. A recurrent theme is that rigorous quantification of a competition's impact on life history evolution will require an understanding of the causal pathways and behavioural processes by which genetic (co)variance structures arise. Knowledge of the G-matrix among life history traits is not, in and of itself, sufficient to identify the constraints caused by competition.
Anderson, Valerie R.; Jason, Leonard A.; Hlavaty, Laura E.
In previous qualitative research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), researchers have focused on the experiences of patients with ME/CFS in tertiary care samples, which limit the representativeness of the findings to those with access to health care. This qualitative study examined the natural history of a community-based sample of people with ME/CFS. Participants (n=19) were categorized into persisting, incidence, or remitting groups based on their reported illnes...
Full Text Available Despite different opinions on its definition and classification in the past, a consensus has gradually been reached regarding the naming, classification, and clinical diagnosis of liver failure. The classification of liver failure is described, and the definition and natural history of severe exacerbation of hepatitis B are summarized. Antiviral treatment and artificial liver support in the early stage are beneficial for clinical outcomes and prognosis.
Darwin is the father of evolutionary theory because he identified evolutionary patterns and, with Natural Selection, he ascertained the exquisitely ecological ultimate processes that lead to evolution. The proximate processes of evolution he proposed, however, predated the discovery of genetics, the backbone of modern evolutionary theory. The later discovery of the laws of inheritance by Mendel and the rediscovery of Mendel in the early 20th century led to two reforms of Darwinism: Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis (and subsequent refinements). If Darwin's evolutionary thought required much refinement, his ecological insight is still very modern. In the first edition of The Origin of Species, Darwin did not use either the word "evolution" or the word "ecology". "Ecology" was not coined until after the publication of the Origin. Evolution, for him, was the origin of varieties, then species, which he referred to as well-marked varieties, whereas, instead of using ecology, he used "the economy of nature". The Origin contains a high proportion of currently accepted ecological principles. Darwin labelled himself a naturalist. His discipline (natural history) was a blend of ecology and evolution in which he investigated both the patterns and the processes that determine the organization of life. Reductionist approaches, however, often keep the two disciplines separated from each other, undermining a full understanding of natural phenomena that might be favored by blending ecology and evolution through the development of a modern Theory of Natural History based on Darwin's vision of the study of life.
Nason, G J; Redmond, E J; Considine, S W; Omer, S I; Power, D; Sweeney, P
Leydig cell tumour (LCT) of the testis is a rare histological subtype of stromal tumours, accounting for 1 to 3% of testicular neoplasms. The natural history of LCT is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and natural history of Leydig cell tumours (LCT) of the testes. A search of the National Cancer Registry of Ireland database was performed regarding Leydig cell testicular tumours. Recurrence free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were analysed. Between 1994 and 2013, 2755 new cases of testicular cancer were diagnosed in Ireland. Of these, 22 (0.79%) were Leydig cell tumours. Nineteen were invasive (stage T1) and three were in situ (stage Tis). One patient developed a local recurrence following an organ preserving procedure and underwent a completion orchidectomy 107 days after initial diagnosis. No further treatment was required. There have been no disease-specific deaths. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 95.5, 88.2 and 73.3%, respectively. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 100% and the 5-year recurrence free survival (RFS) was 93.3%. From the National Cancer Registry, LCT has been shown to be a rare subtype of testicular tumour. Due to the relatively favourable natural history, it may be possible to tailor less aggressive surveillance regimens in these patients.
There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turnhout, Esther; Lawrence, Anna; Turnhout, Sander
Biodiversity data are in increasing demand to inform policy and management. A substantial portion of these data is generated in citizen science networks. To ensure the quality of biodiversity data, standards and criteria for validation have been put in place. We used interviews and document analysis from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands to examine how data validation serves as a point of connection between the diverse people and practices in natural history citizen science networks. We found that rather than a unidirectional imposition of standards, validation was performed collectively. Specifically, it was enacted in ongoing circulations of biodiversity records between recorders and validators as they jointly negotiated the biodiversity that was observed and the validity of the records. These collective validation practices contributed to the citizen science character or natural history networks and tied these networks together. However, when biodiversity records were included in biodiversity-information initiatives on different policy levels and scales, the circulation of records diminished. These initiatives took on a more extractive mode of data use. Validation ceased to be collective with important consequences for the natural history networks involved and citizen science more generally. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.
Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K
This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.
Chambliss, Catherine; Termine, Kim; Norton, Jenifer; Barry, Oliver; Bahm, Jonathan; Papas, Adam; Papas, Harris
Research on the correlates of maternal employment has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, 79 male and 120 female undergraduates with mothers who had been employed from the students' infancy through their adolescence scored higher on the Beck Depression Inventory-II than those whose mothers had not been employed. This relationship between children's depressive symptoms and mothers' employment history was not evident among young adults whose mothers' employment was perceived to be financially unnecessary.
Full Text Available En las coordenadas conceptuales que efectivamente pautan el desarrollo de las ciencias biológicas podemos encontrar claves capaces de guiar al pensamiento cuando éste enfrenta escenarios contrafactuales alternativos a lo efectivamente ocurrido. En lo que respecta a ese tópico, la distinción entre una entidad individual y la función que esa entidad puede venir a desempeñar en un determinado proceso o sistema, merece ser destacada como uno de los mayores rendimientos que puede darnos el examen de los marcos teóricos que efectivamente guían el desarrollo de la Biología. A primera vista, estos pueden parecer estrechos, y demasiado apegados a la concreción como para poder enfrentar una Historia Natural de los mundos posibles, pero no lo son. Todo lo que puede caber en esa historia contrafáctica, ya tiene su correlato en la Historia Natural efectiva del mundo que nos rodea; y el pensamiento biológico se desarrolló para enfrentar los desafíos que eso conlleva. [In the conceptual framework, that effectively guides the development of biological sciences, we can find keys able for guiding thought when it faces alternative counterfactual scenarios to what has actually occurred. Concerning this issue, the distinction between an individual entity and the function which that that may come to play in a particular process or system, deserves to be highlighted as one of the conceptual resulting from the examination of the theoretical backgrounds that effectively guide the development of Biology. At first glance, these theoretical backgrounds may seem narrow and too attached to the concreteness, to be able for face a Natural History of possible worlds, but they are not. All that can fit in that counterfactual History already has its correlate in the actual Natural History of the world surrounding us; and biological thinking growth to face the challenges that this entails.
Dyer, Adam H; Foley, Tony; O'Shea, Brendan; Kennelly, Sean P
The collateral (or informant) history is a key component in the assessment of older adults presenting with a memory problem or concern over cognition. Despite this, it rarely features in medical literature and academic curricula. Its role in general practice has never been assessed. The aim of this study is to assess the role of the collateral history in the investigation of cognitive impairment in general practice. An online survey distributed to three nationally representative cohorts of GPs in Ireland (n = 692). Ninety-five (14%; 52.2% male) responded. Nearly all (87%; 83/95) indicate that it is most often a family member who brings possible cognitive impairment to the attention of their GP. The vast majority obtain a collateral history in > 90% of cases (72.6%; 69/95) and rate it very useful in their clinical assessment of cognition. GPs report the collateral history as readily available and rarely refused, with the general practice environment well-suited to obtaining collateral histories. A small minority routinely use the GPCOG informant section (3.2%; 3/95). Nearly all (92.6%; 88/95) report having received no training in obtaining collateral histories with most (79%; 75/95) welcoming of further training in this area. Despite recognition of the utility and importance of the collateral history, the vast majority of GPs report having never received training in obtaining one and do not use structured tools to guide their interview. Further emphasis on the informant history as a distinct clinical entity on medical curricula and increasing emphasis on the availability of structured informant tools are warranted.
Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and
Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew
Abstract Background Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. Aims To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age‐matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Methods & Procedures Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age‐matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Outcomes & Results Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age‐matched peers was
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew
Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age-matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age-matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age-matched peers was in work full time. Participants with DLD were much more likely to be
Some basic concepts for the creation of the Swiss National Park were derived from observations made in Sri Lanka, Indonesia and New Caledonia. European researchers feared that the study of "virgin nature" would no longer be possible, as various species would soon become extinct under the combined influences of colonial practices and profit-oriented capitalism. While the motives for protecting nature originated from experiences made in the southern hemisphere, their scientific concept of conservation was based on European natural history and the related theories of evolution. In the light of this approach, endangered zoological and botanical species as well as "primitive" varieties of man were appreciated as "documents" to be preserved within their original environment for future scientific reference and research. Museum collections and reservations (parks) were two types of repositories connected to each other by the same objective.
Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the axial skeleton and evolves in stiffnes followed by ankylosis and disability. However, it may be difficult to exactly establish the natural history of the disease and the influence of risk factors of progression, since most patients are treated with various pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic agents, which may potentially influence the natural progression of the disease. In this context, we report here a very interesting case of a 40 year old man, presented to our outpatient clinic, 28 years after the onset of AS. Previously for personal reasons, did not choose not to undergo any treatment. This case allows us to evaluate the natural radiological progression of the disease and the influence of predictive risk factors.
Miller, Timothy; Lau, Tsz; Vasan, Rohit; Danner, Christopher; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero
Stereotactic radiosurgery is generally accepted as one of the best treatment options for vestibular schwannomas. We question whether growth control is an accurate measure of success in vestibular schwannoma treatment. We aim to clarify the success rate of stereotactic radiosurgery and adjust the reported results to the benign natural history of untreated tumors. All articles were taken from a PubMed search of the English literature from the years 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were articles containing the number of patients treated, radiation technique, average tumor size, follow-up time, and percentage of tumors growing during follow-up. Data were extracted from 19 articles. Success rates were adjusted using published data that 17% to 30% of vestibular schwannomas grow. The average reported success rate for stereotactic radiosurgery across all articles was 95.5%. When considering 17% or 30% natural growth without intervention, the adjusted success rates became 78.2% and 86.9% respectively. These rates were obtained by applying the natural history growth percentages to any tumors not reported to be growing before radiosurgical intervention. Success in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas with stereotactic radiosurgery is often defined as lack of further growth. Recent data on the natural growth history of vestibular schwannomas raise the question of whether this is the best definition of success. We have identified a lack of continuity regarding the reporting of success and emphasize the importance of the clarification of the success of radiosurgery to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment options for vestibular schwannoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Águas Belas Experimental Station -- Viamão County, one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park -- Itapuã County and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station -- Maquiné County. Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this caracter is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.
This essay examines the exhibition of dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Dinosaurs provide an especially illuminating lens through which to view the history of museum display practices for two reasons: they made for remarkably spectacular exhibits; and they rested on contested theories about the anatomy, life history, and behavior of long-extinct animals to which curators had no direct observational access. The American Museum sought to capitalize on the popularity of dinosaurs while mitigating the risks of mounting an overtly speculative display by fashioning them into a kind of mixed-media installation made of several elements, including fossilized bone, shellac, iron, and plaster. The resulting sculptures provided visitors with a vivid and lifelike imaginative experience. At the same time, curators, who were anxious to downplay the speculative nature of mounted dinosaurs, drew systematic attention to the material connection that tied individual pieces of fossilized bone to the actual past. Freestanding dinosaurs can therefore be read to have functioned as iconic sculptures that self-consciously advertised their indexical content.
Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji
Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The three main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood; (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult self-esteem; and (3) help rule out the alternative interpretation that the relationship between major depression and self-esteem is due to state dependence bias stemming from recent depressive symptoms and stressful life events. To address these objectives we use data from a two-wave panel study based on a community sample of young adults in Miami-Dade County, Florida (n = 1,197). Results indicated a history of major depression during sensitive periods of social development is associated with negative changes in self-esteem over a two-year period during the transition to young adulthood. Among those with a history of depression, earlier onset was more problematic than later onset for young adult self-esteem, although the difference disappeared once the level of self-esteem two years prior was controlled. The linkages between the history and timing of depression onset with self-esteem were observed net of recent depressive symptoms and stressful life events, and thus robust to an alternative interpretation of state dependence. The findings support the argument that major depression, especially if it develops earlier during child-adolescent development, has negative consequences for one’s self-esteem. PMID:21860585
Prendergast, Brian J; Pyter, Leah M
Seasonal changes in numerous aspects of mammalian immune function arise as a result of the annual variation in environmental day length (photoperiod), but it is not known if absolute photoperiod or relative change in photoperiod drives these changes. This experiment tested the hypothesis that an individual's history of exposure to day length determines immune responses to ambiguous, intermediate-duration day lengths. Immunological (blood leukocytes, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions [DTH]), reproductive, and adrenocortical responses were assessed in adult Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) that had been raised initially in categorically long (15-h light/day; 15L) or short (9L) photoperiods and were subsequently transferred to 1 of 7 cardinal experimental photoperiods between 9L and 15L, inclusive. Initial photoperiod history interacted with contemporary experimental photoperiods to determine reproductive responses: 11L, 12L, and 13L caused gonadal regression in hamsters previously exposed to 15L, but elicited growth in hamsters previously in 9L. In hamsters with a 15L photoperiod history, photoperiods history, DTH responses were largely unaffected by increases in day length. Enhancement and suppression of blood leukocyte concentrations occurred at 13L in hamsters with photoperiod histories of 15L and 9L, respectively; however, prior exposure to 9L imparted marked hysteresis effects, which suppressed baseline leukocyte concentrations. Cortisol concentrations were only enhanced in 15L hamsters transferred to 9L and, in common with DTH, were unaffected by photoperiod treatments in hamsters with a 9L photoperiod history. Photoperiod history acquired in adulthood impacts immune responses to photoperiod, but manifests in a markedly dissimilar fashion as compared to the reproductive system. Prior photoperiod exposure has an enduring impact on the ability of the immune system to respond to subsequent changes in day length.
Warchal, Judith R.; Graham, Louise B.
This article integrates the guidelines of American Red Cross and the "Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide" (Brymer et al., 2006) with adult development theories to demonstrate the promotion of adaptive functioning in adults after a disaster. Case examples and recommendations for counselors working in disaster situations are…
Perera, Nadia; Sampaio, Hugo; Woodhead, Helen; Farrar, Michelle
The present study examined the natural history of fracture and vitamin D levels in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients, who are vulnerable to osteoporosis and fractures. Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 48 Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients revealed that 43% of patients experienced ≥1 fracture. Fracture probabilities at ages 6, 9, 12, and 15 years were 4%, 9%, 31%, and 60% respectively, accelerating around the time of ambulation loss (mean age 11.8 ± 2.7 years). Chronic corticosteroid therapy was utilized in 69% of patients and was associated with all vertebral fractures. A history of vitamin D deficiency occurred in 84%, and 35% were currently deficient. Despite chronic vitamin D supplementation, 38% remained deficient. These results demonstrate that osteoporosis and fracture remain major concerns in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Bone health should be optimized well before loss of ambulation, however current levels of vitamin D supplementation may be inadequate given high levels of deficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.
Murphy, Alexander Peter; Straub, Volker
Over sixty years ago John Walton and Frederick Nattrass defined limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) as a separate entity from the X-linked dystrophinopathies such as Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. LGMD is a highly heterogeneous group of very rare neuromuscular disorders whose common factor is their autosomal inheritance. Sixty years later, with the development of increasingly advanced molecular genetic investigations, a more precise classification and understanding of the pathogenesis is possible.To date, over 30 distinct subtypes of LGMD have been identified, most of them inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. There are significant differences in the frequency of subtypes of LGMD between different ethnic populations, providing evidence of founder mutations. Clinically there is phenotypic heterogeneity between subtypes of LGMD with varying severity and age of onset of symptoms. The first natural history studies into subtypes of LGMD are in process, but large scale longitudinal data have been lacking due to the rare nature of these diseases. Following natural history data collection, the next challenge is to develop more effective, disease specific treatments. Current management is focussed on symptomatic and supportive treatments. Advances in the application of new omics technologies and the generation of large-scale biomedical data will help to better understand disease mechanisms in LGMD and should ultimately help to accelerate the development of novel and more effective therapeutic approaches.
Full Text Available The naturalist Charles Darwin founded modern ecology, considering in a single conceptual framework the manifold aspects regarding the organization of life at various levels of complexity and its relationship with the physical world. The development of powerful analytical tools led to abandon Darwin's natural history and to transform naturalists, as Darwin labelled himself, into the practitioners of more focused disciplines, aimed at tackling specific problems that considered the various aspects of the organization of life in great detail but, also, in isolation from each other. Among the various disciplines that stemmed from the Darwinian method, ecology was further split into many branches, and marine ecology was no exception. The compartmentalization of the marine realm into several sub-domains (e.g., plankton, benthos, nekton led to neglect of the connections linking the various parts that were separated for the ease of analyses that, in this way, prevented synthetic visions. The way marine sciences were studied also led to separate visions depending on the employed tools, so that ship-based biological oceanography developed almost separately from marine station-based marine biology. The necessity of putting together such concepts as biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is rapidly leading to synthetic approaches that re-discover the historical nature of ecology, leading to the dawn of a new natural history.
Boyle, Frances; Pendlebury, Susan; Bell, David
Purpose: Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior but potential for response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Optimal treatment regimens are evolving based on reports of case series and a growing understanding of the natural history. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 34 cases treated at two Australian Institutions over 13 years is presented, focusing on clinical features and response to therapy. Results: The aggressive nature of this neoplasm is confirmed by the local recurrence rate of 22% following surgical excision, the development of regional node metastases in 76%, and of distant metastases in 70%. Overall median survival was 24 months with 65% of patients succumbing to metastatic disease. An association with B cell malignancies and immunosuppressive therapy is noted, with these patients having a poorer outcome, and one spontaneous remission was observed. Radiation therapy produced responses in 21 of 30 measurable sites (11 complete, 10 partial), and in 11 sites irradiated prophylactically there was only one infield relapse (9%). Responses to chemotherapy were observed in 8 of 20 applications (40%), particularly carboplatin and etoposide given in the setting of regional node disease. Conclusion: In this poor prognosis tumor, further investigation of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is warranted, as responsiveness of recurrent disease is confirmed. Immunological factors appear important in the natural history, and their manipulation may offer additional therapeutic options
Mizuno, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Aoyagi, Yutaka
Endoscopic removal of colorectal adenomatous polyps effectively prevents cancer. However, the treatment strategy for diminutive polyps (diameter ≤ 5 mm) remains controversial. Understanding the natural history of diminutive polyps is a prerequisite to their effective management. We prospectively examined the natural history of diminutive polyps by long-term surveillance colonoscopy. A total of 207 polyps detected in 112 patients from December 1991 through March 2002 were studied. To avoid potential effects on size and morphological characteristics, all polyps were selected randomly and were followed without biopsy. Polyp size was estimated by comparing the lesion with the diameter of a biopsy forceps. Mean follow up was 7.8 years (SD, 4.8; range, 1.0-18.6; median, 7.5; interquartile range 3.4-11.2). Twenty-four polyps were resected endoscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was mucosal high-grade neoplasia (Category 4) for one polyp, and mucosal low-grade neoplasia (Category 3) for 23 polyps. Mean linear size of the polyps was 3.2 mm (SD, 1.0; range, 1.3-5.0) at initial colonoscopy and 3.8 mm (SD 1.6; range 1.3-10.0) at final colonoscopy (Ppit pattern was associated with a lower growth rate than a type IIIL1 pattern. We clarified the natural history of diminutive polyps by long-term follow-up colonoscopy. The benign course of diminutive polyps should be considered in the design of treatment strategies. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Donadieu, Jean; Beaupain, Blandine; Fenneteau, Odile; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine
This review focuses on the classification, diagnosis and natural history of congenital neutropenia (CN). CN encompasses a number of genetic disorders with chronic neutropenia and, for some, affecting other organ systems, such as the pancreas, central nervous system, heart, bone and skin. To date, 24 distinct genes have been associated with CN. The number of genes involved makes gene screening difficult. This can be solved by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of targeted gene panels. One of the major complications of CN is spontaneous leukaemia, which is preceded by clonal somatic evolution, and can be screened by a targeted NGS panel focused on somatic events. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.
The natural history of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries is of clinical/surgical importance once the fetus is born without heart block or signs of heart failure. Without significant tricuspid valve malformation, associated defects such as ventricular septal defect and left ventricular outflow obstruction can be repaired surgically. The mortality and long-term outcome appear to be linked strongly with the severity of tricuspid valve regurgitation. Some patients with an intact ventricular septum and no right ventricular dysfunction will live long lives without detection, and some women will successfully complete pregnancy.
Schmidinger, A.; Rosahl, S.K.; Vorkapic, P.; Samii, M.
Long-term follow-up reports on chondroid lesions of the skull base are rarely presented in the literature. There are virtually no data on natural growth rates of these tumors based on MRI obtained over a period of 10 years or longer. We followed a patient who has had such a lesion for more than 12 years. A non-progressive, slight abducens palsy has been the only associated symptom so far. Even though the patient was operated on for an additional intracranial arterio-venous malformation, clinical features and chromosomal testing excluded Maffucci's syndrome. The MRI follow-up in this case provides an extraordinary perspective on the natural history of chondroid skull base tumors. (orig.)
Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael
Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. PMID:26389621
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) often provides more precise localization of the meniscus than other imaging modalities. Previous study of the distribution of meniscus position in a control population showed that anterior displacements of more than 10 0 were more than 2 standard deviations from the mean, but the clinical significance and natural history of minimal displacements remained uncertain. Twenty follow-up MR studies were performed after 1-2 years in subjects with minimal meniscus displacements drawn from an original series of 125 symptomatic patients and 50 asymptomatic volunteers. These were correlated with repeated clinical histories and clinical examinations. A significant increase in the amount of anterior displacement was found in 55% of the originally asymptomatic volunteers with minimal displacements, which was accompanied by new symptoms in 40%. This was seen exclusively among those with a history of orthodontia. Worsening anterior displacements were seen in 50% of the patient population, and 25% had associated worsening symptoms. These findings indicate that detection of even minimal displacements of the TMJ meniscus is necessary and warrants follow-up MR examinations. Routine follow-up MR images should be obtained following malocclusion treatment and after major dental procedures
Stam, Heleen; Hartman, Esther E.; Deurloo, Jacqueline A.; Groothoff, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha A.
PURPOSE: To assess the course of life of young adults who grew up with a chronic or life-threatening disease, and to compare their course of life with that of peers from the general population. Optimal transition from pediatric to adult health care requires knowledge of the psychosocial history of
... Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, that meets the definition of unassociated funerary objects under... remains as a ``Pima ... medicine man.'' The two associated funerary objects were a pair of metal spurs. In...
Costanza, R.; Graumlich, L.; Steffen, W.; Crumley, C.; Dearing, J.; Hibbard, K.; Leemans, R.; Redman, C.; Schimel, D.
Understanding the history of how humans have interacted with the rest of nature can help clarify the options for managing our increasingly interconnected global system. Simple, deterministic relationships between environmental stress and social change are inadequate. Extreme drought, for instance,
... from substantial reductions in quality of life. The primary aims of this research project are to identify risk factors for these chronic pain syndromes following surgical procedures for breast cancer, characterize their natural history...
Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E
The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area....
Okiyama, Koichi; Nagano, Osamu; Machida, Toshio; Serizawa, Toru; Ono, Junichi; Higuchi, Yoshinori
The management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is controversial. We aimed to assess the natural history of UIAs and evaluate the surgical results. We analyzed 154 patients (181 saccular UIAs) with no history of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a different aneurysm. Aneurysms were detected by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or by 3-dimensional CT angiography. Although the most frequent reason for the diagnosis was routine brain examinations of healthy patients or a vague symptom such as headache or dizziness, 15 patients were symptomatic. The natural history in patients who did not have surgery (follow-up group: 76 cases, 95 aneurysms) was assessed, and the surgical outcome of UIAs (surgical group: 78 cases, 86 aneurysms) was evaluated. Among 76 patients in the follow-up group, 7 had SAH. The mean latency period to aneurysm rupture was 3.2 months. The aneurysms with subsequent bleeding ranged from 5 to 25 mm (19.3 mm on average), whereas those without ranged from 1 to 28 mm (4.5 mm on average). The rupture rates of UIAs in anterior and posterior circulation were 6.2% and 14.3%, respectively. All ruptured cases were females. Mortality and morbidity associated with UIAs in the follow-up group were 3.9% and 3.9%, respectively. In the surgical group, no mortality was noted. Permanent morbidity associated with prospective repair of UIAs was 5.1%, although the morbidity of the patients with preoperative Rankin scores of 0 or 1 was 1.3%. Transient morbidity was observed in 6 patients (7.7%) with the size of the aneurysm 19.8 mm on average. The natural history and surgical results in patients with UIAs are modified by several factors including aneurysm size and location, the patient's age and gender, the medical status and the patient's preoperative Rankin score. The present results indicated that these factors should be considered in deciding whether to treat UIAs, and that careful assessment of the surgical benefits might be essential
Beachler, Daniel C; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Struijk, Linda; Schussler, John; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Hildesheim, Allan; Cortes, Bernal; Sampson, Joshua; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Kreimer, Aimée R
Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related oropharyngeal cancer are uncommon in lower-income countries, particularly compared to HPV-associated cervical cancer. However, little is known about the natural history of oral HPV in less-developed settings and how it compares to the natural history of cervical HPV. Three hundred fifty women aged 22 to 33 years from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided exfoliated cells from the cervical and oral regions at 2 visits 2 years apart. Samples from both visits were tested for 25 characterized α HPV types by the SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay-LiPA25 version 1 system. Risk factors for oral HPV persistence were calculated utilizing generalized estimating equations with a logistic link. Among the 82 women with characterized α oral HPV DNA detected at baseline, 14 persisted and were detected 2 years later (17.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9-28.5%) and was similar to the persistence of α cervical HPV (40/223; 17.7%; 95% CI, 13.1-23.9%; P = 0.86). Acquisition of new α oral HPV type was low; incident infection (1.7%; 95% CI, 0.6-3.7%). Oral HPV DNA is uncommon in young women in Latin America, and often appears to clear within a few years at similar rates to cervical HPV.
In his 1785-review of the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Kant objects to Herder's conception of nature as being imbued with active forces. This attack is usually evaluated against the background of Kant's critical project and his epistemological concern to caution against the "metaphysical excess" of attributing immanent properties to matter. In this paper I explore a slightly different reading by investigating Kant's pre-critical account of creation and generation. The aim of this is to show that Kant's struggle with the forces of matter has a long history and revolves around one central problem: that of how to distinguish between the non-purposive forces of nature and the intentional powers of the mind. Given this history, the epistemic stricture that Kant's critical project imposes on him no longer appears to be the primary reason for his attack on Herder. It merely aggravates a problem that Kant has been battling with since his earliest writings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hughes, Jacqueline A.; Cook, Jane V.; Warren, Mary E.; Churchill, Mark A.
Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls; age range 5-15 years) with JOCD underwent MRI and clinical follow-up over 5 years. Lesions were classified as stable or unstable on MRI and compared with clinical and arthroscopic data. On 5-year follow-up, 17 of 19 patients were asymptomatic and 2 of 19 had minimal pain. Fourteen arthroscopies were performed on 11/21 knees. One of twenty-one had fragment fixation. On initial MRI, eight knees had marked fragmentation, high signal at the fragment/bone interface and incomplete defects in the hyaline cartilage (MRI stage III-stable), but no tear. Of these, five had arthroscopy, all confirming intact cartilage. One of twenty-one knees was unstable (MRI stage IVb) with a detached osteochondral fragment, requiring surgery. Despite extensive subchondral bone changes on MRI, all cases with intact cartilage (95%) improved with conservative treatment. Early MRI allows prompt diagnosis and institution of conservative treatment. This results in healing and avoidance of surgery in most patients. (orig.)
Reeves, Henry M
Franciscan missionary Fray Bernardino de Sahagún arrived in New Spain (Mexico) in 1529 to proselytize Aztecs surviving the Conquest, begun by Hernán Cortés in 1519. About 1558 he commenced his huge opus "Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España" completed in Latin-Nahuatl manuscript in 1569. The best surviving version, the "Florentine Codex," 1579 in Spanish-Nahuatl, is the basis for the editions published since 1829. The first English translation was issued in 13 volumes between 1950 and 1982, and the first facsimile was published in 1979. Book 11, "Earthly things," is a comprehensive natural history of the Valley of Mexico based on pre-Cortésian Aztec knowledge. Sahagún's work, largely unknown among English-speaking biologists, is an untapped treasury of information about Aztecan natural history. It also establishes the Aztecs as the preeminent pioneering naturalists of North American, and Sahagún and his colleagues as their documentarians.
Labauge, P.; Laberge, S.; Brunereau, L.; Levy, C.; Houtteville, J.P.
Our objective was to determine the natural history and prognostic factors of familial forms of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). Cavernomas are one of the most common central nervous system vascular malformations. Familial CCM is increasingly diagnosed, but little is known about its natural history. In a national survey, we analysed clinical and MRI features of 173 patients from 57 unrelated French families. Of these 40 had undergone at least two clinical and MRI examinations. Occurrence of haemorrhage, new lesions, change in signal intensity and size of lesions have been studied by comparison between first and last MRI studies. The CCM were classified according to Zabramski et al. Mean follow-up was 3.2 years (range 0.5-6.5 years). We followed 232 cavernomas (mean 5.9 per patient, range 1-17). Serial MRI demonstrated changes in 28 patients (70 %). Bleeding occurred in 21 lesions (9.1 %) in 14 patients (35 %). The haemorrhagic risk was 2.5 % per lesion-year, higher in type I and brain-stem CCM. We saw 23 new lesions appear in 11 patients (27.5 %), with an incidence of 0.2 lesions per patient year. Signal change was observed in 11 patients (27.5 %), in 14 lesions (6 %), while 9 lesions (3.9 %) in 9 patients (22.5 %) changed significantly in size. (orig.)
This book collects and updates a series of articles about the natural history of the Mid-Columbia region. The articles first appeared as a monthly column titled ''Natural History'' in the Tri-City Herald, beginning in May 1991. My approach has been to condense the best of what is known about the ecology of the region to a manageable length with little in the way of technical language and terms. Admittedly, there is a bias toward those topics and species on which I have either been personally involved or observed as part of the ecology research programs conducted on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. The ALE Reserve is situated on the northeast-facing flank of the Rattlesnake Hills. Rattlesnake Mountain with a crest of over 3,600 feet is visible throughout much of the Mid-Columbia. Shrub-steppe grasslands once covered a large part of the western United States but most have been converted to other uses. The ALE site is the only remaining sizeable acreage (120 square miles) that is in near pristine condition and provides the only clear indication as to what the early trappers, traders, pioneers, and tribal members may have encountered in their day-to-day activities. In this respect, ALE provides a visible touchstone linking the past with the present for all of us.
Argument I argue through an analysis of spectacle that the relationship between wildlife documentary films' entertainment and educational mandates is complex and co-constitutive. Accuracy-based criticism of wildlife films reveals assumptions of a deficit model of science communication and positions spectacle as an external commercial pressure influencing the genre. Using the Planet Earth (2006) series as a case study, I describe spectacle's prominence within the recent blue-chip renaissance in wildlife film, resulting from technological innovations and twenty-first-century consumer and broadcast market contexts. I connect spectacle in contemporary wildlife films to its relevant precursors within natural history, situating spectacle as a central feature of natural history display designed to inspire awe and wonder in audiences. I show that contemporary documentary spectacle is best understood as an opportunity for affective knowing rather than a constraint on accuracy; as a result, spectacle contributes to the virtuous inter-reinforcement of entertainment and education at work in blue-chip wildlife films.
Faria, Bernardo; Vidinha, Joana; Pêgo, Cátia; Correia, Hugo; Sousa, Tânia
In alkaptonuria, deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its metabolites in the body, resulting in ochronosis. Reports of patients with alkaptonuria who have decreased kidney function are rare, but this seems to play an important role in the natural history of the disease. We describe a 68-year-old female with chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology who started peritoneal dialysis (PD) after 5 years of follow-up and who was diagnosed with alkaptonuria at this time. Progressive exacerbation of ochronotic manifestations had been noted during these last few years, as kidney function worsened. After PD initiation, the disease continued to progress, and death occurred after one year and a half, due to severe aortic stenosis-related complications. Her 70-year-old sister was evaluated and also diagnosed with alkaptonuria. She had no renal dysfunction. Higher HGA excretion and significantly milder ochronosis than that of her sister were found. We present two alkaptonuric sisters with similar comorbidities except for the presence of CKD, who turned out to have totally different evolutions of their disease. This report confirms that kidney dysfunction may be an important factor in determining the natural history of alkaptonuria. PMID:25874097
Tu, Albert; Gooderham, Peter; Mick, Paul; Westerberg, Brian; Toyota, Brian; Akagami, Ryojo
Objective To describe our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery and its efficacy on growing tumors, and then to compare this result with the natural history of a similar cohort of non-radiation-treated lesions. Study Design A retrospective chart review and cohort comparison. Methods The long-term control rates of patients having undergone radiosurgery were collected and calculated, and this population was then compared with a group of untreated patients from the same period of time with growing lesions. Results A total of 61 patients with growing vestibular schwannomas treated with radiosurgery were included. After a mean of 160 months, we observed a control rate of 85.2%. When compared with a group of 36 patients with growing tumors who were yet to receive treatment (previously published), we found a corrected control rate or relative risk reduction of only 76.8%. Conclusion Radiosurgery for growing vestibular schwannomas is less effective than previously reported in unselected series. Although radiosurgery still has a role in managing this disease, consideration should be given to the actual efficacy that may be calculated when the natural history is known. We hope other centers will similarly report their experience on this cohort of patients.
Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.
Hughes, Jacqueline A.; Cook, Jane V.; Warren, Mary E. [Radiology Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton, Surrey SM5 1AA (United Kingdom); Churchill, Mark A. [Orthopaedic Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton (United Kingdom)
Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls; age range 5-15 years) with JOCD underwent MRI and clinical follow-up over 5 years. Lesions were classified as stable or unstable on MRI and compared with clinical and arthroscopic data. On 5-year follow-up, 17 of 19 patients were asymptomatic and 2 of 19 had minimal pain. Fourteen arthroscopies were performed on 11/21 knees. One of twenty-one had fragment fixation. On initial MRI, eight knees had marked fragmentation, high signal at the fragment/bone interface and incomplete defects in the hyaline cartilage (MRI stage III-stable), but no tear. Of these, five had arthroscopy, all confirming intact cartilage. One of twenty-one knees was unstable (MRI stage IVb) with a detached osteochondral fragment, requiring surgery. Despite extensive subchondral bone changes on MRI, all cases with intact cartilage (95%) improved with conservative treatment. Early MRI allows prompt diagnosis and institution of conservative treatment. This results in healing and avoidance of surgery in most patients. (orig.)
Forato, Thais Cyrino de Mello; Martins, Roberto de Andrade; Pietrocola, Mauricio
This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the…
Howe, Eric M.
This paper examines how using a series of lessons developed from the history of research on sickle cell anemia affects preservice teacher conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The importance of a pedagogy that has students do science through an integral use of the history of science is effective at enriching students' NOS views is presented.…
Gamble, Katherine R; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan, 1995, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 169-182) suggests that exposure to nature improves attention. Berman, Jonides, and Kaplan (2008, Psychological Science, 19, 1207-1212) showed that simply viewing nature pictures improves executive attention in young adults. The present study is the first to investigate this Nature Effect in older adults. The authors investigated whether executive attention could be improved in healthy older adults following brief exposure to nature pictures. Thirty healthy older adults (64-79 years old) and 26 young university students (18-25 years old) participated. They completed the Attention Network Test before and after 6 min of viewing either nature or urban pictures, with random assignment into a picture type. Attention immediately before (most fatigued) and after (most restored) picture viewing was measured, and change in attention was compared between age groups and picture types. Results showed that viewing nature, but not urban, pictures significantly improved executive attention in both older and young adults as measured by the Attention Network Test, with similar effects seen in the two age groups. Alerting and orienting attention scores were not affected by picture viewing. This was the first study to show that viewing nature pictures improves attention in older adults, and to show that it is executive attention, specifically, that is improved. Among a growing number of interventions, nature exposure offers a quick, inexpensive, and enjoyable means to provide a temporary boost in executive attention.
Magnani, Maria Beatrice; Blanpied, Michael L; DeShon, Heather R; Hornbach, Matthew J
To assess whether recent seismicity is induced by human activity or is of natural origin, we analyze fault displacements on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles for two regions in the central United States (CUS): the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) of Texas and the northern Mississippi embayment (NME). Since 2009, earthquake activity in the CUS has increased markedly, and numerous publications suggest that this increase is primarily due to induced earthquakes caused by deep-well injection of wastewater, both flowback water from hydrofracturing operations and produced water accompanying hydrocarbon production. Alternatively, some argue that these earthquakes are natural and that the seismicity increase is a normal variation that occurs over millions of years. Our analysis shows that within the NME, faults deform both Quaternary alluvium and underlying sediments dating from Paleozoic through Tertiary, with displacement increasing with geologic unit age, documenting a long history of natural activity. In the FWB, a region of ongoing wastewater injection, basement faults show deformation of the Proterozoic and Paleozoic units, but little or no deformation of younger strata. Specifically, vertical displacements in the post-Pennsylvanian formations, if any, are below the resolution (~15 m) of the seismic data, far less than expected had these faults accumulated deformation over millions of years. Our results support the assertion that recent FWB earthquakes are of induced origin; this conclusion is entirely independent of analyses correlating seismicity and wastewater injection practices. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discriminate natural and induced seismicity using classical structural geology analysis techniques.
Holmberg, Lars; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke
This chapter aims to serve as a quick glance outlining an overall picture of mainstream thoughts, and to serve as a point of departure for more thorough discussions. The introduction of PSA testing has immensely complicated research in prostate cancer epidemiology and biology and added new clinical and biological domains. As for many cancers, age and ethnic origin are the strongest known risk factors. While migrant studies imply that environment and/or personal life style is important, epidemiological studies have failed to establish any strong leads. Despite the known androgen dependence of prostate cancer, there is little to support that circulating levels of androgens, estrogens or 5-alpha-reductase are associated with risk of developing the disease. However, a consistent finding is a positive association with levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Prostate cancer is one of the cancers most strongly related to inherited susceptibility, even when taking into account that family history of prostate cancer triggers PSA testing among relatives. A number of somatic genetic alterations (amplifications, deletions, point mutations, translocations) are associated with prostate cancer risk. Findings for alterations in FASN, HPN, AMACR and MYC have been fairly consistent. Recent research shows that the notion of "hormone-independent prostate cancer" has to be revised: most prostate cancers remain dependent on androgen receptor signalling also after progression despite traditional androgen deprivation therapy. Traditional markers of stage and type of disease still play a major role for prognostication and treatment decisions. Prostate cancer is one of the few cancers where patients have been recommended watchful waiting or active surveillance. This provides opportunities for studies of natural history of the disease. The understanding of prostate cancer aetiology and natural history has progressed slowly. However, the current situation is positively challenging and
Montgomery, D H; Ververis, J J; McGorisk, G; Frohwein, S; Martin, R P; Taylor, W R
This study sought to prospectively observe the morphologic and clinical natural history of severe atherosclerotic disease of the thoracic aorta as defined by transesophageal echocardiography. Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta has been shown to be highly associated with risk for embolic events in transesophageal studies, but the natural history of the disease under clinical conditions has not been reported. During a 20-month period, 191 of 264 patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography had adequate visualization of the aorta to allow atherosclerotic severity to be graded as follows: grade I = normal (44 patients); grade II = intimal thickening (52 patients); grade III = atheroma or = 5 mm (19 patients); grade V = mobile lesion (14 patients). All available patients with grades IV (8 patients) and V (10 patients) disease as well as a subgroup of 12 patients with grade III disease had follow-up transesophageal echocardiographic studies (mean [+/- SD] 11.7 +/- 0.9 months, range 6 to 22). Of 30 patients undergoing follow-up transesophageal echocardiographic studies, 20 (66%) had no change in atherosclerotic severity grade. Of the remaining 10 patients, atherosclerotic severity progressed one grade in 7 and decreased in 3 with resolved mobile lesions. Of 18 patients with grade IV or V disease of the aorta who underwent a follow-up study, 11 (61%) demonstrated formation of new mobile lesions. Of 10 patients with grade V disease on initial study who underwent follow-up study, 7 (70%) demonstrated resolution of a specific previously documented mobile lesion. However, seven patients (70%) with grade V disease also demonstrated development of a new mobile lesion. Of 33 patients with grade IV or V disease, 8 (24%) died during the study period, and 1 (3%) had a clinical embolic event. The presence of severe atherosclerotic disease of the thoracic aorta as defined by transesophageal echocardiography is associated with a high mortality rate. Although the morphologic
Calogiuri, Giovanna; Elliott, Lewis R
Exercise in natural environments ("green exercise") confers numerous health benefits, but little is known about why people engage in green exercise. This study examined the importance of nature experiences as a motive for physical activity and the motivational profile of people who engage in green exercise compared to gym- and sports-based exercise. Physical activity motives and typical times spent in different domains of physical activity were reported by 2168 Norwegian adults in a survey. Experiencing nature was generally rated as the second-most important physical activity motive, exceeded only by convenience motives, and it was especially important for older adults and those who engage in greater amounts of instrumental physical activity. Green exercisers reported stronger motives concerning convenience and experiencing nature, whereas gym- or sports-based exercisers reported stronger motives for physical health and sociability. The motives associated with different leisure-time exercise domains may assist in understanding optimal promotion of green exercise.
Winney, I S; Schroeder, J; Nakagawa, S; Hsu, Y-H; Simons, M J P; Sánchez-Tójar, A; Mannarelli, M-E; Burke, T
How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness. We did not detect maternal effects on any traits, but we did detect a social brood effect on nestling activity. Boldness, exploration and nestling activity in this population did not form a behavioural syndrome, suggesting that selection could act independently on these behavioural traits in this species, although we found no consistent support for phenotypic selection on these traits. Our work shows that repeatable behaviours can vary in their heritability and that social context influences personality traits. Future efforts could separate whether personality traits differ in heritability because they have served specific functional roles in the evolution of the phenotype or because our concept of personality and the stability of behaviour needs to be revised. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Sakyi, Kwame S; Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Surkan, Pamela J
The joint effects of multiple social risk factors on substance use, such as parental divorce and parental history of depression, have rarely been studied in young adult offspring. We examined the combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on current cannabis use among a community sample of young adults in France. Parental divorce was ascertained as divorce or separation before 2009. Parental history of depression based on parental reports of depression (1989-2009) and offspring reports of parental lifetime history of depression. Current cannabis use was defined as use at least once in the preceding 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models controlling for young adult and parental socio-demographic variables. Approximately one fourth of youth (23%) reported consuming cannabis at least once in the past year. At the same time, 15% had parents who were divorced and 30% parents with a history of depression. The association between parental divorce and cannabis use in young adults was not statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 0.97-2.31). History of parental depression conferred a marginally statistically significant 42% higher odds of young adult cannabis use (adjusted OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.00-2.01). Young adults who experienced both parental history of divorce and depression were more than two times as likely to be current cannabis users compared to those who experienced neither of these (adjusted OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.26-4.48). Our findings highlight the critical importance of considering familial context in understanding cannabis use in young adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Xiang; Heianza, Yoriko; Nisa, Hoirun; Shang, Xiaoyun; Rabito, Felicia; Kelly, Tanika; Harville, Emily; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia; Chen, Wei; Qi, Lu
Asthma is related to various cardiovascular risk. Whether a history of asthma from childhood contributes to arterial stiffness in adulthood, a noninvasive surrogate for cardiovascular events, is unknown. Prospective analyses were performed among 1746 Bogalusa Heart Study participants aged 20 to 51 years with data on self-report asthma collected since childhood. Aorta-femoral pulse wave velocity (af-PWV, m/s) was repeatedly assessed among adults ≥aged 18 years. Generalized linear mixed models and generalized linear models were fitted for the repeated measurements of af-PWV and its changes between the last and the first measurements, respectively. After a median follow-up of 11.1 years, participants with a history of asthma from childhood had a higher af-PWV (6.78 versus 6.13; P =0.048) and a greater increase in af-PWV (8.99 versus 2.95; P =0.043) than those without asthma, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking status, heart rate, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, lipids, and glycemia. In addition, we found significant interactions of asthma with body mass index and systolic blood pressure on af-PWV and its changes ( P for interaction The associations of asthma with af-PWV and its changes appeared to be stronger among participants who were overweight and obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ) or with prehypertension and hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥120 mm Hg) compared with those with a normal body mass index or systolic blood pressure. Our findings indicate that a history of asthma from childhood is associated with higher af-PWV and greater increases in af-PWV, and such associations are stronger among young adults who are overweight or with elevated blood pressure. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Bali, Taha; Self, Wade; Liu, Jingxia; Siddique, Teepu; Wang, Leo H; Bird, Thomas D; Ratti, Elena; Atassi, Nazem; Boylan, Kevin B; Glass, Jonathan D; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Caress, James B; McCluskey, Leo F; Appel, Stanley H; Wymer, James P; Gibson, Summer; Zinman, Lorne; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Callaghan, Brian; McVey, April L; Jockel-Balsarotti, Jennifer; Allred, Peggy; Fisher, Elena R; Lopate, Glenn; Pestronk, Alan; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Miller, Timothy M
Understanding the natural history of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by SOD1 mutations (ALS SOD1 ) will provide key information for optimising clinical trials in this patient population. To establish an updated natural history of ALS SOD1 . Retrospective cohort study from 15 medical centres in North America evaluated records from 175 patients with ALS with genetically confirmed SOD1 mutations, cared for after the year 2000. Age of onset, survival, ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS) scores and respiratory function were analysed. Patients with the A4V (Ala-Val) SOD1 mutation (SOD1 A4V ), the largest mutation population in North America with an aggressive disease progression, were distinguished from other SOD1 mutation patients (SOD1 non-A4V ) for analysis. Mean age of disease onset was 49.7±12.3 years (mean±SD) for all SOD1 patients, with no statistical significance between SOD1 A4V and SOD1 non-A4V (p=0.72, Kruskal-Wallis). Total SOD1 patient median survival was 2.7 years. Mean disease duration for all SOD1 was 4.6±6.0 and 1.4±0.7 years for SOD1 A4V . SOD1 A4V survival probability (median survival 1.2 years) was significantly decreased compared with SOD1 non-A4V (median survival 6.8 years; p<0.0001, log-rank). A statistically significant increase in ALS-FRS decline in SOD1 A4V compared with SOD1 non-A4V participants (p=0.02) was observed, as well as a statistically significant increase in ALS-forced vital capacity decline in SOD1 A4V compared with SOD1 non-A4V (p=0.02). SOD1 A4V is an aggressive, but relatively homogeneous form of ALS. These SOD1-specific ALS natural history data will be important for the design and implementation of clinical trials in the ALS SOD1 patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Jabbour, Jad; Martin, Timothy; Beste, David; Robey, Thomas
IMPORTANCE The clinical course and outcomes of pediatric vocal fold immobility (VFI) vary widely in the literature, and follow-up in these patients varies accordingly. A better understanding of the natural history of pediatric VFI is crucial to improved management. OBJECTIVE To characterize the natural history of pediatric VFI, including symptoms and rates of resolution and surgical intervention. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective review at an academically affiliated private pediatric otolaryngology practice in a metropolitan area of all patients seen between July 15, 2001, and September 1, 2012, with a diagnosis of complete or partial VFI. After elimination of 92 incomplete or duplicate files, 404 patient records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, etiologies, symptoms, follow-up, resolution, and interventions. Follow-up records were available for 362 patients (89.6%). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Resolution of VFI confirmed by repeated laryngoscopy, length of follow-up, and surgical intervention rates. RESULTS Among the 404 patients, left VFI was present in 66.8%, right VFI in 7.9%, and bilateral VFI in 25.3%. Median (range) age at presentation was 2.9 (0-528.1) months. Major etiological categories included cardiac surgery in 68.8%, idiopathic immobility in 21.0%, and neurologic disease in 7.4%. At presentation, 61.4%experienced dysphonia, 54.0%respiratory symptoms, and 49.5%dysphagia. Tracheotomy was performed in 25.7%and gastrostomy in 40.8%. Median (range) duration of follow-up among the 89.6%of patients with follow-up was 17.2 (0.2-173.5) months. Resolution evidenced by laryngoscopy was found in 28.0%, with a median (range) time to resolution of 4.3 (0.4-38.7) months. In patients without laryngoscopic resolution, median follow-up was 26.0 months, and 28.9% reported symptomatic resolution. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The natural history of pediatric VFI involves substantial morbidity, with lasting symptoms and considerable rates of surgical
Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers.
Cohen, Joseph R; Adams, Zachary W; Menon, Suvarna V; Youngstrom, Eric A; Bunnell, Brian E; Acierno, Ron; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Danielson, Carla Kmett
The present study's aim was to provide the foundation for an efficient, empirically based protocol for depression screening following a natural disaster. Utilizing a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analytic approach, the study tested a) what specific disaster-related stressors (i.e., property damage, loss of basic services) and individual-related constructs (i.e., PTSD symptoms, trauma history, social support) conveyed the greatest risk for post-natural disaster depression, b) specific cutoff scores across these measures, and c) whether the significance or cutoff scores for each construct varied between adolescents and adults. Structured phone-based clinical interviews were conducted with 2000 adolescents who lived through a tornado and 1543 adults who survived a hurricane. Findings suggested that in both adolescents and adults, individual-related constructs forecasted greater risk for depressive symptoms following a natural disaster compared to disaster-related stressors. Furthermore, trauma history and PTSD symptoms were particularly strong indicators for adolescent depressive symptoms compared to adult depressive symptoms. Adolescents and adults who reported vulnerable scores for social support, trauma history, and lifetime PTSD symptoms were approximately twice as likely to present as depressed following the natural disaster. Findings from the present study were limited to post-disaster assessments and based on self-reported functioning 6-12 months following the natural disaster. The present study synthesizes the extensive body of research on post-disaster functioning by providing a clear framework for which questions may be most important to ask when screening for depression following a natural disaster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG among Omani adults with no family history (FH of diabetes and to investigate the factors behind the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D, while excluding a FH of diabetes. Methods: A total of 1,182 Omani adults, aged ≥40 years, visited the Family Medicine & Community Health Clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, on days other than the Diabetes Clinic days, from July 2010 to July 2011. The subjects were interviewed and asked if they had T2D or a FH of T2D. Results: Only 191 (16% reported no personal history of T2D or FH of the disease. Of these, anthropometric and biochemical data was complete in 159 subjects. Of these a total of 42 (26% had IFG according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Body mass index, fasting insulin, haemoglobin A1C and blood pressure (BP, were significantly higher among individuals with IFG (P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.01 and P <0.01, respectively. In addition, fasting insulin, BP and serum lipid profile were correlated with obesity indices (P <0.05. Obesity indices were strongly associated with the risk of IFG among Omanis, with waist circumference being the strongest predictor. Conclusion: Despite claiming no FH of diabetes, a large number of Omani adults in this study had a high risk of developing diabetes. This is possibly due to environmental factors and endogamy. The high prevalence of obesity combined with genetically susceptible individuals is a warning that diabetes could be a future epidemic in Oman.
Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Alosco, Michael; Inge, Thomas H; Rochette, Amber; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John
Cognitive deficits occur in a subset of individuals with obesity. Deficits can be reversed with bariatric surgery, though cognitive recovery is not equally exhibited across patients. Recent work has found that obesity during adolescence portends medical complications in adulthood; it is unknown if obesity in adolescence predicts adult cognition or cognitive recovery after weight loss surgery. The present study examines the relationship between weight history and cognitive function in obese adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Academic medical centers with bariatric care services. Seventy-eight bariatric surgery patients (mean age = 43.2 years) enrolled in an ancillary study to the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) project completed a questionnaire recalling weight history at age 18. Cognitive testing was completed preoperatively and at 12-month follow-up. Weight status at age 18 was linked to performance in several aspects of cognition. Higher body mass index at age 18 predicted poorer preoperative verbal fluency (B = -.26, P = .045) as well as postoperative cognitive recovery in attention (B = -.30, P = .01) at 12-month follow-up. Higher body mass index at age 18 predicts verbal fluency performance in adults with obesity, as well as postoperative recovery of attention after bariatric surgery. The mechanisms underlying this connection are not fully clear, though findings may reflect effects of obesity on the brain during a crucial period of neural maturation or duration of obesity and cumulative impact of co-morbidities on cognition. Future work examining possible causal factors involved in these relationships is needed. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gioia, Stefania; Nardelli, Silvia; Pasquale, Chiara; Pentassuglio, Ilaria; Nicoletti, Valeria; Aprile, Francesca; Merli, Manuela; Riggio, Oliviero
The knowledge of natural history of patients with portal hypertension (PH) not due to cirrhosis is less well known than that of cirrhotic patients. To describe the clinical presentation and the outcomes of 89 patients with non-cirrhotic PH (25 with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, INCPH, and 64 with chronic portal vein thrombosis, PVT) in comparison with 77 patients with Child A cirrhosis. The patients were submitted to a standardized clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and endoscopic follow-up. Variceal progression, incidence of variceal bleeding, portal vein thrombosis, ascites and survival were recorded. At presentation, the prevalence of varices, variceal bleeding and ascites was similar in the 3 groups. During follow-up, the rate of progression to varices at risk of bleeding (p portal hypertension in these patients and cannot be simply derived by the observation of cirrhotic patients. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tovar Rodriguez, William; Chacon Ortiz, Andres; Duran, Rosa de Jesus
Hypsiboas lanciformis is a tree frog belonging to the albopunctatus group. Its distribution ranges from Bolivia, Brazil, Peru to Colombia and Venezuela. We studied the status of a population inhabiting the realms property of Complejo Uribante-Caparo, CORPOELEC, in Tachira state (southwestern Andean Venezuela), by monitoring their call and visual detection across transects, gathering information on their abundance; available space, and other natural history accounts. The abundance decreases as the dry season progresses, while individuals show an aggregate spatial arrangement. Individuals were vocalizing at the edges of secondary forest adjacent to disturbed areas. This species is sympatric with the hylids Hypsiboas pugnax and Scinax manriquei. Some individuals revealed the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites that might be affecting the species survivalship.
Warren, Timothy A; Nagle, Christina M; Bowman, James; Panizza, Benedict J
Understanding the natural history of diseases enables the clinician to better diagnose and treat their patients. Perineural spread of head and neck cancers are poorly understood and often diagnosis is delayed resulting in poorer outcomes and more debilitating treatments. This article reviews a large personal series of head and neck malignancy presenting with perineural spread along almost exclusively the trigeminal and/or facial nerves. A detailed analysis of squamous cell carcinoma of cutaneous origin is presented including an analysis of likely primaries, which most often have occurred months to years prior. The importance of early detection is reinforced by the highly significant (p < 0.0001) differences in disease specific survival, which occur, depending on how far along a cranial nerve the disease has been allowed to spread.
Full Text Available Natural history collections contain data that are critical for many scientific endeavors. Recent efforts in mass digitization are generating large datasets from these collections that can provide unprecedented insight. Here, we present examples of how deep convolutional neural networks can be applied in analyses of imaged herbarium specimens. We first demonstrate that a convolutional neural network can detect mercury-stained specimens across a collection with 90% accuracy. We then show that such a network can correctly distinguish two morphologically similar plant families 96% of the time. Discarding the most challenging specimen images increases accuracy to 94% and 99%, respectively. These results highlight the importance of mass digitization and deep learning approaches and reveal how they can together deliver powerful new investigative tools.
Keeffe Emmet B
Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV coinfection is not uncommon as a result of similar routes of infection. Patients who are coinfected represent a unique group with diverse serologic profiles. Combined chronic hepatitis B and C leads to more severe liver disease and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, coinfected patients represent a treatment challenge. No standard recommendations exist for treatment of viral hepatitis due to dual HBV/HCV infection, and therefore treatment must be individualized based on patient variables such as serologic and virologic profiles, patient's prior exposure to antiviral treatment, and the presence of other parenterally transmitted viruses such as hepatitis D virus and human immunodeficiency virus. The natural history and treatment of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection is reviewed.
Powles, W E; Alexander, M G
For some years we have speculated as to whether Queen Victoria suffered a definable psychiatric illness in her notorious and prolonged seclusion after the Prince Consort's death. We here summarize criteria for grief and depression from three authorities. Against these, we examine the natural history of the Queen's bereavement and restitution. We find that her suffering and her portrayal of the role of widow were related to her personal style and were culturally accepted. Her self-esteem, ego functions, and object relatedness were preserved. While some clinicians might favour a diagnosis of Dysthymic Disorder, we find the evidence strongly in favour of an intense, prolonged, normal human grief (Uncomplicated Bereavement of DSM III) coloured by a romantic and histrionic personal style. Intensity and duration do not, in this case, establish a diagnosis of depression.
Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus
Segmentation of children with asthma and other wheezy disorders remains the main research challenge today, as it was when described 2 centuries ago. Early childhood wheezy disorders follow different temporal trajectories, probably representing different underlying mechanisms (endophenotypes...... secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies......). Prospective identification of endophenotypes allowing accurate prediction of the clinical course is currently not possible. The variability of the clinical course remains an enigma and difficult to predict. Three of 4 school-aged children with asthma have outgrown disease by midadulthood. The risk...
Satow, Yukio; Ohmae, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Naomasa; Abe, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Shoji
The subjects of this study are mainly pairs of monozygotic twins, one of whom was exposed to the atomic bomb and the other not exposed, and the natural history of the diseases of these twins was analyzed to find out genetic and environmental factors of the diseases and some biological effect of the atomic bomb exposure or other. In this study, 13 pairs of monozygotic and 5 pairs of dizygotic twins and other 34 cases of non-twins were examined by means of heart and lung X-ray films and electrocardiograms. The results suggest that most of the monozygotic twins show the similar findings of chest X-ray films, though their electrocardiograms have a tendency to deviate to the left in the QRS axis. These findings will not be enough to clear up the relation between the atomic bomb exposed and the abnormal electrocardiograms. (author)
Schuettpelz, Eric; Frandsen, Paul B; Dikow, Rebecca B; Brown, Abel; Orli, Sylvia; Peters, Melinda; Metallo, Adam; Funk, Vicki A; Dorr, Laurence J
Natural history collections contain data that are critical for many scientific endeavors. Recent efforts in mass digitization are generating large datasets from these collections that can provide unprecedented insight. Here, we present examples of how deep convolutional neural networks can be applied in analyses of imaged herbarium specimens. We first demonstrate that a convolutional neural network can detect mercury-stained specimens across a collection with 90% accuracy. We then show that such a network can correctly distinguish two morphologically similar plant families 96% of the time. Discarding the most challenging specimen images increases accuracy to 94% and 99%, respectively. These results highlight the importance of mass digitization and deep learning approaches and reveal how they can together deliver powerful new investigative tools.
Spiegel, Carolina N; Dias, Denise B Dos Santos; Araki, Alejandra S; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Jones, Théresa M
In this paper we review the natural history of pheromone communication and the current diversity of aggregation-sex pheromones in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. This species complex is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The identification of variation in pheromone chemotypes combined with molecular and sound analyses have all contributed to our understanding of the extent of divergence among cryptic members of this complex. The importance of chemical signals as pre-mating barriers and drivers of speciation is discussed. Moreover, the importance of aggregation-sex pheromones as sexually selected signals is highlighted with evidence from the literature suggesting their potential role in species and mate recognition as well as mate assessment. The distinct evolutionary forces possibly involved are briefly reviewed and discussed in the context of this intriguing insect.
Solomon, N; Kachani, M; Zeyhle, E; Macpherson, C N L
The World Health Organization (WHO) treatment protocols for cystic echinococcosis (CE) are based on the standardized ultrasound (US) classification. This study examined whether the classification reflected the natural history of CE in untreated and albendazole-treated patients. Data were collected during mass US screenings in CE endemic regions among transhumant populations, the Turkana and Berber peoples of Kenya and Morocco. Cysts were classified using the WHO classification. Patient records occurring prior to treatment, and after albendazole administration, were selected. 852 paired before/after observations of 360 cysts from 257 patients were analyzed. A McNemar-Bowker χ 2 test for symmetry was significant (palbendazole-treated patients was significant (palbendazole-induced changes. Regressions may reflect the stability of CE3B cysts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Fujisaki, Natsumi; Suwazono, Shugo; Suehara, Masahito; Nakachi, Ryo; Kido, Miwako; Fujiwara, Yoshihisa; Oshiro, Saki; Tokashiki, Takashi; Takashima, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Masanori
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is a motor and sensory neuronopathy with autosomal dominant inheritance, adult onset, slowly progressive course, and is associated with TRK-fused gene (TFG) mutation. At advanced stages, respiratory failure and dysphagia becomes life-threatoning, and patients typically die by their 70s. Although there is currently no evidence for effective treatment, a therapy may be found by elucidation of the function of TFG. Recently its pathomechanism has been proposed to be associated with abnormalities in protein transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum. Such pathomechanisms might involve a similar process in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; thus, its pathomechanisms and treatment strategy might make it a good model for neurodegenerative disorders. It is of great value to clarify the natural history of HMSN-P, in oder to judge the treatment effect. By evaluating 97 patients (79 out of 97 were examined and all confirmed with p.Pro 285 Leu mutation) in this study, it was confirmed that this disease follows a uniform course in the earlier stages, and there are individual differences in the onset between 20 and 30 years. Such uniformity might be due to the proposed single gene abnormality. At advanced stages, there are larger individual differences in the progression, but the reasons for these are unknown. Longer survival might be achieved with a better care for respiratory failure and dysphagia if such cares were undertaken at appropriate times.
This book features Louis Agassiz’s seminal lecture course in which the Swiss-American scientist, a self-styled “American Humboldt,” summarized the state of zoological knowledge in his time. Though Darwin’s theory of evolution would soon dismantle his idealist science, Agassiz’s lectures are nonetheless modern in their insistence on the social and cultural importance of the scientific enterprise. An extensive, well-illustrated introduction by Agassiz’s biographer, Christoph Irmscher, situates Agassiz’s lectures in the context of his life and nineteenth-century science, while also confronting the deeply problematic aspects of his legacy. Profusely annotated, this edition offers fascinating insights into the history of science and appeals to anyone with an interest in zoology and natural history. “Christoph Irmscher provides a scholarly and insightful analysis of the intentions and beliefs of Louis Agassiz, a larger-than-life scientist of the mid-19th century and fierce opponent of Charles Darwi...
Lee, Seonhye; Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son
Background : Although fear of falling (FOF) has been studied since FOF has negative consequences for the elderly, there is limited information about the risk factors of FOF, including the environment. The purpose of this study was to describe individual and environmental factors of FOF between those with and without a fall history from an ecological aspect and to examine whether individual and environmental factors differently affect the FOF according to the state of fall history in community-dwelling older adults in Korea. Methods : Data from the 2014 Survey of Living Conditions and Welfare Needs of Korean Older Adults were used. Participants were 7730 older adults. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the predictors of FOF. Results : According to the ecological model, female and discomfort with the neighborhood environment were significantly associated with greater odds of reporting FOF in both older adults with fall history and those without. A significant interaction was not observed between any variable of FOF in participants with and without a fall history. Conclusions : An ecological model including individual and environmental factors should be considered when conducting research and designing programs and decision policies related to FOF for older adults with and without a history of falling.
Stoffer, Philip W.; Gordon, Leslie C.
A National Association of Geoscience Teachers Far Western Section (NAGT-FWS) field conference is an ideal forum for learning about the geology and natural history of the San Francisco Bay area. We visit classic field sites, renew old friendships, and make new ones. This collection of papers includes field guides and road logs for all of the Bay-area trips held during the NAGT-FWS 2001 Fall Field Conference and supplemental chapters on other aspects of the area’s natural and human history. The trips touch on many aspects of the geology and natural hazards of the Bay area, especially urban problems associated with living on an active tectonic plate margin: earthquake faults, coastal erosion, landslides, and the utilization of land and natural resources. We hope this conference not only provides a two-day learning opportunity for conference participants but that students and educators will use this field guidebook for future teaching and research.Many thanks are due to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and San José State University (SJSU) for cohosting the conference. We are grateful to each of the field trip leaders for preparing the trips and writing the accompanying guides. We especially appreciate the many hours put in by the guidebook reviewers, Robert I. Tilling (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and to the USGS Western Publications Group for editing, layout, and web posting. Additional guidebook contributions include articles by John Galloway, Scott Starratt, Page Mosier, and Susan Toussaint. During the conference guest speakers include Robert I. Tilling (USGS Volcano Hazards Team) and Ross Stein (USGS Earthquake Hazards Team). Workshops prepared for the conference include GIS in the classroom, using USGS data by John Vogel (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and The Best of BAESI (Bay Area Earth Science Institute), a teacher training organization under the direction of Ellen Metzger (SJSU) and Richard Sedlock (SJSU). The conference provides an opportunity to
Rothnie, Kieran J; Müllerová, Hana; Smeeth, Liam; Quint, Jennifer K
Rationale Acute exacerbations (AECOPD) are important adverse events in the natural history of COPD. Objectives To investigate the natural history of AECOPD over 10-years of follow-up. Methods and Results We identified 99,574 patients with COPD 01/Jan/04-31/March/15 from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We defined moderate AECOPD as those managed outside hospital and severe as those requiring hospitalisation. During the baseline period (first year of follow-up), patients were grouped according to the number and severity of AECOPD and then followed for a maximum of 10 years (mean 4.9 years). We investigated the effect of baseline AECOPD number and severity on risk of further events and death. Around one-quarter of the COPD patients did not exacerbate during follow-up. Compared to no AECOPD in the baseline period, AECOPD number predicted the future long-term rate of AECOPD in a graduated fashion, ranging from HR 1.71(1.66-1.77) for one to HR 3.41(3.27-3.56) for 5+ events. Two or more moderate AECOPD were also associated with an increased risk of death in a graduated fashion, ranging from HR 1.10(1.03-1.18) for 2 moderate AECOPD to HR 1.57(1.45-1.70) for 5+ moderate AECOPD, compared to those with no AECOPD at baseline. Severe AECOPD were associated with an even higher risk of death (HR 1.79,1.65-1.94). Conclusions A large proportion of COPD patients do not exacerbate over a maximum 10 years of follow-up. AECOPD frequency in a single year predicts long-term AECOPD rate. Increasing frequency and severity of AECOPD is associated with risk of death, and highlights the importance of preventing AECOPD.
Tsodikov, Alex; Gulati, Roman; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel A; Mariotto, Angela B; de Koning, Harry J; Etzioni, Ruth
Black men in the United States have substantially higher prostate cancer incidence rates than the general population. The extent to which this incidence disparity is because prostate cancer is more prevalent, more aggressive, and/or more frequently diagnosed in black men is unknown. The authors estimated 3 independently developed models of prostate cancer natural history in black men and in the general population using an updated reconstruction of prostate-specific antigen screening, based on the National Health Interview Survey in 2005 and on prostate cancer incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program during 1975 through 2000. By using the estimated models, the natural history of prostate cancer was compared between black men and the general population. The models projected that from 30% to 43% (range across models) of black men develop preclinical prostate cancer by age 85 years, a risk that is (relatively) 28% to 56% higher than that in the general population. Among men who had preclinical disease onset, black men had a similar risk of diagnosis (range, 35%-49%) compared with the general population (32%-44%), but their risk of progression to metastatic disease by the time of diagnosis was from 44% to 75% higher than that in the general population. Prostate cancer incidence patterns implicate higher incidence of preclinical disease and higher risk of metastatic progression among black men. The findings suggest screening black men earlier than white men and support further research into the benefit-harm tradeoffs of more aggressive screening policies for black men. Cancer 2017;123:2312-2319. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Feletti, Alberto; Anglani, Mariagiulia; Scarpa, Bruno; Schiavi, Francesca; Boaretto, Francesca; Zovato, Stefania; Taschin, Elisa; Gardi, Mario; Zanoletti, Elisabetta; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Murgia, Alessandra; Pavesi, Giacomo; Opocher, Giuseppe
Although many studies have been published about specific lesions characterizing von Hippel-Lindau(VHL) disease, none have dealt with the natural history of the whole disease and the consequent disabilities. We aim to define the comprehensive natural history of VHL disease and to describe the functional disabilities and their impact upon patients' quality of life, thereby tailoring the follow-up schedule accordingly. We performed a prospective analysis on 128 VHL-affected patients beginning in 1996. For each affected organ, we defined intervals between the first and subsequent VHL-related manifestations and compared them with current VHL surveillance protocols. We looked for any association of the number of involved organs with age, sex, type of VHL gene mutation, and functional domain mutation. Ultimately, we assessed the organ-specific disabilities caused by VHL disease. Hemangioblastomas show different patterns of progression depending on their location, whereas both renal cysts and carcinomas have similar progression rates. Surgery for pheochromocytoma and CNS hemangioblastoma is performed earlier than for pancreatic or renal cancer. The number of involved organs is associated with age but not with sex, type of VHL gene mutation, or functional domain mutation. A thorough analysis of functional disabilities showed that age is related to the first-appearing functional impairment, but it is not predictive of the final number of disabilities. Our study defines the disease progression and provides a comprehensive view of the syndrome over time. We analyzed for the first time the functional disability of VHL patients, assessing the progression for each function. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Nigam, Gaurav; Riaz, Muhammad; Chang, Edward T; Camacho, Macario
Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TECSA) is observed in some patients when they are treated with positive airway pressure (PAP) after significant resolution of the preexisting obstructive events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies describing the natural history of TECSA. PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochran Library databases were searched through June 29, 2017. Five studies were identified that discussed the natural history of TECSA. TECSA developed in 3.5%-19.8% of PAP-treated patients. Treatment-persistent central sleep apnea (TPCSA), representing protracted periods of PAP therapy-related central apneas, was noted in 14.3%-46.2% of patients with TECSA. Delayed-TECSA (D-TECSA) represents an anomalous TECSA entity appearing weeks to months after initial PAP therapy. D-TECSA was observed in 0.7%-4.2% of OSA patients undergoing PAP treatment (after at least 1 month). In patients with TECSA, a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and central apnea index at their baseline study or a higher residual AHI at their titration study may be associated with an increased likelihood of conversion to TPCSA. Overall, TECSA developed in 3.5%-19.8% of PAP-treated patients with OSA. The vast majority will experience complete resolution of central apneas over a few weeks to months. Unfortunately, about a third of patients with TECSA may continue to exhibit persistence of central sleep apnea on reevaluation. A small proportion may experience D-TECSA after few weeks to several months of initial exposure to PAP therapy.
Ruxandra Irina POPESCU
Full Text Available Due to the amplitude of the communication techniques in the public area in Western Countries and the spectacular development of publicity and public relations in this field, we find it interesting to analyze how and if this measure can be applied by Romanian public institutions and to Romanian public products. Thus, we discovered the sustained effort of the National Museum of Natural History “Grigore Antipa” (cultural nonprofit institution which delivers goods as public cultural products towards the entire nation’s population to promote itself and to communicate its activities to the public by using various techniques, both publicity and public relations, elaborating and creating exhibitions, conferences, festivals with interactive activities for the public, to involve him and transform him from a passive visitor of the museum into a participant at the cultural act. In 2003, the National Museum of Natural History “Grigore Antipa” from Bucharest began the implementation of an intense program of integrated marketing communication. The notion involves a strategic communication plan which uses more channels, addresses to various types of public and regards results achievement (cognitive, affective and behavior like – plan borrowed from the commercial area and applied in order to replace itself in the public’s mind, to achieve a larger exposure and to convince the public that, besides the scientific and educational role it plays, Antipa Museum offers also a relaxing way of spending free time. In this matter, I have analyzed the strategic and integrated communication plans of the museum, following each step, starting from research and to the result evaluation.
Alsufayan, Reema [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Alcaide-Leon, Paula; De Tilly, Lyne Noel [University of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Mandell, Daniel M.; Krings, Timo [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN Division of Neuroradiology, Toronto, ON (Canada)
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) have been recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors and has not been extensively reported upon in the radiological literature. We report the first radiological and the largest series of cases, aiming to highlight the natural history of lesions with the imaging appearance of MVNT with long follow-up time. In this retrospective study, we collected cases with the imaging appearance of MVNT. All lesions were evaluated by using routine MR imaging, with follow-up of up to 93 months. Patient demographics, clinical course, and MRI features of the lesions were recorded. Twenty-four subjects were enrolled, f/m = 16:8, age range 24-59 years, with a median age of 45 years. The patients' symptoms were often episodic and most frequently due to headaches in 12 (50%), visual symptoms in 6 (25%), seizures in 5 ± 1 (20-25%), paresthesia in 4 (∝17%), cognitive difficulties in 4 (∝17%), in addition to other variable neurological symptoms, or incidental. A total of 30 lesions identified, 77% of the lesions had gadolinium-enhanced MRI and only 13% showed enhancement. A 6.7% of the lesions that had MRI followed up showed progression, while the rest remained stable up to 93 months interval. All patients had intact neurological examinations (except one case that was diagnosed with optic neuritis), were managed conservatively, and did well. The natural history of lesions with imaging features of MVNT is overall stable from a clinical and imaging appearance over time. (orig.)
Full Text Available The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is still not well understood. Traditionally believed to be a self-inflicted disease by smoking, now we know that not all smokers develop COPD, that other inhaled pollutants different from cigarette smoke can also cause it, and that abnormal lung development can also lead to COPD in adulthood. Likewise, the inflammatory response that characterizes COPD varies significantly between patients, and not all of them perceive symptoms (mostly breathlessness similarly. To investigate the variability and determinants of different "individual natural histories" of COPD, we developed a theoretical, multi-stage, computational model of COPD (EASI that integrates dynamically and represents graphically the relationships between exposure (E to inhaled particles and gases (smoking, the biological activity (inflammatory response of the disease (A, the severity (S of airflow limitation (FEV1 and the impact (I of the disease (breathlessness in different clinical scenarios. EASI shows that the relationships between E, A, S and I vary markedly within individuals (through life and between individuals (at the same age. It also helps to delineate some potentially relevant, but often overlooked concepts, such as disease progression, susceptibility to COPD and issues related to symptom perception. In conclusion, EASI is an initial conceptual model to interpret the longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between E, A, S and I in different clinical scenarios. Currently, it does not have any direct clinical application, thus it requires experimental validation and further mathematical development. However, it has the potential to open novel research and teaching alternatives.
Alsufayan, Reema; Alcaide-Leon, Paula; De Tilly, Lyne Noel; Mandell, Daniel M.; Krings, Timo
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) have been recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors and has not been extensively reported upon in the radiological literature. We report the first radiological and the largest series of cases, aiming to highlight the natural history of lesions with the imaging appearance of MVNT with long follow-up time. In this retrospective study, we collected cases with the imaging appearance of MVNT. All lesions were evaluated by using routine MR imaging, with follow-up of up to 93 months. Patient demographics, clinical course, and MRI features of the lesions were recorded. Twenty-four subjects were enrolled, f/m = 16:8, age range 24-59 years, with a median age of 45 years. The patients' symptoms were often episodic and most frequently due to headaches in 12 (50%), visual symptoms in 6 (25%), seizures in 5 ± 1 (20-25%), paresthesia in 4 (∝17%), cognitive difficulties in 4 (∝17%), in addition to other variable neurological symptoms, or incidental. A total of 30 lesions identified, 77% of the lesions had gadolinium-enhanced MRI and only 13% showed enhancement. A 6.7% of the lesions that had MRI followed up showed progression, while the rest remained stable up to 93 months interval. All patients had intact neurological examinations (except one case that was diagnosed with optic neuritis), were managed conservatively, and did well. The natural history of lesions with imaging features of MVNT is overall stable from a clinical and imaging appearance over time. (orig.)
Savarino, E; de Bortoli, N; De Cassan, C; Della Coletta, M; Bartolo, O; Furnari, M; Ottonello, A; Marabotto, E; Bodini, G; Savarino, V
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract which is typically characterized by heartburn and acid regurgitation. These symptoms are widespread in the community and range from 2.5% to more than 25%. Economic analyses showed an increase in direct and indirect costs related to the diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of GERD and its complications. The aim of this review is to provide current information regarding the natural history of GERD, taking into account the evolution of its definition and the worldwide gradual change of its epidemiology. Present knowledge shows that there are two main forms of GERD, that is erosive reflux disease (ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and the latter comprises the majority of patients (up to 70%). The major complication of GERD is the development of Barrett esophagus, which is considered as a pre-cancerous lesion. Although data from medical literature on the natural history of this disease are limited and mainly retrospective, they seem to indicate that both NERD and mild esophagitis tend to remain as such with time and the progression from NERD to ERD, from mild to severe ERD and from ERD to Barrett's esophagus may occur in a small proportion of patients, ranging from 0 to 30%, 10 to 22% and 1 to 13% of cases, respectively. It is necessary to stress that these data are strongly influenced by the use of powerful antisecretory drugs (PPIs). Further studies are needed to better elucidate this matter and overcome the present limitations represented by the lack of large prospective longitudinal investigations, absence of homogeneous definitions of the various forms of GERD, influence of different treatments, clear exclusion of patients with functional disorders of the esophagus. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
Kollins, Scott H; Youcha, Sharon; Lasser, Robert; Thase, Michael E
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and a history of depression and/or substance use disorder. History of these comorbidities was recorded from medical history forms completed by the study clinicians. An exploratory, post-hoc analysis was conducted using data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, forced-dose titration study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV total scores and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale were used to evaluate the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was also evaluated. The intention-to-treat population included 36 participants with a history of depression and 17 participants with a history of substance use disorder. Mean changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement from baseline to endpoint for these subpopulations were similar to those of participants without a history of depression and/or history of substance use disorder. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was generally well tolerated in all subgroups. The response to lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and the treatment-emergent adverse event profiles of participants with a history of depression and/or a history of substance use disorder were similar to those of participants with no history of these disorders. Larger studies that prospectively enroll participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and these comorbid disorders are needed to more conclusively evaluate the safety and efficacy of stimulant treatment in these populations.
The Women's Art Association of Canada marked the 400th anniversary of John Cabot's "discovery" of Canada (celebrated in 1897) through the production of the "Canadian Historic Dinner Service." The high-profile project, which resulted in a set of hand-painted porcelain dinnerware, was a celebration not only of nation-building, but also of the natural history of the country. Visual reference material provided to the women selected to create the individual pieces included photographs, natural history texts, and illustrations that W.H. Bartlett produced for Canadian Scenery earlier in the century. This article explores this visual reinterpretation of Canada's natural history in order to raise questions about how a recontextualization of scientific material shapes narratives of nation and nature in the 'New World'.
José Carlos Ferraz da Fonseca
Full Text Available Estima-se que existam 350 milhões de portadores crônicos do VHB distribuídos ao redor do mundo. Três fases de infecção crônica pelo VHB são reconhecidas: fase de imunotolerância (HBsAg e HBeAg positivos, altos títulos de HBV-DNA, ALT normal e não evidência de doença hepática ativa; fase imunoativa ou de hepatite crônica B (HBsAg e HBeAg positivos, altos títulos de HBV-DNA, ALT elevada e evidência de doença hepática ativa; fase de portador inativo do VHB ou assintomático (HBsAg no soro sem o HBeAg , títulos do HBV-DNA An estimated 350 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV. Three phases of chronic hepatitis B virus infection is are recognized: the immune tolerant phase (HBeAg-positive, high levels of serum HBV-DNA, normal ALT, and no evidence of active liver diseases, the immune clearance phase or chronic hepatitis phase (HBeAg-positive, high levels of serum HBV-DNA, elevated ALT, and active liver disease , and the inactive carrier state or asymptomatic phase (HBsAg-positive in serum without HBeAg, HBV-DNA levels than < 10(5 copies/mL, and normal ALT levels. Chronic hepatitis B is classified into 2 major forms: HBeAg-positive disease (wild-type HBV and HBeAg negative disease (pre-core/core promoter HBV variant. Both forms can lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and liver cancer. The purpose of this article is to review the principal aspects of natural history of chronic hepatitis B.
Harry C. Zinn; Alan R. Graefe
Many resource managers and wilderness advocates see links between appreciating wild nature, participating in traditional outdoor activities, and support for protecting wild areas. Some of these individuals express concern that the values and recreation behavior of today's young people may suggest less support for protecting wilderness in the future. Although...
Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M
Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
T. O. Kutsaeva
Full Text Available The author of the article set the goal to analyse the published academic/ scientific, popular scientific publications and the published results of Ukrainian museums’ practical developments for 1990-2010s, which in total can be described as a museum andragogics or informal adult education by museum means. Initially, it was found that despite the growing interest in these kinds of museum activities, the available research body is not systematized. It was found that brief reviews of the problem’s historiography are present mostly in preambles of museology, pedagogy, museums history articles. They are often related to the topic indirectly. Attempts to study purposefully the subject are now rare, although their aim is to summarize the existing Ukrainian experience. It was determined that, although it is impossible now to determine the museum andragogics as a separate sphere of knowledge on the basis of a small number of published investigations of Ukrainian specialists. These investigations are reflecting the national museums and available foreign publications’ experience in this sphere (translated into Ukrainian or published in Russian. But the formation of the andragogics in Ukraine is actual and necessary on the way towards the integration into the global cultural space. Summarizing the material the conclusion was made that the museum andragogics and non-formal adult education in museums are promising areas of scientific knowledge. A contribution of the museum’s and other Ukrainian connected sectors professionals in the process by years 2012-13 is notable both at the level of the foreign experience’s study and the reflection in practice, research, scientific and popular publications. However, until now there was no such activity surge, as it happened in the spheres of museum marketing or sociology. Such forms of activity as «Workshop», «Summer school», public lecture are not known and used enough by domestic museums, and therefore by
Essington, Timothy E; Sanchirico, James N; Baskett, Marissa L
Ecosystem approaches to natural resource management are seen as a way to provide better outcomes for ecosystems and for people, yet the nature and strength of interactions among ecosystem components is usually unknown. Here we characterize the economic benefits of ecological knowledge through a simple model of fisheries that target a predator (piscivore) and its prey. We solve for the management (harvest) trajectory that maximizes net present value (NPV) for different ecological interactions and initial conditions that represent different levels of exploitation history. Optimal management trajectories generally approached similar harvest levels, but the pathways toward those levels varied considerably by ecological scenario. Application of the wrong harvest trajectory, which would happen if one type of ecological interaction were assumed but in fact another were occurring, generally led to only modest reductions in NPV. However, the risks were not equal across fleets: risks of incurring large losses of NPV and missing management targets were much higher in the fishery targeting piscivores, especially when piscivores were heavily depleted. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem approach might provide the greatest benefits when used to identify system states where management performs poorly with imperfect knowledge of system linkages so that management strategies can be adopted to avoid those states. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Chansakulporn, Somboon; Pongpreuksa, Sureerat; Sangacharoenkit, Preeda; Pacharn, Punchama; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Vichyanond, Pakit; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai
There are few prospective studies on the natural course of chronic urticaria (CU) in children. We sought to examine the natural history of CU in children and to identify predictors for remission. Children 4 to 15 years of age with CU were investigated with a complete blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, antinuclear antibody titer, complement CH50 level, thyroid studies, autologous serum skin test, skin-prick tests, food challenges, and stool examination for parasites. They were considered to be in remission if symptoms did not recur for at least 12 months without medication. In all, 92 children (53.3% female) with CU were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 4.3 years (range 2.5-5.8 years). Chronic autoimmune urticaria (CAU) was identified in 40% of the patients. Food allergy was found in 8.7% and parasitic infestations in 5.4%. Remission rates at 1, 3, and 5 years after the onset of CU symptoms were 18.5%, 54%, and 67.7%, respectively. The remission rate did not differ in CAU compared with non-CAU. No predictor of CU remission was identified. The basophil histamine release assay was not performed. Children with CU have a favorable outcome. CAU did not have an intractable course. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Babiychuk, Elena; Kushnir, Sergei; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Dias, Mariana Costa; Carvalho-Filho, Nelson; Nunes, Gisele Lopes; Dos Santos, Jorge Filipe; Tyski, Lourival; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Castilho, Alexandre; Fonseca, Vera Lucia Imperatriz; Oliveira, Guilherme
Amazon comprises a vast variety of ecosystems, including savannah-like Canga barrens that evolved on iron-lateritic rock plateaus of the Carajás Mountain range. Individual Cangas are enclosed by the rain forest, indicating insular isolation that enables speciation and plant community differentiation. To establish a framework for the research on natural history and conservation management of endemic Canga species, seven chloroplast DNA loci and an ITS2 nuclear DNA locus were used to study natural molecular variation of the red flowered Ipomoea cavalcantei and the lilac flowered I. marabaensis. Partitioning of the nuclear and chloroplast gene alleles strongly suggested that the species share the most recent common ancestor, pointing a new independent event of the red flower origin in the genus. Chloroplast gene allele analysis showed strong genetic differentiation between Canga populations, implying a limited role of seed dispersal in exchange of individuals between Cangas. Closed haplotype network topology indicated a requirement for the paternal inheritance in generation of cytoplasmic genetic variation. Tenfold higher nucleotide diversity in the nuclear ITS2 sequences distinguished I. cavalcantei from I. marabaensis, implying a different pace of evolutionary changes. Thus, Canga ecosystems offer powerful venues for the study of speciation, multitrait adaptation and the origins of genetic variation.
Full Text Available Nature of science (NOS is considered to be a controversial topic by historians, philosophers of science and science educators. It is paradoxical that we all teach science and still have difficulties in understanding what science is and how it develops and progresses. A major obstacle in understanding NOS is that science is primarily ‘unnatural’, that is it cannot be learned by a simple observation of phenomena. In most parts of the world history and philosophy of science are ‘inside’ science content and as such can guide our understanding of NOS. However, some science educators consider the ‘historical turn’ as dated and hence neglect the historical approach and instead emphasize the model based naturalist view of science. The objective of this presentation is to show that the historical approach is very much a part of teaching science and actually complements naturalism. Understanding NOS generally requires two aspects of science: Domain general and domain specific. In the classroom this can be illustrated by discussing the atomic models developed in the early 20th century which constitute the domain specific aspect of NOS. This can then lead to an understanding of the tentative nature of science that is a domain general aspect of NOS. A review of the literature in science education reveals three views (among others of understanding NOS: a Consensus view: It attempts to include only those domain-general NOS aspects that are the least controversial (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick; b Family resemblance view: Based on the ideas of Wittgenstein, this view promotes science as a cognitive system (Irzik, Nola; c Integrated view: this view postulates that both domain general and domain specific aspects of NOS are not dichotomous but rather need to be integrated and are essential if we want students to understand ‘science in the making’ (Niaz. The following framework helps to facilitate integration: i Elaboration of a theoretical framework
Lin Zhang; Ou Ma; Fabre, Jennifer M; Wood, Robert H; Garcia, Stephanie U; Ivey, Kayla M; McCann, Evan D
Falling is a serious problem in an aged society such that assessment of the risk of falls for individuals is imperative for the research and practice of falls prevention. This paper introduces an application of several machine learning methods for training a classifier which is capable of classifying individual older adults into a high risk group and a low risk group (distinguished by whether or not the members of the group have a recent history of falls). Using a 3D motion capture system, significant gait features related to falls risk are extracted. By training these features, classification hypotheses are obtained based on machine learning techniques (K Nearest-neighbour, Naive Bayes, Logistic Regression, Neural Network, and Support Vector Machine). Training and test accuracies with sensitivity and specificity of each of these techniques are assessed. The feature adjustment and tuning of the machine learning algorithms are discussed. The outcome of the study will benefit the prediction and prevention of falls.
Full Text Available The basic philosophical vision and ethical principles of Catholic Natural Law claim universality. Natural Law thinking aspires to objectivity and universality and at the same time is open to the continuing influence from history and politics. The background principles of positive law historically go by the name of Natural Law. Suffering and injustice contribute to a vision both of the structure of human existence and of what we mean by humane law and ethics. When we confront a cultural crisis, Natural Law, looks not to the past but to the future. Few people today talk of the ethical dimensions of social realities in terms of Natural Law. This is true both in the Church and in the State. In bioethics, the principles rooted in the universal structure of human life have to provide direction and regulations on the playing field of contemporary life and medicine. A liberal Catholic perspective tries to keep in play the universal and the particular aspects of Natural Law reasoningLa visión filosófica básica y los principios éticos de la Ley Natural Católica demandan universalidad. El pensamiento de la Ley Natural aspira a la objetividad y universalidad y, al mismo tiempo, está abierto a la continua influencia de la historia y la política. Los principios que yacen en la base de la ley positiva históricamente reciben el nombre de Ley Natural. El sufrimiento y la injusticia contribuyen a una visión, tanto de la estructura de la existencia humana como de lo que entendemos por una ley y una ética humanas. Cuando enfrentamos una crisis cultural, la Ley Natural no mira hacia el pasado sino que hacia el futuro. Es poca la gente que hoy en día habla de las dimensiones éticas de las realidades sociales en términos de Ley Natural. Esto vale tanto para la Iglesia como para el Estado. En bioética, los principios enraizados en la estructura universal de la vida humana tienen que proporcionar dirección y regulación en el campo de juego de la vida y
Full Text Available The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is usually acquired during childhood and, in the absence of treatment, chronic infection persists through most of the host's life. However, the frequency and importance of H. pylori transmission between adults is underestimated. Here we sequenced the complete genomes of H. pylori strains that were transmitted between spouses and analysed the genomic changes. Similar to H. pylori from chronic infection, a significantly high proportion of the determined 31 SNPs and 10 recombinant DNA fragments affected genes of the hop family of outer membrane proteins, some of which are known to be adhesins. In addition, changes in a fucosyltransferase gene modified the LPS component of the bacterial cell surface, suggesting strong diversifying selection. In contrast, virulence factor genes were not affected by the genomic changes. We propose a model of the genomic changes that are associated with the transmission and adaptation of H. pylori to a new human host.
Lee, Yuh Chwen G; Yang, Qian; Chi, Wanhao; Turkson, Susie A; Du, Wei A; Kemkemer, Claus; Zeng, Zhao-Bang; Long, Manyuan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi
Foraging behavior is critical for the fitness of individuals. However, the genetic basis of variation in foraging behavior and the evolutionary forces underlying such natural variation have rarely been investigated. We developed a systematic approach to assay the variation in survival rate in a foraging environment for adult flies derived from a wild Drosophila melanogaster population. Despite being such an essential trait, there is substantial variation of foraging behavior among D. melanogaster strains. Importantly, we provided the first evaluation of the potential caveats of using inbred Drosophila strains to perform genome-wide association studies on life-history traits, and concluded that inbreeding depression is unlikely a major contributor for the observed large variation in adult foraging behavior. We found that adult foraging behavior has a strong genetic component and, unlike larval foraging behavior, depends on multiple loci. Identified candidate genes are enriched in those with high expression in adult heads and, demonstrated by expression knock down assay, are involved in maintaining normal functions of the nervous system. Our study not only identified candidate genes for foraging behavior that is relevant to individual fitness, but also shed light on the initial stage underlying the evolution of the behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Hale, Lauren; Do, D Phuong; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Heron, Melonie; Finch, Brian K; Dubowitz, Tamara; Lurie, Nicole; Bird, Chloe E
Insomnia is the most commonly reported sleep disorder, characterized by trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early. Previous epidemiological data reveal that women are more likely than men to suffer from insomnia symptoms. We investigate the role that mental health history plays in explaining the gender disparity in insomnia symptoms. Using logistic regression, we analyze National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III interview and laboratory data, merged with data on sociodemographic characteristics of the residential census tract of respondents. Our sample includes 5469 young adults (ages 20-39) from 1429 census tracts. Consistent with previous research, we find that women are more likely to report insomnia symptoms compared to men (16.7% vs. 9.2%). However, in contrast to previous work, we show that the difference between women's and men's odds of insomnia becomes statistically insignificant after adjusting for history of mental health conditions (OR=1.08, p>.05). The gender disparity in insomnia symptoms may be driven by higher prevalence of affective disorders among women. This finding has implications for clinical treatment of both insomnia and depression, especially among women.
Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie
Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the theoretical, educational and creative aspects of an alternate history creative writing project with young adults, based on Terry Pratchett’s fantasy novel Nation (2008. First, we focus on the potential of the project as a platform for studying how close teenage audiences are to ideal readers of utopian texts who, as Kenneth Roemer (2003 characterizes them, ‘approach literary utopias as opportunities to discover questions, ambiguities, and contradictions out of which they imagine their own models of utopia’ (p. 2. We also see the proposed project as a useful tool both to promote the knowledge of world history and to provoke a reflection on contributions of individuals to larger historical processes. Moreover, we discuss the project as a means to develop those English language skills necessary for students to construct narratives, express causality, and formulate hypothesis or predictions. Finally, we confront the assumptions underpinning the project with students’ reactions to the novel, as recorded during an initial workshop, and with their creative work in English following the workshop.
Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an ...
Historia natural de un roedor raro del desierto argentino, Salinomys delicatus (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae Natural history of a rare rodent of the Argentinean desert, Salinomys delicatus(Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae
significativamente mayores en hembras que en machos. Este trabajo refuerza la importancia del desarrollo de nuevos estudios más detallados sobre la historia de vida de S. delicatus y permite reafirmar la importancia de conservación de esta especie.The delicate mouse (Salinomys delicatus is a small rodent endemic of Argentina. It has been considered vulnerable to extinction because of its restricted and patchy distribution, small population size and specialization on salty habitats. Besides its morphological and physiological adaptations to survive in arid and salty habitats, there is still little information about the natural history of the delicate mouse. The objectives of our study are to study the natural history of S. delicatus, report new localities of occurrence, characterize its habitat use, diet and accompanying assemblages and describe its reproductive biology and morphology. We report two new localities of occurrences in gallery woodlands and salt flats in the northeast of Mendoza province (Argentina, these being the first records for this province. Like other South AAmerican rodents, S. delicatus has an omnivorous diet consisting in similar proportion of seeds, arthropods and halophytic plants. The assemblages are composed by no more than three small mammal species, varying according to the locality. Sex ratio and the pattern of sexual dimorphism shows a strong bias towards females (H:M = 3.6:1.1 and H:M = 1.151 respectively. External and cranial morphology exhibits a clear intra- and inter-population variability. When considering in the analysis adults and juvenile, two of six external measurements (head and body length and total length and seven of twenty-two cranial measurements were significantly higher in females than in males. When considering only adults, four external measures (total length, head and body length, tail length and weight and six cranial measurements were significantly higher in females than in males. This integrative analysis highlights the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorders are commonly managed in primary care and family physicians are ideally placed to serve as central providers to these patients. Around the world, the prevalence of depressive disorders in patients presenting to primary care is between 10-20%, of which around 50% remain undiagnosed. In Hong Kong, many barriers exist preventing the optimal treatment and management of patients with depressive disorders. The pathways of care, the long term outcomes and the factors affecting prognosis of these patients requires closer examination. Methods/Design The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, incidence and natural history of depressive disorders in primary care and the factors influencing diagnosis, management and outcomes using a cross-sectional study followed by a longitudinal cohort study. Doctors working in primary care settings across Hong Kong have been invited to participate in this study. On one day each month over twelve months, patients in the doctor's waiting room are invited to complete a questionnaire containing items on socio-demography, co-morbidity, family history, previous doctor-diagnosed mental illness, recent mental and other health care utilization, symptoms of depression and health-related quality of life. Following the consultation, the doctors provide information regarding presenting problem, whether they think the patient has depression, and if so, whether the diagnosis is new or old, and the duration of the depressive illness if not a new diagnosis. If the doctor detects a depressive disorder, they are asked to provide information regarding patient management. Patients who consent are followed up by telephone at 2, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Discussion The study will provide information regarding cross-sectional prevalence, 12 month incidence, remission rate, outcomes and factors affecting outcomes of patients with depressive disorders in primary care. The epidemiology, outcomes
Bryant Susan V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing genomic resources for closely related species will provide comparative insights that are crucial for understanding diversity and variability at multiple levels of biological organization. We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum, species with deep and diverse research histories. Results Approximately 40,000 quality cDNA sequences were isolated for these species from various tissues, including regenerating limb and tail. These sequences and an existing set of 16,030 cDNA sequences for A. mexicanum were processed to yield 35,413 and 20,599 high quality ESTs for A. mexicanum and A. t. tigrinum, respectively. Because the A. t. tigrinum ESTs were obtained primarily from a normalized library, an approximately equal number of contigs were obtained for each species, with 21,091 unique contigs identified overall. The 10,592 contigs that showed significant similarity to sequences from the human RefSeq database reflected a diverse array of molecular functions and biological processes, with many corresponding to genes expressed during spinal cord injury in rat and fin regeneration in zebrafish. To demonstrate the utility of these EST resources, we searched databases to identify probes for regeneration research, characterized intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism, saturated a human – Ambystoma synteny group with marker loci, and extended PCR primer sets designed for A. mexicanum / A. t. tigrinum orthologues to a related tiger salamander species. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of developing resources in traditional model systems where the likelihood of information transfer to multiple, closely related taxa is high, thus simultaneously enabling both laboratory and natural history research.
Putta, Srikrishna; Smith, Jeramiah J; Walker, John A; Rondet, Mathieu; Weisrock, David W; Monaghan, James; Samuels, Amy K; Kump, Kevin; King, David C; Maness, Nicholas J; Habermann, Bianca; Tanaka, Elly; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M; Parichy, David M; Voss, S Randal
Background Establishing genomic resources for closely related species will provide comparative insights that are crucial for understanding diversity and variability at multiple levels of biological organization. We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum), species with deep and diverse research histories. Results Approximately 40,000 quality cDNA sequences were isolated for these species from various tissues, including regenerating limb and tail. These sequences and an existing set of 16,030 cDNA sequences for A. mexicanum were processed to yield 35,413 and 20,599 high quality ESTs for A. mexicanum and A. t. tigrinum, respectively. Because the A. t. tigrinum ESTs were obtained primarily from a normalized library, an approximately equal number of contigs were obtained for each species, with 21,091 unique contigs identified overall. The 10,592 contigs that showed significant similarity to sequences from the human RefSeq database reflected a diverse array of molecular functions and biological processes, with many corresponding to genes expressed during spinal cord injury in rat and fin regeneration in zebrafish. To demonstrate the utility of these EST resources, we searched databases to identify probes for regeneration research, characterized intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism, saturated a human – Ambystoma synteny group with marker loci, and extended PCR primer sets designed for A. mexicanum / A. t. tigrinum orthologues to a related tiger salamander species. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of developing resources in traditional model systems where the likelihood of information transfer to multiple, closely related taxa is high, thus simultaneously enabling both laboratory and natural history research. PMID:15310388
Ellis, Jason G.; Perlis, Michael L.; Bastien, Célyne H.; Gardani, Maria; Espie, Colin A.
Study Objectives: While many studies have examined the association between insomnia and depression, no studies have evaluated these associations (1) within a narrow time frame, (2) with specific reference to acute and chronic insomnia, and (3) using polysomnography. In the present study, the association between insomnia and first-onset depression was evaluated taking into account these considerations. Design: A mixed-model inception design. Setting: Academic research laboratory. Participants: Fifty-four individuals (acute insomnia [n = 33], normal sleepers [n = 21]) with no reported history of a sleep disorder, chronic medical condition, or psychiatric illness. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants were assessed at baseline (2 nights of polysomnography and psychometric measures of stress and mood) and insomnia and depression status were reassessed at 3 months. Individuals with acute insomnia exhibited more stress, poorer mood, worse subjective sleep continuity, increased N2 sleep, and decreased N3 sleep. Individuals who transitioned to chronic insomnia exhibited (at baseline) shorter REM latencies and reduced N3 sleep. Individuals who exhibited this pattern in the transition from acute to chronic insomnia were also more likely to develop first-onset depression (9.26%) as compared to those who remitted from insomnia (1.85%) or were normal sleepers (1.85%). Conclusion: The transition from acute to chronic insomnia is presaged by baseline differences in sleep architecture that have, in the past, been ascribed to Major Depression, either as heritable traits or as acquired traits from prior episodes of depression. The present findings suggest that the “sleep architecture stigmata” of depression may actually develop over the course transitioning from acute to chronic insomnia. Citation: Ellis JG; Perlis ML; Bastien CH; Gardani M; Espie CA. The natural history of insomnia: acute insomnia and first-onset depression. SLEEP 2014;37(1):97-106. PMID
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola
We examine the potential associations between self-rated health, employment situation, relationship status and personal wellbeing in young adults with and without a history of language impairment (LI). In total, 172 24-year-olds from the UK participated, with approximately half (N = 84) having a history of LI. Personal wellbeing was measured using ratings from three questions from the Office for National Statistics regarding life satisfaction, happiness and life being worthwhile. There were similarities between individuals with a history of LI and their age-matched peers in self-rated personal wellbeing. However, regression analyses revealed self-rated health was the most consistent predictor of personal wellbeing for individuals with a history of LI in relation to life satisfaction (21% of variance), happiness (11%) and perceptions that things one does in life are worthwhile (32%). None of the regression analyses were significant for their peers. Similarities on ratings of wellbeing by young adults with and without a history of LI can mask heterogeneity and important differences. Young adults with a history of LI are more vulnerable to the effects of health, employment and relationship status on their wellbeing than their peers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sogge, Mark K.; ,; Ahlers, Darrell; ,; Sferra, Susan J.; ,
The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an endangered species in 1995. When proposed for listing in 1993, relatively little was known about the flycatcher's natural history, and there were only 30 known breeding sites supporting an estimated 111 territories rangewide (Sogge and others, 2003a). Since that time, thousands of presence/absences surveys have been conducted throughout the historical range of the flycatcher, and many studies of its natural history and ecology have been completed. As a result, the ecology of the flycatcher is much better understood than it was just over a decade ago. In addition, we have learned that the current status of the flycatcher is better than originally thought: as of 2007, the population was estimated at approximately 1,300 territories distributed among approximately 280 breeding sites (Durst and others, 2008a). Concern about the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher on a rangewide scale was brought to focus by Unitt (1987), who described declines in flycatcher abundance and distribution throughout the Southwest. E. t. extimus populations declined during the 20th century, primarily because of habitat loss and modification from activities, such as dam construction and operation, groundwater pumping, water diversions, and flood control. In 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991). In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). A final rule listing E. t. extimus as endangered was published in February 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995); critical habitat was designated in 1997 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997). The USFWS Service released a Recovery Plan for
Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V
The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate
Winstock, Adam R; Mitcheson, Luke; Gillatt, David A; Cottrell, Angela M
Study Type--Symptom prevalence (prospective cohort) Level of Evidence 1b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Case series have described lower urinary tract symptoms associated with ketamine use including severe pain, frequency, haematuria and dysuria. Little is known regarding the frequency of symptoms, relationship of symptoms with dose and frequency of use and natural history of symptoms once the ketamine user has stopped. This study describes the prevalence of ketamine use in a population of recreational drug users in a dance music setting. It shows a dose-frequency relationship with ketamine use. It shows that urinary symptoms associated with recreational ketamine use may lead to a considerable demand on health resources in the primary-, secondary- and emergency-care settings. It shows that symptoms may improve once ketamine use is decreased. • To investigate the prevalence and natural history of urinary symptoms in a cohort of recreational ketamine users. • A purposeful sampling technique was used. • Between November 2009 and January 2010 participants were invited to undertake an on-line questionnaire promoted by a national dance music magazine and website. • Data regarding demographics and illicit drug-use were collected. • Among respondents reporting recent ketamine use, additional information detailing their ketamine use, experience of urinary symptoms and use of related healthcare services was obtained. • In all, 3806 surveys were completed, of which 1285 (33.8%) participants reported ketamine use within the last year. • Of the ketamine users, 17% were found to be dependent on the drug; 26.6% (340) of recent ketamine users reported experiencing urinary symptoms. • Urinary symptoms were significantly related to both dose of ketamine used and frequency of ketamine use. • Of 251 users reporting their experience of symptoms over time in relationship to their use of ketamine, 51% reported improvement in urinary symptoms
Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard; Greenstein, Adrian
PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE: There exists little information concerning the natural history of rectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, the tolerance of pelvic irradiation in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the largest series of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer in order to determine the natural history of the disease as well as the effect and tolerance of pelvic irradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 47 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer treated over a 34 year period (1960-1994) was performed. Thirty five patients had Ulcerative Colitis and 12 patients had Crohn's Disease. There were 31 male patients and 16 female patients. The stage (AJC) distribution was as follows: stage 0 in 5 patients, stage I in 13 patients, stage II in 7 patients, stage III in 13 patients and stage IV in 9 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 44 patients. In 2 of these patients, preoperative pelvic irradiation was given followed by surgery. Twenty of these patients underwent post-operative adjuvant therapy (12 were treated with chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation and 8 with chemotherapy alone). Three patients were found to have unresectable disease and were treated with chemotherapy alone (2 patients) or chemotherapy and radiation therapy (1 patient). Radiation complications were graded using the RTOG acute and late effects scoring criteria. Follow up ranged from 4 to 250 months (median - 24 months). RESULTS: The 5 year actuarial results revealed an overall survival (OS) of 42%, a disease free survival (DFS) of 43%, a pelvic control rate (PC) of 67% and a freedom from distant failure (FFDF) of 47%. DFS decreased with increasing T stage with a 5 year rate of 86% for patients with Tis - T2 disease compared to 10% for patients with T3-T4 disease (p ) were noted in 3 patients (20%) receiving radiation therapy and these included two cases of grade 3 skin reactions and one case of grade
By the mid-eighteenth century, governors of the major European states promoted the study of nature as part of natural-resource based schemes for improvement and economic self-sufficiency. Procuring beneficial knowledge about nature, however, required observers, collectors, and compilers who could produce usable and useful descriptions of nature. The ways governments promoted scientific explorations varied according to the form of government, the makeup of the civil society, the state's economic ideologies and practices, and the geographical situation. This article argues that the roots of a major natural history initiative in Denmark-Norway were firmly planted in the state-church organization. Through the clergymen and their activities, a bishop, supported by the government in Copenhagen, could gather an impressive collection of natural objects, receive observations and descriptions of natural phenomena, and produce natural historical publications that described for the first time many of the species of the north. Devout naturalists were a common species in the eighteenth century, when clergymen and missionaries involved themselves in the investigation of nature in Europe and far beyond. The specific interest here is in how natural history was supported and enforced as part of clerical practice, how specimen exchange was grafted on to pre-existing institutions of gift exchange, and how this influenced the character of the knowledge produced.
Full Text Available The genus Haploclastus is endemic to India and is represented by six species. One of the species H. validus Pocock, 1899 was described from Matheran and has remained poorly known in terms of its natural history and distribution. During recent surveys the species was for the first time found again since its description nearly 110 years ago. Based on the new material collected it is redescribed and data on its natural history and distribution are added. It is the first record of an Indian theraphosid spider, which closes its burrow with a trapdoor.
articulated argument ensures concerning what philosophy of history is, and its ability to direct the course of history in the areas of historical evidence and the extent to which objectivity is possible. The paper argues that philosophy of history is a ...
Altieri, Roberto; Hirono, Seiichiro; Duffau, Hugues; Ducati, Alessandro; Fontanella, Marco; LA Rocca, Giuseppe; Melcarne, Antonio; Panciani, Pier P; Spena, Giannantonio; Garbossa, Diego
Etiopathogenesis and physiopathology of gliomas are largely unknown. Recently, many authors have proved a strict correlation between the velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) on the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the biological behavior of these tumors, especially in Low Grade Gliomas (LGGs). Unfortunately, natural history of High Grade Gliomas (HGGs) has not been well clarified because of its fast progression, late diagnoses and early surgical intervention. We describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the case of asymptomatic patient with an incidentally discovered de novo HGG with a total of 17 months of follow-up. A male patient was referred to our consultation for routinely follow-up after meningioma resection 5 years before. He underwent MRI every year without any neuroradiological alterations. A new MRI image presented a non-enhancing lesion in the right temporal lobe with 3.55 cm of Mean Tumor Diameter (MTD) and 35.6 mm/year of VDE. After two months interval, the lesion had 3.97 cm of MTD and 27.8 mm/year of VDE. Although we have strongly suggested surgical resection, patient have delayed the operation for personal issues. After other 3 months, the tumor showed enhancement with 4.5 of MTD and 17.4 mm/year of VDE. We speculate that the descending parabola is due to initial mass effect and hypoxia of the tumor core. We also underline the crucial role of the VDE determining, in order to predict the nature of the lesion and address the most effective treatment for each patient.
Nelson, Wendy A; Dalen, Jennifer; Neill, Kate F
Herbaria and natural history collections (NHC) are critical to the practice of taxonomy and have potential to serve as sources of data for biodiversity and conservation. They are the repositories of vital reference specimens, enabling species to be studied and their distribution in space and time to be documented and analysed, as well as enabling the development of hypotheses about species relationships. The herbarium of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (WELT) contains scientifically and historically significant marine macroalgal collections, including type specimens, primarily of New Zealand species, as well as valuable exsiccatae from New Zealand and Australia. The herbarium was initiated in 1865 with the establishment of the Colonial Museum and is the only herbarium in New Zealand where there has been consistent expert taxonomic attention to the macroalgae over the past 50 years. We examined 19,422 records of marine macroalgae from around New Zealand collected over the past 164 years housed in WELT, assessing the records in terms of their spatial and temporal coverage as well as their uniqueness and abundance. The data provided an opportunity to review the state of knowledge of the New Zealand macroalgal flora reflected in the collections at WELT, to examine how knowledge of the macroalgal flora has been built over time in terms of the number of collections and the number of species recognised, and identify where there are gaps in the current collections as far as numbers of specimens per taxon, as well as with respect to geographical and seasonal coverage.
Lin, Chih-Lin; Kao, Jia-Horng
Molecular epidemiologic studies reveal remarkable differences in the geographical distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes. The frequency of mutants among HBV genotypes also varies. The role of HBV genotypes/mutants in the pathogenesis of HBV infection and natural history of HBV infection has been extensively investigated. The distribution of HBV genotypes in acute hepatitis B patients reflects the predominant genotypes in a given geographic area. In chronic hepatitis B patients, genotype C and D have a higher frequency of basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutations than genotype A and B. HBV genotypes C, D and F carry a higher lifetime risk of cirrhosis and HCC development than genotype A and B. HBV pre-S/S gene mutations were associated with immune escape of hepatitis B immunoglobulin or vaccine-induced immunity. Mutations in the pre-S, core promoter and X regions correlate with an increased risk of cirrhosis and HCC. In summary, HBV genotypes and mutants are associated with the disease progression and long-term outcome of HBV infection. They may serve as viral genetic markers for risk stratification of chronic hepatitis B patients in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, C Giles
Sherborn's work on the Foraminifera clearly provided the initial spark to compile the major indexes for which he is famous. Contact and help from famous early micropalaeontologists such as T. Rupert Jones and Fortescue William Millett led Sherborn to produce his Bibliography of Foraminifera and subsequently a two-part Index of Foraminiferal Genera and Species. Edward Heron-Allen, whose mentor was Millett, was subsequently inspired by the bibliography to attempt to acquire every publication listed. This remarkable collection of literature was donated to the British Museum (Natural History) in 1926 along with the foraminiferal collections Heron-Allen had mainly purchased from early micropalaeontologists. This donation forms the backbone of the current NHM micropalaeontological collections. The NHM collections contain a relatively small amount of foraminiferal material published by Sherborn from the London Clay, Kimmeridge Clay and Speeton Clay. Another smaller collection reflects his longer-term interest in the British Chalk following regular fieldwork with A. W. Rowe. Other collections relating to Sherborn's early published work, particularly with T. R. Jones, are not present in the collections but these collections may have been sold or deposited elsewhere by his co-workers.
Betterle, Corrado; Garelli, Silvia; Presotto, Fabio; Furmaniak, Jadwiga
Recent progress in the immunopathology field has greatly improved our understanding of the natural history of autoimmune diseases, particularly of Addison's disease. Addison's disease is known to be a chronic illness characterized by adrenocortical gland insufficiency that develops following a long and mainly asymptomatic period, characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies directed to adrenal cortex antigens. In this chapter we describe the groups of subjects at risk of developing Addison's disease, together with the diagnostic tests considered the most appropriate for evaluating adrenal function: determination of basal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and cortisol levels, and cortisol levels after intravenous stimulation with ACTH (ACTH test). The employment of specific clinical, immunological and functional criteria in the subjects with autoantibodies to the adrenal cortex allows identifying those at risk of developing overt disease. The independent risk factors for the progression to adrenal failure have also been identified and they contribute to different risks of developing clinical Addison's disease. Based on the risk level, the subjects should be monitored over time to observe early signs of adrenal dysfunction, and start substitutive treatment as soon as possible. For patients presenting with high risk, prevention strategies and trials might be available. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Harold J. Cook
Full Text Available In 1690, on the orders of Simon van der Stel, officials of the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC interviewed one Nicolao Almede, a 'free black man of Mozambique' who had recently arrived at the Cape as a sailor aboard the English ship John and Mary. Almede informed his interlocutors about the country inland from the coast between Mozambique and Delagoa Bay (now Maputo Bay, into which he had previously ventured as a merchant. Although he does not mention the legendary name of Monomotapa, he does offer early descriptions of the Changamire dynasty, as well as the animals and people of the region, including its fabulous wealth. Some of the place names he mentioned are well known, while others cannot now be traced, perhaps because he was using indigenous rather than Portuguese names. The record of the interview concludes with Almede's description of mermaids, and the fact that their teeth could be had in the market at Mozambique. Together with producing a transcription and translation of the document this article explores it through a close reading to offer some speculations about the interweaving of legend and fact in the human and natural history of southern Africa in reports such as that of Almede.
Cain, Nicole; Irving, Claire; Webber, Steven; Beerman, Lee; Arora, Gaurav
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome carries a risk for symptomatic arrhythmias and sudden death. The aim of this study was to examine the natural history of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome diagnosed in childhood followed longitudinally at a single institution. The study population consisted of 446 patients. The median age of diagnosis was 7 years, and 61% were male. Associated heart disease was present in 40 patients (9%). Modes of presentation included supraventricular tachycardia (38%), palpitations (22%), chest pain (5%), syncope (4%), atrial fibrillation (0.4%), sudden death (0.2%), and incidental findings (26%); data were unavailable in 4%. During the study period, a total of 243 patients (54%) had supraventricular tachycardia, and 7 patients (1.6%) had atrial fibrillation. Of patients who presented at ≤3 months of age, 35% had resolution of manifest preexcitation compared with 5.8% who presented at >3 months of age (p Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome diagnosed in childhood, 64% had symptoms at presentation, and an additional 20% developed symptoms during follow-up. There were 6 sudden deaths (1.3%), with an overall incidence of 1.1 per 1,000 patient-years in patients with structurally normal hearts and 27 per 1,000 patient-years in patients with associated heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greaney, R.B.; Gerber, F.H.; Laughlin, R.L.; Kmet, J.P.; Metz, C.D.; Kilcheski, T.S.; Rao, B.R.; Silverman, E.D.
In a prospective study of stress injuries of the lower extremities of U.S. Marine recruits, researchers derived a frequency distribution of stress fractures. The most frequently fractured bone was the tibia (73%), while the single most common site was the posterior calcaneal tuberosity (21%). The natural history of stress fractures by scintigraphy and radiography has been outlined, showing the evolutionary changes on either study as a universal progression independent of injury site or type of stress. An identical spectrum of changes should be present within any group undergoing intense new exercise. The frequency distribution of stress fractures should be a function of differing forms and intensities of exercise, therefore, our figures should not be applied to other groups. Researchers used the presence of a scintigraphic abnormality at a symptomatic site as the criterion for diagnosis of stress fracture. Since the distribution of skeletal radiotracer uptake is directly dependent on local metabolic activity, it is expected that a focal alteration in bone metabolism will result in a scintigram approaching 100% sensitivity for the abnormality (9). In the proper clinical setting, the specificity should approximate this figure; however, a focal, nonstress-related bone abnormality which has not manifested any radiographic change, such as early osteomyelitis, could result in a false-positive examination. Specificity cannot, therefore, be accurately determined without an actual determination of the pathologic changes within the bone, necessarily involving biopsy
Parr, Justin M; Desai, Devang; Winkle, David
To describe the natural history and quality of life (QoL) in patients with cystine urolithiasis. A cohort study was carried out involving participants recruited from a single surgeon's case mix. Patients with cystinuria and related urolithiasis were invited to complete a questionnaire involving demographic information, use of medical treatment, surgical interventions and the 36-item short-form 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). In all, 14 patients completed the survey. The SF-36 survey showed lower QoL than the general public in seven of eight domains. The mean interventional rate in patients with cystinuria was 10.6 procedures per patient. Most patients reported previous use of d-penicillamine and urinary alkalinisation medications, with most ceasing due to side-effects or lack of perceived efficacy. Cystinuria is associated with a high rate of surgical intervention and lower QoL than the general public. Individuals with this condition report that medical management is either ineffective or poorly tolerated. There is a need for further improvements in medical management of cystinuria, to reduce the rate of operative intervention. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spencer, P S; Palmer, V S; Jilek-Aall, L
Repetitive involuntary head nodding was first reported in the 1960s in the Wapogoro tribe of Tanzania. We describe the natural history of head nodding in the Wapogoro tribe, with special reference to the earliest reported dates of onset. We analyzed clinical data from 150 historical patients seen between 1960 and 1971. Head nodding with or without grand mal convulsions was present in 33/150 (∼20%) cases, was mostly familial and equally distributed by gender. Age at onset of head nodding ranged from 2-22 years (mean: ∼10 years) in the period 1934-1962. Head nodding preceded onset of grand mal convulsions by up to 12 months, and motor and psychomotor deficits indicative of brain damage developed with time. Fourteen of the 33 cases died at 13-39 years of age (mean: ∼20 years) while nineteen aged 16-28 years (mean: ∼16 years) were still alive. Historical accounts of head nodding (amesinzia kichwa, Swahili) among the Wapogoro tribe fit the August 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of probable Nodding Syndrome. Reported to have existed in this population for at least 80 years, Nodding Syndrome is a progressive seizure disorder that leads to generalized convulsions (kifafa), brain damage and death.
Bernard, Valérie; Villa, Chiara; Auguste, Aurélie; Lamothe, Sophie; Guillou, Anne; Martin, Agnès; Caburet, Sandrine; Young, Jacques; Veitia, Reiner A; Binart, Nadine
Lactotroph adenoma, also called prolactinoma, is the most common pituitary tumor but little is known about its pathogenesis. Mouse models of prolactinoma can be useful to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in abnormal lactotroph cell proliferation and secretion. We have previously developed a prolactin receptor deficient ( Prlr -/- ) mouse, which develops prolactinoma. The present study aims to explore the natural history of prolactinoma formation in Prlr -/- mice, using hormonal, radiological, histological and molecular analyses to uncover mechanisms involved in lactotroph adenoma development. Prlr -/- females develop large secreting prolactinomas from 12 months of age, with a penetrance of 100%, mimicking human aggressive densely granulated macroprolactinoma, which is a highly secreting subtype. Mean blood PRL measurements reach 14 902 ng/mL at 24 months in Prlr -/- females while PRL levels were below 15 ng/mL in control mice ( p model in ACI rats, we pinpointed 218 concordantly differentially expressed (DE) genes involved in cell cycle, mitosis, cell adhesion molecules, dopaminergic synapse and estrogen signaling. Pathway/gene-set enrichment analyses suggest that the transcriptomic dysregulation in both models of prolactinoma might be mediated by a limited set of transcription factors (i.e., STAT5, STAT3, AhR, ESR1, BRD4, CEBPD, YAP, FOXO1) and kinases (i.e., JAK2, AKT1, BRAF, BMPR1A, CDK8, HUNK, ALK, FGFR1, ILK). Our experimental results and their bioinformatic analysis provide insights into early genomic changes in murine models of the most frequent human pituitary tumor.
Full Text Available Depression is one of the most common and persistent nonmotor syndromes occurring in 35% of patients diagnosed with PD. However, little information is known about the longitudinal study of its natural history of depression in PD. In this study, we identified 110 patients who are diagnosed with idiopathic PD and recruited them for assessing information about their PD related motor and nonmotor symptoms and rating scales. A follow-up evaluation was performed in 103 patients 30 months later. About 66.7% depressed patients at baseline were still depressed at follow-up, and 24.4% had incident depression among subjects without depression at baseline. Greater decline on MMSE (P=0.029, higher baseline UPDRS-II (P<0.001 score, change of UPDRS-II (P=0.026, and female (P<0.001 were associated with the worsening of HDRS scores. Higher baseline HDRS score (P<0.001 and greater decline on MMSE (P=0.001 were related to the occurrence of depression. In conclusion, cognitive decline is a disease related factor of worsening and the occurrence of depression. Activities of Daily Living (ADL symptoms in PD and female gender may be crucial factors of increasing depressive symptoms.
Olafsdottir, Linda Bjork; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Jonsdottir, Heidur Hrund; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni
To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities. A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week, based on the definition of heartburn. Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects. Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn. Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life.
W. Jason Niedermeyer
Full Text Available In the past decade, there has been a growing recognition that society’s emphasis on speed and efficiency came with some costs: a loss of the ability to appreciate activities and understand their meanings. Recently, this meta-movement has made its way into the literature on literacy, causing the author to embark on an investigation into the veracity of the claims that slow reading might also mean better reading. A natural history approach was adopted for the analysis to evaluate whether there was evolutionary justification for the movement, leading to the review of relevant work in the fields of ethology, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, anthropology, sociology, linguistics, and literacy. The findings reveal an evolutionary push toward both speed and understanding, two aims that eventually come to be at odds in expert readers. It is the conclusion of the author that, from an evolutionary perspective, there may be justification for the start of a slow reading movement, but that it must be paired with practices that develop the capacity to read fast.
Seung Min Song
Full Text Available Purpose : Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents. In this study, we investigated the natural course and the prognostic factors of Graves' disease in Korean children and adolescents. Methods : One-hundred thirteen (88 girls and 25 boys patients were included in this study. A retrospective analysis was made of all patients who were diagnosed with Graves' disease. The following parameters were recorded and analyzed: patient's sex, age at diagnosis, duration of disease, laboratory findings, symptoms and signs, and family history of autoimmune thyroid disease. Results : All patients were initially treated with antithyroid drugs, either methimazole (93.8% or propylthiouracil (6.2%. Antithyroid drugs had been discontinued in 75 (66.4% of 113 patients. Of these 75 patients, 23 (20.4% relapsed after 25.5¡?#?3.7; months. Thirteen (11.5% of 23 patients, who experienced the first relapse, showed a second remission. However, 2 (1.8% of 13 patients relapsed again. Euthyroid state could not be achieved by antithyroid drugs in 1 patient, and radioactive iodine therapy was performed. The older the patient at diagnosis, the greater the likelihood of remission (P =0.034. Conclusion : Age at diagnosis seems to be a prognostic factor in Korean children and adolescents with Graves' disease, and should be taken into account in treatment plan determination.
Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran
Retinopathy of prematurity is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. Proper understanding of the classification and treatment methods is a must in tackling this disease. Literature search with PubMed was conducted covering the period 1940-2015 with regards to retinopathy of prematurity, retrolental fibroplasia, its natural history, classification and treatment. The clinical features, screening and staging of retinopathy of prematurity according to International classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP) has been included with illustrations. The standard current treatment indications, modalities and outcomes from landmark randomized controlled trials on retinopathy of prematurity have been mentioned. This review would help pediatricians to update their current knowledge on classification and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity, in India, should be performed in all preterm neonates who are born <34 weeks gestation and/or <1750 grams birthweight; as well as in babies 34-36 weeks gestation or 1750-2000 grams birthweight if they have risk factors for ROP. Screening should start by one month after birth.
Andrews, Jordan; Puri, Rishi; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J; Psaltis, Peter J
Despite advances in risk prediction, preventive and therapeutic strategies, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains a major public health challenge worldwide, carrying considerable morbidity, mortality and health economic burden. There continues to be a need to better understand the natural history of this disease to guide the development of more effective treatment, integral to which is the rapidly evolving field of coronary artery imaging. Various imaging modalities have been refined to enable detailed visualization of the pathological substrate of atherosclerosis, providing accurate and reproducible measures of coronary plaque burden and composition, including the presence of high-risk characteristics. The serial application of such techniques, including coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have uncovered important insights into the progression of coronary plaque over time in patients with stable and unstable coronary artery disease (CAD), and its responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Here we review the use of different imaging modalities for the surveillance of coronary atherosclerosis and the lessons they have provided about the modulation of CAD by both traditional and experimental therapies.
Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Humphrey, Stephen R; Kelly, Michael E; Chiu, Yvonne E; Galbraith, Sheila S
Prior reports of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) suggest that isolated skin involvement is rare and often progresses to systemic disease. More rapid access to pediatric subspecialty care has likely led to more frequent representation of this condition. The purpose of this study is to characterize the natural history of skin-limited LCH in an era of increased access to pediatric subspecialty care. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients newly diagnosed with LCH between 2001 and 2012 at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. Extensive review of laboratory, physical examination, and imaging reports was performed and data collected for patients with biopsy-proven skin LCH. Sixteen individuals with skin-limited LCH were identified. The median age at onset of skin eruption was birth (range, birth to 6 mo), and median duration of follow-up was 19.5 months (range, 2 wk to 10 y) from diagnosis. One patient (6%) developed pituitary disease and 1 patient (6%) had refractory skin involvement. All others experienced complete resolution. For patients without progressive or refractory disease, resolution of skin findings occurred within 7 months from onset. Progression of skin-limited to multisystem LCH likely may be less frequent than previously described.
Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Leandro, Gioacchino; Di Leo, Milena; Zuppardo, Raffaella Alessia; Morrow, Olivia B; Notaristefano, Chiara; Rossi, Gemma; Testoni, Sabrina Gloria Giulia; Mazzoleni, Giorgia; Alessandri, Matteo; Goni, Elisabetta; Singh, Satish K; Giliberti, Aurore; Bianco, Margherita; Fanti, Lorella; Viale, Edi; Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio; Mariani, Alberto; Petrone, Maria Chiara; Testoni, Pier Alberto
The natural history of acute pancreatitis is based on clinical studies that aim to elucidate the course of disease on the basis of predicted risk factors. To evaluate the long-term occurrence of recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis in a cohort of patients following an initial episode of acute pancreatitis. 196 patients were enrolled consecutively and studied prospectively. Clinical characteristics, exogenously/endogenously-associated factors, and evolution to recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis were analyzed. 40 patients developed recurrent acute pancreatitis 13 of whom developed chronic pancreatitis. In a univariate analysis, recurrent acute pancreatitis was associated with an idiopathic aetiology (pChronic pancreatitis was associated with a severe first episode of acute pancreatitis (p=0.048), PD (p=0.03), and cigarette smoking (p=0.038). By multivariate analysis, pancreas divisum was an independent risk factor for recurrent acute pancreatitis (OR 11.5, 95% CI 1.6-83.3). A severe first-episode of acute pancreatitis increased the risk of progressing to chronic pancreatitis by nine-fold. Special attention should be given to patients who experience a severe first attack of acute pancreatitis as there appears to be an increased risk of developing chronic pancreatitis over the long term. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simina M Boca
Full Text Available Serum metabolite profiling in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD may enable discovery of valuable molecular markers for disease progression and treatment response. Serum samples from 51 DMD patients from a natural history study and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS for discovery of novel circulating serum metabolites associated with DMD. Fourteen metabolites were found significantly altered (1% false discovery rate in their levels between DMD patients and healthy controls while adjusting for age and study site and allowing for an interaction between disease status and age. Increased metabolites included arginine, creatine and unknown compounds at m/z of 357 and 312 while decreased metabolites included creatinine, androgen derivatives and other unknown yet to be identified compounds. Furthermore, the creatine to creatinine ratio is significantly associated with disease progression in DMD patients. This ratio sharply increased with age in DMD patients while it decreased with age in healthy controls. Overall, this study yielded promising metabolic signatures that could prove useful to monitor DMD disease progression and response to therapies in the future.
Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Synan, I.S.; Colemen, R.E.; Hinshaw, W.; Creasman, W.T.
Three hundred eighty-two patients who underwent major operations for gynecologic malignancy were studied prospectively to determine the natural history of postoperative venous thromboemboli. Iodine 125-labeled fibrinogen leg counting, to diagnose deep venous thrombosis, was performed daily. Sixty-three patients (17%) developed postoperative venous thromboembolic complications. Deep venous thrombosis initially arose in the calf veins in 52 patients. Twenty-seven percent of these thrombi lysed spontaneously. Four percent of thrombi in the calf veins progressed to deep venous thrombosis in the femoral vein, and 4% resulted in pulmonary emboli. Nine other patients developed proximal deep venous thrombosis without prior thrombosis in the calf veins. One patient with proximal deep venous thrombosis also had a pulmonary embolus. Two patients with no evidence of deep venous thrombosis on prospective 125 I-labeled fibrinogen leg counting developed pulmonary emboli, including one fatal pulmonary embolus that was found at autopsy to have arisen from the internal iliac veins. Fifty percent of all venous thromboemboli were detected within 48 hours of operation, although two patients developed significant deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli after discharge from the hospital. These results add important information to our understanding of this disease process, and raise issues related to appropriate treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients after gynecologic operations
Khavandi, Kaivan; Brownrigg, Jack; Hankir, Mohammed; Sood, Harpreet; Younis, Naveed; Worth, Joy; Greenstein, Adam; Soran, Handrean; Wierzbicki, Anthony; Goldsmith, David J
In recent decades we have seen a surge in the incidence of diabetes in industrialized nations; a threat which has now extended to the developing world. Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant microvascular and macrovascular disease, with considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has cast uncertainty on the benefits of very tight glycaemic goals in these individuals. The natural history of disease follows an insidious course from disordered glucose metabolism in a pre-diabetic state, often with metabolic syndrome and obesity, before proceeding to diabetes mellitus. In the research setting, lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical intervention targeted against obesity and glycaemia has shown that metabolic disturbances can be halted and indeed regressed if introduced at an early stage of disease. In addition to traditional anti-diabetic medications such as the glinides, sulphonylureas and the glitazones, novel therapies manipulating the endocannabinoid system, neurotransmitters, intestinal absorption and gut hormones have shown dual benefit in weight loss and glycaemic control normalisation. Whilst these treatments will not and should not replace lifestyle change, they will act as invaluable adjuncts for weight loss and aid in normalising the metabolic profile of individuals at risk of diabetes. Utilizing novel therapies to prevent diabetes should be the focus of future research, with the aim of preventing the challenging microvascular and macrovascular complications, and ultimately cardiovascular death.
Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Gregg, Brigid; Blandino-Rosano, Manuel; Cras-Méneur, Corentin; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by β-cell failure in the setting of insulin resistance. The current evidence suggests that genetic predisposition, and environmental factors can impair the capacity of the β-cells to respond to insulin resistance and ultimately lead to their failure. However, genetic studies have demonstrated that known variants account for less than 10% of the overall estimated T2D risk, suggesting that additional unidentified factors contribute to susceptibility of this disease. In this review, we will discuss the different stages that contribute to the development of β-cell failure in T2D. We divide the natural history of this process in three major stages: susceptibility, β-cell adaptation and β-cell failure and provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved. Further research into mechanisms will reveal key modulators of β-cell failure and thus identify possible novel therapeutic targets and potential interventions to protect against β-cell failure. PMID:25542976
Akridge, Jannette Marie Cunningham
The amount of stored thermoluminescence in a meteorite is a direct result of storage temperature and duration of radiation exposure. I have used these relationships to study the terrestrial and orbital histories of meteorites. The orbital history of a meteorite is investigated using the high temperature portion of the glow curve while the study of terrestrial histories requires the use of the low temperature region. The build-up and decay parameters for the high temperature region of the thermoluminescence glow-curve for Paragould, Lost City, Tilden, Chicora, Innisfree and Pribram have been determined. All of the samples reach saturation at 360 +/- 10 krad and have a RO value (the dose necessary to fill 63.2% of the total available traps) of 80 krad. There are four trap populations with average temperatures of 321 +/- 7.3°C, 367 +/- 5.8°C, 406 +/- 4.8°C, and 462 +/- 5.8°C and average E values of 1.27 +/- 0.02 eV, 1.38 +/- 0.04 eV, 1.45 +/- 0.01 eV, and 1.51 +/- 0.01 eV; and averages s values of 7.87 +/- 1.85 x 109 sec-1 , 9.89 +/- 7.30 x 109 sec-1, 5.95 +/- 1.66 x 109 sec-1, and 2.01 +/- 0.50 x 109 sec-1, respectively. Based on calculations using the above TL parameters, I argue that Pribram was exposed to a higher average dose rate in space than Lost City and Innisfree. It is also possible that Paragould and Tilden have perihelia similar to that of Pribram. If the albedo of the two meteorites is assumed to be similar to Pribram then the aphelion must have been less than 3.5 AU, but if their albedos were lower than Pribram's their aphelia could have been as much as 4.0 AU. Chicora probably had a perihelion similar to that of Lost City and Innisfree but its aphelion was probably less than that of Lost City. I have measured the natural TL in the ``drained zone'' of 15 meteorites. The data indicate that this technique could be used with greater accuracy than 36Cl to determine terrestrial ages of meteorites with ages <200 ka, after which TL equilibrium is reached
Jørgensen, Christian; Holt, Rebecca E.
A stronger focus on natural mortality may be required to better understand contemporary changes in fish life histories and behaviour and their responses to anthropogenic drivers. Firstly, natural mortality is the selection under which fish evolved in the first place, so a theoretical understanding of effects of natural mortality alone is needed. Secondly, due to trade-offs, most organismal functions can only be achieved at some cost in terms of survival. Several trade-offs might need to be analysed simultaneously with effects on natural mortality being a common currency. Thirdly, there is scattered evidence that natural mortality has been increasing, some would say dramatically, in some fished stocks, which begs explanations. Fourthly, natural mortality most often implies transfer of mass and energy from one species to another, and therefore has foodweb and ecosystem consequences. We therefore analyse a model for evolution of fish life histories and behaviour, where state-dependent energy-allocation and growth strategies are found by optimization. Natural mortality is split into five different components, each specified as the outcome of individual traits and ecological trade-offs: a fixed baseline mortality; size-dependent predation; risk-dependent growth strategy; a fixed mortality when sexually mature; and mortality increasing with reproductive investment. The analysis is repeated with and without fishing. Each component of natural mortality has consequences for optimal life history strategies. Beyond earlier models, we show i) how the two types of reproductive mortality sometimes have similar and sometimes contrasting effects on life history evolution, ii) how ecosystem properties such as food availability and predation levels have stronger effects on optimal strategies than changing other mortality components, and iii) how expected changes in risk-dependent growth strategies are highly variable depending on the type of mortality changed.
Bedossa, Pierre; Tordjman, Joan; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Torcivia, Adriana; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Paradis, Valerie; Ratziu, Vlad; Clément, Karine
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent complication of morbid obesity, but its severity varies greatly and thus there is a strong need to better define its natural history in these patients. Liver biopsies were systematically performed in 798 consecutive patients with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. Histology was compared with clinical, biological, anthropometrical and body composition characteristics. Patients with presumably normal liver (n=179, 22%) were significantly younger at bariatric surgery than patients with NAFLD (37.0 vs 44.4 years, pliver reported the onset of obesity at a significantly younger age than those with NAFLD (14.8 vs 20.0 year, pliver disease severity (presumably normal liver: 1.00, steatosis: 1.21, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): 1.34, pliver: 50%, steatosis: 49.1%, NASH: 47.4%, pliver disease but only in female patients (presumably normal liver: 8543 picolitres, steatosis: 9156 picolitres, NASH: 9996 picolitres). These results suggest that young adults are more prone to store fat in subcutaneous tissue and reach the threshold of bariatric surgery indication before their liver is damaged. A shift of fat storage from subcutaneous to visceral adipose tissue compartment is associated with liver damages. Liver might also be targeted by subcutaneous hypertrophic adipocytes in females since hypertrophic adipocytes are more exposed to lipolysis and to the production of inflammatory mediators. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
To reassess the natural history of polycythemia vera and to obtain reliable estimates of both incidence of thrombosis and survival for use in defining the sample size for therapeutic clinical trials. Retrospective cohort study of patients with polycythemia who had been followed for 20 years. 11 Italian hematology institutions. 1213 patients with polycythemia vera, which was diagnosed according to criteria established by the Polycythemia Vera Study Group and commonly used in clinical practice. All-cause mortality, venous and arterial thrombosis, and hematologic and nonhematologic neoplastic disease. Myocardial infarction and stroke were classified as major thrombotic events, and venous and peripheral arterial thrombosis were considered minor thrombotic events. The number of patients who died and the number of those who had major thrombotic events (combined end point) were used as a comprehensive measure of the benefit-risk ratio associated with the use of myelosuppressive agents. 634 fatal and nonfatal arterial and venous thromboses were recorded in 485 patients (41%); 36% of these episodes occurred during follow-up in 230 patients (19%), and 64% occurred either at presentation or before diagnosis. Thrombotic events occurred more frequently in the 2 years preceding diagnosis, suggesting a causal relation between the latent myeloproliferative disorder and the vascular event. The incidence of thrombosis during follow-up was 3.4%/y; older patients or those with a history of thrombosis had a higher risk for thrombosis. Overall mortality was 2.9/100 patients per year; thrombotic events and hematologic or nonhematologic cancers had similar effects on mortality. Patients receiving chemotherapy died three to four times more frequently than those not receiving chemotherapy. The increased risk for cancer in patients receiving myelosuppressive agents was seen approximately 6 years after diagnosis. In addition, the combined end point, computed as the sum of the hardest
Biuckians, Andre; Scott, Eric C; Meier, George H; Panneton, Jean M; Glickman, Marc H
Patients on hemodialysis depend on durable, easily maintained vascular access. The autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has been the gold standard since the introduction of the Brecia-Cimino fistula in 1966 and is echoed in the current Kidney Disease Outcomes and Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines. The purpose of this study is to determine the natural history of AVF in patients requiring first-time permanent access in a large academic vascular surgery practice. We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing new access creation from January 1, 2005 to June 30, 2005. The study group consisted of patients with no prior permanent access that underwent AVF creation. Categorical data was compared using chi2 analysis, nominal data was compared using Student t-test, and patency was determined by Kaplan-Meier curves. During the 6-month period, there were 80 first time AVF creations. The majority of patients were male (69%), African American (55%), and a history of diabetes (55%) and hypertension (96%). Seventy-five percent of patients were already undergoing hemodialysis via catheter access. Seventy-six percent of patients underwent preoperative vein mapping with a mean vein diameter of 3.1 mm. Twenty-six radiocephalic AVF (RCAVF) and 54 brachiocephalic AVF (BCAVF) were created with a mean follow-up of 278 days. At the end of follow-up, 38 (48%) AVF were being used for hemodialysis and only nine (11%) matured without the need for additional intervention. Mean time for AVF maturation was 146 days. Thirty AVF (37%) were abandoned, 16 (20%) of which were primary failures. Mean time to abandonment was 162 days. Twelve (15%) AVF remained patent but were never cannulated. The intervention rate was 1.33 interventions/patient/year and 75% of interventions were percutaneous. Kaplan-Meier analysis determined primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency was 36% +/- 8.3, 55% +/- 6.5, and 55% +/- 6.5 at 1 year, respectively. Cumulative functional patency was 63% at
... cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural... Natural History, Chicago, IL, that meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony... ``Apache's Medicine-man's effigy.'' Charles Owen had previously seen the figure on the Apache Reservation...
Roovers, E.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Mostert, Adriaan K.; Castelein, René M.; Zielhuis, Gerhard A.; Kerkhoff, Antoon
The natural history of sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip was determined in a population-based study in which 5170 infants were screened by ultrasound using Graf's method. Of the normal hips at the age of 1 month, 99.6% were still normal at the age of 3 months. Of the immature type
This study is a followup to the author's earlier study of the learning differences exhibited by museum exhibit visitors and seeks to discern the effects of the pathological cultural problems identified by other researchers in a science education setting. The setting for this followup study was the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.…
Eves, Robert L.; Davis, Larry E.; Brown, D. Gordon; Lamberts, William L.
According to Carl Sagan (1987), "Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Field studies and undergraduate research provide students with the best opportunities for "thinking" about science, while at the same time acquiring a body of knowledge. Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems is a…
Jacobi, H.; Bauer, P.; Giunti, P.; Labrum, R.; Sweeney, M.G.; Charles, P.; Durr, A.; Marelli, C.; Globas, C.; Linnemann, C.; Schols, L.; Rakowicz, M.; Rola, R.; Zdzienicka, E.; Schmitz-Hubsch, T.; Fancellu, R.; Mariotti, C.; Tomasello, C.; Baliko, L.; Melegh, B.; Filla, A.; Rinaldi, C.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Szymanski, S.; Berciano, J.; Infante, J.; Timmann, D.; Boesch, S.; Hering, S.; Depondt, C.; Pandolfo, M.; Kang, J.S.; Ratzka, S.; Schulz, J.; Tezenas du Montcel, S.; Klockgether, T.
OBJECTIVE: To obtain quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and identify factors that influence their progression, we initiated the EUROSCA natural history study, a multicentric longitudinal cohort study of 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6.
Dickinson, E.C.; Morioka, H.; Walters, M.
The Natural History Museum, Tring, holds type material from Japan upon which names were based by Gould, Gurney, Hargitt, Ingram, Mathews, Oates, Seebohm, Sharpe, Swinhoe, Tristram and Vigors. In most cases selected types, which are not necessarily lectotypes, have been listed by Warren (1966) or
Skibola, Christine F; Slager, Susan L; Berndt, Sonja I; Lightfoot, Tracy; Sampson, Joshua N; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) in adults is a rare malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and few reported etiologic risk factors. We performed an exploratory pooled study of 152 ALL cases and 23096 controls from 16 case-control studies to investigate the role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors and risk of ALL. Age- race/ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. An increased risk of ALL was found in those with a family history of a hematological malignancy (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.22 to 5.54) and in leather (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.35 to 11.35) and sewing/embroidery workers (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00 to 8.49). Consumers of alcohol had an increased risk of B-cell ALL (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.95). The small number of statistically significant risk factors identified out of the 112 variables examined could be chance findings and will require further replication to assess their role in the etiology of adult ALL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jerud, Alissa B; Zoellner, Lori A; Pruitt, Larry D; Feeny, Norah C
This study compared changes in emotion regulation and trait affect over the course of PTSD treatment with either prolonged exposure (PE) therapy or sertraline in adults with and without a history of childhood abuse (CA). Two hundred adults with PTSD received 10 weeks of PE or sertraline. Emotion regulation and trait affect were assessed pre- and posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003), the Negative Mood Regulation Scale (Catanzaro & Mearns, 1990), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Individuals with and without a history of CA did not differ from one another at pretreatment on PTSD severity, emotion regulation, or positive/negative affect. In addition, treatment was effective at improving emotion regulation and trait affect in those with and without a history of CA, and no significant differences in emotion regulation or trait affect emerged posttreatment or at 6-month follow-up between adults with and without a history of CA. Furthermore, noninferiority analyses indicated that the emotion regulation and trait affect outcomes of individuals with a history of CA were no worse than those of individuals without a history of CA. These findings cast doubt on the assumption that CA is associated with worse emotion regulation following PTSD treatment, arguing against assertions that a history of CA itself is a contraindication for traditional PTSD treatment, and that there is a clear necessity for additional interventions designed to target assumed emotion regulation deficits. [Corrected] PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Ferrière, Ludovic; Steinwender, Christian
The Natural History Museum Vienna (NHMV) owns one of the largest building, decorative, and ornamental stones collections in Europe. This important collection dates back to the 19th century and was initiated by curator Felix Karrer after a donation of the "Union-Baugesellschaft" (Karrer, 1892). It contains rock samples used for the construction of most of the famous buildings and monuments in Vienna and in the entire Austria and surrounding countries, as well as from other famous constructions and antique (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, etc.) monuments in the world. Decorative stones that were used for the inside parts of buildings as well as artificial materials, such as stucco, tiles, and building-materials like gravel, are also part of this collection. Unfortunately, most specimens of this collection cannot be displayed at the NHMV (i.e., only 500 specimens are visible in the display Hall I) and are therefore preserved in storage rooms, and not accessible to the public. The main objective of our project of digitalization is to share our rock collection and all treasures it contains with the large majority of interested persons, and especially to provide knowledge on these rocks for people who need this information, such as people who work in cultural, architectural, scientific, and commercial fields. So far 4,500 samples from our collection have been processed with the support of the Open Up! project (Opening up the Natural History Heritage for Europeana). Our database contains all information available on these samples (including e.g., the name of the rock, locality, historic use, heritage utilization, etc.), high-quality digital photographs (with both top and bottom sides of the samples), and scanned labels (both "old" NHMV labels and other (original) labels attached to the samples). We plan to achieve the full digitalization of our unique collection within the next two years and to develop a website to provide access to the content of our database (if adequate
Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard; Greenstein, Adrian
PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE: There exists little information concerning the natural history of rectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, the tolerance of pelvic irradiation in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the largest series of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer in order to determine the natural history of the disease as well as the effect and tolerance of pelvic irradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 47 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer treated over a 34 year period (1960-1994) was performed. Thirty five patients had Ulcerative Colitis and 12 patients had Crohn's Disease. There were 31 male patients and 16 female patients. The stage (AJC) distribution was as follows: stage 0 in 5 patients, stage I in 13 patients, stage II in 7 patients, stage III in 13 patients and stage IV in 9 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 44 patients. In 2 of these patients, preoperative pelvic irradiation was given followed by surgery. Twenty of these patients underwent post-operative adjuvant therapy (12 were treated with chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation and 8 with chemotherapy alone). Three patients were found to have unresectable disease and were treated with chemotherapy alone (2 patients) or chemotherapy and radiation therapy (1 patient). Radiation complications were graded using the RTOG acute and late effects scoring criteria. Follow up ranged from 4 to 250 months (median - 24 months). RESULTS: The 5 year actuarial results revealed an overall survival (OS) of 42%, a disease free survival (DFS) of 43%, a pelvic control rate (PC) of 67% and a freedom from distant failure (FFDF) of 47%. DFS decreased with increasing T stage with a 5 year rate of 86% for patients with Tis - T2 disease compared to 10% for patients with T3-T4 disease (p < 0.0001). The presence of lymph node metastases also resulted in a decrease in DFS with a 5 year rate of 67% for patients with N0 disease
McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Williams, Benjamin; Dolphin, Andrew; Hidalgo-RodrIguez, Sebastian; Holtzman, Jon
We use archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of resolved stellar populations to derive the star formation histories (SFHs) of 18 nearby starburst dwarf galaxies. In this first paper, we present the observations, color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and the SFHs of the 18 starburst galaxies, based on a homogeneous approach to the data reduction, differential extinction, and treatment of photometric completeness. We adopt a star formation rate (SFR) threshold normalized to the average SFR of the individual system as a metric for classifying starbursts in SFHs derived from resolved stellar populations. This choice facilitates finding not only the currently bursting galaxies but also 'fossil' bursts increasing the sample size of starburst galaxies in the nearby (D 100 Myr temporal baseline is thus fundamental to any starburst definition or identification method. The longer lived bursts rule out rapid 'self-quenching' of starbursts on global scales. The bursting galaxies' gas consumption timescales are shorter than the Hubble time for all but one galaxy confirming the short-lived nature of starbursts based on fuel limitations. Additionally, we find that the strength of the Hα emission usually correlates with the CMD-based SFR during the last 4-10 Myr. However, in four cases, the Hα emission is significantly less than what is expected for models of starbursts; the discrepancy is due to the SFR changing on timescales of a few Myr. The inherently short timescale of the Hα emission limits identifying galaxies as starbursts based on the current characteristics which may or may not be representative of the recent SFH of a galaxy.
Vehik, Kendra; Beam, Craig A; Mahon, Jeffrey L; Schatz, Desmond A; Haller, Michael J; Sosenko, Jay M; Skyler, Jay S; Krischer, Jeffrey P
Understanding the relationship between age and islet autoantibody (Ab) seroconversion can establish the optimal screening interval(s) to assess risk for type 1 diabetes, identify subjects who can participate in prevention trials, and determine associated costs. This study assessed the rates of seroconversion to glutamic acid decarboxylase positive (GAD65(+)), insulin positive (mIAA(+)), and insulinoma-associated protein 2 positive (ICA512(+)) in a large cohort of relatives of type 1 diabetes probands undergoing Ab rescreening in the TrialNet Natural History Study. Of 32,845 children aged <18 years screened for Abs, 1,287 (3.9%) were GAD65(+), 778 (2.4%) were mIAA(+), 677 (2.1%) were ICA512(+), and 31,038 were Ab-negative. Ab-negative children were offered annual rescreening up to 18 years of age. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk for GAD65, mIAA, and ICA512 seroconversion. RESULTS There were 205 children who seroconverted to GAD65(+), 155 who seroconverted to mIAA(+), and 53 who seroconverted to ICA512(+) over 5.8 years of follow-up. The risk of mIAA (hazard ratio 0.89 [95% CI 0.85-0.92]) and GAD65 (0.96 [0.93-0.99]) seroconversion significantly decreased with increasing age (i.e., for each 1-year increase in age, the risk of seroconversion decreased by 11% [P < 0.0001] for mIAA and 4% [P = 0.04] for GAD65) across all ages. The cumulative Ab seroconversion was 2% for those <10 years of age versus 0.7% for those ≥10 years of age. The risk of development of islet Abs declines with increasing age in type 1 diabetes relatives. These data support annual screening for children <10 years of age and one additional screening in adolescence.
Brown, Simon G A; Franks, Rodney W; Baldo, Brian A; Heddle, Robert J
The jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) is responsible for greater than 90% of Australian ant venom allergy. However, deaths have only been recorded in the island of Tasmania. We sought to determine the prevalence, clinical features, natural history, and predictors of severity of M pilosula sting allergy in Tasmania. We performed a random telephone survey supported by serum venom-specific IgE analysis, review of emergency department presentations, and follow-up of allergic volunteers. M pilosula, honeybee (Apis mellifera), and yellow jacket wasp (Vespula germanica) sting allergy prevalences were 2.7%, 1.4%, and 0.6% compared with annual sting exposure rates of 12%, 7%, and 2%, respectively. Similarly, emergency department presentations with anaphylaxis to M pilosula were double those for honeybee. M pilosula allergy prevalence increased with age of 35 years or greater (odds ratio [OR], 2.4) and bee sting allergy (OR, 16.9). Patients 35 years of age or older had a greater risk of hypotensive reactions (OR, 2.9). Mueller reaction grades correlated well with adrenaline use. During follow-up, 79 (70%) of 113 jack jumper stings caused anaphylaxis. Prior worst reaction severity predicted the likelihood and severity of follow-up reactions; only 3 subjects had more severe reactions. Venom-specific IgE levels and other clinical features, including comorbidities, were not predictive of severity. Sting allergy prevalence is determined by age and exposure rate. M pilosula sting exposure in Tasmania is excessive compared with that found in mainland Australia, and there is a high systemic reaction risk in allergic people on re-sting. Prior worst reaction severity (Mueller grade) and age predict reaction severity and might be used to guide management.
Yang, Jeannie C; Sharp, Susan W; Ostlie, Daniel J; Holcomb, George W; St Peter, Shawn D
Nonoperative management is standard treatment of blunt liver or spleen injuries. However, there are few reports outlining the natural history and outcomes of severe blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of grade 4 or 5 liver and spleen injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with grade 4 or 5 (high-grade) blunt liver and/or spleen injuries from April 1997 to July 2007 at our children's hospital. Demographics, hospital course data, and follow-up data were analyzed. There were 74 high-grade injuries in 72 patients. There were 30 high-grade liver and 44 high-grade spleen injuries. Two patients had both a liver and splenic injury. High-grade liver injuries had a significantly longer length of intensive care and hospital stay compared to high-grade spleen injuries. There were also a significantly higher number of transfusions, radiographs, and total charges in the high-grade liver injuries when compared to the high-grade splenic injuries. The only mortality from solid organ injury was a grade 4 liver injury with portal vein disruption. In contrast, there was only one complication from a high-grade splenic injury-a pleural effusion treated with thoracentesis. There were 5 patients with complications from their liver injury requiring 18 therapeutic procedures. Three patients (10%) with liver injury required readmission as follows: one 5 times, one 3 times, and another one time. Patients with high-grade liver injuries have a longer recovery, more complications, and greater use of resources than in patients with similar injuries to the spleen.
Sesé, Lucile; Nunes, Hilario; Cottin, Vincent; Sanyal, Shreosi; Didier, Morgane; Carton, Zohra; Israel-Biet, Dominique; Crestani, Bruno; Cadranel, Jacques; Wallaert, Benoit; Tazi, Abdellatif; Maître, Bernard; Prévot, Grégoire; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Guillot-Dudoret, Stéphanie; Nardi, Annelyse; Dury, Sandra; Giraud, Violaine; Gondouin, Anne; Juvin, Karine; Borie, Raphael; Wislez, Marie; Valeyre, Dominique; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has an unpredictable course corresponding to various profiles: stability, physiological disease progression and rapid decline. A minority of patients experience acute exacerbations (AEs). A recent study suggested that ozone and nitrogen dioxide might contribute to the occurrence of AE. We hypothesised that outdoor air pollution might influence the natural history of IPF. Patients were selected from the French cohort COhorte FIbrose (COFI), a national multicentre longitudinal prospective cohort of IPF (n=192). Air pollutant levels were assigned to each patient from the air quality monitoring station closest to the patient's geocoded residence. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the impact of air pollution on AE, disease progression and death. Onset of AEs was significantly associated with an increased mean level of ozone in the six preceding weeks, with an HR of 1.47 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.92) per 10 µg/m 3 (p=0.005). Cumulative levels of exposure to particulate matter PM 10 and PM 2.5 were above WHO recommendations in 34% and 100% of patients, respectively. Mortality was significantly associated with increased levels of exposure to PM 10 (HR=2.01, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.77) per 10 µg/m 3 (p=0.03), and PM 2.5 (HR=7.93, 95% CI 2.93 to 21.33) per 10 µg/m 3 (ppollution has a negative impact on IPF outcomes, corroborating the role of ozone on AEs and establishing, for the first time, the potential role of long-term exposure to PM 10 and PM 2.5 on overall mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Wayne, Erik J; Edwards, Matthew S; Stafford, Jeanette M; Hansen, Kimberley J; Corriere, Matthew A
Renal artery aneurysms (RAAs) are uncommon, and rates of growth and rupture are unknown. Limited evidence therefore exists to guide clinical management of RAAs, particularly small aneurysms that are asymptomatic. To further characterize the natural history of RAAs, we studied anatomic characteristics and changes in diameter during imaging surveillance. Patients evaluated for native RAAs at a single institution during a 5-year period (July 2008 to July 2013) were identified and analyzed retrospectively. Patients with two or more cross-sectional imaging studies (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) more than 1 month apart were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected from medical records, and anatomic data (including aneurysm diameter, calcification, and location) were obtained from electronic images. Changes in RAA diameters over time were evaluated by plots and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Sixty-eight RAAs in 55 patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 19.4 months (interquartile range, 11.2-49.0 months). Mean age at presentation was 61.8 ± 9.8 years, and 73% of patients were women. Hypertension was prevalent among 73% of patients. Multiple RAAs were present in 18% of patients, and 24% also had arterial aneurysms of other splanchnic or iliac vessels. The majority of RAAs were calcified and located at the main renal artery bifurcation. Mean initial aneurysm diameter was 16.0 ± 6.4 mm. Median annualized growth rate was 0.06 mm (interquartile range, -0.07 to 0.33 mm; P = .11). No RAA ruptures or acute symptoms occurred during surveillance, and 10.3% of RAAs were repaired electively. Risk of short-term RAA growth or rupture was low. These findings suggest that annual (or less frequent) imaging surveillance is safe in the majority of patients and do not support pre-emptive repair of asymptomatic, small-diameter RAAs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Yeoh, Eric K.; Holloway, Richard H.; Fraser, Robert J.; Botten, Rochelle J.; Di Matteo, Addolorata C.; Butters, Julie
Purpose: To characterize the prevalence, pathophysiology, and natural history of chronic radiation proctitis 5 years following radiation therapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Studies were performed in 34 patients (median age 68 years; range 54-79) previously randomly assigned to either 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6.4 weeks or 55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks RT schedule using 2- and later 3-dimensional treatment technique for localized prostate carcinoma. Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (Modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic scales including effect on activities of daily living [ADLs]); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before RT, at 1 month, and annually for 5 years after its completion. Results: Total GI symptom scores increased after RT and remained above baseline levels at 5 years and were associated with reductions in (1) basal anal pressures, (2) responses to squeeze and increased intra-abdominal pressure, (3) rectal compliance and (4) rectal volumes of sensory perception. Anal sphincter morphology was unchanged. At 5 years, 44% and 21% of patients reported urgency of defecation and rectal bleeding, respectively, and 48% impairment of ADLs. GI symptom scores and parameters of anorectal function and anal sphincter morphology did not differ between the 2 RT schedules or treatment techniques. Conclusions: Five years after RT for prostate carcinoma, anorectal symptoms continue to have a significant impact on ADLs of almost 50% of patients. These symptoms are associated with anorectal dysfunction independent of the RT schedules or treatment techniques reported here.
Yeoh, Eric K., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Fraser, Robert J. [Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Gastrointestinal Investigation Unit, Repatriation General Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle J.; Di Matteo, Addolorata C.; Butters, Julie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)
Purpose: To characterize the prevalence, pathophysiology, and natural history of chronic radiation proctitis 5 years following radiation therapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Studies were performed in 34 patients (median age 68 years; range 54-79) previously randomly assigned to either 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6.4 weeks or 55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks RT schedule using 2- and later 3-dimensional treatment technique for localized prostate carcinoma. Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (Modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic scales including effect on activities of daily living [ADLs]); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before RT, at 1 month, and annually for 5 years after its completion. Results: Total GI symptom scores increased after RT and remained above baseline levels at 5 years and were associated with reductions in (1) basal anal pressures, (2) responses to squeeze and increased intra-abdominal pressure, (3) rectal compliance and (4) rectal volumes of sensory perception. Anal sphincter morphology was unchanged. At 5 years, 44% and 21% of patients reported urgency of defecation and rectal bleeding, respectively, and 48% impairment of ADLs. GI symptom scores and parameters of anorectal function and anal sphincter morphology did not differ between the 2 RT schedules or treatment techniques. Conclusions: Five years after RT for prostate carcinoma, anorectal symptoms continue to have a significant impact on ADLs of almost 50% of patients. These symptoms are associated with anorectal dysfunction independent of the RT schedules or treatment techniques reported here.
Hebert, Paul D N; Dewaard, Jeremy R; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Prosser, Sean W J; Sones, Jayme E; McKeown, Jaclyn T A; Mantle, Beth; La Salle, John
DNA barcoding protocols require the linkage of each sequence record to a voucher specimen that has, whenever possible, been authoritatively identified. Natural history collections would seem an ideal resource for barcode library construction, but they have never seen large-scale analysis because of concerns linked to DNA degradation. The present study examines the strength of this barrier, carrying out a comprehensive analysis of moth and butterfly (Lepidoptera) species in the Australian National Insect Collection. Protocols were developed that enabled tissue samples, specimen data, and images to be assembled rapidly. Using these methods, a five-person team processed 41,650 specimens representing 12,699 species in 14 weeks. Subsequent molecular analysis took about six months, reflecting the need for multiple rounds of PCR as sequence recovery was impacted by age, body size, and collection protocols. Despite these variables and the fact that specimens averaged 30.4 years old, barcode records were obtained from 86% of the species. In fact, one or more barcode compliant sequences (>487 bp) were recovered from virtually all species represented by five or more individuals, even when the youngest was 50 years old. By assembling specimen images, distributional data, and DNA barcode sequences on a web-accessible informatics platform, this study has greatly advanced accessibility to information on thousands of species. Moreover, much of the specimen data became publically accessible within days of its acquisition, while most sequence results saw release within three months. As such, this study reveals the speed with which DNA barcode workflows can mobilize biodiversity data, often providing the first web-accessible information for a species. These results further suggest that existing collections can enable the rapid development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the most diverse compartment of terrestrial biodiversity - insects.
Nelson, Wendy A.; Dalen, Jennifer; Neill, Kate F.
Abstract Herbaria and natural history collections (NHC) are critical to the practice of taxonomy and have potential to serve as sources of data for biodiversity and conservation. They are the repositories of vital reference specimens, enabling species to be studied and their distribution in space and time to be documented and analysed, as well as enabling the development of hypotheses about species relationships. The herbarium of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (WELT) contains scientifically and historically significant marine macroalgal collections, including type specimens, primarily of New Zealand species, as well as valuable exsiccatae from New Zealand and Australia. The herbarium was initiated in 1865 with the establishment of the Colonial Museum and is the only herbarium in New Zealand where there has been consistent expert taxonomic attention to the macroalgae over the past 50 years. We examined 19,422 records of marine macroalgae from around New Zealand collected over the past 164 years housed in WELT, assessing the records in terms of their spatial and temporal coverage as well as their uniqueness and abundance. The data provided an opportunity to review the state of knowledge of the New Zealand macroalgal flora reflected in the collections at WELT, to examine how knowledge of the macroalgal flora has been built over time in terms of the number of collections and the number of species recognised, and identify where there are gaps in the current collections as far as numbers of specimens per taxon, as well as with respect to geographical and seasonal coverage. PMID:24399897
Zhyzhneuskaya, Sviatlana; Addison, Caroline; Tsatlidis, Vasileios; Weaver, Jolanta U; Razvi, Salman
There is little information regarding the natural history of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) due to Graves' disease (GD). A prospective analysis was conducted of patients with SH due to GD between 2007 and 2013 with at least 12 months of follow-up. SH was diagnosed if serum thyrotropin (TSH) was below the laboratory reference range (0.4-4.0 mIU/L) and when thyroid hormones were normal. GD was confirmed by either a raised TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) level or uniform uptake on Technetium scan. Forty-four patients (89% female, 16% current smokers, and 5% with active Graves' orbitopathy) were diagnosed with SH due to GD. Over the follow-up period (median 32 months), approximately one third (34%) of the cohort progressed to overt hyperthyroidism, one third (34%) normalized their thyroid function, slightly less than one third (30%) remained in the SH state, while one person became hypothyroid. Multivariate regression analysis showed that older age and positive antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody status had a positive association with risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism, with hazard ratios of 1.06 ([confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.10], p < 0.01) per year and 10.15 ([CI 1.83-56.23], p < 0.01), respectively, independent of other risk factors including, smoking, TRAb levels at diagnosis, and sex. A third each of patients with SH due to GD progress, normalize, or remain in the SH state. Older people and those with positive anti-TPO antibodies have a higher risk of progression of the disease. These novel data need to be verified and confirmed in larger cohorts and over longer periods of follow-up.
Tu, Albert; Hengel, Ross; Cochrane, D Douglas
Many patients with lumbosacral lipoma are asymptomatic; however, a significant proportion will have neurological deficits present at birth. Implication of these deficits with respect to natural history and management are not well understood. A retrospective review of all infants with lumbosacral lipoma seen at BCCH between 1997 and 2013 was carried out. The study population was stratified on the presence of a congenital, non-progressive deficit and subdivided on treatment approach. The subsequent developments of deficits resulting in untethering procedures were recorded. Of the 44 infants in this study, 24 patients had no neurologic deficit while 20 patients had a fixed, non-progressive deficit evident at birth. Ten of 24 patients without a neurological deficit at birth underwent a prophylactic untethering with 3 eventually requiring repeat untethering after, on average, 62.7 months. Eleven of 14 asymptomatic, monitored patients required untethering for clinical deterioration. Two required a second untethering procedure after 48.7 months. Ten of 20 infants with congenital deficits present at birth underwent prophylactic untethering, and 4 required further surgery after 124 months. Ten patients underwent observation with 8 eventually requiring surgery. Two required repeat untethered after 154 months. The complication rates and operative burden for patients are similar whether prophylactic or delayed surgery is performed. The presence of congenital neurologic deficit does not affect the likelihood of deterioration in patients managed expectantly; prophylactic detethering of these patients did not prevent delayed neurologic deterioration. Comparing the need for repeat surgery in prophylactically untethered patients with initial untethering of patients operated upon at the time of deterioration, prophylactic untethering may confer a benefit with respect to subsequent symptomatic tethering if complication rates are low. However, in a setting with multidisciplinary
Sindali, Katia; Davis, Marcus; Mughal, Maleeha; Orkar, Kusu S
Use of Becker expandable breast implants in single-stage breast surgery is a well-established technique; however, replacement with fixed-volume implants is common. The authors sought to analyze the long-term natural history of these implants over a wide range of surgical indications. A retrospective review of 330 consecutive patients who underwent 384 Becker expander breast reconstructions over a 10-year period in a dedicated plastic surgery unit was undertaken. Implant indication, Becker type, volume and site, complications, expander lifespan, and explant reasons were assessed. Two hundred twenty-eight patients (267 implants) and 102 patients (117 implants) underwent implantation for congenital deformities and breast cancer reconstruction, respectively. One hundred eighty-seven (48 percent) were explanted at a median period of 13.0 months (range, 9.0 to 26.0 months), 149 (39 percent) for aesthetic reasons and 38 (10 percent) for complications. Complication rates were higher in breast cancer reconstruction compared with congenital patients (19.6 percent versus 7.9 percent; p = 0.002), driven by an increased rate of wound complications (13.7 percent versus 4.4 percent; p = 0.003). Cancer-related surgery and advancing age were the only predictors of complication risk. The overall Becker expander retention rate was 24.9 percent and 46.8 percent at 150 months in the cancer reconstruction and congenital groups, respectively. Forty-seven percent of Becker implants were retained long term after congenital corrective surgery; only 25 percent were retained after postmastectomy reconstruction. Poor aesthetics was driving the exchange for fixed-volume implants, indicating that after breast cancer reconstruction, Becker expanders were being used as part of a two-stage reconstructive strategy.
Nougaret, Stephanie; Escal, Laure; Guiu, Boris [Saint Eloi University Hospital, Department of Abdominal Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Reinhold, Caroline; Chong, Jaron [McGill University, Department of Abdominal Imaging, MUHC, Montreal (Canada); Mercier, Gregoire; Molinari, Nicolas [CHU Montpellier, Department of Biostatistics, Montpellier (France); Fabre, Jean Michel [CHU Montpellier, Department of Surgery, Saint Eloi University Hospital, Montpellier (France)
To examine the natural history of incidentally detected pancreatic cysts and whether a simplified MRI protocol without gadolinium is adequate for lesion follow-up. Over a 10-year period, 301-patients with asymptomatic pancreatic cysts underwent follow-up (45 months ± 30). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol included axial, coronal T2-weighted images, MR cholangiopancreatographic and fat suppressed T1-weighted sequences before and after gadolinium. Three radiologists independently reviewed the initial MRI, the follow-up studies using first only unenhanced images, then secondly gadolinium-enhanced-sequences. Lesion changes during follow-up were recorded and the added value of gadolinium-enhanced sequences was determined by classifying the lesions into risk categories. Three hundred and one patients (1,174 cysts) constituted the study population. Only 35/301 patients (12 %) showed significant lesion change on follow-up. Using multivariate analysis the only independent factor of lesion growth (OR = 2.4; 95 % CI, 1.7-3.3; P < 0.001) and mural nodule development (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.4, P = 0.03) during follow-up was initial lesion size. No patient with a lesion initial size less than 2 cm developed cancer during follow-up. Intra-observer agreement with and without gadolinium enhancement ranged from 0.86 to 0.97. After consensus review of discordant cases, gadolinium-enhanced sequences demonstrated no added value. Most incidental pancreatic cystic lesions did not demonstrate change during follow-up. The addition of gadolinium-enhanced-sequences had no added-value for risk assignment on serial follow-up. (orig.)
Jena, Subhransu S; Alexander, Mathew; Aaron, Sanjith; Mathew, Vivek; Thomas, Maya Mary; Patil, Anil K; Sivadasan, Ajith; Muthusamy, Karthik; Mani, Sunithi; Rebekah, J Grace
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a spectrum of heterogeneity, as seen in western and eastern hemispheres, in the clinical features, topography of involvement and differences in natural history. To study the clinical spectrum, imaging, and electrophysiological as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics and correlate them with outcome. Retrospective analysis of MS patients during a period of 20 years. Cases were selected according to recent McDonald's criteria (2010), They were managed in the Department of Neurology, Christian Medical College, Vellore. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for categorical variables. Multiple binary logistic regressions were done to assess significance. Kaplan-Meier curves were drawn to estimate the time to irreversible disability. A total of 157 patients with female preponderance (55%) were included. The inter quartile range duration of follow-up was 9.1 (8.2, 11) years for 114 patients, who were included for final outcome analysis. Relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) (54.1%) was the most common type of MS seen. RRMS had a significantly better outcome (odds ratio: 0.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.57, P = 0.008) compared to progressive form of MS (primary progressive, secondary progressive). The Expanded Disability Status Scale score of patients at presentation and at final follow-up was 4.4 ± 1.31 and 4.1 ± 2.31, respectively. During the first presentation, polysymptomatic manifestations like motor and sphincteric involvement, incomplete recovery from the first attack; and, during the disease course, bowel, bladder, cerebellar and pyramidal affliction, predicted a worse outcome. A high incidence of optico-spinal presentation, predominance of RRMS and a low yield on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies are the major findings of our study. A notable feature was the analysis of prognostic markers of disability.
Halankar, Jaydeep A; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Khalili, Korosh; Masoom, Haider A
To determine the incidence of natural growth or regression of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in the liver. We retrospectively included 120 consecutive patients who were diagnosed to have FNH on MRI. The mean follow-up duration was 19 months (range: 6–64 months). There were 25 men and 95 women (age range: 18–80 years; mean: 45 years). There were 167 FNH lesions in the 120 patients. MRI images were retrospectively reviewed for interval growth or regression of FNH. The maximum size of the lesions was measured on axial arterial-phase images of the initial and the last MRI examinations. An interval increase or decrease in diameter of over 10% of the initial diameter was considered as positive growth or regression, respectively. The use of Oral contraceptives was also documented. Interval growth was seen in 25/167 nodules (15%) over 7-48 months (mean: 21 months), with increase in size of 0.2-1.7 cm (mean: 0.6 cm) and percentage change of 10.5-340% (mean: 64%). Interval regression was seen in 13/167 (8%) of nodules over 7-63 months (mean: 22 months), with decrease in size of 0.2-0.9 cm (mean: 0.5 cm) and percentage change of 10.4-60% (mean: 24%).Five of 17 (29%) female patients with growing FNH and 25/78 (32%) female patients with non-growing FNH had a history of intake of oral contraceptives (P=0.83). Although FNH is benign and of no clinical significance, a substantial percentage of FNH shows interval growth or regression on long-term follow-up with MRI
Juan L. Hernández-Roldán
Full Text Available We present new data on the ecology, natural history and geographic distribution of the recently described skipper Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila, 2016 and compare its immature stage morphology with the sympatric species S. sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. Spialia rosae uses species of Rosa L. (Rosaceae as larval host-plants and prefers montane habitats, while S. sertorius feeds on Sanguisorba minor Scop. (Rosaceae and inhabits lower altitudes. Rosa corymbifera Borkh. and R. tomentosa Sm. are documented for the first time as foodplants of S. rosae. We report Microgaster australis Thomson, 1895 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae as a larval parasitoid of S. rosae. Details of the immature stages of S. rosae and S. sertorius are shown using scanning electron microscope photographs, confirming the similar immature stage morphology, at least as regards the Iberian S. sertorius. In both species, the egg has high radial ribs, the last instar larva has branched setae covering the head, and the pupa has setae with pointed tips, barrel-like cuticular formations, and hairy mesothoracic tubercles. By extensive sampling of the species of Spialia in the region of Segovia, Central Spain, we extend the previously known geographic distribution of S. rosae to 56 new 100 km2 MGRS squares, which represents a 155 % increase. Spialia rosae is present in the northern part of the interior plateau and in the main mountain systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The main threats to the populations of S. rosae are its limited distribution range and the possible effects of climate change due to its specialization in montane habitats. The conservation status of S. rosae was previously regarded as Data Deficient (DD. With the addition of new data the species can now be evaluated as Least Concern (LC.
Smallridge, R.C.; De Keyser, F.M.; Van Herle, A.J.; Butkus, N.E.; Wartofsky, L.
Twenty-eight patients with destructive thyroiditis were followed to study the natural history of healing of thyroid gland injury. All had sequential measurements of thyroidal iodine [ 127 I] content by fluorescent scanning (normal mean, 10.1 mg), 17 had serial serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements (normal, less than 21 ng/ml), and 13 had perchlorate discharge studies during the recovery phase. Seventeen patients had painful subacute thyroiditis (SAT), 9 had painless thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PTT), and 2 had postpartum thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PPT). Thyroidal iodine content decreased from a mean of 9.8 to a nadir of 3.8 mg in patients with SAT and from 8.5 to a nadir of 3.5 mg in patients with PTT. Mean serum Tg concentrations were highest (approximately 165 ng/ml) in both groups 1-3 months after the onset of symptoms. Abnormalities in both 127 I content and Tg levels persisted for 2 or more yr in some individuals. No patient had detectable Tg antibodies by hemagglutination, but low titers were detected intermittently by sensitive RIA in 5 PTT patients. Microsomal antibodies were positive in only 1 of 16 SAT patients, but in 4 of 7 PTT patients and in both PPT patients. Three patients had positive perchlorate discharge tests (2 of 8 with SAT, 0 of 4 with PTT, and 1 of 1 with PPT). Permanent hypothyroidism occurred in 3 patients (2 with PTT; 1 with SAT and positive antibodies), but did not correlate with perchlorate results. HLA typing and serum immunoglobulin measurements were not useful for predicting the clinical course. These data indicate that several years may be necessary for complete resolution of destructive thyroiditis; many patients have evidence of thyroid injury persisting long after serum thyroid hormone and TSH levels become normal
Lange, Joanna; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Marczak, Honorata; Krauze, Agnieszka; Tarczoń, Izabela; Świebocka, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Brzyski, Piotr; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna
Differences in treatment approach still exist for children after systemic sting reactions. In addition, there are still some doubts about when systemic reactors should be treated with venom immunotherapy (VIT). To determine the rate of sting recurrence and natural history of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) in children not treated with VIT. A total of 219 children diagnosed as having HVA who were not treated with VIT were identified in 3 pediatric allergology centers. Survey by telephone or mail with the use of a standardized questionnaire was conducted. The number of field re-stings, subsequent symptoms, and provided treatment were analyzed. A total of 130 of the 219 patients responded to the survey, for a response rate of 59.4%. During the median follow-up period of 72 months (interquartile range, 52-85 months), 44 children (77% boys) were stung 62 times. Normal reactions were most common, occurring in 27 patients (62%). Severe systemic reactions (SSRs) occurred in 8 (18%) of those who were re-stung. The subsequent reaction was significantly milder (P insect (P insect (P = .03). In children with SSRs, median time from diagnosis to re-sting was 2 times longer than that in those with large local reactions and normal reactions (P = .007). Most children with HVA not treated with VIT reported milder reactions after a re-sting. Probability of SSR to re-sting increases along with the severity of initial reaction. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kattula, Deepthi; Jeyavelu, Nithya; Prabhakaran, Ashok D; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Geetha, Jayanthi C; Lazarus, Robin P; Das, Princey; Nithyanandhan, Karthick; Gunasekaran, Chandrabose; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Wanke, Christine; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Babji, Sudhir; Naumova, Elena N; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep
Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention. Children (N = 497) were recruited at birth in semiurban slums in Vellore, India, and followed for 3 years with twice-weekly home visits. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks and during diarrheal episodes were tested for Cryptosporidium species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum samples obtained every 6 months were evaluated for seroconversion, defined as a 4-fold increase in immunoglobulin G directed against Cryptosporidium gp15 and/or Cp23 antigens between consecutive sera. Of 410 children completing follow-up, 397 (97%) acquired cryptosporidiosis by 3 years of age. PCR identified 1053 episodes of cryptosporidiosis, with an overall incidence of 0.86 infections per child-year by stool and serology. The median age for the first infection was 9 (interquartile range, 4-17) months, indicating early exposure. Although infections were mainly asymptomatic (693 [66%]), Cryptosporidium was identified in 9.4% of diarrheal episodes. The proportion of reinfected children was high (81%) and there was clustering of asymptomatic and symptomatic infections (P < .0001 for both). Protection against infection increased with the order of infection but was only 69% after 4 infections. Cryptosporidium hominis (73.3%) was the predominant Cryptosporidium species, and there was no species-specific protection. There is a high burden of endemic cryptosporidiosis in southern India. Clustering of infection is suggestive of host susceptibility. Multiple reinfections conferred some protection against subsequent infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Altieri, Maria S; Pryor, Aurora; Yang, Jie; Yin, Donglei; Docimo, Salvatore; Bates, Andrew; Talamini, Mark; Spaniolas, Konstantinos
Although perforated marginal ulcers (pMU) following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) represent a surgical emergency, the epidemiology and outcome of this condition is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate incidence of pMU following RYGB and assess the natural history of this complication. The SPARCS administrative database was used to identify patients undergoing RYGB between 2005 and 2010. With the use of a unique identifier, we followed patients up to 2014 for subsequent admission and re-intervention (repair or revision) for perforated MU. Groups were compared using Chi square tests with exact p values based on Monte Carlo simulation, t test with unequal variances, and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test when appropriate. We identified 35,080 RYGB patients; 292 patients (0.83%) developed pMU 937 (443-1546) days following RYGB [Median (Q1-Q3)]. Among these 292 patients, tobacco use was present in one-third of patients. Repair of the perforation was performed in 115 patients, while anastomotic revision was reported in 64. Patients who underwent revision were more likely to have respiratory complications. Hospital length of stay was significantly longer for patients managed with RYGB revision (Median, Q1-Q3:7, 5-14, vs 6, 4-7, days, p = 0.001). Recurrence of marginal ulcer was common after either intervention (26.09% for repair and 29.69% for revision, p = 0.726). Following RYGB, the incidence of pMU is small. Anastomotic revision for pMU is associated with prolonged length of stay compared to repair alone. Importantly, recurrence after intervention of pMU is common, suggesting possible value of a routine surveillance program for patients following pMU.
Sakamaki, Y.; Kanai, Y.
Previous fundamental studies on the ore genesis of uranium occurrences chiefly in Cenozoic sandstone formations in Japan, have been re-examined as the case history on natural analogue of radionuclides in high-level radioactive wastes (HLRW). Two principal mode of occurrences have been distinguished among Cenozoic uranium localities in Japan. In the Setouchi (Inland Sea) subregion, hot-spots are found in lacustrine to shallow sea facies of calm environment, corresponding to the first stage of formation of tectonic basins. As observed in Ningyo-toge and Tono area, stratabound ore bodies are generally arranged into paleo-channels. Another type of sporadic uranium indications are found within collapse basins in the 'Green-tuff' subregion, where intense volcanisms and block movements had been taken places throughout Middle miocene age. Well-developed fractures were to be favorable paths for uraniferous groundwater, as well as the suitable site for deposition of uranium. In both cases, the source material of uranium is granitic basement. Under oxidizing environment, uranium anomalies have been occasionally detected in surface- or fracture waters which passing through decomposed granite. In contrast to the behavior of uranium, one of the adequate analogues for mobile nuclides, thorium and REE are relatively immobile even under the same geologic and geochemical circumstances. In ore horizon, where reducing condition has still been kept, geochronological age of tetravalent uranium mineral is in concordance with the age of the host rock. Analysis of structural control shows that the principal factors for uranium concentration are the layout of redox front related to paleo-water tables. 234U/238U disequilibrium method has been proved to be the powerful tool for detecting mobility of uranium in the host rock throughout diagenesis and weathering process. The result of field and laboratory works on this is reported as an example. (author)
Tschiffely, Anna E; Haque, Ashraful; Haran, Francis J; Cunningham, Craig A; Mehalick, Melissa L; May, Todd; Stuessi, Keith; Walker, Peter B; Norris, Jacob N
The purpose of this study is to utilize a natural history approach to describe and understand symptom recovery in personnel diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) resulting from an improvised explosive device blast. The population included military personnel who experienced a blast mTBI while mounted (vehicle; n = 176) or dismounted (on foot; n = 37) (N = 213). Patients had no co-morbid psychiatric or muscle-skeletal issues and were treated within 72 h of injury. Prevalence and duration of self-reported symptoms were separately analyzed by injury context (mounted vs dismounted). Headache was prominently reported in both mounted (85%) and dismounted (75%) populations. The mean time from injury to return to full duty was between 7.8 d (mounted) and 8.5 d (dismounted). The dismounted population reported visual changes that lasted 0.74 d longer. Our analysis implicates that headache is a common and acutely persistent symptom in mTBI regardless of injury context. Additionally, patients in mounted vs dismounted injury did not report significant differences in symptom prevalence. Although knowing the injury context (i.e., dismounted vs mounted) may be beneficial for providers to understand symptom presentations and deliver accurate anticipatory guidance for patients with blast-related mTBI, no significant differences were observed in this population. This may be due to the population characteristic as the trajectory of recovery may vary for patients who were not able to return to full duty within 30 d or required higher levels of care.
van Grinsven, Janneke; van Brunschot, Sandra; van Baal, Mark C; Besselink, Marc G; Fockens, Paul; van Goor, Harry; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bollen, Thomas L
Decision-making on invasive intervention in patients with clinical signs of infected necrotizing pancreatitis is often related to the presence of gas configurations and the degree of encapsulation in necrotic collections on imaging. Data on the natural history of gas configurations and encapsulation in necrotizing pancreatitis are, however, lacking. A post hoc analysis was performed of a previously described prospective cohort in 21 Dutch hospitals (2004-2008). All computed tomography scans (CTs) performed during hospitalization for necrotizing pancreatitis were categorized per week (1 to 8, and thereafter) and re-assessed by an abdominal radiologist. A total of 639 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis were included, with median four (IQR 2-7) CTs per patient. The incidence of first onset of gas configurations varied per week without a linear correlation: 2-3-13-11-10-19-12-21-12%, respectively. Overall, gas configurations were found in 113/639 (18%) patients and in 113/202 (56%) patients with infected necrosis. The incidence of walled-off necrosis increased per week: 0-3-12-39-62-76-93-97-100% for weeks 1-8 and thereafter respectively. Clinically relevant walled-off necrosis (largely or fully encapsulated necrotic collections) was seen in 162/379 (43%) patients within the first 3 weeks. Gas configurations occur in every phase of the disease and develop in half of the patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Opposed to traditional views, clinically relevant walled-off necrosis occurs frequently within the first 3 weeks.
Punpanich, Warunee; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee
The objective of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum and natural history of human influenza, including risk factors for severe disease, and to identify the knowledge gap in this area. We searched the MEDLINE database of the recent literature for the period January 2009 to August 17, 2011 with regard to the abovementioned aspects of human influenza, focusing on A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza. The clinical spectrum and outcomes of cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza have been mild and rather indistinguishable from those of seasonal influenza. Sporadic cases covering a wide range of neurological complications have been reported. Underlying predisposing conditions considered to be high-risk for A(H1N1)pdm09 infections are generally similar to those of seasonal influenza, but with two additional risk groups: pregnant women and the morbidly obese. Co-infections with bacteria and D222/N variants or 225G substitution of the viral genome have also been reported to be significant factors associated with the severity of disease. The current knowledge gap includes: (1) a lack of clarification regarding the relatively greater severity of the Mexican A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza outbreak in the early phase of the pandemic; (2) insufficient data on the clinical impact, risk factors, and outcomes of human infections caused by resistant strains of influenza; and (3) insufficient data from less developed countries that would enable them to prioritize strategies for influenza prevention and control. Clinical features and risk factors of A(H1N1)pdm09 are comparable to those of seasonal influenza. Emerging risk factors for severe disease with A(H1N1)pdm09 include morbid obesity, pregnancy, bacterial co-infections, and D222/N variants or 225G substitution of the viral genome. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zak, M; Hassager, C; Lovell, D J
To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD.......To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD....
Rotge, Jean-Yves; Grabot, Denis; Aouizerate, Bruno; Pélissolo, Antoine; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Tignol, Jean
Behavioral inhibition (BI), a heritable temperament, predisposes one to an increased risk of social phobia. Recent investigations have reported that BI may also be a precursor to anxiety as well as depressive and alcohol-related disorders, which are frequently comorbid with social phobia. In the present study, we explored the relationship between BI and psychiatric disorders in 256 adults with a primary diagnosis of social phobia. BI severity was retrospectively assessed with the Retrospective Self-Report of Inhibition (RSRI). The severity of social phobia and the presence of comorbid diagnoses were evaluated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, respectively. The RSRI score was significantly and positively correlated with both the LSAS score and the occurrence of a major depressive disorder. No significant association was found with other anxiety and substance-related disorders. The assessment of BI was retrospective and self-reported. A childhood history of BI was associated with an increased risk of depressive comorbidity in social phobia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nature-based tourism has recently become a topic of interest in health research. This study was aimed at examining relationships among nature-based tourism, stress, and the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Three hundred and twenty-two older adults living in Taichung City, Taiwan, were selected as participants. Data were collected by a face-to-face survey that included measures of the frequency of participation in domestic and international nature-based tourism and the stress and ANS function of these participants. The data were analyzed using a path analysis. The results demonstrated that the frequency of participation in domestic nature-based tourism directly contributed to ANS function and that it also indirectly contributed to ANS function through stress reduction. Domestic nature-based tourism can directly and indirectly contribute to ANS function among older adults. Increasing the frequency of participation in domestic nature-based tourism should be considered a critical element of health programs for older adults. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.
This article presents the findings of a research study with young adults who explored the connections between their early childhood experiences in nature and their attitudes and actions towards the environment in adulthood. Drawing on E. Wilson's (1984) work, environmental or ecological consciousness is theorised to connect to ecological identity…
Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.
We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…
Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles
This dissertation seeks to explain the social, cultural, and economic factors that transformed the ways nineteenth-century American children learned about, encountered, and understood the natural world. It highlights the interests, tastes, and fears of the middle-class as key factors in the transformation of children's relationship to nature. Developments such as the quest for gentility and refinement, the evolution of religious practices and beliefs, the print revolution, the popularity of Romanticism, the marginalization of women, the rise of professionalization, the impact of industrialization, and the growth of cities all helped shape nineteenth-century children's relationship to nature. For much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries adults had taught children to see nature as a world of wonders in which God acted out his Providential design. During the early republic, however, Americans, especially women, increasingly valued more refined and genteel interpretations of nature that invoked discrete segments of nature for their ability to cultivate morals, evidence the existence of God, and mold children's behavior. The print revolution that swept America during this period abetted this process. During the second quarter of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of adults began to use religious publications, schoolbooks, literature, and domestic amusements to involve children with the natural world in ways that were variously religious or Romantic. As a result nature became an accepted and valued segment of middle-class life. Ironically, however, these efforts also helped separate religious from secular interpretations of nature, and changes in fashions, literary techniques, and parenting techniques allowed children more autonomy to interpret nature as they wished. In the last half of the nineteenth century, adults continued to rely on nature as a means of training up children in the ways they should go. Writers, teachers, and reformers increasingly
Tang, Bihan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu
A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters.
Moos, Rudolf H.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Bernice S.
Aims This prospective, longitudinal study focused on late-life and life history predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems during a 20-year interval as adults matured from age 55–65 to age 75–85. Design, Setting, Participants A sample of older community residents (N=719) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. Measurements At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems, and personal and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking and help-seeking. Results Older adults who, at baseline, had more friends who approved of drinking, relied on substances for tension reduction, and had more financial resources were more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol consumption and to incur drinking problems at 10-year and 20-year follow-ups. With respect to life history factors, drinking problems by age 50 were associated with a higher likelihood of late-life high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems; having tried to cut down on drinking and participation in Alcoholics Anonymous were associated with a lower likelihood of high-risk consumption and problems. Conclusion Specific late-life and life history factors can identify older adults likely to engage in excessive alcohol consumption 10 and 20 years later. Targeted screening that considers current alcohol consumption and life context, and history of drinking problems and help-seeking, could help identify older adults at higher risk for excessive or problematic drinking. PMID:19969428
Moos, Rudolf H; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Moos, Bernice S
This prospective, longitudinal study focused on late-life and life history predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems during a 20-year interval as adults matured from age 55-65 to 75-85. A sample of older community residents (N=719) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 10 and 20 years later. At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems, and personal and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking and help-seeking. Older adults who, at baseline, had more friends who approved of drinking, relied on substances for tension reduction, and had more financial resources were more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol consumption and to incur drinking problems at 10- and 20-year follow-ups. With respect to life history factors, drinking problems by age 50 were associated with a higher likelihood of late-life high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems; having tried to cut down on drinking and participation in Alcoholics Anonymous were associated with a lower likelihood of high-risk consumption and problems. Specific late-life and life history factors can identify older adults likely to engage in excessive alcohol consumption 10 and 20 years later. Targeted screening that considers current alcohol consumption and life context, and history of drinking problems and help-seeking, could help identify older adults at higher risk for excessive or problematic drinking. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Pignolo, Robert J; Bedford-Gay, Christopher; Liljesthröm, Moira; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Shore, Eileen M; Rocke, David M; Kaplan, Frederick S
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) leads to disabling heterotopic ossification (HO) from episodic flare-ups. However, the natural history of FOP flare-ups is poorly understood. A 78-question survey on FOP flare-ups, translated into 15 languages, was sent to 685 classically-affected patients in 45 countries (six continents). Five hundred patients or knowledgeable informants responded (73%; 44% males, 56% females; ages: 1 to 71 years; median: 23 years). The most common presenting symptoms of flare-ups were swelling (93%), pain (86%), or decreased mobility (79%). Seventy-one percent experienced a flare-up within the preceding 12 months (52% spontaneous; 48% trauma-related). Twenty-five percent of those who had received an intramuscular injection reported an immediate flare-up at the injection site, 84% of whom developed HO. Axial flare-ups most frequently involved the back (41.6%), neck (26.4%), or jaw (19.4%). Flare-ups occurred more frequently in the upper limbs before 8 years of age, but more frequently in the lower limbs thereafter. Appendicular flare-ups occurred more frequently at proximal than at distal sites without preferential sidedness. Seventy percent of patients reported functional loss from a flare-up. Thirty-two percent reported complete resolution of at least one flare-up and 12% without any functional loss (mostly in the head or back). The most disabling flare-ups occurred at the shoulders or hips. Surprisingly, 47% reported progression of FOP without obvious flare-ups. Worldwide, 198 treatments were reported; anti-inflammatory agents were most common. Seventy-five percent used short-term glucocorticoids as a treatment for flare-ups at appendicular sites. Fifty-five percent reported that glucocorticoids improved symptoms occasionally whereas 31% reported that they always did. Only 12% reported complete resolution of a flare-up with glucocorticoids. Forty-three percent reported rebound symptoms within 1 to 7 days after completing a course of
Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Cappell, Mitchell S
AIM: To describe the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history, and therapy of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) based on a systematic literature review. METHODS: Computerized search of the literature was performed via PubMed using the following medical subject headings or keywords: “portal” and “gastropathy”; or “portal” and “hypertensive”; or “congestive” and “gastropathy”; or “congestive” and “gastroenteropathy”. The following criteria were applied for study inclusion: Publication in peer-reviewed journals, and publication since 1980. Articles were independently evaluated by each author and selected for inclusion by consensus after discussion based on the following criteria: Well-designed, prospective trials; recent studies; large study populations; and study emphasis on PHG. RESULTS: PHG is diagnosed by characteristic endoscopic findings of small polygonal areas of variable erythema surrounded by a pale, reticular border in a mosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patient with cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Histologic findings include capillary and venule dilatation, congestion, and tortuosity, without vascular fibrin thrombi or inflammatory cells in gastric submucosa. PHG is differentiated from gastric antral vascular ectasia by a different endoscopic appearance. The etiology of PHG is inadequately understood. Portal hypertension is necessary but insufficient to develop PHG because many patients have portal hypertension without PHG. PHG increases in frequency with more severe portal hypertension, advanced liver disease, longer liver disease duration, presence of esophageal varices, and endoscopic variceal obliteration. PHG pathogenesis is related to a hyperdynamic circulation, induced by portal hypertension, characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance to flow, increased splanchnic flow, increased total gastric flow, and most likely decreased gastric mucosal flow. Gastric mucosa
Khalaf, Natalia; Ying, Jun; Mittal, Sahil; Temple, Sarah; Kanwal, Fasiha; Davila, Jessica; El-Serag, Hashem B
Determining the natural history and predictors of survival in patients with untreated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States is useful to test existing tumor classifications, identify subgroups of patients likely to benefit from treatment, and estimate lead time related to HCC surveillance. We identified a national cohort of 518 veterans diagnosed with HCC from 2004 through 2011, with follow-up ending in 2014, who received no palliative or curative treatment. We examined the association between postdiagnosis survival and patient factors, tumor characteristics, and prediagnosis surveillance. The mean age at HCC diagnosis was 65.7 years and most patients had hepatitis C (60.6%). Almost all patients (99%) died within the observation period; the median overall survival time was 3.6 months and survival times were 13.4, 9.5, 3.4, and 1.6 months for patients of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages 0/A, B, C, and D, respectively. In addition, model for end-stage liver disease and levels of α-fetoprotein were predictive of survival. Nearly 28% received prediagnosis HCC surveillance, which was associated with detection of disease at an earlier stage (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer 0/A/B; 26.4% vs 14.4%; P = .0006) and slightly longer survival than patients with no surveillance overall (5.2 months vs 3.4 months; P = .021); there was no difference in survival times of patients with 0/A stage who did versus did not receive surveillance (10.3 months vs 10.5 months). Patients with HCCs, including those detected through surveillance, survived for short time periods in the absence of treatment, irrespective of their initial stage at diagnosis. Model for end-stage liver disease scores and levels of α-fetoprotein were prognostic factors, independent of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage. The lead time related to detection by surveillance was modest (<2 months) and therefore unlikely to explain the survival benefit associated with surveillance in previous studies
Cope, Frederick O.; Abbruzzese, Bonnie; Sanders, James; Metz, Wendy; Sturms, Kristyn; Ralph, David; Blue, Michael; Zhang, Jane; Bracci, Paige; Bshara, Wiam; Behr, Spencer; Maurer, Toby; Williams, Kenneth; Walker, Joshua; Beverly, Allison; Blay, Brooke; Damughatla, Anirudh; Larsen, Mark; Mountain, Courtney; Neylon, Erin
for imaging approaches. Beyond the elements of imaging applications of these agents is their evolution to therapeutic agents as well, and even in the neo-logical realm of theranostics. Characteristics of agents such as tilmanocept that exploit the natural history of diseases with remarkably high specificity are the expectations for the future of patient- and disease-centered diagnosis and therapy.
Tashjian, Robert Z
The etiology of rotator cuff disease is likely multifactorial, including age-related degeneration and microtrauma and macrotrauma. The incidence of rotator cuff tears increases with aging with more than half of individuals in their 80s having a rotator cuff tear. Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and genetics have all been shown to influence the development of rotator cuff tearing. Substantial full-thickness rotator cuff tears, in general, progress and enlarge with time. Pain, or worsening pain, usually signals tear progression in both asymptomatic and symptomatic tears and should warrant further investigation if the tear is treated conservatively. Larger (>1-1.5 cm) symptomatic full-thickness cuff tears have a high rate of tear progression and, therefore, should be considered for earlier surgical repair in younger patients if the tear is reparable and there is limited muscle degeneration to avoid irreversible changes to the cuff, including tear enlargement and degenerative muscle changes. Smaller symptomatic full-thickness tears have been shown to have a slower rate of progression, similar to partial-thickness tears, and can be considered for initial nonoperative treatment due to the limited risk for rapid tear progression. In both small full-thickness tears and partial-thickness tears, increasing pain should alert physicians to obtain further imaging as it can signal tear progression. Natural history data, along with information on factors affecting healing after rotator cuff repair, can help guide surgeons in making appropriate decisions regarding the treatment of rotator cuff tears. The management of rotator cuff tears should be considered in the context of the risks and benefits of operative versus nonoperative treatment. Tear size and acuity, the presence of irreparable changes to the rotator cuff or glenohumeral joint, and patient age should all be considered in making this decision. Initial nonoperative care can be safely undertaken in older patients (>70
Koziol, J A; Clark, D C; Gittes, R F; Tan, E M
A survey directed at determining the natural history of interstitial cystitis was conducted at our clinic. Information on demographics, risk factors, symptoms, pain and psychosocial factors was elicited from 374 patients who satisfied the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases criteria for interstitial cystitis and had all been diagnosed as having interstitial cystitis by a urologist. With regard to demographics, patients were predominantly female (89.8%) and white (94.1%), with a mean age of 53.8 +/- 0.7 years (standard error) and age at the first symptoms of 42.5 +/- 0.8 years. Information on 25 potential risk factors included 44.4% of the women reporting hysterectomy, 38.2% of the patients having strong sensitivities or allergic reactions to medication and only 2.7% being diabetic. With regard to interstitial cystitis symptoms, frequency and urgency were reported by 91.7% and 89.3% of the patients, respectively, while pelvic pain, pelvic pressure and bladder spasms were reported by more than 60% of respondents and burning by 56%. Location and degree of pain were also reported. Urination relieved or lessened interstitial cystitis pain for 73.6% of the patients and medication was effective for 46.8%. Other behaviors (for example hot baths, heating pads, lying down or sitting) were less effective. Conversely, stress, constrictive clothing and intercourse increased interstitial cystitis pain in more than 50% of the patients. In addition, acidic, alcoholic or carbonated beverages, and coffee or tea increased interstitial cystitis pain in more than 50% of the patients. More than 60% of the patients were unable to enjoy usual activities or were excessively fatigued and 53.7% reported depression. Travel, employment, leisure activities and sleeping were adversely affected in more than 80% of the patients. Pain location and degree differed significantly between patients with and without ulcers in the bladder. In addition, there was an
Hjelm, Henrik P.; Brincker, Rune; Graugaard-Jensen, Jesper
In this paper it is shown that stress histories can be estimated with high accuracy by integrating measured accelerations to obtain displacement and then performing a modal decomposition of the so estimated displacements. The relation between the modal coordinate and the stress in an arbitrary....... It is shown that the so estimated stress histories can replace strain gauge measurements in many cases, and it allows for an accurate estimation of fatigue damage....
Porfido, Sabina; Spiga, Efisio
The history of Melito Irpino, a small village in southern Italy is particular, though not unique in its genre. The development of its urban asset was, in fact, strongly affected by natural disasters such as hydrogeological and seismic events, which determined its transfer to another location. Due to its landslides and flooding it has been included since the beginning of the twentieth century among the unstable centers to be consolidated. The landslides were caused by peculiar geological characteristics of which the substrate essentially origins from different consistency Flysch elements. From the seismic point of view, Melito Irpino is part of the first category of the new seismic classification of the Campania Region. The most devastating earthquakes that damaged Melito date back to December 1456, which hit central and southern Italy and 5th June , 1688 which had the Sannio as epicentral area, both with l0 = XI MCS and M> 7 [1456: l0= XI MCS, Mw 7.2; 1688: l0 = XI MCS, Mw 7.O.] During the twentieth century, it was involved in two other disastrous earthquakes that caused serious damage to the village in 1930 with an intensity VIII and in 1962 with I = IX MCS and VIII ESI-07 intensity. The earthquake of 21st August 1962 was fatal for the village of Melito. In December of the same year it was left with 2182 inhabitants and 800 houses, most of which were unstable, 300 were to be demolished, 50 unrepairable and 200 were still uninhabitable yet repairable. From a geological point of view the situation turned even more dramatically when the whole valley area stretching from the old Ufita River bridge and the historical center of Melito was affected by a series of large slope instability such as rock falls, complex rotational slip, de facto complicating an extremely compromised situation. This was sufficient to encourage the transfer of the entire village in an other location. After more than half a century and considering the effects of two important earthquakes in 1962
Emery, Charles F; Stoney, Catherine M; Thayer, Julian F; Williams, DeWayne; Bodine, Andrew
Studies of sex differences in heart rate variability (HRV) typically have not accounted for the influence of family history (FH) of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated sex differences in HRV response to speech stress among men and women (age range 30-49 years) with and without a documented FH of CVD. Participants were 77 adults (mean age = 39.8 ± 6.2 years; range: 30-49 years; 52% female) with positive FH (FH+, n = 32) and negative FH (FH-, n = 45) of CVD, verified with relatives of participants. Cardiac activity for all participants was recorded via electrocardiogram during a standardized speech stress task with three phases: 5-minute rest, 5-minute speech, and 5-minute recovery. Outcomes included time domain and frequency domain indicators of HRV and heart rate (HR) at rest and during stress. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance, with sex and FH as between subject variables and time/phase as a within subject variable. Women exhibited higher HR than did men and greater HR reactivity in response to the speech stress. However, women also exhibited greater HRV in both the time and frequency domains. FH+ women generally exhibited elevated HRV, despite the elevated risk of CVD associated with FH+. Although women participants exhibited higher HR at rest and during stress, women (both FH+ and FH-) also exhibited elevated HRV reactivity, reflecting greater autonomic control. Thus, enhanced autonomic function observed in prior studies of HRV among women is also evident among FH+ women during a standardized stress task. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.
Full Text Available Identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 and Ebola virus. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs are ancient retroviruses that infect Old and New World monkeys and apes. Although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic exposure risks. Surprisingly, no information exists concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of SFVs in wild-living monkeys and apes. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of SFVcpz infection in free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes using newly developed, fecal-based assays. Chimpanzee fecal samples (n = 724 were collected at 25 field sites throughout equatorial Africa and tested for SFVcpz-specific antibodies (n = 706 or viral nucleic acids (n = 392. SFVcpz infection was documented at all field sites, with prevalence rates ranging from 44% to 100%. In two habituated communities, adult chimpanzees had significantly higher SFVcpz infection rates than infants and juveniles, indicating predominantly horizontal rather than vertical transmission routes. Some chimpanzees were co-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz; however, there was no evidence that SFVcpz and SIVcpz were epidemiologically linked. SFVcpz nucleic acids were recovered from 177 fecal samples, all of which contained SFVcpz RNA and not DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial gag (616 bp, pol-RT (717 bp, and pol-IN (425 bp sequences identified a diverse group of viruses, which could be subdivided into four distinct SFVcpz lineages according to their chimpanzee subspecies of origin. Within these lineages, there was evidence of frequent superinfection and viral recombination. One chimpanzee was infected by a foamy virus from a Cercopithecus monkey
Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro
to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. analisar os fatores associados ao conhecimento dos adultos jovens sobre histórico familiar de Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC). estudo transversal analítico, com 579 adultos jovens de escolas públicas, com coleta de variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e de fatores de risco em formulário, analisados utilizando-se regressão logística (backward elimination). detectou-se associação estatística de idade, situação conjugal, classificação da pressão arterial e circunferência abdominal com conhecimento do histórico familiar de AVC. No modelo final de regressão logística, observou-se associação estatística do conhecimento sobre histórico familiar de AVC com situação conjugal com companheiro (ORa=1,61[1,07-2,42]; p=0,023), circunferência abdominal (ORa=0,98[0,96-0,99]; p=0,012) e pressão arterial normal (ORa=2,56[1,19-5,52]; p=0,016). foi constatada associação de fatores socioeconômicos e de
Neuheimer, Anna; Hartvig, Martin; Heuschele, Jan
is observed along with variability in physical and biological forcing factors in space and time. We compiled adult and offspring size for 407 pelagic marine species covering more than 17 orders of magnitude in body mass including Cephalopoda, Cnidaria, Crustaceans, Ctenophora, Elasmobranchii, Mammalia...... discuss where these two strategies occur and how these patterns (along with the relative size of the offspring) may be shaped by physical and biological constraints in the organism’s environment. This adaptive environment along with the evolutionary history of the different groups shape observed life......Explaining variability in offspring vs. adult size among groups is a necessary step to determine the evolutionary and environmental constraints shaping variability in life history strategies. This is of particular interest for life in the ocean where a diversity of offspring development strategies...
Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.
Caufield, Page W.; Dasanayake, Ananda P.; Li, Yihong; Pan, Yaping; Hsu, Jay; Hardin, J. Michael
The heterogeneous group of oral bacteria within the sanguinis (sanguis) streptococci comprise members of the indigenous biota of the human oral cavity. While the association of Streptococcus sanguinis with bacterial endocarditis is well described in the literature, S. sanguinis is thought to play a benign, if not a beneficial, role in the oral cavity. Little is known, however, about the natural history of S. sanguinis and its specific relationship with other oral bacteria. As part of a longit...
Matthew A Carrigan
Full Text Available Gene duplication is a source of molecular innovation throughout evolution. However, even with massive amounts of genome sequence data, correlating gene duplication with speciation and other events in natural history can be difficult. This is especially true in its most interesting cases, where rapid and multiple duplications are likely to reflect adaptation to rapidly changing environments and life styles. This may be so for Class I of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s, where multiple duplications occurred in primate lineages in Old and New World monkeys (OWMs and NWMs and hominoids.To build a preferred model for the natural history of ADH1s, we determined the sequences of nine new ADH1 genes, finding for the first time multiple paralogs in various prosimians (lemurs, strepsirhines. Database mining then identified novel ADH1 paralogs in both macaque (an OWM and marmoset (a NWM. These were used with the previously identified human paralogs to resolve controversies relating to dates of duplication and gene conversion in the ADH1 family. Central to these controversies are differences in the topologies of trees generated from exonic (coding sequences and intronic sequences.We provide evidence that gene conversions are the primary source of difference, using molecular clock dating of duplications and analyses of microinsertions and deletions (micro-indels. The tree topology inferred from intron sequences appear to more correctly represent the natural history of ADH1s, with the ADH1 paralogs in platyrrhines (NWMs and catarrhines (OWMs and hominoids having arisen by duplications shortly predating the divergence of OWMs and NWMs. We also conclude that paralogs in lemurs arose independently. Finally, we identify errors in database interpretation as the source of controversies concerning gene conversion. These analyses provide a model for the natural history of ADH1s that posits four ADH1 paralogs in the ancestor of Catarrhine and Platyrrhine primates
[EN] The episode of the History of Science (HOS) on the theory of continental drift proposed by Alfred Wegener has been considered an excellent example for teaching students aspects of Nature of Science (NOS) and the relation of Science with social and tecnological contexts. We implemented a NOS and HOS-enriched Problem-Based Learning environment at the middle (year 7 of the Portuguese National Curriculum) and secondary level (year 10) for teaching the origins of biodiversity and of continent...
Duchenne natural history study PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: McDonald, Craig M. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California, Davis Davis, CA 95618...composite person- reported outcome measure using data from the CINRG Duchenne natural history study 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Craig...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Development of novel technologies and therapeutic agents to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have increased
Overholser, Linda S; Moss, Kerry M; Kilbourn, Kristin; Risendal, Betsy; Jones, Alison F; Greffe, Brian S; Garrington, Timothy; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; Yamashita, Traci E; Kutner, Jean S
Describe the development and evolution of a primary-care-based, multidisciplinary clinic to support the ongoing care of adult survivors of childhood cancer. A consultative clinic for adult survivors of childhood cancer has been developed that is located in an adult, academic internal medicine setting and is based on a long-term follow-up clinic model available at Children's Hospital Colorado. The clinic opened in July 2008. One hundred thirty-five patients have been seen as of April 2014. Referrals and clinic capacity have gradually increased over time, and a template has been developed in the electronic medical record to help facilitate completion of individualized care plan letters. A primary care-based, multidisciplinary consultative clinic for adults with a history of childhood cancer survivor is feasible and actively engages adult primary care resources to provide risk-based care for long-term pediatric cancer survivors. This model of care planning can help support adult survivors of pediatric cancer and their primary care providers in non-academic, community settings as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C
This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI). Family history of alcohol disorders for parents was based on assessments by mothers, fathers, and young adults. Parental divorce significantly predicted marijuana use but not alcohol problems. Maternal, but not paternal, alcoholism also significantly predicted marijuana use. Two-way interactions indicated that sex moderated several of the relationships. For example, among those with divorced parents, daughters reported higher levels of conflict with fathers than sons, and sons reported lower levels of maternal support than daughters. Paternal alcoholism was also associated with higher levels of alcohol problems among sons relative to daughters. There was also a significant 2-way interaction between divorce status and maternal alcoholism indicating that young adults who experienced both maternal alcoholism and parental divorce had the highest levels of marijuana use. These findings highlight the role that parental divorce and FH+ have on alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships in young adulthood, and how sex may moderate some of these more nuanced relationships. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Makino, Keitaro; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki
Fear of falling (FOF) is a major health problem for older adults, present not just in fallers, but also nonfallers. This study examined the impact of FOF and fall history on disability incidence among community-dwelling older adults from a prospective cohort study. A total of 5104 older adults living in community settings participated in baseline assessment and were followed up for about 4 years (median 52 mo, range 49-55 mo). At baseline, participants were assessed the presence of FOF and their fall history, and divided into 4 groups: Fall (-) FOF (-), Fall (+) FOF (-), Fall (-) FOF (+), and Fall (+) FOF (+). Disability incidence was defined as national long-term care insurance certification for personal support or care. During the follow-up period, 429 participants (9.9%) were newly certified as having a disability and needing personal support for long-term care insurance. Fall (-) FOF (+) group and Fall (+) FOF (+) group showed a significantly higher risk of disability incidence than Fall (-) FOF (-) group even after adjusting for covariates (Fall (-) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.62, Fall (+) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.98). Fear of falling could be a simple and useful predictor of disability incidence in community-dwelling older adults. Identifying and decreasing fall risk factors may prevent fall-related injuries, but excessive FOF may be associated with increased risk of disability incidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fu, Amy S; Gao, Kelly L; Tung, Arthur K; Tsang, William W; Kwan, Marcella M
To use Nintendo's Wii Fit balance board to determine the effectiveness of exergaming training in reducing risk and incidence of falls in older adults with a history of falls. Randomized controlled trial. Nursing home for older adults. Adults aged 65 years and older (N=60). Participants who lived in a nursing home had 6 weeks of balance training with either Wii Fit equipment or conventional exercise. Physiological Profile Assessment scores and incidence of falls were observed with subsequent intention-to-treat statistical analyses. Physiological Profile Assessment scores and incidence of falls improved significantly in both groups after the intervention (all Pfalls, Wii Fit balance training was more effective than conventional balance training in reducing the risk and incidence of falls. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Christopher T. Smith
Full Text Available Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs show marked immediate reward selection (or Now bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18-25, regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine 1 whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, 2 whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and 3 whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n=237 healthy participants (ages 18-40; 50% female, and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26-40 year olds.
Hong, Huang-Yao; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study investigates whether engaging college students (n = 42) in a knowledge building environment would help them work as a community to construct their collective knowledge of history of science and, accordingly, develop a more informed scientific view. The study adopted mixed-method analyses and data mainly came from surveys and student…
Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.
There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.
This thesis investigates the role of the natural world – the things studied by natural scientists – in historical accounts of science. It does so through the concepts of contingency and inevitability: it discusses the possibility that the world renders the final development of science inevitable, as
Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann
Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a…
The biology of natural selection is an enduring mystery, as is the nature of Charles Darwin's chronic illness. Of the theories advanced to explain the latter, Oedipal conflicts and Chagas' disease are preeminent. Hypomania, however, propelled Darwin to the pinnacle of scientific achievement and good health, the depression that followed condemning him to intellectual stagnation, lethargy, impaired memory and concentration, and incapacitating gastrointestinal disorders. Examples of natural selection in humans are much sought after when, ironically, one need look no further than Darwin himself.
Manso, Jacopo; Pezzani, Raffaele; Scarpa, Riccardo; Gallo, Nicoletta; Betterle, Corrado
Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is the most frequent cause of adrenocortical insufficiency. The natural history of AAD usually comprises five consecutive stages with the first stage characterized by the increase of plasma renin consistent with the impairment of pars glomerulosa, which is usually the first affected layer of the adrenal cortex. We describe a 19-year-old female with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who underwent an autoantibody screening due to having the personal and family history of other autoimmune diseases in the absence of relevant clinical manifestations. She was positive for adrenal cortex autoantibodies (ACA) and steroid 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies (21-OH Ab) at high titers. She had increased basal levels of ACTH with normal basal cortisol not responding to ACTH stimulation, reduced levels of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but normal levels of orthostatic renin and aldosterone. This scenario was consistent with a subclinical AAD presenting with first impairments in pars fasciculata and reticularis and conserved pars glomerulosa function. Only subsequently, progressive deficiency in pars glomerulosa function has become evident. Review of the literature showed that there was only one case, reported to date, with a similar atypical natural history of AAD. The strategies for screening for ACA/21-OH Ab in patients with HT are discussed.
Byakov, V.M.; Stepanov, S.V.; Stepanova, O.P.
A role of ionizing radiation in some global processes and events in geological history of the Earth is considered. In particular, we discuss: (1) the influence of ionizing radiation from radioactive nuclei disseminated in sedimentary rocks on the transformation of terrestrial organic matter into stone coals and oil; (2) the effect of cosmic rays from Supernova stars as a common cause of quasi-regular global geological processes and biocatastrophes. (author)
Calcified granulomas are the most common radiological finding in neurocysticercosis (10–20% of endemic populations). A small proportion serves as foci of seizure activity, which results in large numbers of persons with epilepsy. Calcified granulomas are not all the same. Some demonstrate blood–brain barrier dysfunction (magnetic resonance imaging enhancement) most likely due to the presence of inflammation, visualizable scolices, and/or gliosis. About half the patients with a recent history o...
Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie
In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a 'fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a 'slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of 'slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of 'slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of 'fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500-300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline. © 2015 The Author(s).
Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie
In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a ‘fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a ‘slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of ‘slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of ‘slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of ‘fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500–300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline. PMID:26511055
Wacks, V. Quinton, Jr.
Reviews the purposes of adult education and the history of transcendentalism. Argues that the transcendent nature and needs of humankind are not addressed by adult education theory or practice. Provides implications for adult educators. (CH)
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew
Background: Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively…
To assess vision-specific health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with a history of congenital cataract using the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25).
Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M
This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress.
Federal natural resource agencies are facing a human resource crisis. Many natural resource professionals are reaching retirement and attracting young adults to fill vacancies may prove difficult. Although currently on the rise from a recent fall, enrollment in natural resource degree programs has not increased overall in the past three decades,…
Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids
Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....
Julián Andrés Rojas-Morales
Full Text Available From 2005 to 2011, I studied the composition, distribution and natural history of an Andean urban-rural snake assemblage at the Cordillera Central of Colombia, based on three data sources: (1 examination of specimens in the MHN-UC [Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de Caldas], (2 incidental encounters by author, and (3 collection of data by other researchers. Additionally, I provide natural history notes for the species involved. A total of 14 species, including two subspecies of snakes, belonging to 12 genera and four families, have been found in the studied area (municipality of Manizales, Caldas. Taking into account this total, 10 had atleast one record in the urban area, 13 in the rural area and 14 in forested areas. Only Liophis epinephelus bimaculatus was found exclusively in forest environment. Three species (21.4% are apparently endemic to the region, six species (42.8% correspond to afauna representative of the Tropical–Andean range of South America, four species (28.5% are distributed from Central America to the tropical Andes, and only one species is widely distributed in the whole continent. The snake assemblage in Manizales is mostly terrestrial, and in general, the species tend to be more active in the rainy periods of the year (mainly from October–December, and most of them may occasionally be found in urban areas, mainly close to areas of vegetation such as crops and pastures.
Mahon, Jeffrey L; Sosenko, Jay M; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Lachin, John M; Thompson, Clinton; Bingley, Polly J; Bonifacio, Ezio; Palmer, Jerry P; Eisenbarth, George S; Wolfsdorf, Joseph; Skyler, Jay S
TrialNet's goal to test preventions for type 1 diabetes has created an opportunity to gain new insights into the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes. The TrialNet Natural History Study (NHS) will assess the predictive value of existing and novel risk markers for type 1 diabetes and will find subjects for prevention trials. The NHS is a three-phase, prospective cohort study. In phase 1 (screening), pancreatic autoantibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulin, ICA-512, and islet cell antibodies) are measured. Phase 2 (baseline risk assessment) includes oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in antibody-positive subjects and estimation of 5-yr diabetes risks according to the OGTT and number of confirmed positive antibody tests. Phase 3 (follow-up risk assessments) requires OGTTs every 6 months. In phases 2 and 3, samples are collected for future tests of T-lymphocyte function, autoantibody isotypes, RNA gene expression, and proteomics. The primary outcome is diabetes onset. Of 12 636 relatives screened between March 2004 and December 2006, 605 (4.8%) were positive for at least one biochemical antibody. Of these, 322 were confirmed antibody positive and completed phase 2, of whom 296 subjects were given preliminary 5-yr diabetes risks of or =25% (n = 36), and > or =50% (n = 128) where the latter two categories represent different subjects based on number of confirmed positive antibodies (2, > or =25%; 3 or more, > or =50%) and/or an abnormal OGTT (> or =50%). The NHS is identifying potential prevention trial subjects and is assembling a large cohort that will provide new natural history information about pre-type 1 diabetes. Follow-up to diabetes will help establish the biological significance and clinical value of novel type 1 diabetes risk markers.
Systematic Review of the Epidemiology and Natural History of the Metabolic Vascular Syndrome and its Coincidence with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Diseases in Different European Countries.
Kwasny, Caroline; Manuwald, Ulf; Kugler, Joachim; Rothe, Ulrike
The objectives of this systematic review were to estimate the incidence, prevalence and natural history of the metabolic (vascular) syndrome (MVS) among adults in different European countries. Furthermore, we assessed its co-incidence with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). PubMed, MedLine, and EMBASE (via Ovid) were searched for relevant studies. After reading 116 full-text articles to find eligible ones, 66 publications met our inclusion criteria. Data for the incidence are based on a study from Portugal, in which the incidence rate for the MVS was 47.2/1000 person-years. Prevalence varied strongly depending on country and definition. The lowest was found in the United Kingdom (3%), the highest in Finland (71.7%). No article that deals with the natural history of the MVS was found. Considering the co-existence of MVS and T2DM, it ranged between 2% (United Kingdom) and 74.4% (Spain). The co-occurrence of MVS and CVD ranged from 2.8% (Italy) up to 52% (Netherlands). Coronary heart disease (CHD) varied between 1.2% and 44.2%. With regard to peripheral artery disease (PAD), values between 3.3% and 59.8% were found. Due to the many different definitions of the MVS, a comparison is very difficult. Overall prevalence ranged between 3% and 71.7% depending on definition, age, and country. An association between MVS and T2DM as well as several CVD can be assumed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available This article argues that in its enormous Northern and Eastern stretches, the geographical space of Russia was shaped by the fur trade. The essay follows the boom and depletion of the fur trade in the longue durée of Russian history. The fur trade brought many Northern tribes to the edge of extermination. Hunting and trapping was intrinsically violent, did not entail the long-term cycles that were characteristic for agriculture, and needed no participation from women. It also created the situation that some historians called the hyper-activity of the state. The resource-bound economy made the population largely superfluous. The essay also explores the historiography of the fur trade and the debates that this historiography saw in the 1920s. Finally, it draws an analogy between two resource-bound epochs, the pre-modern dependency of the Russian state on fur and its modern dependency on oil. Very little part of the population took part in the fur business, with the result that the state did not care about the population and the population did not care about the state. A caste-like society emerges in these conditions. The security apparatus becomes identical to the state. Due to a chance of history or geography, the same areas that fed the fur trade of medieval Novgorod and Moscow, have provided the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia with their means for existence.
Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo; Copperi, Maria Sofia; Schwerdt, Leonela Vanesa; Pompozzi, Gabriel Alejandro
This is the first record for the tarantula Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 in Parana and Araucaria Forests, Misiones province, northeastern Argentina. Specimens were found at Iguazú National Park and Urugua-í Wildlife Reserve. Data on its natural history is provided. Fil: Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico la Plata. Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (i); Argentina. Universidad Nacional de ...
Vietnam War literature is a reflection of a sustained tension between politics and history on the one hand and morality and the effect of the war on human nature on the other hand. Although the authors under discussion urge the reader to forget the political, moral and historical milieu of the Vietnam War, it is impossible to separate the war from those three factors and by extension, the literature that stems from it. I have chosen Philip Caputo’s A Rumor of War (1977) and Robert Mason’s Chi...
Full Text Available The Division of Birds, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, has obtained and released DNA barcodes for 2,808 frozen tissue samples. Of the 1,403 species represented by these samples, 1,147 species have not been barcoded previously. This data release increases the number of bird species with standard barcodes by 91%. These records meet the data standard of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life and they have the reserved keyword BARCODE in GenBank. The data are now available on GenBank and the Barcode of Life Data Systems.
FOLLY-RAMOS E.; ALMEIDA C. E.; CARMO-SILVA M.; COSTA J.
Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W) until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the im...
Laraway, Sarah; Breen, Catherine; Mercer, Jean; Jones, Simon; Wraith, James E
Enzyme replacement therapy is widely used as treatment for mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I), and there is evidence that this produces improvement in certain clinical domains. There does appear to be variation in the response of clinical features to treatment once these are established. In a reported sibling pair, when enzyme replacement therapy was commenced pre-symptomatically in the younger child, the natural history of the condition appeared to be affected. We present data from three siblings treated with enzyme replacement therapy at different ages which supports this finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shpancer, Noam; Schweitzer, Stefanie N.
Data were collected over a 15-year span from three comparable cohorts of students at a Midwestern university about their childcare histories and current attitudes towards non-parental childcare and maternal employment. Across cohorts, a history of non-parental childcare predicted adult attitudes towards non-parental childcare and maternal…
Harkness, Kate Leslie; Washburn, Dustin; Theriault, Jordan Eugene; Lee, Lisa; Sabbagh, Mark Alan
Theory of mind forms the basis of social cognition and develops on a stereotyped ontogenetic timetable. Yet, there are individual differences in theory of mind that may be transmitted through genetic and/or environmental mechanisms. In the current study we examined the relation of maternal history of depression to individual differences in theory of mind in a sample of adult women. Sixty-one depressed women (23% with a positive maternal history of depression) and 30 non-depressed women (33% with a positive maternal history of depression) completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task', a test of theory of mind decoding. Women with a maternal history of depression performed better on the Eyes task than those without. Further, the younger the mother's onset of depression, the better the current probands' Eyes task performance. These results are consistent with a broader literature linking hypersensitive social cognition and depression risk. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Misiak, Błażej; Kiejna, Andrzej; Frydecka, Dorota
It has repeatedly been found that early-life traumatic events may contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the history of childhood trauma and cardiovascular risk factors in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. The history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report - Short Form (ETISR-SF) in 83 FES patients. Based on the ETISR-SF, patients were divided into those with positive and negative history of childhood trauma: FES(+) and FES(-) patients. Serum levels of fasting glucose lipids, homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate, as well as anthropometric parameters and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. The history of childhood trauma was associated with higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, SBP and DBP after covarying for age, gender, body mass index, education and chlorpromazine equivalent. There were significant correlations between scores of distinct ETISR-SF subscales and LDL, high-density lipoprotein, SBP, DBP and the number of metabolic syndrome criteria. Results of this study indicate that traumatic events during childhood might be related to higher resting blood pressure and higher LDL levels in adult FES patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Introduction: Current guidelines recommend caution when considering emergency tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy for patients with minor neurological deficits. However few data exist regarding the “natural history” (without tPA) of stroke in unselected population-based cohorts. We sought to evaluate the risk of long term disability in “minor stroke” patients.\\r\
Chin, Christine; bin Rajib, Tayeb
Students living in cities seldom experience the rural outdoors when learning science. This lack of first-hand experience with nature is of concern, especially when they are learning about animals, plants and ecosystems. This study investigated how a teacher in Singapore organised a field trip to the rainforest to help his students bridge the gap…
This book is about the politics of nature conservation in late New Order and early Reformasi Indonesia. It approaches the subject through discourse analysis. Understanding politics as a struggle for discourse hegemony it analyses both processes of policy- and lawmaking in Jakarta and of
Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes
One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...
van Ommen Kloeke, A.E.E.; Gong, Ping; Ellers, J.; Roelofs, D.
Earthworms perform key functions for a healthy soil ecosystem, such as bioturbation. The soil ecosystem can be challenged by natural toxins such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), produced by many commercial crops. Therefore, the effects of 2-phenylethyl ITC were investigated on the earthworm Eisenia andrei
Marcos, Luis A; Tagle, Martin; Terashima, Angelica; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Ramirez, Cesar; Carrasco, Carlos; Valdez, Luis; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge; Freedman, David O; Vinetz, Joseph M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Fascioliasis is highly endemic in the Andean region of South America. Newer serological assays have improved our ability to diagnose acute fascioliasis. The diagnosis was established by Fasciola hepatica serology (Fas2-ELISA or Western blot) in 10 patients. Identifiable exposure included ingestion of watercress (N = 8), alfalfa juice (N = 5), and lettuce (N = 1). Computed tomography of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly (N = 9), track-like hypodense lesions with subcapsular location (N = 8), and subcapsular hematoma (N = 2). Radiologic sequelae included cyst calcifications detectable at least 3 years after treatment. Stool examinations were negative for F. hepatica eggs; serology was positive (Arc II [N = 2], Fas2-ELISA [N = 6], Western blot [N = 2]). The syndrome of eosinophilia, fever, and right upper quadrant pain, elevated transaminases without jaundice, hypodense liver lesions on CT, and an appropriate exposure history suggests acute fascioliasis. Fascioliasis is specifically treatable with a single dose of triclabendazole.
Robert, Kylie A; Bronikowski, Anne M
Evolutionary theories of aging are linked to life-history theory in that age-specific schedules of reproduction and survival determine the trajectory of age-specific mutation/selection balances across the life span and thus the rate of senescence. This is predicted to manifest at the organismal level in the evolution of energy allocation strategies of investing in somatic maintenance and robust stress responses in less hazardous environments in exchange for energy spent on growth and reproduction. Here we report experiments from long-studied populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) that reside in low and high extrinsic mortality environments, with evolved long and short life spans, respectively. Laboratory common-environment colonies of these two ecotypes were tested for a suite of physiological traits after control and stressed gestations. In offspring derived from control and corticosterone-treated dams, we measured resting metabolism; mitochondrial oxygen consumption, ATP and free radical production rates; and erythrocyte DNA damage and repair ability. We evaluated whether these aging biomarkers mirrored the evolution of life span and whether they were sensitive to stress. Neonates from the long-lived ecotype (1) were smaller, (2) consumed equal amounts of oxygen when corrected for body mass, (3) had DNA that damaged more readily but repaired more efficiently, and (4) had more efficient mitochondria and more efficient cellular antioxidant defenses than short-lived snakes. Many ecotype differences were enhanced in offspring derived from stress-treated dams, which supports the conclusion that nongenetic maternal effects may further impact the cellular stress defenses of offspring. Our findings reveal that physiological evolution underpins reptilian life histories and sheds light on the connectedness between stress response and aging pathways in wild-dwelling organisms.
van Wyhe, John; Kjærgaard, Peter C
This article surveys the European discovery and early ideas about orangutans followed by the contrasting experiences with these animals of the co-founders of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. The first non-human great ape that both of them interacted with was the orangutan. They were both profoundly influenced by what they saw, but the contexts of their observations could hardly be more different. Darwin met orangutans in the Zoological Gardens in London while Wallace saw them in the wild in Borneo. In different ways these observations helped shape their views of human evolution and humanity's place in nature. Their findings played a major role in shaping some of the key questions that were pursued in human evolutionary studies during the rest of the nineteenth century. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Merlo, Andrea; Zemp, Damiano; Zanda, Enrica; Rocchi, Sabrina; Meroni, Fabiano; Tettamanti, Mauro; Recchia, Angela; Lucca, Ugo; Quadri, Pierluigi
Falls are common events in the elderly and represent the main risk factor for fractures and other injuries. Strategies for fall prevention rely on the multifactorial assessment of the risk of falling. The contribution of instrumented balance assessment to the prediction of falls remains unclear in the literature. In this study, we analyzed the association between the fall-history of a wide sample of older people without dementia and the values of a set of posturographic parameters acquired in different visual, proprioceptive and mental conditions. A consecutive sample of 130 cognitively able elderly subjects, age≥70 years, was analyzed. Based on their fall-history in the last year, subjects were categorized into non-fallers (NF), fallers (F) and recurrent fallers (RF>2 falls). Each subject was assessed by measurements of cognition and functional ability. Static posturography tests were performed in five conditions: with eyes open/close (EO/EC) on a firm/compliant (FS/CS) surface and while performing a cognitive task. The center of pressure (COP) mean position referred to the mid-point of the heels, area of the 95% confidence ellipse, sway mean velocities and RMS displacements in the antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions were computed and their association with the fall-history was assessed. The mean position of the COP in the AP direction and the confidence ellipse area were associated with the fall-history in the EOFS, ECFS and EOCS conditions (Pfall-history in the EOCS condition (Pcontrol balance while standing with eyes open on a compliant surface showed a high degree of association with the fall-history of older people with no or mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.
Renaissance painters used a number of inorganic color materials. The development of mineralogy as a discipline opened a new discourse on mineral pigments. Agricola and other naturalists were familiar with the contemporary writings on art technology, but their focus was different. Therefore, the exchange of knowledge between these two color worlds remained selective. One possible meeting point was the Kunstkammer where the study of natural objects and materials was combined with an interest in the manual execution of a painting.
For the past two decades, scholars in archival science have begun to question traditional assumptions about the nature of the record. Drawing on theories from fields such as sociology, organization theory, and science studies, and on their own ethnographic studies, they propose more inclusive definitions and widening the contexts of analysis of record making and recordkeeping. This paper continues this critical consideration of the concept of record by examining the nature of nonprototypical records in the scientific world. The paper focuses on the system of specimens and field notes established by biologist Joseph Grinnell at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (University of California, Berkeley) as a means of examining several aspects of the nature of the scientific record: materiality, representation, and the triad evidence/memory/accountability. Focusing on the creation and management of these scientific records, the paper argues that further analyses of scientific record making and recordkeeping are bound to benefit both scientific work, which depends more and more on databases and archives, as well as archival science, which is becoming more relevant beyond its traditional realm of the legal/business/administrative world.
Warsini, Sri; West, Caryn; Ed Tt, Grad Dip; Res Meth, Grad Cert; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim
The aim of this review was to identify the psychosocial impact of natural disasters on adult (over the age of 18 years) survivors. Databases searched included PsycInfo, CINAHL, Proquest, Ovid SP, Scopus, and Science Direct. The search was limited to articles written in English and published between 2002 and 2012. A total of 1,642 abstracts and articles were obtained during the first search; 39 articles were retained. The results indicate that PTSD is the most-studied psychosocial impact after a disaster. Mental health nurses have a significant role to play in supporting survivors and can assist with the development of resilience in community members.
Ida, Cristiane M; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Burger, Peter C; Caron, Alissa A; Jenkins, Sarah M; Spears, Grant M; Aranguren, Dawn L; Lachance, Daniel H; Giannini, Caterina
Prognostic significance of histological anaplasia and BRAF V600E mutation were retrospectively evaluated in 74 patients with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA). Median age at diagnosis was 21.5 years (31 pediatric, 43 adult) and median follow-up 7.6 years. Anaplasia (PXA-AF), defined as mitotic index ≥ 5/10 HPF and/or presence of necrosis, was present in 33 cases. BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 39 (of 60) cases by immunohistochemical and/or molecular analysis, all negative for IDH1 (R132H). Mitotic index ≥ 5/10 HPF and necrosis were associated with decreased overall survival (OS; P = 0.0005 and P = 0.0002, respectively). In all cases except two, necrosis was associated with mitotic index ≥ 5/10 HPF. Patients with BRAF V600E mutant tumors had significantly longer OS compared with those without BRAF V600E mutation (P = 0.02). PXA-AF patients, regardless of age, had significantly shorter OS compared with those without (P = 0.0003). Recurrence-free survival was significantly shorter for adult PXA-AF patients (P = 0.047) only. Patients who either recurred or died ≤ 3 years from diagnosis were more likely to have had either PXA-AF at first diagnosis (P = 0.008) or undergone a non-gross total resection procedure (P = 0.004) as compared with patients who did not. This study provides further evidence that PXA-AF behaves more aggressively than PXA and may qualify for WHO grade III "anaplastic" designation. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.
Mañosa, M; Calafat, M; de Francisco, R; García, C; Casanova, M J; Huelín, P; Calvo, M; Tosca, J; Fernández-Salazar, L; Arajol, C; Zabana, Y; Bastida, G; Hinojosa, J; Márquez, L; Barreiro-de-Acosta, M; Calvet, X; Monfort, D; Gómez-Garcia, M R; Rodríguez, E; Huguet, J M; Rojas-Feria, M; Hervias, D; Atienza, R; Busquets, D; Zapata, E; Dueñas, C; Charro, M; Martínez-Cerezo, F J; Plaza, R; Vázquez, J M; Gisbert, J P; Cañete, F; Cabré, E; Domènech, E
Onset during old age has been reported in upto 10% of total cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To evaluate phenotypic characteristics and the use of therapeutic resources in patients with elderly onset IBD. Case-control study including all those patients diagnosed with IBD over the age of 60 years since 2000 who were followed-up for >12 months, identified from the IBD databases. Elderly onset cases were compared with IBD patients aged 18 to 40 years at diagnosis, matched by year of diagnosis, gender and type of IBD (adult-onset). One thousand three hundred and seventy-four elderly onset and 1374 adult-onset cases were included (62% ulcerative colitis (UC), 38% Crohn's disease (CD)). Among UC patients, elderly onset cases had a lower proportion of extensive disease (33% vs 39%; P < 0.0001). In CD, elderly onset cases showed an increased rate of stenosing pattern (24% vs 13%; P < 0.0001) and exclusive colonic location (28% vs 16%; P < 0.0001), whereas penetrating pattern (12% vs 19%; P < 0.0001) was significantly less frequent. Regarding the use of therapeutic resources, there was a significantly lower use of corticosteroids (P < 0.0001), immunosuppressants (P < 0.0001) and anti-TNFs agents (P < 0.0001) in elderly onset cases. Regarding surgery, we found a significantly higher surgery rate among elderly onset UC cases (8.3% vs 5.1%; P < 0.009). Finally, elderly onset cases were characterised by a higher rate of hospitalisations (66% vs 49%; P < 0.0001) and neoplasms (14% vs 0.5%; P < 0.0001). Elderly onset IBD shows specific characteristics and they are managed differently, with a lower use of immunosuppressants and a higher rate of surgery in UC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shea, Sarah; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O
Longitudinal studies that have examined the association of insomnia with incident depression using objective sleep measures are very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive role of the severity of insomnia for incident depression in a general population sample using psychometric and polysomnographic data. From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the Penn State Adult Cohort, 1137 adults without depression were followed up with a structured telephone interview after 7.5 years. All subjects completed a full medical evaluation, 1-night polysomnogram and Multiphasic Minnesota Personality Inventory at baseline. The incidence of depression was 15%. Poor sleep (odds ratio = 1.5, P = 0.001) and insomnia (odds ratio = 1.9, P = 0.031) were significantly associated with incident depression. The odds of incident depression were highest (odds ratio = 2.2, P = 0.019) in insomnia with objective short sleep duration and independent of Multiphasic Minnesota Personality Inventory Ego Strength scores, an index of poor coping resources. The persistence of insomnia and worsening of poor sleep into insomnia significantly increased the odds of incident depression (odds ratios ranged from 1.8 to 6.3), whereas their full remission did not (odds ratio ranged from 1.2 to 1.8). Insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with incident depression independent of poor coping resources, whereas the association of insomnia with normal sleep duration with incident depression was mediated by poor coping resources. Persistence and worsening of poor sleep or insomnia, but not their full remission, are significant predictors of incident depression. These data suggest that there is a significant relationship between the severity of insomnia and incident depression. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Pires, L.M.D.; Jonker, R.M.; Van Donk, E.; Laanbroek, H.J.
1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green alga Scenedesmus
Dionisio Pires, L.M.; Jonker, R.R.; Donk, E.van; Laanbroek, H.J.
1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green
Delgado-López, Pedro David; Rodríguez-Salazar, Antonio; Martín-Alonso, Javier; Martín-Velasco, Vicente
Indication for surgery in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) varies widely depending on the geographical area. A literature review is presented on the natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, evidence-based treatment, and conflicts of interests in LDH. Surgery is shown to provide significant faster relief of pain compared to conservative therapy, although the effect fades after a year. There is no treatment modality better than the rest in terms of pain control and neurological recovery, nor is there a surgical technique clearly superior to simple discectomy. The lack of sound scientific evidence on the surgical indication may contribute to its great geographical variability. Since LDH has a favourable natural history, neuroimaging and surgery should not be considered until after a 6-week period. It is necessary to specify and respect the surgical indications for LDH, avoiding conflicts of interests. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ang, A L; Wong, R X; Zhuang, Q Y; Linn, Y C
Eosinophilia is commonly encountered during clinical practice. Some can be attributed to well-defined causes while others cannot. Optimal management of hypereosinophilia with unknown aetiology is uncertain as the natural history is not well described. We retrospectively studied patients with hypereosinophilia (>5 × 10(9)/L) and described the characteristics, natural history and treatment of those with eosinophilia of uncertain aetiology. There were 141 patients with hypereosinophilia: 87 with well-defined causes, 54 with uncertain aetiology. The latter was managed as hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) (n = 5), idiopathic hypereosinophilia (IH) (n = 11), presumptive helminthic infection (n = 11) and reactive eosinophilia (n = 5), while 22 were insufficiently investigated and did not have definite working diagnoses. Their median age and peak eosinophil count were 64 (22 to 94) years and 10.0 (5.2-33.9) × 10(9)/L respectively. Forty-six per cent had symptoms attributable to eosinophilia, with the HES and insufficiently investigated groups having the highest (100%) and lowest (27%) percentages respectively. HES and IH patients were most extensively investigated. All 14 HES or IH patients who received steroids responded. All presumptive helminthic infection patients received mebendazole: nine responded, and two had unassessable responses. For the remaining patients, seven received steroids and all responded; one received mebendazole but defaulted; 19 were not treated: 11 resolved spontaneously. No non-HES patients developed eosinophilia-related organ dysfunction. No mortality was caused by hypereosinophilia. Patients with hypereosinophilia of uncertain aetiology can be empirically managed according to working diagnoses derived from history taking, examination and selective investigations. Most patients have benign short-term outcomes, but longer monitoring is required to assess long-term outcomes from untreated hypereosinophilia. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine
Egeberg, Alexander; Bruun, Louise E; Mallbris, Lotus
BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE), and a family history of CV disease (CVD) is an independent risk factor for MACE. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the risk of first-time MACE in patients with psoriasis with or without a fami....... The findings call for increased focus on a family history of CVD in CV risk assessment of patients with psoriasis.......BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE), and a family history of CV disease (CVD) is an independent risk factor for MACE. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the risk of first-time MACE in patients with psoriasis with or without a family...... history of CVD. METHODS: Between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, we identified 2,722,375 individuals, including 25,774 and 4504 patients with mild and severe psoriasis, through administrative registers. Incidence rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Mean baseline age was 26...
Gayman, Mathew D.; Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji
Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The 3 main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood, (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult…
Parker, Georgina; Lie, David; Siskind, Dan J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Raphael, Beverly; Crompton, David; Kisely, Steve
Natural disasters affect the health and well-being of adults throughout the world. There is some debate in the literature as to whether older persons have increased risk of mental health outcomes after exposure to natural disasters when compared with younger adults. To date, no systematic review has evaluated this. We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the impact of natural disasters on the mental health and psychological distress experienced by older adults. A meta-analysis was conducted on papers identified through a systematic review. The primary outcomes measured were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorder, and psychological distress. We identified six papers with sufficient data for a random effects meta-analysis. Older adults were 2.11 times more likely to experience PTSD symptoms and 1.73 more likely to develop adjustment disorder when exposed to natural disasters when compared with younger adults. Given the global rise in the number of older adults affected by natural disasters, mental health services need to be prepared to meet their needs following natural disasters, particularly around the early detection and management of PTSD.
Full Text Available A História Natural de Plínio: meio de conservação e causa de perda de conhecimento. A História Natural de Plínio pretende ser um inventário do mundo conhecido para os romanos. Este artigo discute, na sua primeira parte, as razões desse projeto. Foi um enorme trabalho coletar e organizar o material, e como exemplo de metodologia, escolhi os capítulos de arte grega e romana (ou arte greco-romana que tiveram grande impacto nas posteriores histórias da arte. Uma análise da exposição de Plínio sobre a história da arte romana e grega revela que ele tinha diferentes motivos para estabelecer essas histórias da arte. O que liga as duas partes como uma uma unidade é o impacto das peças de arte grega e romana no espaço urbano de Roma. Templos e outros prédios públicos funcionavam como galerias de arte, com variadas coleções de obras-primas da arte grega, com isso elevando Roma à posição de grande centro do mundo. Assim como as coleções de estátuas, a História Natural de Plínio, com sua coleção de memórias do Império Romano, preserva conhecimento esquecido. Tornou-se um monumento ao conhecimento do mundo inteiro e foi transmitido a nós em sua totalidade
Bell, Sue Anne; Abir, Mahshid; Choi, HwaJung; Cooke, Colin; Iwashyna, Theodore
We characterize hospital admissions among older adults for any cause in the 30 days after a significant natural disaster in the United States. The main outcome was all-cause hospital admissions in the 30 days after natural disaster. Separate analyses were conducted to examine all-cause hospital admissions excluding the 72 hours after the disaster, ICU admissions, all-cause inhospital mortality, and admissions by state. A self-controlled case series analysis using the 2011 Medicare Provider and Analysis Review was conducted to examine exposure to natural disaster by elderly adults located in zip codes affected by tornadoes during the 2011 southeastern superstorm. Spatial data of tornado events were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Severe Report database, and zip code data were obtained from the US Census Bureau. All-cause hospital admissions increased by 4% for older adults in the 30 days after the April 27, 2011, tornadoes (incidence rate ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07). When the first 3 days after the disaster that may have been attributed to immediate injuries were excluded, hospitalizations for any cause also remained higher than when compared with the other 11 months of the year (incidence rate ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07). There was no increase in ICU admissions or inhospital mortality associated with the natural disaster. When data were examined by individual states, Alabama, which had the highest number of persons affected, had a 9% increase in both hospitalizations and ICU admissions. When all time-invariant characteristics were controlled for, this natural disaster was associated with a significant increase in all-cause hospitalizations. This analysis quantifies acute care use after disasters through examining all-cause hospitalizations and represents an important contribution to building models of resilience-the ability to recover from a disaster-and hospital surge capacity
Byers, Peter H; Belmont, John; Black, James; De Backer, Julie; Frank, Michael; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Johnson, Diana; Pepin, Melanie; Robert, Leema; Sanders, Lynn; Wheeldon, Nigel
Vascular Ehlers Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is an uncommon genetic disorders characterized by arterial aneurysm, dissection and rupture, bowel rupture, and rupture of the gravid uterus. The frequency is estimated as 1/50,000-1/200,000 and results from pathogenic variants in COL3A1, which encodes the chains of type III procollagen, a major protein in vessel walls and hollow organs. Initial diagnosis depends on the recognitions of clinical features, including family history. Management is complex and requires multiple specialists who can respond to and manage the major complications. A summary of recommendations for management include: Identify causative variants in COL3A1 prior to application of diagnosis, modulate life style to minimize injury, risk of vessel/organ rupture, identify and create care team, provide individual plans for emergency care ("vascular EDS passport") with diagnosis and management plan for use when traveling, centralize management at centers of excellence (experience) when feasible, maintain blood pressure in the normal range and treat hypertension aggressively, surveillance of vascular tree by doppler ultrasound, CTA (low radiation alternatives) or MRA if feasible on an annual basis. These recommendations represent a consensus of an international group of specialists with a broad aggregate experience in the care of individuals with vascular EDS that will need to be assessed on a regular basis as new information develops. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ruggera, R.A.; Martin, T.E.
We provide details on the breeding biology of the Slate-throated Whitestart (Myioborus miniatus) from 126 nests found during seven breeding seasons, 2002-2008, at Yacamb?? National Park, Venezuela. Nesting activity peaked in late April and May. Only the female built the nest and incubated the eggs. Males rarely visited the nest during these stages. Mean clutch size (2.1 ?? 0.04 eggs, n = 93) was the smallest recorded for the Slate-throated Whitestart. Incubation and nestling period lengths were 15.3 ?? 0.31 (n = 21) and 10.8 ?? 0.24 (n = 7) days, respectively. Attentiveness (% of time on the nest) during incubation (59 ?? 1.6%, n = 52) was similar to other tropical warblers and much lower than northern relatives. This caused a relatively low egg temperature (34.40 ?? 0.33u C, n = ?? nests, 20 days) compared with north temperate birds. Both parents fed nestlings and increased their provisioning rates with nestling age. Growth rate based on nestling mass (k = 0.521 ?? 0.015) was faster than for other tropical passerines but slower than northern relatives. Predation was the main cause of nesting failure and rate of predation increased with age of the nest. An estimated 15% of nests were successful based on an overall Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.053 ?? 0.007. This study confirms a strong latitudinal variation in life history traits of warblers. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.
Cavalier, Ralph; Herman, Martin J; Cheung, Emilie V; Pizzutillo, Peter D
Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis are often diagnosed in children presenting with low back pain. Spondylolysis refers to a defect of the vertebral pars interarticularis. Spondylolisthesis is the forward translation of one vertebral segment over the one beneath it. Isthmic spondylolysis, isthmic spondylolisthesis, and stress reactions involving the pars interarticularis are the most common forms seen in children. Typical presentation is characterized by a history of activity-related low back pain and the presence of painful spinal mobility and hamstring tightness without radiculopathy. Plain radiography, computed tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography are useful for establishing the diagnosis. Symptomatic stress reactions of the pars interarticularis or adjacent vertebral structures are best treated with immobilization of the spine and activity restriction. Spondylolysis often responds to brief periods of activity restriction, immobilization, and physiotherapy. Low-grade spondylolisthesis (50% translation) responds much less reliably to nonsurgical treatment. The growing child may need to be followed clinically and radiographically through skeletal maturity. When pain persists despite nonsurgical interventions, when progressive vertebral displacement increases, or in the presence of progressive neurologic deficits, surgical intervention is appropriate.